The Mineral industry of Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00093544/00010
 Material Information
Title: The Mineral industry of Florida
Series Title: Information circular
Physical Description: v. : ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Bureau of Geology
United States -- Bureau of Mines
Publisher: Bureau of Geology, Division of Interior Resources, Florida Dept. of Natural Resources in cooperation with U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Mines
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1982
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Mines and mineral resources -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Mineral industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Summary: Some no. consist of preprints of the U.S. Bureau of Mines Mineral yearbook chapter on Florida.
General Note: Description based on: 1972.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 1983.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05277645
lccn - sn 86026148
System ID: UF00093544:00010


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[year of publication as printed] Florida Geological Survey [source text]

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Florida Geological Survey shall be considered the copyright holder
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Under the Statutes of the State of Florida (FS 257.05; 257.105, and
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All uses, excluding those made under "fair use" provisions of U.S.
copyright legislation (U.S. Code, Title 17, Section 107), are
restricted. Contact the Florida Geological Survey for additional
information and permissions.

The Mineral Industry of


This chapter has been prepared under a Memorandum of Understanding between the
Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Florida Bureau of Geology, for
collecting information on all nonfuel minerals.

By James R. Boyle1 and Charles W. Hendry, Jr.2

The value of nonfuel mineral production
in 1982 in Florida was $1.2 billion, a de-
crease of $504.5 million from that of 1981.
The decrease was the first drop in value
since 1977. Florida ranked fourth nationally
in total value of nonfuel minerals produced,
and nonmetals accounted for over 97% of
the value of the State's mineral output. The
State ranked first in the production of
phosphate rock; second in crushed stone,
fuller's earth, and peat; and third in mason-
ry cement. Staurolite and zircon concen-

trates were produced only in Florida. Prin-
cipal nonmetals, in order of value, were
phosphate rock, stone, cement, sand and
gravel, and clays.
Of the 37.4 million tons of phosphate rock
produced in the United States, Florida re-
mained the predominant producer and, for
the 89th consecutive year, supplied more
than any other State. Florida and North
Carolina supplied 84.8% of the domestic
phosphate rock output, and Florida sup-
plied most of the exports.

Table 1.-Nonfuel mineral production in Florida1
1981 1982
Mineral Value Value
quantity (thousands) quantity (thousands)
Masonry ---------thousand short tons_- 288 $20,757 231 $16,267
Portland--------------------- -----do 3,518 199,064 2,651 136,190
Clays ------------------------------ do--- 731 235,319 672 231,339
Gem stones_______---------------________------------------ NA 6 NA 6
Lime---------------------- thousand short tons__ 191 11,343 103 5,828
Peat ----------------- ---------------do-.. 157 .2,885 120 1,575
Sand and gravel:
Construction -------------------- -----doo-- e14,910 e30,600 13,749 30,481
Industrial --------------------------do-- 349 4,419 341. 4,257
Stone (crushed) --- ---------------------do 65,067 226,192 '53,100 '182,300
Combined value of clays (kaolin), magnesium compounds, phoe-
phate rock, rare-earth metal concentrate, staurolite, titanium
concentrates (ilmenite and rutile), and zircon concentrates- XX 1,197,304 XX 815,155
Total _----- ---- --- XX rl,727,889 XX 1,223,398
*Estimated. "Preliminary. rRevised. NA Not available. XX Not applicable.
'Production as measured by mine shipments, sales, or marketable production (including consumption by producers).
'Excludes kaolin; value included with "Combined value" figure.


The recession impacted on Florida's econ-
omy in 1982, resulting in an unemployment
rate at yearend of 9.5% compared with
7.3% at yearend 1981. Phosphate workers
experienced an unemployment rate of near-
ly 25% at midyear, dropping to 18% in
December. Florida, the fastest .growing
State in the southeast in terms of popula-

tion, had maintained a high level of residen-
tial construction until 1982. During the
year, most construction activity decreased,
adversely affecting the minerals industry,
especially in the southern part of the State.
Although Florida's business climate was
rated one of the best in the Nation, new
plant openings dropped sharply in 1982.

Table 2.-Value of nonfuel mineral production in Florida, by county'
( 1hoMande)

County 1960 1981' in 1981
U n border Vash

Alachua --------------
Browa ------........------
Charlott ------ ---
Citnu" ---.------------


racarnbii ---------.-----

Gulardf --------------
Hfmdry ----. --------
**CIBO -------------
3= !lt------------
Lake ----------------
Leeo ------- ------
Lem ---------------

ol ------- --- _--
Mario -----------

Ofa m -- --------------

Polk --------------
PoUl .------,------.-

$4,891 $8,429 Stone.





SL LuiDe --------------
Suwamae ------------
STlor .u..............

uTayor --------------
Waln -------------....
Sand and ravel (cooancction)


Stone, clay.
anephoe rock.
21 2An r aurolite, monate.
Cement, stone.

Magnaium compounds, lime.
Phi tIoa rock
Cement, stone, lime, clay.
Phosphate rock, cement, stone, peat.
Peat, clay.

Choment phophate rocka stone.
Sto v = indoslpheate rocl.
Phosphate rock, sand and gravel (industrial),
Sand nd gravel (industrial, clays, peat.
Lime, stone.

Total s. 13----- 1.0958 1,727,r89

*Utmad& W Withheld to avoid discloan company proprietary data; included with "Undistributed." XX Not
'F lowing o auntis are not listed cause no nonfl mineRal production was reported: Baker, Bradford, Columbla,
M Sow Dldo IavL Il Fankin. ilerK olumw Idia Rver Jefferson, Lietts. Lb IadisOn. Martin,
Noma. Okeehobee. Osceol. Pinalb St John. Santa w StiROM cle ifa.lZ Soa. a VoUiaWaku lledWlWainston.
Voounty dlribation hr construction and and gravel is not available; total value shown separately under Sand and
gwael (coasa3tructioW).
Cobbructin send and gravel was pd ddata not available by county.
*aids gem stons and va als ncat by ymbol W.
'ta may not add to totals shown because ofindpdent rounding.


Table 3.-Indicators of Florida business activity

1981 1982 Change,
Employment end labor force, annual average:
total civilian labor force ---- ------- thousands 4,504.0 4,728.0 +5.0
Unemployment ------- --.-------------.. ---do--.. 807.0 386.0 +25.7
Emploent (nonagrictiltural)
nng -----------------------------------do 11.8 9.6 -15.0
nufacturing---------------------------do 472.2 459.9 -2.6
Contract co ruction ------------ -----------do-- 288.1 258.6 -10.4
Traportaon and public utilitie---------------------- do- _-- 229.8 230.4 +.8
Wholealeand retail trade ----------------- -------do.. 987.2 999.6 +1.8
SFinance, nurance, realestate ------ ---------- -- do-- 274.8 280.5 +2.3
SServices------------------- ----------- ..- do-. 858.9 901.0 +4.9
Government ...---- ---.....----.. -- -----.....-do.. 620.1 627.4 +1.2
Total nonagricultural employment' ---...-- -- ---- -do. 8,786.9 8,762.0. +.7
Personal income:
Total ------------------------------- ------- millions- $108,502 $118,278 +9.4
Percapita -.----..-----. --------- ---- $10,165 $10,875 +7.0
Construction activity .
Number of private and public residential units authorized --. ------_ 146,557 103,785 -29.2
Value ofnonresidential construction ---------------------million $2,941.5 $2,768.4 -5.9
Value of State road contract awards -------------------------do-- $416.0 $3891.0 -6.0
Shipments of portland and masonry cement to and within the State
thousand short tons.- 5,724 4,898 -28.2
Nonfuel mineral production value:
Total crude mineral value -------- ----------- ----- millions-. $1,727.9 $1,228.4 -29.2
Value per capital, resident population --. -----------.. ------- ----. $177 $117 -88.9
Value per square mile...-----..------- ------ ----.-------.. $29,467 $20,891 -29.1
'Includee oil and gas extraction.
Sources U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Department of Labor, Highway and Heavy Construction Magazine, and
U.S. Bureau of Mines.





0o I I I I I
1977 1980 1985

Figure 1.-Total value of nonfuel mineral production in Florida.


Trends and Developments.-The Port of
Tampa, which handled nearly 40 million
tons of cargo in 1982, shipped the major
portion of exported phosphate. Phosphate
rock and processed phosphate exports to-
taled nearly 13 million tons, about the same
as in 1981. Exports of phosphate through
Jacksonville totaled 557,000 tons, down
from 585,000 tons in 1981. Port Manatee's
phosphate shipments totaled nearly 2 mil-
lion tons, mostly from Beker Phosphate
Inc.'s new mine. Beker sent rock to its plant
in Taft, La., for processing and distribution.
Beker took delivery of a 42,000-deadweight-
ton, self-unloading barge for transportation
of phosphate rock. Reportedly, the largest
self-unloading barge in the world, it is
capable of discharging 4,000 tons per hour.
The Port of Tampa also imported about
650,000 tons of aragonite from The Baha-
mas for use in the manufacture of cement,
down from 750,000 tons in 1981. Gypsum
imports increased slightly, while those of
coal and liquid sulfur decreased.
Family Lines Rail Systems completed a
$21 million expansion of its Rockport phos-
phate export facility at Tampa. Capacity
was increased 30% to 9.1 million tons per
Mobil Chemical Corp. plans to build a
phosphate loading terminal in Tampa. The
Tampa Port Authority authorized the sale
of up to $85 million in bonds to finance
construction. Bond payments will be cover-
ed by Mobil's lease arrangements with a
guarantee of $300,000 per year in fees.
Capacity will be 250,000 tons, and the facili-
ty may be shared with another company.
Over one-half of Mobil's output was shipped
out of Tampa.
Early in the year, The Anaconda Compa-
ny was considering the Tampa Bay area as
one of several sites nationwide for a copper
and precious metals refining facility. The
main advantage to the site would be a
market for recovered sulfuric acid in the
Florida phosphate industry. The required
capital expenditure of $1.5 billion makes
the project unlikely, considering the pres-
ent state of the copper industry.
Mineral Aggregates Co. Inc. started con-
struction of a multimillion dollar slag proc-
esseaing facility ir. southeastern Hillsborough
County. The slag, a byproduct of Tampa
Electric Co.'s coal-fired powerplants, will be
processed for use as sandblasting grit and
roofing materials.
Total oil and gas production declined,
with oil and gas down 27% and 28.5%,

respectively, from that of 1981.
Legislation and Government Pro-
grams.-The U.S. Bureau of Land Manage-
ment, after competitive bidding, leased 80
acres of federally owned phosphate lands to
W. R. Grace & Co., which presently mines
phosphate on adjoining lands. The bonus
bid was $140 per acre, with a 5% royalty
rate, and an annual rental rising from $0.25
to $2.00 per acre over the first 4 years.
Under the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920, the
State received 50% of all revenues from
Federal lands in the State. In fiscal year
1982, this amounted to $17,453.
During 1982, the U.S. Geological Survey
published several open file reports pertain-
ing to the State. The reports included "Po-
tentiometric Surface of the Floridan Acqui-
fer, Southwest Florida" (open file report 82-
0753) and "Data on Subsurface Storage of
Liquid Waste Near Pensacola, Fla." (open
file report 82-0689).
Since 1972, the U.S. Bureau of Mines
Tuscaloosa Research Center has been
involved with various projects related to
phosphate waste slimes, upgrading of mar-
ginal ores, and environmental problems. In-
house Bureau project activity during the
year included research on beneficiation of
dolomitic phosphate ores, dewatering of
mineral processing slime by flocculation,
recovery of phosphate from dewatered
slimes, uses for phosphogypsum wastes, and
methodology for mining and reestablish-
ment of wetland ecosystems.
Bureau Reports of Investigations (RI)
issued during the year pertaining to the
mineral industry of Florida included RI
8609, "Beneficiation of High-Magnesium
Phosphate From Southern Florida"; RI
8611, "Large-Scale Dewatering of Phos-
phatic Clay Waste From Central Florida";
RI 8639, "Assessment of Environmental Im-
pacts Associated With Phosphogypsum in
Florida"; RI 8661, "Anion Characterization
of Florida Phosphate Rock Mining Materi-
als and U.S. Cement Kiln Dust by Ion
Chromatography"; RI 8681, "Beneficiation
of a Phosphate Ore Produced by Borehole
Mining"; RI 8718, "Method for Producing
Zirconyl Sulfate Solution From Zircon
Sand"; and RI 8731, "Recovery of Phos-
phate From Florida Phosphate Operations
In association with Agrico Chemical Co.,
the Bureau completed research on borehole
mining in deep phosphate ore in St. Johns
County. The research concluded that deep
phosphate ores could be mined in an envi-


ronmentally compatible manner. Agrico
planned to conduct additional borehole min-
ing tests in 1983.
The Bureau had several contracts in
Florida totaling over $400,000. The studies
involved the development of engineering
and cost data for foreign graphite, potash,
and sulfur properties.
During the year, the Florida Bureau of
Geology completed seven studies for publi-
cation or open file. Among the studies were
a summary of Florida peat deposits and a
history of the Bureau of Geology commemo-
rating its 75th anniversary. Projects under-
way concerned the stratigraphy, lithostrati-
graphy, and geomorphology of specific for-
mations in geographic areas. Included were
a summary of Florida karst and a summary
of the economic minerals of Florida. The
Bureau of Geology, involved in mined land
reclamation, adopted a Master Reclamation
Plan, Chapter 16C-17, Florida Administra-
tive Code. Approval was given to begin
reclamation activities in 2,704 acres of non-
mandatory land. Seven publications were
issued during the year; the publications
covered geology, minerals, guidebooks, and
two map series. During the year, the Bu-
reau added the Office of Reclamation Re-
search, which will be responsible for eval-
uating the interrelationships of current
mining processes and reclamation and to
encourage reclamation research. Research
is being encouraged on the restoration of
wetlands mined for heavy minerals and
hydrologic research needs related to phos-
phate mining and reclamation.
The Governor of Florida signed a law
designed to prohibit phosphate mining in
the Osceola National Forest. The bill pro-
hibits the issuance of State permits for any

activity that would degrade the air, water
quality, or wildlife habitat of State or na-
tional forests.
The Florida Department of Revenue
announced that the severance tax rate for
phosphate was increased by 10% in 1982.
The new rate, $1.84 per ton, was determined
by a formula that reflects the change in ore
value. The tax reportedly is the highest of
any phosphate producing area in the world.
The Governor signed into law a bill that
would return portions of the severance tax
monies collected to counties. Each county
where phosphate is mined will recover
approximately 5% of the tax from the
phosphate mined in the county. The mea-
sure, which went into effect July 1, also
allows the Land Reclamation Trust Fund to
be used to purchase mined lands.
The U.S. Geological Survey conducted
mineral, energy, geochemical, geophysical,
and marine geology studies in and offshore
Florida. The studies included mineral po-
tential in several Roadless Area Review and
Evaluation (RARE II) areas, heavy miner-
als, offshore petroleum, peat in the Ever-
glades, and measurement of stratigraphic
sections in the phosphate districts.
The Florida Institute of Phosphate Re-
search funded 25 projects for research and
development with respect to mining and
processing phosphate rock and reclamation
of disturbed lands. The projects, all funded
to some extent during the year, totaled over
$3 million, and included utilization of by-
product gypsum, reduction of slime pond
areas, evaluation of waste clay handling
techniques, reclamation of phosphate lands,
and innovative beneficiation and mining


Cement.-Shipments of both portland
and masonry cement decreased 24.6% and
19.8%, respectively, from that of 1981. Ce-
ment was the third leading commodity in
value in the State. Production of masonry
cement in Florida ranked third nationally,
while portland cement ranked eighth. Four
companies produced portland cement at five
plants; masonry cement was also produced
at five plants. A fifth company operated a
grinding plant to produce portland cement
from imported clinker. Most of the ship-
ments of both cement types were to users

within the State; Florida was a net importer
of cement, with about 700,000 tons being
imported, down from about 1 million tons in
1981. Portland cement shipments, mainly in
bulk form, were made by truck and rail.
Principal consumers were ready-mix con-
crete dealers, highway contractors, building
materials dealers, and concrete products
manufacturers, with the remainder being
consumed by other contractors and govern-
ment agencies.
Most raw materials used to manufacture
cement were mined within the State and
included limestone, clays, sand, and stau-
rolite. Oolitic aragonite imported from


The Bahamas was used, as well as small
amounts of gypsum, clinker, fly ash, clays,
iron ore, and slag; most were obtained from
out-of-State sources.
Ten rotary kilns were operated at five
plants. Of the 10, 8 were wet process and 2
were dry process. About 384 million kilo-
watt-hours of electrical energy, in addition
to natural gas, fuel oil, and coal, were
consumed in the manufacture of cement.
Reduced construction activities impacted
severely on cement manufacturers in south-
ern Florida, with companies operating at a
loss or breaking even. Reduced workweeks
and temporary closures of plants occurred
during the year. Despite reduced output,
the industry was optimistic on an economic
recovery in 1983.
Moore McCormack Resources Inc.,
Brooksville, dedicated a second kiln in
June. The new 1,700-ton-per-day kiln in-
creased plant capacity to 1.2 million tons
per year. The $68 million expansion includ-
ed a grinding mill, heat exchanger, finish
mill, packaging plant, and modification of
its dust collection system.
Florida Crushed Stone Co. announced
plans to build a cement plant in Brooksville.
The $80 million facility would have a capac-
ity of 600,000 tons per year. The proposal
was under consideration by the State with
action expected in 1983.
Clays.-Clays mined in Florida included
common clay, fuller's earth, and kaolin.
Total clay production and value decreased
59.000 tons and $4 million, respectively.
Common clay output and value increased
for the fourth consecutive year. Common
clay was produced by four companies at
four pits in Clay, Gadsden, Hernando, and
Lake Counties in the northern part of the
State. The clay was used in the manufac-
ture of cement and lightweight aggregate.
Florida ranked second in the Nation in
the production of fuller's earth, but output
and value decreased from that of 1981.
Fuller's earth was mined by four producers
at four pits in Brevard, Gadsden, and
Marion Counties. Main end uses were for
pet waste absorbents and oil and grease
absorbents, and in fertilizers, pesticides,
and saltwater drilling muds. Material
mined was a montmorillonite- ttapulgite
product, which was trucked to the plant
where it was crushed, sized, and dried. End
products were shipped nationwide.
Kaolin was produced by one company at
one pit in Putnam County; production
decreased for the first time since 1975.

Material was dredged and slurried about
6,000 feet to the processing plant. Principal
uses for kaolin were electrical porcelain,
whiteware, and wall tile; major markets
were in the southeast. Byproduct industrial
sand was recovered for glass and other
industrial uses. Glass sand was shipped to
plants in Alabama, Florida, and Tennessee.
Fluorine.-Fluorine in the form of fluo-
silicic acid was recovered as a byproduct of
wet-process phosphoric acid manufacture.
Fluosilicic acid was used to produce cryolite,
aluminum fluoride, sodium silicofluoride,
and was also used in water fluoridation.
Gypsum.-Imported gypsum was calcined
at two plants in Duval County and one
plant in Hillsborough County. United
States Gypsum Co., Jim Walter Corp., and
National Gypsum Co. calcined gypsum in
kettles, a rotary kiln, and holoflite unit,
respectively, prior to wallboard manufac-
ture. Production and value increased 12.6%
and 4.4%, respectively, from that of 1981.
Florida gypsum wallboard was marketed
primarily in southern Georgia and Florida.
Byproduct gypsum was recovered by Occi-
dental Petroleum Corp. at its plant in
Hamilton County; output decreased from
that of 1981.
Lime.-Quicklime and hydrated lime
were produced in Florida. Quicklime was
produced by Basic Magnesia Inc., Gulf
County; Chemical Lime Inc., Hernando
County; and Dixie Lime & Stone Co., Sum-
ter County. Hydrated lime was also pro-
duced by Chemical Lime. Production and
value decreased 46.1% and 48.6%, respec-
tively, from that of 1981. Lime was used for
water treatment, paper and pulp, magnesia,
and sewage treatment systems.
Magnesium Compounds.-Florida rank-
ed second nationally in the recovery of
magnesium compounds from seawater. Ba-
sic Magnesia, Gulf County, produced caustic
calcined magnesia and refractory-grade
magnesia from seawater. Shipments and
value decreased 30.9% and 26.2%, respec-
tively, from that of 1981.
Peat.-Florida ranked second nationally
in peat sales in 1982. Production and value
decreased from that of 1981. Six plants
produced moss, reed-sedge, and humus peat
from five counties. Most of the peat, shipped
in bulk, was used for general soil improve-
ment and for potting soils. Late in the year,
the State Department of Environmental
Regulations denied permits for a proposed
148-acre peat mine in Putnam County.
Georgia-Pacific Corp. had applied for per-


mits to mine the peat in Cow Bay Swamp on
an experimental basis. The denial of per-
mits was based on possible water quality
degradation in Cow Bay Swamp and nearby
Simms Creek.
Perlite (Expanded).-Four companies
produced expanded perlite from crude ore
shipped into the State. Production decreas-
ed to 28,300 tons, while value increased to
nearly. $4 million. Perlite was expanded at
plants in Broward, Duval, Escambia, and
Indian River Counties and was used for
construction aggregate, horticultural pur-
poses, insulation, and fillers.
Phosphate Rock.-Florida ranked first in
the Nation in the production of phosphate
rock. The phosphate industry continued to
be the principal mineral industry of the
State. Marketable production of phosphate
rock in 1982 dropped 29.3% in quantity and
32.7% in value from that of 1981. Phosphate
rock production remained at a low level
during the year, continuing a trend started
late in 1981, and resulting in temporary
closure or reduction of output from most of
the area's mines. The decrease in demand
was caused by reduction in both domestic
fertilizer sales and exports. At midyear,
nearly 25% of the work force was unem-
ployed, with nine mines and six plants
temporarily shut down. The industry start-
ed a mild recovery in the fall, but by year-
end, unemployment was at 18%. Decreas-
ed demand and large inventories of process-
ed phosphates resulted in prices frequently
below stated production costs. The Florida
Phosphate Council reported that the indus-
try spent $34 million on air quality moni-
toring and $146 million to protect and con-
serve water during 1982. The severance tax
increased to $1.84 per ton, with approxi-
mately 5% returned to the individual pro-
ducing counties.
Land-pebble phosphate was produced at
20 mines by 12 companies in Hamilton,
Hardee, Hillsborough, Manatee, and Polk
Counties. In 1982, agricultural uses ac-
counted for about 72%; exports, 27%; and
industrial uses, less than 1%. Normal su-
perphosphate, triple superphosphate, wet-
process phosphoric acid, and defluorinated
phosphate rock were produced for agricul-
tural purposes. Industrial chemicals were
produced from the production of elemental
Agrico Chemical Co. operated the Fort
Green and Payne Creek Mines during the
year. At midyear the two mines and the
South Pierce chemical complex were tempo-

rarily closed owing to the depressed market.
In September, the Fort Green Mine was
reopened. The Hardee County Commission
approved Agrico's plan to expand its mining
operations in the county by 3,741 acres. The
new plan will result in the mining of 5,257
acres and extend the life of the mine about
9 years.
AMAX Phosphate Inc. operated one
mine, the Big Four, during the year. In
April, the mine and the Piney Point chemi-
cal plant closed temporarily. Capacity of the
Big Four Mine was to be increased from 1.6
to 2.5 million tons per year with the addi-
tion of a new dragline. AMAX's Pine Level
Mine development in De Soto and Manatee
Counties was delayed. The mine, originally
scheduled for startup in 1984, was expected
to be in operation in the early 1990's.
Beker operated its Wingate Creek Mine
in Manatee County with two floating
dredges removing overburden and matrix.
The 12,000-acre mine supplies a chemical
plant in Louisiana, shipping through Port
Manatee. Expansion plans were limited be-
cause of the dispute with county officials
over truck transportation to the port. An
agreement early in the year with the county
limited production to 1.2 million tons per
year for 12 months, pending construction of
a rail system.
Brewster Phosphates, a partnership be-
tween American Cyanamid Co. and Kerr-
McGee Corp., operated the Haynsworth and
Lonesome Mines. Most of the output was
shipped to an acid plant in Louisiana
through the Port of Tampa. Brewster closed
its mines for several months during the
year because of weak demand.
CF Industries Inc.'s operations in Hardee
County operated throughout the year. At
yearend, CF Industries shut down its chemi-
cal complex at Bartow. Development at its
South Pasture tract continued with con-
struction of a 55-cubic-yard dragline. Con-
struction of a new plant has been delayed
pending improved market conditions.
Estech Inc. operated the Silver City and
Watson Mines in Polk County. The mines
operated intermittently during the year
because of reduced market demands. Es-
tech's proposed Duette Mine in Manatee
County continued to be delayed because of
environmental considerations; the company
estimates an expenditure of about $10 mil-
lion to date in attempts to develop the mine.
The company has revised the anticipated
startup to the late 1980's or early 1990's.
During the year, the Royster Co., which had


a 20% interest in the mine, dropped out of
the venture because the mine would not
open in 1983 as originally planned. Royster
obtained rock from International Minerals
& Chemical Corp. (IMC).
Farmland Industries Inc. continued on
the permitting stage for its proposed Hicko-
ry Creek Mine in Hardee County. Farmland
started construction of 45-cubic-yard drag-
line early in the year, but stopped because
of the weak market for phosphate. If the
decision is made to proceed, date for startup
for the 2-million-ton-per-year operation
would be after 1986.
Gardinier Inc. produced phosphate ore at
its Fort Meade Mine in Polk County. The
company planned to expand its mining
operations into Hardee County by 1990 if
permits are approved. At the Fort Meade
Mine, $20 million was being invested to
install a waste slime dewatering system to
eliminate slime ponds.
W. R. Grace operated its Bonny Lake and
Hookers Prairie Mines in Polk County in-
termittently during the year. The Bonny
Lake Mine was scheduled to close in 1983
because of depleted ore reserves. The mines
were closed several months because of de-
pressed markets. The development of W. R.
Grace's Four Corners Mine, a joint venture
with IMC, was postponed until late 1983 or
early 1984. W. R. Grace will operate the 5-
million-ton-per-year mine with 50% of the
production going to IMC.
Hopewell Land Co., a subsidiary of No-
randa Inc., planned to develop a 500,000-
ton-per-year mine in Hillsborough County
by 1984. The County Commission approved
the rezoning of nearly 2,400 acres in south-
eastern Hillsborough County to permit min-
ing. Hopewell will supply a Noranda fertil-
izer plant in Canada.
IMC, the world's largest private producer
of phosphate and phosphate chemical prod-
ucts. operated the Clear Springs, Noralyn,
and Kingsford Mines. The mines were clos-
ed for 6 weeks early in the year and a week
at yearend. IMC completed a nearly $200
million project to increase capacity at its
New Wales chemical complex by 50%. In-
cluded were two sulfuric acid plants, a
diammonium phosphate plant, and storage
facilities. IMC signed an agreement with

Mississippi Chemical Corp.; Mississippi
Chemical swapped 15,000 acres of phos-
phate land in exchange for a 22-year con-
tract to buy phosphate rock. At one time,
Mississippi Chemical planned to open a
$225 million facility by 1985 at a site in
Hardee County. IMC reportedly will not
develop the area for 10 to 20 years.
Mobil operated the Nichols and Fort
Meade Mines in Polk County. Mobil pro-
ceeded with the permitting process to devel-
op the South Fort Meade Mine, scheduled
for operation in 1988. The 3-million-ton-per-
year mine will replace the Fort Meade and
Nichols Mines as they are phased out over
the next 20 years.
Occidental Chemical Co. produced phos-
phate ore from its Suwannee River and
Swift Creek Mines, which operated inter-
mittently during the year. About 70% of the
output went to the Soviet Union in the form
of superphosphoric acid in exchange for
ammonia and other nitrates, under the
terms of a 20-year trade agreement.
Sand and Gravel.-Florida produced both
construction and industrial sand and gravel
in 1982. Production was from 27 companies
operating 47 operations in 18 counties. To-
tal output decreased about 8% from that of
Construction.-As a result of the new
canvassing procedures implemented by the
U.S. Bureau of Mines in 1980, no annual
survey of construction sand and gravel pro-
ducers was conducted for 1981. Based on
partial production information for 1981,
collected with the 1982 survey, final esti-
mates of construction sand and gravel pro-
duction in 1981 were generated and are
given in table 1.
Production of construction sand and grav-
el decreased for the third straight year.
During 1982, 25 companies operated 40 pits
in 18 counties; leading producing counties
were St. Lucie, Lake, and Polk, Transporta-
tion was primarily by truck, with the bal-
ance shipped by railroad and waterway.
Principal uses included concrete aggregate
and fill. One company produced over 1
million tons; the top 11 companies, with 24
operations, mined 89% of the total construc-
tion sand and gravel mined in the State.


Table 4.-Florida: Sand and gravel sold or used by producers
1981 1982
Quantity Value Value Quantity Value Value
(thousand (thou- per (thousand (thou- per
short tons) sands) ton short tons) sands) ton
Sand---------------------------- NA NA NA 8,675 $22,242 $2.56
Gravel ---------- -------------- NA NA NA W W 6.87
Sand and gravel (unprocessed) ------------ NA NA NA W W 1.17
Total or average ------------------- 14,910 e$30,600 "$2.05 13,749 30,481 2.22
Industrial sand ------------------------- 349 4,419 12.66 341 4,257 12.47
Grand total or average -------------- e15,259 *35,019 *2.29 114,091 34,738 2.47
Estimated. NA Not available. W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included in "Total or
'Data do not add to total shown because of independent rounding.

Table 5.-Florida: Construction sand and gravel sold or used in 1982, by major use

quantity Value Value
Use (thousand (thou- per
short sands) ton
Concrete aggregate ----------------------------------- 7,198 $18,026 $2.50
Plaster and gunite sands ---------------------------- 757 2,519 3.33
Concrete products -----------------------------------. 382 968 2.53
Asphaltic concrete -- ----- --------------- ------. 639 3,452 5.40
Road base and coverings -------- -- ---------------- 74 119 1.61
Fill -------- ------------------------- --- --- 4,699 5,397 1.15
Total or average ------------------ -------------- 13,749 30,481 2.22

IndustriaL--Six companies produced in-
dustrial sand, one as a byproduct of kaolin
operations; production decreased slightly
from that of 1981. Industrial sand was used
for glass manufacture and for foundry
sands; markets were in Alabama, Florida,
and Tennessee.
Staurolite.-Florida was the only State
with a recorded production of staurolite.
Staurolite was recovered as a byproduct of
ilmenite processing in Clay County by E. I.
du Pont de Nemours & Co. Inc. and by
Associated Minerals (USA) Ltd. Inc. The
staurolite was removed by electrical and
magnetic separation from heavy minerals
concentrates. Production and value decreas-
ed for the second straight year.
Stone.-To reduce reporting burdens and
costs, the U.S. Bureau of Mines implement-
ed new canvassing procedures for its sur-
veys of stone producers in 1981. The survey
of stone producers will be conducted for odd-
numbered years only, and only preliminary
estimates for crushed and dimension stone
production will be published for even-
numbered years. The preliminary estimates
will be revised and finalized the following
Florida ranked second in the Nation in

crushed stone production, which included
limestone, marl, and oyster shell. Output
decreased for the second straight year; con-
struction activity decreased, adversely af-
fecting crushed stone and other aggregate
output. Most quarries operated at reduced
levels during the year, with no reported
closures. Crushed stone was transported
mainly by truck and railroad, and was used
for dense-graded road base, concrete, bitu-
minous aggregate, and cement manufac-
ture. Oyster shell was used primarily for
roadbed material.
Sulfur (Recovered).-Florida ranked se-
venth in the Nation in the production of
byproduct elemental sulfur. Recovered sul-
fur from Exxon Corp.'s natural gas desul-
furization plants in Santa Rosa County
decreased for the fourth straight year.
Vermiculite (Exfoliated).-Exfoliated
vermiculite was produced by two operations
at four plants in Broward, Duval, and
Hillsborough Counties from crude ore
shipped into the State. Production and
value decreased 20.9% and 2.7%, respec-
tively, from that of 1981. Principal uses
were for concrete aggregate, horticulture,
and insulation.



Iron and SteeL-Florida Steel Corp.'s
minimills were adversely affected by eco-
nomic conditions. Early in the year, the
company closed its Indiantown operation
and reduced production at its Jacksonville
and Tampa operations. Output, mainly re-
bars, was shipped to markets within 800
miles of the plants. Two companies produc-
ed ferrophosphorus in 1982. Shipments of
ferroalloys decreased 20%, while value
decreased 54% from that of 1981.
According to the Directory of Florida
Industries, nine gray iron foundries and
eight steel foundries operated intermittent-
ly during the year. With the exception of
one steel foundry in Jacksonville, all found-
ries were relatively small.
Rare-arrth Minerals.-Florida was the
only domestic producer of rare earth from
mineral sands mining. Associated Minerals

recovered monazite concentrate as a by-
product from its operations in Clay County.
Production and value increased over that of
Titanium.-Du Pont and Associated Min-
erals produced concentrates from their
heavy minerals operations in Clay County.
Both rutile and ilmenite shipments increas-
ed over that of 1981.
Zircon.-Production and value of zircon
concentrate from Du Pont and Associated
Minerals operations in Clay County de-
creased 22.6% and 15.2%, respectively.
Florida was the only producer of zircon
concentrate in the United States. Ziiron
was recovered as a byproduct of mineral
sands operations and was used in the
foundry, ceramic, and refractory industries.

'State Liaison Officer, Bureau of Mines, Tuscaloosa, Ala.
'State geologist, Florida Bureau of Geology, Tallahasee,

Table 6.-Principal producers

Commodity and company Address Type of activity County

General Portland Inc ......

Lonstar Florida Pnusuco Inc -
Moors McCormack Rsources Inc
inkar Portland Cement Corp --

Mrd ineral & Chemical
id-" Miinint Co -----
Paun ylvania Glass Sand Corp..
Gypsum (calcinedf
Jim waiter Corp ........-
National Gypsu Co ----...
United Stats Gypsum Co ..---
Baeic agna Inc- ------. -
Chemical Limo IncT --.-------
Dixi Lim & Stone Co' -----

b Mac gnesi Inc -------
P Ri Pat Co --......----
Superir Pa & Soil Co ......

Arnntro CorkCo ........
Ceock Coarp.---------_
W. L Grace & C ---------

12700 Park Central P.
Suite 2100
Dallas TX 75251
Box 2085 PVS
H=a;hpFL 83012
Box 2396

Miami FL 33165
Men Park
Edion, NJ 08817
Box 68.
Lowell FL 82663
Berkely Springs WV 25411
1500 North Dale Mobry
Tuap. FL83607
4100Plt International Bldg.
Dallas, TX 57270
101 South Wcker Dr.
Chicgo. IL 60606
Box 160
Port St. Joe, FL 82456
Box 817
.FL 32748
Sumterville. FL 3585
Box 160
Port St. Joe. FL 32456
Box 1192
Bartow, FL 33830
Box 1688
Sbring. FL 8870
Route 2, Box 740
Vero Bach FL 82960
Box 1991
Penacola FL 32589
End aOrsaeSt.
Nashville.TN 837208
62 Whittemore Ave.
Cambridge, MA 02140

Sm rootnots at end o table.

Plants ---....

Plant .---...
---_ _do ..------
----do ......----

Open pit mines
and plant

--.-- do -----......-

---- do ------

Bog -------
Bog ------

----do-- .....

Dade and





Indian River.


Table 6.-Principal producers -Continued

Commodity and company Address Type of activity County

Phosphate rock.
Agrico Chemical Co -------
AMAX Phosphate Inc -------
Beker Phosphate Inc-------
Brewster Phosphatee -------
CF Indutrie Inc .---.----
Estech Inc------------
Gardinier Inc ----------

W. R. Grae & Co.---------
International Minerals &
Chemical Corp.
Mobil Chemical Corp.' ------
Occidental Chemical Co------
USS. Agri-Chemicals Inc ----
Sand and gravel:
Florida Rock Industries Inc.,
Shands & Baker Div.

General Development Corp .. -
E. R. Jahna Industries Inc.,
Ortona Sand Co. Div.
Silver Sand Co. of Clermont Inc _
Associated Minerals (USA) Ltd.
E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.
Florida Crushed Stone Co-----
Florida Rock Industries Inc ---.

Lone Star Florida Inc --_----

Rinker Southeastern Materials
Vulcan Materials Co-------
Titanium concentrates
Associated Minerals (USA) Ltd.
E. I. du Pont de Nemoura & Co.

Box 8166
Tulsa, OK 74101
402 South Kentucky Ave.
Lakeland, FL 38801
Box 9084
Bradenton, FL 88506
Bradley, FL 8885 ------
Box 790
Plant City, FL 88566
Box 208
Bartow, FL 88880
Box 8269
TaBom FL 601
Box M11
Bartow, FL 88880
Box 867
Bartow, FL 38830
Box 811
Nichols, FL 33863
White Springs, FL 32096 --- -
Box 867
Fort Meade, FL 33841

Box 6984
Fort Myers, FL 33901

1111 South Bayshore Dr.
Miami, FL 88181
First & East Tillman
Lake Wales, FL 3385
Route 1, Box US 1
Clermont, FL 32711
Green Cove Springs, FL 82048
DuPont Bldg. D-10084
Wilmington, DE 19898
Box 817
Leesburg, FL 82748
Attn: Nat C. Hughee, Pree.
Box 6984
Fort Myers, FL 83901
Box 6097
Fort Lauderdale,
FL 38810
Box 5280
Hialeah, FL 38014
Box 7324-A
Birmingham, AL 85228

Green Cove Springs,
FL 32043
DuPont Bldg. D-10084
Wilmington, DE 19898

Open pit mines
and plants.
Open pit mine
and lant

--- --do ---
--- do -----
---- do------
Open pit mines _
Open pit mine and
----do -----
Open pit mines -

--- do .-----
Open pit mine -


--- do ----
--do ------
Pit --------

Mine and plant- -
Mines and plants


_--_do ----

Quarry _-----

Quarries -----
----do ------

Mine and plant- _
Mines and plants-

Hillsborough and



Clay, Glades,
Lake, Marion,
Hery, St. Lucie,
Glades, Hendry,
Lake, Polk.


Hernando, Sum-
ter, Taylor.
Collier, Hernando,
Lee, Levy, St.

Broward and


'Also stone.
'Also exfoliated vermiculite.
'Also elemental phosphorus.

S. R. Windham, Chief
Sandie Ray, Senior Secretary Richard Seymore, Secretary

L. David Curry, Administrator
Clarence Babcock, Engineer Gwen Manning, Secretary
Robert Caughey, Geologist Charles Tootle, Engineer
Cynthia Gordon, Geologist Jean Wehrmeyer, Secretary
Joan Gruber, Secretary

Walt Schmidt, Administrator
Albert Applegate, Geologist Ronald Hoenstine, Geologist
E. W. Bishop, Geologist Jacqueline Lloyd, Geologist
Paulette Bond, Geologist Joan Ragland, Geologist
Kenneth Campbell, Geologist Thomas Scott, Geologist
Kelley Frierson, Library Assistant Josephine Smith, Secretary

Ed Lane, Administrator
Jessie Hawkins, Custodial James P. Jones, Draftsman
Justin Hodges, Engineer Alison Lewis, Librarian
Richard Howard, Sample Prep. Albert Phillips, Engineer
Pauline Hurst, Draftsman Steve Spencer, Geologist