Title: Research news you can use
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00093709/00007
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Title: Research news you can use
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: Winter 2007
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Volume ID: VID00007
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Research News You Can Use
January 2007
Carolyn Wilken

Retirement Migration Definitions Matter
Submitted by: Carolyn S. Wilken, Ph.D., M.P.H. Extension Gerontology

Haas, W. H., Bradley, D. E., Longino, C. F., Stoller, E. P., & Serow, W. J. (2006). In
retirement migration, who counts? A methodological question with economic
policy implications. The Gerontologist, 46(6), 815-820.

In this study Hass and colleagues examined how the implications of various
definitions of retirement migration. Although one may think that Shakespeare's
admonition that 'a rose by any other name smells as sweet' would apply to describing
older adults who we commonly call 'snowbirds'; these researchers found that relying on
a traditional age-based definition of retirement migration (people ages 60 and over who
move across important political boundaries i.e. county, state, or nation) significantly
miscounts the migrant population. Accurate population estimates have important policy
and program planning implications, not to mention the structuring/restructuring of
political districts.

The researchers identified 3 definitions of older adult migration:

1) Traditional Age-based Definition: Retired migrants age 60 and over.

2) Retirement-Based Definition 1: Retired migrants aged 50 or older who report
working no more than 26 weeks a year and report receiving at least $1 in Social
Security or disability income.

3) Retirement-based Definition 2: Retired migrants who are 50 or older who are
not in the labor force and report receiving at least $1 in Social Security or
disability income.

Using data from the long-form of the 2000 U.S. Census the authors found that
using the traditional definition of retirement migration excludes those who retire earlier,
at ages 50-59. Using retirement rather than age as a qualifier, the actual number of retired
migrants was 21% less.

Florida, Arizona, California, Texas and North Carolina are the five top
retirement migration hosts, or receiving states. A comparison of the rates of migration
between each definition (for Florida) revealed important differences between definitions
suggesting that specifying actual working/retirement status reduces the real number of
older (50 years and older) migrants coming into Florida.



Research News You Can Use 2
January 2007
Carolyn Wilken

"So what?" you may ask.
Understanding the employment status of older migrants to a community leads to a
better understanding of the economic impact of migration. Retirees bring with them
transfer payments such as Social Security, private pensions, and equity income, as well as
Medicare and generate what is known as a mailbox economy. Those who are fully retired
bring those assets into a community and do not compete with the indigenous workforce
for jobs. Those who are still working, even part-time have a different impact on the
economy. Using all three definitions of migration, the researchers found that fewer
partially retired people migrate to Florida than Texas and California, therefore having
less impact on the workforce.

Implications for County FCS Faculty
County faculty are frequently involved in county-level community development
and are responsible for the development of their own programs. Recognizing the
differences in how migration is calculated provides faculty with important information to
contribute to those planning processes. This study which utilized data from the U.S.
Census reminds us of the wealth of information available from the census data. To find
data related to many aspects of your county or community (i.e. age distribution, education
levels, income, housing costs, etc.) follow this link
http://factfinder.census.gov/home/saff/main.html?_lang=en to the American Community
Survey and enter your city or county. In the past, the census data was unusable to most
professionals, but now census data is presented in a very user-friendly format and is
therefore not only accessible it is also usable! Data presented in the American Community
Survey reflects the issues of concern to FCS agents and can be very helpful in developing
needs assessments, preparing situation statements for Plans of Work, and for prioritizing


Research News You Can Use
January 2007
Mickie Swisher

How Do I Know that a Product is Really "Organic"?

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) developed legal rules about organic foods that
went into effect about three years ago. These rules are very detailed and carry a stiff fine -- $10,000 for
labeling any food product "organic" unless the USDA standards for organic production are met. The rules
cover how the food was produced, how it was processed, and even how it is transported. Every organic
food product sold in the United States, regardless of where it was produced, must meet USDA's
standards. Any use of the term "organic" to describe a food product requires meeting USDA standards.

What Are the Standards?

The standards are very detailed. They cover things like the cleaning materials that can be used on
machinery, how to store and transport organic products to make sure they do not come into contact with
conventionally produced items, and how to protect water quality. You can find a copy of the standards at

What Should I Look For?

Every organic food product must have a certification label on it. This will be a small, usually
inconspicuous, label that gives the name of the certifying agency and provides information about how to
contact the certifier. Here is an example:

The product may also carry the USDA Organic logo, but this is not required. More and more producers
are using this logo because it is highly visible and more easily recognized by most consumers.


Private certifiers, or, in some cases, state departments of agriculture, not the USDA are responsible for
certification. All of these certifiers are, however, accredited by the USDA. This means that the USDA has
verified that the certifier follows all of the procedures that USDA requires for certification and that the


Research News You Can Use 2
January 2007
Mickie Swisher

certifier does know and understand the USDA standards for organic production, processing and
transportation. You can find a complete list of the certifiers at
http://www.ams.usda.gov/nop/CertifyingAgents/Accredited.html. There are currently 95 certifying
agencies for USDA, 50 domestic and 45 international.

What Does Certification Mean?

Any farm or company that produces an organic product must go through an inspection process. The
farmer or producer applies for certification by filling out a lengthy application form that explains
everything that he/she has done and will do to meet the national organic standards.

Let's take a farm as an example. A farmer must have followed all of the rules and regulations for organic
production for at least three years. The application indicates what the farmer has done in the past, and
what he/she will do in the coming year. The farmer provides a new application for re-certification every
year. If the farmer's plan meets the requirements for certification, an inspector goes to the farm to make
sure that the practices that the farmer said are being used actually are being used and to make sure that
there are no violations of any of the organic standards on the farm. If a farmer fails to meet the standards,
decertification follows.

Can I Be Sure?

Consumers must look for the certification label on a product to make absolutely sure that it meets the
USDA standards. If someone sells a product at a farmers' market, they should have a copy of the
certification documentation for you to see. It is true that farmers who sell less than $5,000 worth of
products per year can use the term organic as long as they meet all of the USDA standards but do not
have to be certified. Packaged products must have the certifier's seal on them. While there is a stiff
penalty for calling a product "organic" that does not meet USDA's requirements, as is so often the case,
the consumer must be vigilant and look for the seal. If you suspect that a product is being labeled organic
that is not certified, you should contact the USDA and file a complaint. The contact information and
procedure is available at http://www.ams.usda.gov/nop/Compliance/FileComplaint.html.


Research News You Can Use
January 2007
Suzanna Smith

Child Care for Children with Disabilities
DeVore, S. & Bowers, B. (2007). Childcare for children with disabilities. Infants &
Young Children, 19(3), 203-212.

Submitted by: Suzanna Smith, Ph.D., MSW, CFLE, Associate Professor, Human

Working parents often face difficult choices about how to take care of their children
when they are at work. They often search for the "right" childcare provider, someone
who will meet their child's needs, and someone they can afford, at a convenient location.

What about the difficulties that working parents of children with disabilities face?
Finding childcare can be especially challenging for these families, because they need a
provider that can accommodate their child's special needs, in addition to being affordable
and of good quality.

According to DeVore and Bowers (2006) in their recent study published in Infants and
Young Children, "about 60% of mothers of children with disabilities are employed and
need... childcare" (p. 203). In this exploratory study with a small sample of parents of
children with disabilities and childcare providers, researchers looked closely at how
families of children with disabilities find, choose, and maintain the childcare they need.


The researchers conducted in-depth interviews with 18 parents and 4 childcare providers
who cared for children with disabilities. They located the sample through two resource
and referral agencies and 2 early intervention programs. With grounded theory to guide
the study, the researchers asked unstructured open-ended questions and then revised these
questions based on what they were learning from the research. Interviews were audio
taped and transcribed. Line by line dimensional analysis of the interviews brought out
themes and enable comparisons. Summaries of results were mailed to participants and
were clarified during follow-up interviews. A panel of researchers also coded and
reviewed the transcripts and analyses to verify the results.


All families selected for the study had at least one child age 6 or younger, with
developmental delays and/or special healthcare needs such as such as autism spectrum
disorder, cerebral palsy, and speech delay. All families used from 20-45 hours of non-
parental care per week in one or a combination of the following: center based childcare,


Research News You Can Use 2
January 2007
Suzanna Smith

family childcare in the child care provider's home, care in a relative's home, a preschool
program at a school, in-home therapeutic services, or a nanny in the family's home (p.
205). Most families lived in metropolitan areas in the county where the study was

Like other working parents, these families first created a pool of providers based on
professional and personal recommendations. When narrowing down their pool, they
looked at practical factors such as cost, and group size. Then parents screened providers,
usually over the phone, and followed up with a visit to childcare facilities they liked.

Parents were, as could be expected, looking for a provider "who could meet their child's
special developmental needs" (p. 208). Yet, while most families cycled through several
different childcare arrangements, trying to find childcare that worked for them, a few
found successful childcare situations the first time (p. 208). What made the difference? In
lasting childcare arrangements, parents weren't just looking for specialized care, but for a
cooperative relationship with the childcare provider. Those parents and providers quickly
built a partnership and worked together to solve problems. These partnering parents and
providers were lucky in other ways, too-the parents had flexible work schedules, a
supportive adult living with them, and a second income so they could take the time to
find the right provider and resolve issues that might arise. Families that were less
successful "were often under time pressures to find care," had financial limitations, and
"felt somewhat isolated" (p. 210).


The study found that partnerships between parents and childcare providers were an
important factor in successful childcare arrangements for children with disabilities. They
also point out that families need specific resources to manage their searches including
"time, adults support, and economic stability" (p. 210). Having access to these resources
enabled families to take the time to find successful childcare. The researchers recommend
that families contact childcare information and referral services for individualized help in
locating the kind of care the family needs and other resources in the community that can

Implications for Extension
Extension can work with childcare resource and referral agencies, early intervention
specialists, and providers to offer training on improving parent-provider communication
and developing partnerships for caring for children with disabilities. In parent education
programs, Extension faculty can encourage parents of children with disabilities to
develop a system for identifying potential childcare providers; and for finding a provider
the family can talk with openly, and who is willing to work with parents to solve
problems. Extension can work with childcare resource and referral agencies, children's
coalitions, and policy makers, to bring to light the childcare needs of children with


Research News You Can Use
January 2007
Heidi Liss Radunovich

Do Couples at High Risk of Relationship Problems
Attend Premarriage Education?

Submitted by: Heidi Liss Radunovich, PhD, Assistant Professor of Human Development

Halford, W.K., O'Donnell, C., Lizzio, A., & Wilson, K.L. (2006). Do couples at high risk
of relationship problems attend premarriage education? [Electronic version] Journal of
Family Psychology, 20, 160-163.


Although studies suggest that most couples benefit from premarital education, the
research literature suggests that couples who are at risk for marital problems are the ones
who benefit most from premarital education. However, are those who are at higher risk
for marital problems likely to obtain premarital education? This study examined whether
factors associated with higher risk for divorce had an impact on whether or not couples
obtained premarital education.


This study was conducted in Australia. In order to recruit participants, all newly married
couples within an Australian state were contacted 6 weeks after marriage if they were
married within 3 randomly selected months over the course of about a year and a half. A
total of 6,656 couples were married during that time frame, and were contacted regarding
the study. Of those couples, only 447 couples volunteered to participate in the study.

A total of 384 couples completed all study procedures. Income and education of this
sample were slightly higher than for the general population of Australia, but slightly
lower than would be expected for a United States population. Participants completed a
battery of measures that asked about demographic information, whether or not any type
of premarital education was received, and specific measures of relationship adjustment
and aggression.

Main Ideas

The two variables that consistently predicted attendance at marriage education were
religious service attendance and not living together prior to marriage. Living together
before marriage has been associated with poorer marital outcome, and religious


Research News You Can Use
January 2007

attendance has been associated with better marital outcome. Level of education, age,
history of parental divorce, having a prior marriage, aggression in the relationship, and
stability of the relationship did not predict attendance at premarital education. Overall,
the data suggests that those couples with higher risk factors for divorce were less likely to
attend premarital education than those with lower risk factors. It is important to keep in
mind that this study was conducted in a different country (Australia), and that those
couples who volunteered to participate in this study (only about 6% of the total number
eligible) might be somewhat different from the general population. However, it is
notable that, similar to the US, Australia does not provide free, easy access to premarital
education. Therefore, it is understandable that many of those who received premarital
education likely did so through their religious institution, and may have been required to
do so in order to get married by their religious institution. Interestingly, the researchers
did not comment on the types of premarital education used, nor do they describe the
length or type of education available.

Implications for Extension Programs

The State of Florida provides an incentive for premarital education by providing a
discount in the cost of the marriage license to those Florida couples who receive
premarital education. However, this does not mean that premarital education is widely
available at a low cost. Cooperative Extension within the state of Florida provides the
Before You Tie the Knot premarital education program at low or no cost, but this
program is only available in a few select counties. Furthermore, it is unclear whether
those most at risk would participate in such a program, even when offered at free or
reduced cost. Although it would be helpful to increase the availability of the Before You
Tie the Knot program to other counties, perhaps efforts should be made to increase the
availability of the program information via multiple formats (in person, virtual, self-
taught via written materials or video) so that those who can't easily attend a premarital
program in person, or who would feel uncomfortable doing so, could receive premarital
education through alternative methods. Finally, tailoring the materials to meet the need
of various types of couples, including those from other cultures and with various levels of
literacy, would help reach a wider audience (Ooms & Wilson, 2004).


Quality premarital education has been associated with improved marital satisfaction
(Jakubowski, Milne, Brunner & Miller, 2004). However, those couples who may benefit
most from premarital education may be less likely to receive premarital education.
Attempts to increase availability through traditional as well as alternative methods would
be beneficial.

Additional References


Research News You Can Use
January 2007

Jakubowski, S.F., Milne, E.P., Brunner, H., & Miller, R.B. (2004). A review of
empirically supported marital enrichment programs [Electronic version]. Family
Relations, 53, 528-536.
Ooms, T., & Wilson, P. (2004). The challenges of offering relationship and marriage
education to low-income populations [Electronic version]. Family Relations, 53,
Peacock, D., & Radunovich, H. (2006). So You Are Getting Married in Florida! EDIS
publication FCS 2179.


Research News You Can Use
January 2007
Hyun-Jeong Lee

Research News You Can Use

Is Your Home Safe for Your Children?
Submitted by: Hyun-Jeong Lee, Ph.D., Assistant Professor/Housing Specialist

Phelan, K. J., J. Khoury, H. Kalkwarf, and B. Lanphear. January-February 2005.
"Residential Injuries in U.S. Children and Adolescents." Public Health Reports 120: 63-

A house is the primary built-environment for a human being (Aragones 2002). A house plays
important roles to those who reside there not only as a shelter providing security and protection from
harm (Aragones; Betchel 1997). However, is your home safe enough for you and your children? One
of the recent reports indicates that the leading cause of the U.S. children's death is injury and the home
is the most common place for the children's injuries (Phelan, Khoury, Kalkwarf & Lanphear 2005).

The purpose of the study by Phelan et al. (2005) was to investigate the trends of unintentional
residential injury for U.S. children. Data was obtained from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical
Care Survey conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics. From the NHAMCS data, a sample
of patients under age 20 at the time of survey who visited to emergency departments (EDs) between
1993 and 1999 were drawn and analyzed using statistical techniques including chi-square tests.

Main Ideas
Children's Injuries between 1993 and 1999
From 1993 to 1999, average 29 million children < 20 years visited EDs annually. Injury
accounted 39% of the children emergency visits and 35% of the total children emergency visits were
reported as unintentional injury visits. The home was found to be the most common location of the
unintentional child injury, accounting for 4 million ED visit annually. Fortunately, the number of the
children's ED visits for unintentional injuries decreased by 24% from 4.7 millions in 1993 to 3.5 millions
in 1999. However, the number is still high. Children age under 5 showed the greatest number (1.7
millions) and highest rate (43%) of ED visits for unintentional residential injuries. Males showed a
higher rate of the ED visits than females.

Mechanism, Type, and Severity of the Children Residential Injuries
Among the children's ED visits due to any residential injuries, falls were found to be the most
frequent mechanism, accounting for 38% of the visits. "Struck/strike" and "cutting/piercing" were the
second and third frequent mechanism of the ED visits.
The most commonly injured regions of the body from residential injuries were extremities, head
and necks. The most frequent types of injury were an open wound or superficial injury,
contusions/crush injuries and fracture/dislocation (Phelan et al., p.66). More than 10% of the annual
children ED visits were for "moderate-to-severe" injuries (Phelan et al., p.67).

Suggestions for the Residential Injury Prevention
The researchers of the study suggested that many of the children's injuries at home can be
prevented by using safety devices such as stairway gates, improving home design, and by providing
University of Florida/IFAS
Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences

Research News You Can Use 2
January 2007
Hyun-Jeong Lee
appropriate parental supervision (p.67). In addition, it was suggested that safety of home products
needs to be ensured.

Implications for Extension Programs
Considering young children (age under 5) showed the highest rate of the children's ED visits,
safety education needs to be emphasized in education programs of parents of the young children and
prospective parents. Also, home remodeling/modification programs and education materials need to
include safety features and products related to children's in- and around-home safety. In addition,
consumer education needs to be focused on appropriate purchase, installation and use of home

Traditionally, the main image of a home includes a shelter providing protection from outside
harms. However, a recent research study by Phelan et al. (2005) revealed that home was a not-so-safe
place for the U.S. children. Although the number of children residential injuries was found to be
decreased over the years, home is still the most common location for the children injuries in the United
States. More attention and efforts are required to make your home a safer place for you and your
children to live.

Additional References

Aragones, J. I. 2002. The Dwelling as Place: Behaviors and Symbolism. In Residential Environments: Choice,
Satisfaction and Behavior, edited by J. I. Aragones and T. Garling. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.

Bechtel, R. B. 1997. Environment and Behavior: An Introduction. Edited by Robert B. Bechtel. Thousand Oaks,
CA: Sage Publications.

University of Florida/IFAS
Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences

Research News You Can Use
January 2007
Kate Fogarty

The Protective Role of Grandparents: A Valuable
Intergenerational Resource
Submitted by: Kate Fogarty, Ph.D., Youth Development, FYCS

The role grandparents play in children's development is an increasingly recognized

phenomenon in the U.S., as well as other developed nations. For example, nearly 6% of children

reside in homes where grandparents are the head of household (U.S. Census, 2001) and there has

been a recent, steep increase in grandparents serving as surrogate parents to their grandchildren

(Fuller-Thomson & Minkler, 2000). The increase is attributed to a number of dire conditions

affecting parents/children of grandparents such as: (1) death, divorce, child abuse, drug use and

incarceration (Edwards & Daire, 2006); and (2) grandparents are the most willing of any family

member to take grandchildren into their home (Edwards, 1998).

Beyond the influence, grandparents have on their grandchildren while they raise them -

such as academic success and psychological well-being (Edwards, 2003) grandparents also

affect grandchildren even when they do not live under the same roof When children face high

risk situations such as poverty and parental mental illness, grandparents can make a difference by

positively affecting a child's development. Notably, recent findings support how grandparents

buffer the negative effects of high risk on children. High risk settings that include: poverty,

parental mental illness, and stressful family events are found to be correlates and causes of

maternal depression (Silverstein & Ruiz, 2006). Maternal depression has notable negative effects

on parenting and children's functioning, effects which have been found to be lessened by

grandchildren's sense of emotional closeness to their grandparents.


Research News You Can Use 2
January 2007
Kate Fogarty

Maternal Depression and Family Relationships
Maternal depression affects children through family relationships by how parents and

children interact with one another (Davies & Windle, 1997; Nelson, Hammen, Brennan, &

Ullman, 2003). Compared to nondepressed mothers, depressed mothers are found to respond:

minimally or inconsistently with their children;

express more negative emotions with their children; and

are less engaged when interacting with their children (Petterson & Albers, 2001).

Like poverty, maternal depression:

inhibits children's cognitive development (Petterson & Albers, 2001);

worsens their behavior problems (Elgar, Curtis, McGrath, Waschbusch, & Stewart, 2003;

Zuckerman & Beardslee, 1987);

influences teens' acting out behaviors and impairs their functioning in social and

academic roles (Nelson, et al., 2003).

Depressive symptoms reported by mothers are associated with adolescent daughters' (but

not sons') experiences with depression, behavioral problems, and academic difficulties (Davies

& Windle, 1997). Mothers' reports of depression when children are school-aged and adolescents

had negative effects on psychological functioning and educational attainment for adult sons and

daughters (Ensminger, Hanson, Riley, & Juon, 2003). Moreover, mother's depression when

children were school-aged to young adult was significantly related to children's reports of

depression in young adulthood (Silverstein & Ruiz, 2006). Similar to the timing effects found

with poverty, the longer a period of time a child experiences maternal depression, the more

negative developmental effects result (Petterson & Albers, 2001).

Research News You Can Use 3
January 2007
Kate Fogarty

Maternal depression has clearly been established as a risk factor for poor child,

adolescent, and young adult (e.g., developmental) outcomes. For example, a national,

representative longitudinal study has found that being (Silverstein & Ruiz, 2006):


unmarried vs. married and cohabiting;

cohabiting vs. married;

depressed in childhood; and

having a depressed mother as a child,

each increased the likelihood that children would be depressed as young adults.

Grandparent(s) as Protective Factor
However, this same study shows that a child's relationship with his or her grandparents)

is a source of protection or a protective factor. For example, a grandchild's:

sense of emotional closeness to their grandparentss;

frequency of contact with grandparentss; and

view of their grandparents) as a source of social support, together buffer the

"intergenerational effect" of maternal depression on children (Silverstein & Ruiz, 2006).

In other words, for children with depressed mothers, the higher a child's sense of "social

cohesion" with their grandparentss, measured by the above three factors, the less likely he or she

is to experience depression in adulthood. Or, among all children, the link between depressive

symptoms of mothers and children was found to be weakened by the presence of strong

grandparent-grandchild relationships.

Research News You Can Use 4
January 2007
Kate Fogarty

Notable protective factors pinpointed in resilience research include: availability of

community support networks, the presence of caring adults, possession of high intelligence, and

having high self-esteem; these protective factors have caught the attention of youth

interventionists and prevention researchers. Decreasing the influence of risk factors and

increasing or providing the presence of protection in the lives of at-risk youth is a main goal of

intervention. There is logic in targeting those protective factors found in youth development

research as part of treatment and prevention for youth at risk (Wolkow & Ferguson, 2001);

however, setbacks occur due to limited knowledge of how to influence underlying processes that

buffer risk and stress in the lives of youth (Rutter, 1993).

Implications for Extension
In light of the recent findings of the protective function of grandparents on youth

outcomes, Extension educators can (adapted from Silverstein & Ruiz, 2006):

Consider ways to mobilize family resources toward the extended, and beyond the nuclear,


Emphasize the importance of intergenerational relationships in families;

Incorporate ways for intergenerational family participation in programs;

Encourage the volunteerism of older adults in the community (e.g., as "surrogate"

grandparents to individual youth or youth programs); and

Make use of multigenerational resources in their programs.

Davies, P.T., & Windle, M. (1997). Gender-specific pathways between maternal depressive
symptoms, family discord, and adolescent adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 33, 657-

Research News You Can Use 5
January 2007
Kate Fogarty

Edwards, O.W. & Daire, A.P. (2006). School-age children raised by their grandparents:
Problems and solutions. Journal oflnstructional Psychology, 33, 113-119.
Edwards, O.W. (1998). Helping grandchildren raised by grandparents: Expanding psychology in
the schools. Psychology in the Schools, 35, 173-181.
Edwards, O.W. (2003). Living with grandma: A grandfamily study. SchoolPsychology
International, 24, 204-217.
Elgar, F.J., Curtis, L.J., McGrath, P.J., Waschbusch, D.A., & Stewart, S.H. (2003). Antecedent-
consequence conditions in maternal mood and child adjustment: A four-year cross-lagged
study. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32, 362-374.
Ensminger, M.E., Hanson, S.G., Riley, A. W., & Juon, H.S. (2003). Maternal psychological
distress: Adult sons' and daughters' mental health and educational attainment. Journal of
the American Academy of Child andAdolescent Psychiatry, 42, 1108-1115.
Fuller-Thomson, E., & Minkler, M. (2000). America's grandparent caregivers: Who are they? In
B. Hayslip Jr. & R. Goldberg-Glen (Eds.), Grandparents raising grandchildren:
Theoretical, empirical, and clinicalperspectives (pp. 3-21). New York, NY: Springer.
Nelson, D.R., Hammen, C., Brennan, P.A., & Ullman, J.B. (2003). The impact of maternal
depression on adolescent adjustment: The role of expressed emotion. Journal of Consulting
and Clinical Psychology, 71, 935-944.
Petterson, S.M. & Albers, A.B. (2001). Effects of poverty and maternal depression on early child
development. Child Development, 72, 1974-1813.
Rutter, M. (1993). Resilience: Some conceptual considerations. Journal ofAdolescent Health,
14, 626-631.
Silverstein, M., & Ruiz, S. (2006). Breaking the chain: How grandparents moderate the
transmission of maternal depression to their grandchildren. Family Relations, 55, 601-612.
United States Census Bureau. (2001). Census 2000 Supplementary Survey: Profile of selected
social characteristics. Available:
Wolkow, K.E., & Ferguson, H.B. (2001). Community factors in the development of resiliency:
Considerations and future directions. Community Mental Health Journal, 37, 489-498.
Zuckerman, B.S., & Beardslee, W.R. (1987). Maternal depression: A concern for pediatricians.
Pediatrics, 79, 110-117.

Research News You Can Use
January 2007
Elizabeth Bolton

Frictionless Fundraising: How the Internet can Bring Fundraising back into Balance.
Michael C. Gilbert, January, 2003. Nonprofit Online News is a program of The Gilbert
Center at http://news.gilbert.org.

Submitted by: E.B. Bolton, Ph.D., Professor, Community Development.

Michael Gilbert reaches the nonprofit community with his electronic newsletter
containing articles, workshop opportunities and solicitations for his organization. This
article seemed particularly appropriate for faculty involved with community based
organizations working on fund raising campaigns. It emphasizes a back to basics
approach that combines technology with the four elements of professional fund raising.

Gilbert starts with the caution that it is inappropriate to start with explaining the
technology but to begin with defining fundraising. He uses a mapping concept as a four
part diagram that depicts a series of stages of communication with a potential donor. The
map beings with moving the donor through the first stage called "prospecting" which is
the act of "initiating a relationship with a prospective donor." (p. 2) This stage includes
marketing and promotion. "Cultivating" follows the prospect stage and here the
relationship is developed with the donor so that the appeal might have a better chance to
be successful. "Asking" follows the cultivate stage and this is the formal request for a
donation. "Stewardship" is the process of nurturing the relationship with the prospect or
the donor over time.

Gilbert's point is that modern fundraising is not working as well as we are led to believe,
i.e. it is out of balance. Fundraising for most organizations involves costly
communications with donors which creates an environment that is in a state of constant
friction. He says that the communication stages are out of alignment because the
emphasis in on the "ask" part of the equation. Most fund raisers are obsessed with the
asking part of the equation and give very little attention to the other three parts,
particularly the processes of cultivation and stewardship. The "ask" becomes increasing
urgent with every new campaign and it increases as the goals get higher. Only the major
donors have a balanced relationship with the organization because they are treated with
respect. All other donors are treated as sources of money. Balanced means that the four
parts of the equation are equal although not necessarily the same with all donors.

Accepting credit card transactions is a great way to increase online fundraising but it does
little to give balance to the four part fund raising equation. Gilbert says that the
capability to raise funds through the internet could be limiting to the organization because
it gives little attention to the donor's need for cultivation and continued stewardship and
therein lies the danger of relying exclusively on technology as a fund raising. Letting
technology drive the fund raising effort put an emphasis on the capabilities of technology
and ignores the human aspects of the organization primarily the donors and the staff who



Research News You Can Use 2
January 2007
Elizabeth Bolton

deal with them. Gilbert notes this emphasis shifts the fundraising to technology support
staff and away from the fund raising professionals.

He makes the point that credit card transactions are not fundraising and this perception
that they are creates an imbalance by combining the worst aspect of fundraising with
available technology. This approach will raise funds but because of the scale of
unsolicited email, it also has the potential of creating spam and throwing the fund raising
equation further out of balance. The use of internet technology is the direction many
nonprofit are going rather than creating a system of communication with their
stakeholders that goes far beyond receiving an email solicitation. Gilbert says this is the
philosophy of a quick return on the dollar similar to that of direct mail campaigns. Both
of these practices will be detrimental to the organization because it erodes goodwill of the
public and prevent online fundraising from being successful to the extent it might be

The potential exists, according to Gilbert, to treat every donor like a major donor.
"Prospect" them with respect and permission. "Cultivate" them in a personal way. "Ask"
for the right amount at the right time. "Steward" the relationship in such a way that
loyalty from the donor is created and lasts for a long time. This balanced equation
decreases two costs, communication and personalization. He proposes the integration of
email, the web, and selected databases will reduce the cost to reach potential donors. The
nonprofit incurs the cost of email, web sites and building databases. The donor will
supply the stewardship to sustain the relationship through email and web site visits. He
says this plan maintains the four stages of the fund raising equation and reduces the
friction of fundraising by restoring equilibrium to the process.

No longer will "prospecting" be on just new donors. The emphasis will be on developing
lists of donors that have been approached with respect and permission. This will be done
through a process called "chaperoning" rather than renting email lists. Nonprofits will
"cultivate" these relationships by redesigning websites and the messages they send out so
that it is not campaign on fundraising but on developing relationships. The "ask"
becomes much easier because the prospecting and cultivation stage has been carefully
crafted and carried out. All this work will be rewarded as the nonprofit develops and
maintains a stewardship approach to the donors. Funding solicitations will not be
combined with news about events or birthday greetings. From this process it will be
learned how the donors want the nonprofit to be stewards of their donations.

Gilbert says nonprofits need to get back to basic theory of successful fundraising that
does not lose sight of the human element. Technology is a wonderful tool but it should
be used effectively to create communications with real people on the other end. In that
way it will seem frictionless because all the elements in the equation are balanced and
operate in harmony. Relationships are the most important part of fund raising and
technology will not replace these but if used appropriately and effectively it will enhance
nonprofit donor relationships.


Research News You Can Use
January 2007
Linda Bobroff

Potential Impacts of the Dietary

Guidelines for Americans 2005 on

American Agriculture
Submitted by: Linda B. Bobroff, Ph.D., RD, LD/N, Professor and Extension Nutrition Specialist


The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (Dietary Guidelines) provide research-based dietary
advice designed to promote health and reduce risk for the major chronic conditions and diseases
that affect people in the U.S., including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, high blood
pressure, cancer, and osteoporosis. The Dietary Guidelines are the cornerstone of federal
nutrition policy and influence the numerous food and nutrition programs of the federal
government. These include the Food Stamp Program, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program
for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast
Program. The latest edition of the Dietary Guidelines was introduced in 2005.

Most Americans do not consume diets that are consistent with the recommendations of the
Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 (DG-2005). Nutrition education, such as that provided
by Extension educators, can help consumers make healthful food choices to meet the DG-2005,
within the context of their usual food patterns and cultural preferences. A recent report from
USDA's Economic Research Service (ERS) indicates that changes in food intake patterns to meet
these recommendations have implications for American agriculture, which may be of interest to
Extension and its partners.

Food Group Recommendations of DG-2005

The DG-2005 (1) encourages Americans to consume more fruits, vegetables (with specific
recommendations for the five sub-groups of vegetables), fat-free or low-fat milk or milk
products, and whole-grain products, while staying within caloric recommendations. These food
group recommendations are outlined in the MyPyramid Food Guidance System, which was
introduced in April 2005 (2) and which is available at http://mvpyramid.gov. The amounts
recommended constitute alterations in consumption of food from these food groups for many
Americans, and thus have implications for American agriculture (3). Within USDA's Food
Guidance System, food patterns are based on calorie needs. For a person consuming a 2,000
calorie per day diet, the amounts recommended from these four food groups are as follows:

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Research News You Can Use 2
January 2007
Linda Bobroff

Fruits: 2 cups
Vegetables: 2 12 cups
Grains: 6 ounce equivalents (eat at least 3 ounce equivalents of whole grain foods)
Milk: 3 cups (choose fat-free or low-fat)

Note: The fifth food group is Meats and Beans, and at the 2,000 calorie per day level, the
recommended intake is 5 12 ounce equivalents. Most people consume an adequate amount of
protein, one of the key nutrients provided by this food group, but eat beans infrequently, and
increased intake of beans is recommended (this is included in the recommendation to increase
vegetable consumption, since beans are included in both food groups).

The average American diet falls short of the daily recommendations for fruits, vegetables (except
for starchy vegetables which are over-consumed), whole grains, and milk and milk products in
the DG-2005 and in the supporting MyPyramid Food Guidance System. The ERS report
indicates that "if Americans were to bring their diets fully in line with these recommendations,
changes in the mix and quantity of foods produced in the United States would undergo some
major shifts."

What Did The Study Find?

The following findings are reprinted from the ERS report (3):

IfAmericans were to fully meet the Guidelines 'recommendationsfor fruits, vegetables, total
grains, and whole grains, US. agriculture would need to harvest 7.4 million additional acres of
cropland per year, an increase of 1.7 percent of total U.S cropland in 2002. Additionally, U.S
dairy farmers would need to raise annual production of milk and milk products by an estimated
108 million pounds (about a 65 percent increase) for Americans to meet recommendations for
dairy consumption. Such an increase in dairy demand would likely require an increase in the
number of dairy cows, an increase in the volume offered grains needed, and, possibly, an
increase in the acreage devoted to dairy production.

Fruit. Americans would need to increase daily fruit consumption by 132 percent to meet the new
dietary recommendations. The additional demand could require U.S producers to more than
double harvested fruit acreage to 7.6 million acres (from 3.5 million). U.S. fruit production is
constrained by land, labor, and climate, making it likely that imports would continue to increase
as a share of the total U.S. fruit supply.

Vegetables. To meet the new recommendations for vegetables, Americans'daily vegetable
consumption would need to rise by about 31 percent and the mix of vegetables consumed would
need to change. For example, consumption of legumes would have to increase by 431 percent,
and consumption of starchy vegetables would have to decline by 35 percent. To meet this
increased demand, the area harvested for vegetables in the United States would need to increase
by about 135 percent from 6.5 million acres to 15.3 million acres.

Research News You Can Use 3
January 2007
Linda Bobroff

Milk and milk products. Americans would need to increase their consumption of dairy products,
includingfat-free or low-fat milks and equivalent milkproducts (e.g., nonfat yogurt) by 66
percent (requiring an additional 111 billion pounds of milk per year) to meet the new dietary
recommendations. Domestic production could account for 108 billion pounds of that increase,
most likely by expanding dairy cow inventories, an action counter to long-term industry trends.

Whole grains. To meet the dietary recommendations, Americans would need to increase their
daily consumption of whole grains by an estimated 248 percent and reduce their consumption of
total grains by about 27 percent. Because it takes less raw wheat to produce a whole-grain
product than a similar refined-grain product and because of the decline in total grain intake, the
overall drop in demand could translate to producers harvesting about 5.6 million fewer acres of
wheat each year.

As noted above, the DG-2005 do not recommend an increase in meat consumption, and for many
people, to meet the recommended intake from the Meat and Beans groups, they likely would
need to decrease their meat consumption and increase consumption of legumes and fish. This
ERS analysis did not include effects of meat, fats and oils, or caloric sweeteners, although one
might expect possible implications for agriculture from these changes as well.

Implications for Extension

Extension has its roots in agriculture and agriculture still is a primary focus of Extension
programming. The findings of this ERS report are interesting in that they bridge what may
sometimes be considered a gap between Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS) (specifically
Nutrition) programs and Agriculture programs in Extension. Although the focus of these
programs, their target audiences, and their very nature vary, this report indicates that there is a
mutual interest (or concern) that may warrant exploration.

Nutrition education programs and interventions are carried out to help consumers implement
dietary guidelines that are jointly developed by the USDA and US Department of Health and
Human Services for the purpose of improving the health and well-being of Americans. Programs
are based on the most current research in the area of diet and health, and not based on potential
impacts on agriculture at the national or even local level. Still, it is helpful for Extension FCS
educators, who are primary providers of Extension nutrition education programs, to be familiar
with potential implications for agriculture of the recommendations that they make as part of their
nutrition programming, particularly when local commodities might be impacted. Collaborative
programming with FCS and Agriculture Extension agents to explore these issues may open the
door to enhanced communications between professionals in these two fields.

1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005. 6th Edition, Washington, DC: U.S. Government

Research News You Can Use 4
January 2007
Linda Bobroff

Printing Office, January 2005. Available at:

2. U.S. Department of Agriculture. MyPyramid. 2005. Available at:

3. Buzby JC, Hodan FW and Vocke G Possible Implicationsfor U.S. Agriculture from
Adoption of Select Dietary Guidelines. Economic Research Report No. ERR-3 1,
November 2006. Available at: http://www.ers.usda.gov/Publications/ERR31/.

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