The Mineral industry of Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00093544/00009
 Material Information
Title: The Mineral industry of Florida
Series Title: Information circular
Physical Description: v. : ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Bureau of Geology
United States -- Bureau of Mines
Publisher: Bureau of Geology, Division of Interior Resources, Florida Dept. of Natural Resources in cooperation with U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Mines
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1981
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Mines and mineral resources -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Mineral industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Summary: Some no. consist of preprints of the U.S. Bureau of Mines Mineral yearbook chapter on Florida.
General Note: Description based on: 1972.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 1983.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05277645
lccn - sn 86026148
System ID: UF00093544:00009


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[year of publication as printed] Florida Geological Survey [source text]

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information and permissions.

The Mineral Industry of


This chapter has been prepared under a Memorandum of Understanding between the
Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Florida Bureau of Geology for
collecting information on all nonfuel minerals.

By James R. Boyle1 and Charles W. Hendry, Jr.2

The value of nonfuel mineral production
in 1981 in Florida was $1.7 billion, an
increase of $216.3 million over that of 1980.
Florida ranked fourth nationally in total
value of nonfuel minerals produced, and
nonmetals accounted for over 95% of the
value of the State's mineral output. The
State ranked first in the production of
phosphate rock and was second in crushed
stone, fuller's earth, masonry cement, and
peat. Staurolite and zircon concentrates
were produced only in Florida. Principal

nonmetals, in order of value, were phos-
phate rock, stone, cement, clays, and sand
and gravel.
Of the 53.6 million tons of phosphate rock
produced in the United States, Florida was
the predominant producer and for the 88th
consecutive year supplied more than any
other State. Florida and North Carolina
supplied 86.3% of the domestic phosphate
rock output; Florida supplied most of the

Table 1.-Nonfuel mineral production in Florida'
1980 1981
Mineral Q tity Value Value
Quantity (thousands) Quantity (thousands)
Masonry -----___________ thousand short tons._ 285 $22,074 288 $20,757
Portland ------------_--------- do.--._ 3,574 182,590 3,518 199,064
Clays -------- ---____---------_____ do---- 614 224,164 731 235,319
Gem stones------ -________ --------------- NA 5 NA 6
Lime_____________________ thousand short tons_- 195 12,434 191 11,343
Peat-------------______________do--_ 154 2,398 157 2,885
Sand and gravel------------------------ do-.._ r '14,412 r .28,766 P14,149 32,719
Stone(crushed) ---- ------ _____do--.. 66,209 215,972 65,067 226,192
Combined value of clays (kaolin), magnesium compounds, phos-
phate rock, rareearth concentrate, sand and gravel ,industrial,
1980), staurolite, titanium concentrates (ilmenite and rutile),
and zircon concentrates --------------. ---------XX rl,020,855 XX 1,197,304
Total ---- -- ----________ XX rl,509,258 XX 1,725,589
"Preliminary. rRevised. NA Not available. XXNot applicable.
'Production as measured by mine shipments, sales, or marketable production (including consumption by producers).
'Excludes kaolin; value included with "Combined value" figure.
SExcludes industrial sand; value included with "Combined value" figure.


In 1981, Florida fared better economically
than the Nation as a whole. Although
residential construction and road mainte-
nance programs decreased late in the year,
nonresidential construction increased. The
effect on individual mineral producers de-
pended on the construction market sup-
plied, with output mixed throughout the
industry. Road maintenance programs
decreased because of reduced Federal input.

Alexander Grant & Co., a Chicago-based
accounting firm, conducted a study, in coop-
eration with the Conference of State Manu-
facturers' Association, on the general man-
ufacturing business climateof the 48 con-
tiguous States. The study concluded that in
1981, Florida had the best overall business
climate for manufacturing among the 48
States. Florida ranked 12th in 1979 and 8th
in 1980.

Table 2.-Value of nonfuel mineral production in Florida, by county'

County 1979 1980 Minerals produced in 1980
in order of value

Alachua --_____-______
Brevard ------______
Charlotte _------______
Citrus---------- __
Clay --------________
Collier -------------_
Dde -_--.-__ _______
Beambbia -- ______
Gldes -_____________

rManatee -_. - -
Gll an ---__________
n -___________
Jackson ---__-_______
La* --_--___________-
Lem ----------------
Im -W -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Manatme- --------------
Mearin ---__---___ __
iJNas ---_____-_____
Okalooms -------------
Palmsoic --------
Ptolk ----------------
Palolta. -- -- -- -- ---

Walton ----------____
uist ributd ---_-_-__ _



Sand and gravel.
Clays, stone, sand and gravel.
Stone, sand and gravel.
Sand and gravel.
Stone, phosphate rock.
Titanium, nrconium, staurolite, sand and
gravel, clays, monazite.
Cement, stone, sand and gravel.
Sand and graveL
Clays, sand and gravel.
Sand and graveL
Magnesium compounds, lime.
Phospate rock.
Cement, stone, lime, cays.
Phosphate rock, cement, stone, peat
Sand and gravel, peat, cays.
Stone, sand and gravel.
Sand and gravel.
Cement, stone.
Stone, days, phosphate rock.
Sand and gravel.
Phosphate rock, sand and gravel, peat, stone.
Sand and gravel, days, peat.
Sand and graveL stone.
Lime, stone.
Sand and gravel.


W Withhe avoid dicloin company prprietary dats; inuded with "UndistrOxited."
,r hoiwiouatiam sw hot ed beams no nonfal munelProdeio wa reported: Baker. Bradforid, Columbia,
gSs zs. DFg r' Fr &raGDtB9obuRt e IJfdiaron lafyette, Liberty Madison, Maian.
Do 9M SL a Pl a ,S a RaM Seminole, Union. Voluia, Wakulla and Washington
chaigm e tom m and vat s indicated by y bl W.
*D my not add to totals shown because of independent rounding

Total ----...__.______


Table 3.-Indicators of Florida business activity

1980 1981 Change,
Employment and labor force, annual average:
Total civilian labor force -------------- thousands- 3,980.0 4,134.8 +3.9
Unemployment----- ------------------ do 199.0 300.9 +51.2
Employment (nonagricultural)
Minin---- -------------------------------do--- 11.0 11.2 +1.8
Manufacturing ------- ------------------ ------ do---- 456.4 466.4 +2.2
Contract construction ------------------------------ doa--- 263.9 282.5 +7.0
Transportation and public utilities ---------------------do-. 220.8 228.6 +3.5
Wholesale and retail trade --------------------------do.---- 939.8 983.0 +4.6
Finance, insurance, realestate -----------------------do-- 254.2 271.9 +7.0
Services ----- ---------------------------do 811.3 863.4 +6.4
Government -----------------------------------do--. 618.8 614.6 -.7
Total nonagricultural employment -------------------do _- 3,576.2 23,721.7 +4.1
Personal income:
Total ------- ------ ---------------- millionsa- $88,693 $102,333 +15.4
Percapita -----. -------.. -- ---------- ---- $8,993 $10,050 +11.8
Construction activity:
Number of private and public residential units authorized --------------- 174,451 149,241 -14.5
Value of nonresidential construction --------.------------- millionsa- $2,199.0 $2,930.3 +33.3
Value of State road contract awards -------------------- --- do-- $316.0 $416.0 +31.6
Shipments of portland and masonry cement to and within the State
thousand short tons-- 5,820 5,724 -1.6
Nonfuel mineral production value:
Total crude mineral value -------------------------- millions- $1,509.3 $1,725.6 +14.3
Value percapita, resident population---------------------------- $155 $177 +14.2
Value per square mile -------- ------------------------ $25,764 $29,467 +14.4
'Includes oil and gas extraction.
2Data do not add to total shown because of independent rounding.
Sources U.S. Department of Commerce, US. Department of Labor, Highway and Heavy Construction Magazine, and
U.S. Bureau of Mines.


Q 2.000


d 1,000

o -- I_ I

1977 1980 1985
Figure 1.-Total value of nonfuel mineral production in Florida.

__ _. _ ~ ___ __


Trends and Developments.-The Port of
Tampa, which handled over 45 million tons
of cargo in 1981, shipped the major portion
of exported phosphate. Phosphate rock and
processed phosphate exports totaled 13 mil-
lion tons, down from 16 million tons in 1980.
These exports included 9 million tons of
bulk phosphate, down from 12 million tons
in 1980. Phosphate accounted for about 90%
of all export cargo through the Port of
Tampa. A new market in bagged phosphate
chemicals developed in China, and nearly
one-half million tons was exported through
the port to that market. About 750,000 tons
of aragonite was imported from the Baha-
mas for use in the manufacture of cement,
down from 1.2 million tons in 1980.
In contrast, Port Manatee's phosphate
exports increased when Beker Industries
opened its new mine, with plans to export 1
million tons per year through the facility.
Shipments from Beker were expected to
increase up to 3 million tons per year in the
next several years, according to the compa-
Texasgulf, Inc., started operations at its
new $8 million sulfur terminal on Hooker's
Point in Tampa. The terminal, on a 10-acre
site leased from the Tampa Port Authority,
can store 60,000 tons of liquid sulfur. The
terminal is supplied by tankers from sulfur
mines in Texas and Mexico.3
Occidental Petroleum Corp. (Oxy) resum-
ed shipments of superphosphoric acid to
the Soviet Union after the trade embargo
was lifted in April. The original agreement
called for Oxy to ship 1 million tons per
year of superphosphoric acid to the Soviet
Union in exchange for urea, potash, and
anhydrous ammonia. The 20-year agree-
ment would be worth about $20 billion.
Plans called for Oxy to ship 72,000 tons per
month for the balance of 1981. The Nation-
al Safety Council awarded Oxy's White
Springs Mine first place in safety for achiev-
ing the lowest accident incident rate among
member companies. Second place went to
Oxy's Suwannee River Mine.
Legiiation and Government Pro-
grams.-Tne Florida Coastal Management
Program was approved by the U.S. Depart-
ment of Commerce Office of Coastal Zone
Management in September 1981. The entire
State and its territorial waters were includ-
ed within the Coastal Zone Boundary. The
Florida Coastal Management Program is
based on existing State laws. Twenty-five
statutes specifically serve as the authorities
for a direct State control management tech-
nique with the Department of Environ-

mental Regulation as the designated State
agency. Major first-year work projects in-
clude hazard mitigation planning, port
dredging and soil disposal, and technical
assistance for areas designated as areas of
critical State concern.
The Florida phosphate industry impacted
economically within the State and national-
ly. The U.S. Bureau of Mines released a
study in 1981 (IC 8850, "Economic Signifi-
cance of the Florida Phosphate Industry")
on the impact. The study assessed the eco-
nomic significance of the Florida phosphate
industry to selected counties in Florida, the
State of Florida, and the Nation; it also
included a brief survey of the industry's
international impact. Based on forecasts of
Florida phosphate production in 1981, and
using constant 1977 dollars, estimates were
given for 1981 for regional and national
output, the value of this output, income,
and employment created by the phosphate
industry in Florida. Federal, State, and
county tax revenues generated by the
State's phosphate industry were also esti-
mated for 1981. The concentrated impact of
the phosphate industry on certain areas of
Florida and on the State's regional indus-
tries was examined using economic base
analysis complimented by an industrial
complex approach. The industry's impact at
the State and national levels was examined
through input-output analysis.
In addition, an attempt to forecast for
1990 the effects of constraints on phosphate
rock mining as a result of economic condi-
tions and other factors was included as an
appendix to the report. Also discussed was
the phosphate industry's importance to the
U.S. balance of trade; U.S. agricultural
production, including forward linkages; the
U.S. sulfur industry; and the phosphate
industry's importance to the production of
fluorine and uranium byproducts from fer-
tilizer manufacturing.
Other U.S. Bureau of Mines publications
on phosphate included RI 8576, "Fluorine
and Uranium in Phosphate Rock Processing
and Waste Materials"; RI 8609, "Benefi-
ciation of High-Magnesium Phosphate from
Southern Florida"; and RI 8611, "Large-
Scale Dewatering of Phosphate Clay Waste
from Central Florida."
The Bureau, in association with Agrico
Chemical Co., initiated tests of borehole
mining of deep phosphate ore in St. Johns
County. The tests were made to determine if
deep phosphate ores in St. Johns County
could be mined economically and in an


environmentally compatible manner. Agri-
co plans to start additional borehole mining
experiments in 1983.
Since 1972, the Bureau's Tuscaloosa Re-
search Center has been involved in projects
to eliminate holding ponds of phosphate
waste slimes or develop an improved de-
watering system. In-house Bureau project
activity during the year included reseVrch
on water recovery from phosphate clay
slimes, continuous flocculation dewatering
and floc formation studies, and reuse and
purification of low-quality water for proc-
essing. Research continued on devising new
or improved beneficiation methods applica-
ble to high-magnesium phosphate deposits.
The Bureau reported that the apparent
consumption of industrial explosives and
blasting agents in the State in quarrying
and nonmetal mining was 23.2 million
pounds in 1981. Of that total, the top two
types, water gels and slurries and other
high explosives, accounted for 87% of the
explosives used.
During the year, the Florida Bureau of
Geology completed six geologic projects in
the State. Thirteen other projects were
underway on stratigraphy, lithostratigra-
phy, and geomorphology of specific forma-
tions and in geographic areas; mineral de-
posits, such as peat and dolomite, were also
investigated. In addition, the Bureau of
Geology maintained a geologic well log
library and a computerized list of mineral
producers and statistics. Six publications
were issued during the year, including RI
91, "The Hawthorn Formation of Central
Florida," and several publications in the

map series were also issued. The Bureau of
Geology, also involved in mined land recla-
mation, developed a Master Reclamation
Plan, proposed Chapter 16C-17, Florida Ad-
ministrative Code, addressing lands mined
or disturbed by the severance of phosphate
prior to July 1, 1975. The plan, scheduled
for adoption in 1982, provides procedures to
reclaim approximately 86,000 acres of dis-
turbed land.
The Florida Institute of Phosphate Re-
search funded six major projects during the
year. The funded projects were a Virginia
Polytechnic Institute study of a clay separa-
tion process ($49,622), a University of South
Florida investigation on the utilization of
waste gypsum to produce cement ($26,857),
and a National Council on Radiation Pro-
tection and Measurements study of radia-
tion exposure ($34,080). Three projects were
with the U.S. Bureau of Mines: (1) a compre-
hensive evaluation of slime treatment and
storage methods ($269,000), (2) the develop-
ment of techniques for utilization of high-
magnesia phosphate ore ($12,000), and (3)
the production of 12,000 ceramic tiles from
phosphate slimes and fly ash to be tested at
the Institute's new headquarter's sidewalks
in Bartow ($5,000).
The U.S. Geological Survey studies in-
clude the geology, geochemistry, and re-
sources of peat; geochemistry and hydro-
chemistry of marine sediments, mineral
resources, and ground water systems; re-
search in geophysical data interpretation
off southern Florida; and environmental
geologic studies of the west Florida conti-
nental shelf.


Cement.-Shipments of both portland
and masonry cement remained at about the
same level as those of 1980; portland cement
shipments decreased slightly, while those of
masonry cement increased slightly. Produc-
tion of masonry cement in Florida ranked
second nationally, while portland cement
production ranked sixth. Four companies
produced portland cement at five plants;
masonry cement was also produced at five
plants. A fifth company operated a grinding
plant to produce portland cement from
imported clinker. Most of the shipments of
both portland and masonry cement were to
users within the State; Florida was a net

importer of cement, with about 1 million
tons being imported. Portland cement ship-
ments, mainly in bulk form, were made by
truck and rail. Principal consumers were
ready-mix concrete dealers, highway con-
tractors, building material dealers, and con-
crete products manufacturers, with the re-
mainder being consumed by other contrac-
tors and government agencies.
Most raw materials used to manufacture
cement were mined within the State and
included limestone, clay, sand, and stauro-
lite; the use of staurolite is diminishing
because of higher value uses. Oilitic arago-
nite imported from the Bahamas was used
as well as small amounts of gypsum, clink-
er, fly ash, clay, iron ore, and slag; most


were obtained from out-of-State sources.
Eleven rotary kilns were operated at five
plants. Of the 11. 10 were wet process, and 1
was dry process. About 447 million kilowatt-
hours of electrical energy, in addition to
natural gas, fuel oil, and coal, were consum-
ed in the manufacture of cement.
Moore McCormack Resources, Inc., con-
tinued its $6W million expansion program at
the Brooksville plant. The expansion in-
cludes a second coal-fired kiln and enlarged
grinding and storage capabilities, which,
when operational in 1982, would double
cement output to 1.2 million tons annually.
The company also purchased two cement
plants in Tennessee from Penn Dixie Indus-
tries. Inc.
Lonestar Florida Pennsuco, Inc., installed
ai new finish mill and increased storage
capacity at the 1.2-million-ton-per-year ce-
ment plant at Hialeah. Conversion to coal
at its wet-process plant was also completed.
Clays.-Clays mined in Florida included
common clay, fuller's earth, and kaolin.
Total clay production and value increased
I 17.0)0 tons and $11.2 million, respectively.
Common clay output and value increased:
Common clay was produced by four compa-
nies at four pits in Clay, Gadsden, Hernan-
do. and Lake Counties in the northern part
of the State. The clay was used in the
manufacture of cement and lightweight ag-
Florida continued to rank second in the
Nation in fuller's earth production, with
production increasing. Fuller's earth was
mined by four producers from nine pits in
Brevard. Gadsden, and Marion Counties.
Main end uses were for pet waste and oil
and grease absorbents, and in fertilizers,
pesticides. and saltwater drilling muds.
Pennsylvania Glass Sand Corp. completed
an expansion of its processing plant at
Quincy. New facilities were installed for
clay extrusion, bagging, dust collection, and
pneumatic bulk loading.
Kaolin was produced by one company at
two pits in Putnam County; production
increased slightly from that of 1980. A
coproduct was silica, which was recovered
for glass and other industrial uses. Princi-
pal uses for kaolin were in electrical porce-
lain, whiteware. and wall tile; major mar-
kets were in the Southeast.
rino.-Fe.-Fluorine in the form of fluo-
silicic acid was recovered at six plants as a
byproduct of wet-process phosphoric acid
manufacture. Fluosilicic acid was used to

produce cryolite, aluminum fluoride, sodi-
um silicofluoride, and was also used in
water fluoridation.
Gypsum.-Imported gypsum was calcined
at two plants in Duval County and one
plant in Hillsborough County. United
States Gypsum Co., Jim Walter Corp., and
National Gypsum Co. calcined gypsum in
kettles, a rotary kiln, and a holoflite unit,
respectively, prior to wallboard manufac-
ture. Production in 1981 remained at the
1980 level, with value decreasing. Florida
gypsum wallboard was marketed primarily
in south Georgia and Florida. Byproduct
gypsum was recovered by Occidental Petro-
leum Corp. at its plant in Hamilton County;
output remained at about the 1980 level.
Lime.-Both quicklime and dehydrated
lime were produced in Florida. Quicklime
was produced by Basic Magnesia, Inc., Gulf
County; Chemical Lime, Inc., Hernando
County; and Dixie Lime & Stone Co., Sum-
ter County. Hydrated lime was also pro-
duced by Chemical Lime, Inc. Production
and value decreased 2.1% and 8.8%, respec-
tively, from those of 1980. Lime was used for
magnesia, water treatment, and sewage dis-
posal systems.
Magnesia.-Florida ranked second na-
tionally in the recovery of magnesium com-
pounds from seawater. Basic Magnesia, Inc.,
Port St. Joe, Gulf County, produced caustic
calcined magnesia and refractory-grade
magnesia from seawater; plant capacity is
100,000 tons of MgO equivalent. Shipments
in 1981 increased 6.9%; value increased
17.7% over that of 1980.
Peat.-Florida ranked second nationally
in peat production in 1981. Production in-
creased slightly, while unit value increased
nearly 18%. Eight plants produced moss,
reed-sedge, and humus peat from five coun-
ties. Most of the peat, shipped in bulk, was
used for general soil improvement and for
potting soils.
Perlite (Expanded).-Four companies
produced expanded perlite from crude ore
shipped into the State. Production decreas-
ed to 29,900 tons, while value increased to
$3.9 million. Perlite was expanded at plants
in Broward, Duval, Escambia, and Indian
River Counties and was used for construc-
tion aggregate, horticultural purposes, insu-
lation, and fillers.
Phosphate Rock.-Florida ranked first in
the Nation in the production of phosphate
rock. Marketable production of phosphate
rock in 1981 decreased slightly in quantity,
but increased 17.6% in value. The phos-


phate industry continued to be the principal
mineral industry in the State.
Phosphate production decreased gradual-
ly throughout the year. Inventories increas-
ed, resulting in reduced operating levels
and temporary closure of some mines and
plants. By yearend, mining output was re-
portedly at 47% of capacity, with chemical
plants at about 59% capacity. Decreased
demand and large inventories of processed
phosphates resulted in prices frequently
below stated production costs. The drop in
sales of about 20% was attributed to high
interest rates and low crop prices. Adequate
phosphorus levels in the soil permitted
deferments of applications. Exports, report-
ed to be off as much as 3 to 4 million tons,
were down because of increased competition
and the strength of the U.S. dollar. In spite
of reduced demand and increased invento-
ries, reported expansions underway or
planned for completion by 1985 exceeds $2
billion, with expenditures in 1981 approach-
ing $600 million. Environmental con-
straints and the low demand for phosphates
may cause delays in meeting planned sched-
The Florida Phosphate Council estimated
that about $78.5 million was collected in
severance taxes from phosphate producers
during the year. The $1.67-per-ton rate was
to increase to $1.84 per ton in 1982. Discus-
sions continued over returning a portion of
severance taxes to the producing counties;
at present, all monies go to the State
Soft-rock phosphate was produced by four
companies in 1981, operating five mines in
Citrus and Marion Counties. The soft-rock
phosphate was used for direct application to
the soil and, if low in fluorine, as an animal
food supplement.
Land-pebble phosphate was produced at
21 mines by 12 companies in Hamilton,
lIardee, Hillsborough, Manatee, and Polk
Counties. In 1981, agricultural uses ac-
counted for 75%; industrial, 1%; and ex-
ports, 24%. Normal superphosphate, triple
superphosphate, wet-process phosphoric
ncid, and defluorinated phosphate rock
were produced for agricultural uses. Indus-
trial chemicals were produced from the
production of elemental phosphorus.
AMAX Phosphate, Inc., had its first full
year of operations after purchasing the
mining operations and phosphate reserves
of Borden, Inc., in mid-1980. The company
had one active mine, the Big Four Mine, in
southeast Hillsborough County, with plans

to expand capacity from 1.6 to 2.5 million
tons per year by early 1982. Also planned
for DeSoto County was a 4-million-ton-per-
year mine near Pine Level. To guarantee
environmental protection, county officials
levied a tax to be used in developing a
review procedure. AMAX will spend over $3
million at its Plant City defluorination
plant to control fugitive dust. Wet scrubbers
were also to be redesigned for improved
Beker Phosphate, Inc., started operating
its Wingate Creek Mine and beneficiating
plant late in the year, with two floating
dredges removing overburden and matrix.
Capacity should increase to 1 million tons
per year, with output shipped through the
company's new facilities at Port Manatee to
the company's fertilizer plant in Louisiana.
Manatee County officials questioned compa-
ny transportation modes when they used
trucks instead of rail to move the phosphate
to the port. By yearend, negotiations were
underway to settle the dispute.
The C. F. Industries, Inc., proposed mine
in Hardee County would require a Natural
Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
permit. The mine's capacity was to be 2
million tons per year for the first 4 years,
possibly increasing to 4 million tons per
year. Construction of the company's second
phosphate plant in Hardee County contin-
ued, with completion of the 2-million-ton-
per-year facility expected by 1984.
Estech, Inc., continued to plan develop-
ment of its proposed 3-million-ton-per-year
Duette Mine in Manatee County. In an
effort to ensure no damage to the area's
main water supply near the minesite, coun-
ty officials adopted the toughest phosphate
restrictions in the State and denied permit
approval. The Governor and Cabinet agreed
to granting of the permits, but the action
was challenged in the courts by Manatee
County officials. The court upheld the
State's decision, and negotiations between
county and company officials began. In Polk
County, Estech began mining phosphate
rock that was previously buried under slime
ponds. By dewatering the ponds, about 3.5
to 4 million tons of phosphate will be
recovered, extending the life of the mine
nearly 2 years.
Farmland Industries, Inc., continued ef-
forts to develop its first mining operation in
Hardee County; the company presently op-
erates a chemical plant near Bartow. Jacobs
Engineering Group was awarded a contract
for engineering and design work for the


proposed mine and beneficiation plant En-
gineering and design work was scheduled
for completion by mid-1982, with plant
startup for late 1983. The facility's capacity
was rated at 2 million tons per year.
W. R Grace & Co. continued construction
and participated in two joint ventures; one
with International Minerals & Chemical
Corp. (IMC) in the Four Corners Mine and
beneficiation plant, and the other with
U.S.S. Agri-Chemicals, Inc. (USSAC), in a
chemical complex. The Four Corners Mine
is a $615 million investment to produce 5
million tons of phosphate per year. The
mine, located in Hardee, Hillsborough,
Manatee, and Polk Counties, was scheduled
to start operating in 1983. The other project
involves a $200 million phosphoric acid
plant at Fort Meade, with completion sched-
uled for July 1982.
IMC, the world's largest private producer
of phosphate and phosphate chemical prod-
ucts. completed construction of its New
Wales sulfuric acid plant in Polk County.
Through the venture with W. R. Grace and
purchase of other properties, IMC reported
an increase in reserves by an estimated 270
million tons of phosphate rock. The new
IMC 61-yard dragline, the largest in the
area, began mining at the company's Clear
Spring Mine. IMC, with funding by the
Florida Institute of Phosphate Research, is
working with the other phosphate compa-
nies on a process to reduce the number of
phosphate slime ponds. The experiment
calls for pumping thickened clay, stored in a
centralized slime pond for 6 months, to
mining sites The clays would be topped
with overburden. The objective is to restore
the mining site and reduce the need for
large storage areas. Early in the year, IMC
signed an agreement to ship 360,000 tons of
phosphate rock per year by unit train to
Canada. Approximately 58 unit trains

would be required each year.
Mobil Chemical Co. proceeded with the
permitting process to develop the South
Fort Meade Mine scheduled for operation in
1984. The 3-million-ton-per-year mine will
replace Mobil's Fort Meade Mine, scheduled
to close in 1988. Mobil plans to construct a
new phosphate rock terminal in Tampa.
The terminal would have loading and un-
loading facilities, a storage area, and
berthing facilities for large ore carriers. The
facility was scheduled to be operational in
USSAC and W. R. Grace started con-
structing a new phosphoric acid plant at
Fort Meade. Completion and startup was
scheduled for July 1982. The planned $24
million expansion of the company's Rock-
land Mine has been deferred because of
reduced market demands.
Sand and Gravel.-To reduce reporting
burdens and costs, the Bureau of Mines
implemented new canvassing procedures
for its surveys of sand and gravel producers.
Beginning with the collection of 1981 pro-
duction data, the survey of construction
sand and gravel producers will be conducted
for even-numbered years only; the survey of
industrial sand and gravel producers will
continue to be conducted annually. There-
fore, this chapter contains only preliminary
estimates for construction sand and gravel
production but contains complete data on
industrial sand and gravel. The preliminary
estimates for production of construction
sand and gravel for odd-numbered years
will be revised and finalized the following
Total sand and gravel production decreas-
ed from that of 1980. The Florida Rock
Industries, Inc., sand plant at Keuka was
refurbished, and a new sand plant in
Marion County went onstream during the

Table 4.-Florida: Sand and gravel sold or used by producers
1980 1981
Quantity Value Value Quantity Value Value
thousandd (thou- per (thousand (thou- per
shorttons) sands) son short ton) sands) ton
Sand.. ..----.. --. ....- ____. r13,253 r$26,174 $1.97 NA NA NA
Gravel. ------------------------ -_ 1,159 2.592 2.24 NA NA NA
Totalor serage ---... -------.----. 14,41 r28,766 1.99 '13,800 '$28,800 P$2.05
Industrial Man ---d---..-- --. ---------._ W W r6.82 349 4,419 12.66
Grandtotal or average ........_ .._ W W r2.27 P14,149 32,719 P2.31
Preliminary. 'Rvis.d. NA Not available. W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data.


Staurollte.-Florida was the only State
with a recorded production of staurolite.
Staurolite was recovered as a byproduct of
ilmenite processing at the Highland and
Trail Ridge plants of E. I. duPont de Ne-
imours & Co. and the Green Coves Springs
plant of Associated Minerals (USA) Ltd.,
both in Clay County. Although production
and total value decreased, unit value in-
creased. Staurolite was mainly used in
sandblasting, with minor amounts used in
cement and as foundry sand.
Stone.-Florida ranked second in the Na-
tion in crushed stone production, which
included limestone, marl, and oyster shell.
Output dropped slightly, but unit value
Stone was produced by 88 companies at
131 quarries in 25 counties. The three lead-
ing counties were Dade, Broward, and Her-

nando, which supplied 70.1% of the State's
total production. Thirteen companies pro-
duced over 1 million tons each from 28
quarries and accounted for 67% of the
production and 72% of the value.
Crushed stone was transported mainly by
truck and railroad and was used for dense-
graded road base, concrete and bituminous
aggregate, and cement manufacture. Six
companies processed oyster shell for road-
bed material. Companies supplying crushed
stone throughout the State often utilized a
dedicated train concept for markets over 60
miles distant,
The Florida Rock Industries, Inc., mod-
ernization and expansion program at the
Gulf Hammock plant was completed during
the year, with capacity tripling to 450 tons
per hour of finished product.

Table 5.-Florida: Crushed stone' sold or used by producers, by use
(Thousand short tons and thousand dollars)

Use 1980 1981
Quantity Value Quantity Value
Agricultural limestone.----......---------.------ 1,729 8,299 1,264 7,064
Agricultural marl and other ell conditioners ------------ 115 632 136 840
Poultry grit and mineral food-... .------- -------- 497 3,064 W 2,748
Concreteaggregate--------------- ---..--.----- 14,583 57,691 15,168 65,208
Bituminous aggregate ------------- --- ---------- 4,604 17,010 8,465 14,565
Donse-graded ad base stone---------------------- 16,497 40,326 15,485 42,605
Surface-treatment aggregate .--------------------- 3,708 14,716 2,482 11,586
Other construction aggregate and road stone ------------ 12,164 32,946 18,088 37,739
Riprap and jetty stone ---- ----- ------------- 59 398 256 687
Filter stone ------- --- -------------------- W W 189 850
Manufactured fine aggregate (stone sand) -------------- 5,813 23,134 4,498 17,909
Cement manufacture------- -------------------- --- 2,337 5,615 2,432 7,816
Lime manufacture ------------------------ ---------- 449 1.120 387 1,062
Ahalt filler ----------------------- --- ------- 20 221 26 264
Oer fillers-------------------------------- 184 1,288 191 1,447
FilL.------------ -----------------------. 2,288 5,068 5,539 13,334
Glans manufacture -------- ------------------- 20 191 21 214
Other' -------- --------------- ----------- 1,140 4,257 490 304
Total------------------.--------..---..-- 66,209 215,972 65,067 226,192
W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included with "Other."
'Includes limestone, shell, and marl.
'Includes stone used for macadam aggregate, railroad ballast (1980), whiting or whiting substitute (1981), and other
uses not specified (1981).
Dsata may not add to totals shown because of independent rounding.

Sulfur.-Florida ranked fifth in the Na-
tion in the production of byproduct elemen-
tal sulfur. Recovered sulfur from Exxon's
natural gas desulfurization plants in Santa
Rosa County decreased in 1981 compared
with that of 1980.
Vermiculite (Exfoliated).-Exfoliated

vermiculite was produced by two operators
at four plants in Broward, Duval, and Hills-
borough Counties from crude ore shipped
into the State. Production increased slightly
over that of 1980, while unit value increased
19.6%. Principal uses were for concrete
aggregate, horticulture, and insulation.



Mineral Sands.-Du Pont and Associated
Minerals (an Australian-based company)
produced concentrates from their heavy
mineral operations in Clay County. In 1980,
Asociated Minerals acquired the Titani-
um Enterpris operation at Green Cove
Spring Since then, Associated Minerals
has been modifying the operation to in-
crease efficiency and capacity. Changes
have been made in the dredging sequence,
and wet mill facilities.
Rutile shipments increased, while ilmen-
ite shipments decrease
Rare-Earth Mineras-Associated Min-
erals produced monazite concentrates as a
byproduct from its operations in Clay Coun-

ty. Florida was the only domestic producer
of rare earth from mineraL sands mining.1
Production and value increased substantial-
ly over that of 1980.
Titanium Concentrates.- Du Pont and
Associated Minerals; in Clay County, pro
duced titanium concentrates for use in tita.
nium dioxide pigment manufacture.
Zircon.-Production and value of zircor
concentrates from Du Pont and Associatet
Minerals, both in Clay County, increased i
1981. Florida was the only producer o
zircon concentrates in the United States.

'State Liaison Officer, Bureau of Mine, Tuscaloosa, Alai
2State geologist, Florida Bureau of Geology, Tallahasseel
AChemical Week. Mar. 18,1981, p. 25.

Table 6.-Principal producers

Commodity and company Address Type of activity County

General Portland. Inc -----

Lonetar Florida Pennuco. Inc
Moore McCormack Besourmes,
Binker Portland Cement Corp __

ard ~minerals Chemical
Mid- Fa Minin- __-___-
Pennsylvania Glaa Sand Corp
Gypsum (calcinedk
Jim Walter Corp -
National Gypsum Co ___
United State Gypsum Co ---
Basic Magnesia Inc ------
Chemical Lime. Inc _-----
Dixie Lime & Stone Co.1 ----

Basic MagnpiaInc --------
F. E.Stearn Peat -_---
Peace River Pat Co -------
Superior Peat & Soil ----_.

AiritPoceaing 9 Corp of
Armstumng Cork ___Co _
ChemBGckCorp --------
W. R. Graue & Co .

12700 Park Central Place
Suite 2100
Dallas TX 75251
Box 2035 PVS
Hialeah, FL 33012
Box 23965
Tam FL 33622
Bax 650679
Miami, FL 33165
Menlo Park
Edison NJ 08817
Box 68-F
Lowell FL 32663
Berkeley Springs, WV 25411 _
Box 135
Jacksonville, FL 32226
4100 First Intl. Bldg.
Dallas TX 75270
101 South Wacker Dr.
Chicago, IL 60606
Box 160
Port St. Joe, FL 32456
Box 317
Leeburg.FL 32748
Drawer 217
Sumterville, FL 33585
Box 160
Port St. Joe, FL 32456
Route 1, Box 542D
Dover, FL 33527
Box 1192
Box 1688
Sebrin, FL 33870
Route 2, Box 740
Vero Beach, FL 32960
Box 1991
Pensacola, FL 32589
End oOsage Street
Nashville. TN 37208
62 Whittemore Ave.
Cambridge, MA 02140

See Inotoes at end of table.

Plants -------

---do ----
--- do ------

Open pit mines
and lant.

---do -----
Plant ------
---do ----

---do ----
- o----

---do ----

Bog ---


Dade and





Indian River.


Table 6.-Principal producers -Continued

Commodity and company Address Type of activity County

Phosphate rock:
Agrico Chemical Co -- --
AMAX Phosphate, Inc -----
Beker Phosphate, Inc ------
Brewster Phosphates -------
C. F. Industries, Inc -------

Estech, Inc-----_-___
Gardinier, Inc---- ------
International Minerals &
Chemical Corp.
Mobil Chemical Co.
Occidental Petroleum Corp -- -
U.S. Agri-Chemicals, Inc --__
W. R. Grace & Co----------
Sand and gravel:
Florida Rock Industries, Inc.,
Shands & Baker.

General Development Corp - -

E. R. Jahna Industries, Inc.,
Ortona Sand Co. Div.
Silver Sand Co. of Clermont Inc _

Associated Minerals (USA) Ltd.,
E I. duPont de Nemours & Co -
Florida Crushed Stone Co ----
Florida Rock Industries, Inc --

Lone Star Florida, Inc ------

Rinker Southeastern Materials,
Vulcan Materials Co------ .
titanium concentrates:
Associated Minerals (USA) Ltd.,
E I. duPont de Nemours & Co _

Box 3166
Tulsa, OK 74101
402 South Kentucky Ave.
Lakeland, FL 33801
Box 9034
Bradenton, FL 33506
Bradley, FL 33835 _- __- _
Box 790
Plant City, FL 33566
Box 208
Bartow, FL 33830
Box 3269
Tampa, FL 33601
Box 867
Bartow, FL 38830
Box 311
Nichols, FL 33863
White Springs, FL 32096 ----
Box 867
Fort Meade, FL 33841
Box 471
Bartow, FL 33830
744 Riverside Ave.
Jacksonville, FL 32201

1111 South Bayshore Dr.
Miami, FL 33131
First & East Tillman
Lake Wales, Fl 33853
Route 1, Box US 1
Clermont, FL 32711
Green Cove Springs, FL 32043 -
DuPont Bldg. D-10084
Wilmington, DE 19898
Box 317
Leesburg, FL 32748
Box 4467
Jacksonville, FL 32201
Box 6097
Fort Lauderdale,
FL 33310
Box 2634
Hialeah, FL 33012
Box 7324-A
Birmingham, AL 35223

Green Cove Springs,
FL 32043
DuPont Bldg. D-10084
Wilmington, DE 19898

Open pit mines
and plants.
Open pit mine and
---do ----
--- do----
--- do ---

Open pit mines _
Open pit mine and
Open pit mines _
--- do -----
Open pit mine __
Open pit mine and
Pits -----.

---do -----
Pit --------

Mine and plant _
Mines and plants-

Quarries -----
--do ------

Quarry -__-_-

Quarries -----
----do -----

Mine and plant- -
Mines and plants-

Hillaborough and


Clay, Glades,
Lake, Lee,
Marion, Polk,
St Lucie and
Glades, Lake,
Hendry, Polk.


Sumter, Taylor.
Collier, Hernando,
Lee, Levy, St.

Broward and


'Also stone.
2Also exfoliated vermiculite.
SAlso elemental phosphorus.

Sandie Ray, Sec

C. W. Hendry, Jr., Chief
S. R. Windham, Assistant Chief
retary Richard Seymore, S

L. David Curry, Administrator
Clarence Babcock, Engineer Gwen Manning, Clerk-Typist
Robert Caughey, Geologist Charles Tootle, Engineer
Cynthia Gordon, Geologist Jean Wehrmeyer, Secretary
Joan Gruber, Secretary

W. Ross McWilliams, Administrator
Sus:e Coleman, Admin. Asst. Amber Mahaffey, Secretary
Greg Daugherty, Environ. Super. Jack Merriam, Biologist
Lee Edmiston, Engineer Spec. Harry Neel, Geologist
Bruce Greenwood, Geologist Lou Neuman, Forester
Randy Holcomb, Secretary Joan Ragland, Geologist
Zoe Kulakowski, Geologist Lee Sherwood, Environ. Super.
Jackle Lloyd, Geologist Wesley Wimmer, Engineer

J. William Yon, Administrator
Mondell Beach, Environ. Spec.

Walter Schmidt, Administrator
Albert Applegate, Geologist Ronald Hoenstine, Geologist
E. W. Bishop, Geologist Julia Jones, Secretary
Paulette Bond, Geologist Thomas Scott, Geologist
Kenneth Campbell, Geologist

Ed Lane, Administrator
Mary Ann Cleveland, Librarian James P. Jones, Draftsman
Jessie Hawkins, Custodial Earl Maxwell, Statistician
Justin Hodges, Engineer SImnie Murphy, Pressman
Richard Howard, Sample Prep. Albert Phillips, Engineer
Pauline Hurst, Draftsman Steve Spencer, Geologist
Dorothy Janson, Iliustrator