The Mineral industry of Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00093544/00008
 Material Information
Title: The Mineral industry of Florida
Series Title: Information circular
Physical Description: v. : ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Bureau of Geology
United States -- Bureau of Mines
Publisher: Bureau of Geology, Division of Interior Resources, Florida Dept. of Natural Resources in cooperation with U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Mines
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1980
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Mines and mineral resources -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Mineral industries -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Summary: Some no. consist of preprints of the U.S. Bureau of Mines Mineral yearbook chapter on Florida.
General Note: Description based on: 1972.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 1983.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05277645
lccn - sn 86026148
System ID: UF00093544:00008


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[year of publication as printed] Florida Geological Survey [source text]

The Florida Geological Survey holds all rights to the source text of
this electronic resource on behalf of the State of Florida. The
Florida Geological Survey shall be considered the copyright holder
for the text of this publication.

Under the Statutes of the State of Florida (FS 257.05; 257.105, and
377.075), the Florida Geologic Survey (Tallahassee, FL), publisher of
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The Florida Geological Survey reserves all rights to its publications.
All uses, excluding those made under "fair use" provisions of U.S.
copyright legislation (U.S. Code, Title 17, Section 107), are
restricted. Contact the Florida Geological Survey for additional
information and permissions.

The Mineral Industry of


This chapter has been prepared under a Memorandum of Understanding between the
Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Florida Bureau of Geology for
collecting information on all nonfuel minerals.

By James R. Boyle1 and Charles W. Hendry, Jr.2

The value of nonfuel mineral production
in 1980 in Florida was $1.5 billion, an
increase of $239.2 million over that of 1979.
Florida ranked first nationally in total val-
ue of nonmetallic minerals produced, and
nonmetals accounted for over 95% of the
State's total nonfuel mineral production
value. The State ranked first in the produc-
S tion of phosphate rock and titanium concen-
, : trates, and was second in crushed stone,

fuller's earth, and peat. Staurolite and zir-
con concentrates were produced only in
Florida. Principal nonmetals, in order of
value, were phosphate rock, stone, cement,
sand and gravel, and clays.
Although mineral output in 1980 increas-
ed compared with the 1970 level, and in
some cases doubled in the 10-year period,
total value during this period increased
nearly 500%.

Table 1.-Nonfuel mineral production in Florida'
1979 1980
Mineral Value Value
Quantity (thousands) Quantity (thousands)
Masonry _________________ thousand short tons_ 255 $13,098 285 $22,074
Portland -------------------------- do____ 2,957 126,562 3,574 182,590
Clays -----_________________________do- -_ 681 231,308 614 224,164
Gemstones -__________________________ NA 4 NA 5
Lime______________________ thousand short tons- 210 11,440 195 12,434
Peat __ ------------------------- do-..- 153 2,190 154 2,398
Sandandgravel _________---________do -.-_ 21,708 39,520 314,464 328,831
Stone(crushed) ---________________-do..____ r63,787 r188,896 66,209 215,972
Combined value of clays (kaolin), magnesium compounds, phos-
phate rock, rare-earth concentrate, industrial sand (1980),
staurolite, titanium concentrate (ilmenite and rutile), zircon
concentrate __- _____________________________ XX r856,589 XX 1,020,286
Total _______________________________- XX rl,269,607 XX 1,508,754
rRevised. NA Not available. XX Not applicable.
'Production as measured by mine shipments, sales, or marketable production (including consumption by producers).
2Excludes value of kaolin; value included in "Combined value" figure.
'Excludes industrial sand; value included in "Combined value" figure.


Table 2.-Value of nonfuel mineral production in Florida, by county'

Cuy 19 19 Minerals produced in 1979
County 1978 1979 in order of value

A.achua__- --- ---
Br-vard ---
Broward -
Charioe -
Citrus --
Clay --------
Coilier .- ------
Dime --__-------------
Escwbia ----------
Gadsden ------------
Clades -------
Gulf ----------------
Highlands -
Hillfborough _---------
Jockisen -------_-------
Jackson-- -----
Lee --------------
Leon --------------
LavY --_--------------
Manatee -------------
Nassau --------------
Okaloosa _-..- ---
Orange -------------
?3im Beach -----
Ptik ----------------
Puman --------------
St. Lace--------------
San sota --------------
Sumter -------------
Suwannee _-------
Tavior -------------
Undistrbuted2- ----



Sand and gravel.
Clays, stone, sand and gravel.
Stone, sand and gravel.
Sand and gravel.
Stone, phosphate rock.
Titanium, zirconium, staurolite, sand and
gravel, monazite, clays.
Stone, cement, sand and gravel.
Sand and gravel.
Clays, sand and gravel.
Sand and gravel.
Magnesium, lime.
Ph hate rock.
Stone, sand and gravel.
Stone, cement, lime, clays.
Phosphate rock, cement, stone, peat.
Stone, sand and gravel.
Sand and gravel, peat.
Sand and gravel.
Cement, stone.
Stone, clays, sand and gravel, phosphate rock.
Titanium, zirconium, monazite.
Sand and gravel.
Phosphate rock, sand and gravel, peat.
Sand and gravel, clays, peat.
Sand and gravel.
Sand and gravel, stone.
Lime, stone.
Sand and gravel.

T)tal3 -------------



W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included with "Undistributed."
The following counties are not listed because no nonfuel mineral production was reported: Baker, Bradford, Columbia,
De Soao. Duval, Flagler. Franklin, Gilchrist Holmes, Indian River, Jefferson, Lafayette, Liberty, Madison, Martin,
Okeechobee. oaceola. Pinellas. St. Johns, Seminole, Union. Volusia, Wakulla, and Washington.
`Includes gem stones and values indicated by symbol W.
Nata may not add to totals shown because of independent rounding.

Of the 54.4 million metric tons of phos-
phate rock produced in the United States,
Florida was the predominant producer, and
for the 87th consecutive year supplied more
than any other State. Florida and North
Carolina supplied nearly 87% of the domes-
tc phosphate rock output; Florida supplied
mcst of the exports.
The nationwide recession did not affect
the nonmetallic minerals industry in Flori-
da as seriously as other Southeastern
States. Although the housing market was
stable, commercial and other nonresidential
building increased. Road maintenance work
decreased because of reduced Federal input.
Trends and Developments.-The Florida

Phosphate Council reported that member
companies plan to spend about $2 billion in
the next 5 years in expansion programs. Of
the $2 billion, an estimated 18% will be for
environmental controls. Companies plan to
develop six new mines, one chemical fertil-
izer complex, and expand two mines and
eight chemical fertilizer plants. These oper-
ations will be in Hamilton County in north
Florida, and in De Soto, Hardee, Hillsbo-
rough, Manatee, and Polk Counties in the
southern part of the State. The council
estimates construction and operating jobs
will number about 11,600 as companies
build and expand plants and mines to keep
pace with increasing world demand for


fertilizer. Delays involving permits govern-
ing land use and air- and water-quality
standards may extend the time period for
startup of operations. Companies report
that it can take 5 years and cost more than
$6 million to obtain necessary permits to
open a new mine.
Norsk Hydro Aluminum Inc. began pro-
duction of cold-drawn aluminum tubing at
Rockledge, approximately 60 miles south-
east of Orlando. This is the first manufac-
turing plant owned entirely by Norway's
Norsk Hydro to be located outside Europe.
The $6.5 million plant is expected to pro-


duce 5 million pounds of extruded shapes
and tubes annually, when it reaches full
production in mid-1981.
The Port of Tampa, which handled over
51 million tons of cargo, shipped the major
portion of exported phosphate. Phosphate
exports totalled nearly 16 million tons,
which included nearly 12 million tons of
bulk phosphate. Phosphate accounted for
about 90% of all export cargo through the
Port of Tampa. About 1.2 million tons of
aragonite was imported from the Bahamas
for use in the manufacture of cement.

Table 3.-Indicators of Florida business activity

1979 1980p Change,
Employment and labor force, annual average:
Total civilian labor force ----------------------------thousands-- 3,835.0 3,925.0 +2.4
Unemployment ____---------------------do .... 230.0 234.0 +1.7
Employment (nonagricultural):
Minin -------------------------------------do--.... 10.1 10.6 +5.0
Manufacturing ----_---_-_--------------------------do 443.6 457.2 +3.1
Contract construction __------------------------------do..... 241.4 267.0 +10.6
Transportation and public utilities ---------------------- do -.... 208.5 219.3 +5.2
Wholesale and retail trade ---.------------------------do --- 889.5 931.7 +4.7
Finance, insurance, realestate -----------------------do---- 235.0 252.6 +7.5
Services ------------------------------- do.--- 752.6 815.8 +8.4
Government ------------------------------------do-.. 600.5 616.3 +2.6
Total nonagricultural employment --------------------do---_ 3,381.2 3,570.5 +5.6
Personal income:
Total ---- ---__-----_----- ------_---------- millions_- $75,631 $86,944 +15.0
Percapita ----------------------------------------- $8,521 $8,987 +5.5
Construction activity:
Number of private and public residential units authorized ---------------- 175,705 178,092 +1.4
Value of nonresidential construction ---_----------------- millions- $1,684.8 $2,132.5 +26.6
Value of State road contract awards ------------------------do---- $383.6 $316.0 -17.6
Shipments of portland and masonry cement to and within the State
thousand short tons- 4,998 5,820 +16.4

Nonfuel mineral production value:
Total crude mineral value --------------------------- millions--
Value per capital, resident population ----------------
Value per square mile ---------- ----

$1,269.6 $1,508.8
$143 $155
$21,680 $25,764


'Includes oil and gas extraction.
Sources: U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Department of Labor, Highway and Heavy Construction Magazine, and
U.S. Bureau of Mines.

Legislation and Government Pro-
grams.-The Federal Bureau of Mines and
Agrico Chemical Co. conducted borehole
mining research tests to recover deep phos-
phate ore in St. Johns County. The mining
site used by Agrico and the Bureau for the
borehole mining in the summer of 1980 has
been completely restored. All borehole min-
ing cavities were backfilled using a Bureau-
developed technique to replace 1,800 tons of
ore that was shipped to the Agrico'Mill at
Mulberry, Fla., and the original topography
was restored. The U.S. Geological Survey,
which monitored the impact on ground
water hydrology of the borehole mining
operations, issued a draft report stating
that the mining had no significant, long-

term effect on the ground water despite two
episodes of roof collapse during the mining.
As a followup to the borehole mining
tests, Agrico announced plans for a pilot
borehole phosphate mining and processing
program in St. Johns County. The first 9
months of 1981 will be used to obtain
operating permits, construct and install
mining and processing equipment, and field
test the components. Mining and processing
will start in the first quarter of 1982 and
will continue for most of 1982. The mining
rate planned is 30 tons per hour on a one-
shift basis, and processing the matrix will
be at a rate of 15 tons per hour on a two-
shift basis.



Figure 1.-Total value of nonfuel mineral production in Florida.

The Bureau approved a report, "Econom-
ic Impact of the Phosphate Rock Industry
an Selected Florida Counties, Florida, and
the United States," for open file status. The
report was prepared by the Florida Re-
sources and Environmental Analysis Center
under Bureau contract.
The Bureau awarded a contract to
Zellars-Wiliams, Inc., Lakeland, to obtain,
estimate, and accumulate engineering and
profile data from foreign phosphate mines
and deposits.
The Florida Bureau of Geology had two
contracts with the Bureau, one to inventory
and classify reclaimed lands in the phos-
phate area, and the other to monitor phos-
phate activities in Florida using digital
analyses of Landsat imagery.
Since 1972, the Bureau, at its Tuscaloosa
Research Center, has been involved in a
concerted research effort to develop meth-
ods that will either eliminate the retention
areas of phosphate waste slimes or provide
an improved waste storage system.
Inhouse Bureau project activity during
1980 included research on water recovery
from phosphatic clay slimes, continuous
flocculation dewatering and floc formation
studies, and reuse and purification of low-

quality waters for processing.
Research programs included benefi-
ciation of dolomitic phosphate ores, benefi-
ciation of phosphate-bearing Hawthorn For-
mation limestone, recovery of phosphate
from beneficiation slimes, and direct acidu-
lation of phosphate, matrix to improve re-
covery of P2Os.
In a U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) mine waste study, EPA se-
lected 20 copper, phosphate, uranium, gold
and silver, lead and zinc, and molybdenum
mine sites in 10 States for intense study.
The analysis is designed to determine which
mine wastes, if any, warrant specially tai-
lored regulations in the future under EPA's
hazardous waste law, Part C of the Resource
Conservation & Recovery Act (RCRA). Mine
and processing wastes are currently exempt
from RCRA until results are presented to
Congress and the law is amended. Sites
being considered in Florida for study in-
clude two phosphate mine waste rock
dumps and two tailings ponds. EPA will
analyze solid waste, ground water, surface
water, and emissions at each site. Monitor-
ing will be completed by August 1982, with
a report to Congress in October 1982.
Brownwell Engineering, Inc., was award-


r 2.000



^ 1.000


0 I




ed a contract by the U.S. Geological Survey
for exploratory drilling to determine the
nature of the phosphatic sediments, clay,
and peat of the Holocene, Bone Valley, and
Hawthorn Formations.in the Roadless Area
Review and Evaluation (RARE) II and wil-
derness areas of the Ocala, Osceola, and
Apalachicola National Forests.
The Geological Survey released Circular
824, "Thorium Resources of Selected Re-
gions in the United States." The report
covers thorium reserves and resources in
beach players in northern Florida. These
deposits are principally mined for titanium,
with thorium and other minerals recovered
as byproducts.
The Florida Department of Environmen-
tal Regulations completed the publication,
"Water Quality and Mining." Included in
the report are the major regulations af-
fecting mining and its environmental ef-
fects, and the report recommends the best
.management practices.
During the year, the Florida Bureau of
Geology completed eight studies on environ-
mental geology, stratigraphy, ground water,
and clay resources in the State. Twelve

other geologic and. stratigraphic studies
were continued. In addition to basic geologic
studies, the Bureau of Geology handled
reclamation and maintained a geologic well
log library and a computerized list of miner-
al producers and statistics.
Twelve publications were issued during
the year, including "Limestone, Dolomite,
and Coquina Resources of Florida," and
"Sand and Gravel Resources of Florida."
The staff supported a major revision of
Chapter 16C-16, Florida Administrative
Code, Mine Reclamation Rules. Florida's
Governor and Cabinet approved these recla-
mation rules, which would require restora-
tion of a mining site to as near as possible
its original state. The rules include (1)
restoration of environmentally sensitive ar-
eas, (2) elimination of certain tax rebates,
(3) approval of premining reclamation
plans, (4) stricter standards for creation of
lakes, (5) retroactive compliance of future
Federal standards for radiation emissions,
and (6) requirements for slime storage be-
low natural grade to the greatest extent
possible. Effective date of the rules was
October 1, 1980.


Cement.-Shipments of both portland
and masonry cement increased in 1980.
Production of masonry cement in Florida
ranked third nationally, while portland
ranked fifth. Five companies produced port-
land cement at six plants; masonry. was
produced at four plants. Most of the ship-
ments of both portland and masonry ce-
ment were to users within the State.
Portland cement shipments, mainly in
bulk form, were made by trick and rail.
Principal consumers were ready-mix deal-
ers, building material dealers, and concrete
products manufacturers, with the remain-
ing to other contractors and Government
Most raw materials used to manufacture
cement were mined within the State, and
included limestone, clay, sand, and stauro-
lite. With higher value uses developing for
staurolite, a substitute may be necessary in
the near future. Oolitic aragonite imported
from the Bahamas was used along with
small amounts of gypsum, clinker, fly ash,
clay, iron ore, and slag; most were obtained
from out-of-State sources.
Eleven rotary kilns were operated at five

plants. Of the 11, 10 were wet process, and 1
was dry process. About 440 million kilowatt-
hours of electrical energy, in addition to
natural gas, fuel oil, and coal, were con-
sumed in the manufacture of cement.
Moore McCormack Resources, Inc., new
owners of Florida Mining & Materials
Corp., announced a $68 million expansion
program for cement and concrete produc-
tion at the company's Brooksville plant.
The plan calls for adding a second coal-fired
kiln and increasing grinding and storage
capabilities. The plant is expected to be
operational by the third quarter of 1982,
and will double the production capacity of
the plant to 12 million tons of cement per
year. The company also plans to purchase
additional trucks to increase deliveries of
ready-mix and concrete block.
Clays.-Clays mined in Florida included
common clay, .fuller's earth, and kaolin.
Total clay production and value decreased.
Common clay output and value increased.
Common clay was produced by four compa-
nies at four pits in Clay, Gadsden, Hernan-
do, and Lake Counties in the northern part
of the State. The clays were used ini the
manufacture of cement and lightweight ag-


Florida continued to rank second in the
Nation in fuller's earth production, al-
though production decreased. Fuller's earth
was mined by four producers from nine pits
in Brevard, Gadsden, and Marion Counties.
Main end uses were for fertilizer fillers, pet
waste absorbents, pesticides, and drilling
Kaolin was produced by one company at
two pits in Putnam County; production
remained at about the same level as in 1979.
The deposit also includes silica, with the
sand recovered for glass and other industri-
al uses. Principal uses for kaolin were in
electrical porcelain, whiteware, and wall
tile. Major kaolin markets were in the
Southeast, although some was exported.
Fluorine.-Fluorine, in the form of fluo-
silicic acid, was recovered at six plants as a
byproduct of wet-process phosphoric acid
manufacture. Fluosilicic acid was used to
produce cryolite, aluminum fluoride, sodi-
um silica fluoride, and was also used in
water fluoridation. The value of fluorine
byproducts is not included in the State's
mineral value.
Gypsum.-Imported gypsum was calcined
at two plants in Duval County and one
plant in Hillsborough County. United
States Gypsum Co., Jim Walter Corp., and
National Gypsum Co. calcined gypsum in
kettles, a rotary kiln, and a holoflite unit,
respectively. Production in 1980 decreased
to 637,000 tons, a drop of 22,000 tons from
the 1979 leveL
United States Gypsum announced plans
to expand its north Jacksonville plant, with
completion scheduled for late 1981. The $25
million expansion will increase capacity to
600 million board feet per year, reportedly
making it the largest in the world. The
market area is south Georgia and Florida.
Lime.-Quicklime was produced by Basic
Magnesia, Inc., Gulf County; Chemical
Lime, Inc., Hernando County; and Dixie
Lime & Stone Co., Sumter County. Hydrat-
ed lime was produced by Chemical Lime,
Inc. Production decreased 7%, but value
increased 9%. Lime was used for magnesia,
water treatment, and sewagedisposa
Magnesia.-Florida ranked second na-
tionally in the recovery of magnesium com-
pounds from seawater. Basic Magnesia, Inc.,
Port St. Joe, Gulf County, produced caustic
calcined magnesia and refractory-grade
magnesia from seawater, plant capacity is
100,000 tons of MgO equivalent. Shipments
in 1980 decreased 9%; value increased 3%.

Peat-Florida ranked second nationally
in peat production in 1980. Production and
value increased slightly. Ten plants .pro-
duced moss, reed-sedge, and humus peat
from five counties. Most of the peat, shipped
in bulk, was used for general soil improve-
ment and for potting soils.
Perlite.-Four companies produced
expanded perlite from crude ore shipped
into the State. Production increased to
31,700 tons; value increased to $3.7 million.
Perlite was expanded at plants in Broward,
Duval, Escambia, and Indian River Coun-
ties, and was used for horticultural pur-
poses, insulation, and fillers.
Phosphate Rock.-Florida ranked first in
the Nation in the production of phosphate
rock. Marketable production of phosphate
rock in 1980 increased 6% in quantity and
20% in value.
The phosphate industry continued to be
the principal mineral industry in the State.
Nearly all phosphate companies announced
development or expansion plans. Develop-
ment costs of mines have increased from
$34 per ton of annual capacity in 1975 to
approximately $100 per ton in 1980; con-
struction costs of phosphoric acid plants
have increased from $141 per ton of annual
capacity in 1975 to $440 per ton in 1980. In
1980, companies spent $436 million for ex-
pansion, replacement, and new construc-
tion. Expansion plans announced in 1980
will be equivalent to an additional $2 billion
investment by 1985 if permits are obtained.
In line with local government concerns, the
Governor and Cabinet approved revised rec-
lamation rules for phosphate producers that
would require restoration of a mining site
as near as possible to its original state.
Soft-rock phosphate was produced by four
companies in 1980, operating five mines in
Citrus and Marion Counties. The soft-rock
phosphate was used for direct application to
the soil and, if low in fluorine, as an animal
feed supplement.
Land-pebble phosphate was produced at
22 mines by 13 companies in Hamilton,
Hardee, Hillsborough, and Polk Counties.
In 1980, agricultural uses accounted for
71%; industrial, 1%; and exports, 28%.
Normal superphosphate, triple superphos-
phate, wet-process phosphoric acid, and de-
fluorinated phosphate rock were produced
for agricultural uses: Industrial chemicals
were produced from the production of ele-
mental phosphorus.
Agrico Chemical Co., with a reported
annual mining capacity of 7.5 million tons,


began an expansion program at its South
Pierce phosphoric acid facility. The addition
to the phosphoric acid plant will report-
edly increase capacity by 120,000 tons per
year by 1981;
AMAX, Inc.,:purchased the mining oper-
ations and phosphate reserves of Borden,
Inc., for $200 million, and will spend $44
million more to expand and improve the
operation. In addition to Borden's Big Four
Mine, AMAX acquired a phosphoric acid
complex at Piney Point and a defluorinated
feed phosphate facility at Plant City. The
Big Four Mine in Hillsborough County will
expand capacity from 1.6 to'2.5 million tons
per year. In addition to purchasing addi-
tional reserves, a dragline and processing
equipment were acquired. AMAX continued
development of its proposed $335 million, 4
million-ton-per-year mine in Manatee and
De Soto Counties. A contract was awarded
for the engineering, design, and construc-
tion of the facility. AMAX plans to spend a
projected $625 million in the 1980's to devel-
op their phosphate operations.
Beker Industries Corp. started developing
its $100 million phosphate mine in eastern
Manatee County. Present plans call for a 1-
million-ton-per-year operation. A produc-
tion level of 3 million tons per year, is
scheduled by late 1982. Beker plans to build
a $5 million facility at Port Manatee to ship
rock to its fertilizer plant in Louisiana.
Estech, Inc., continued in its attempts to
develop its 3-million-ton-per-year Duette
Mine in Manatee County. Early in the year,
the Manatee County Zoning Board denied
Estech a permit to mine, but this was
revised by the Governor and Cabinet. How-
ever, the Florida Department of Environ-
mental Regulation then denied Estech a
permit for waste water discharge. The per-
mit is required in order to construct slime
ponds. Mining plans are thus delayed in-
Farmland Industries, Inc., planned to de-
velop a $200 million mine and chemical
plant near Ora in Hardee County. However,
the Hardee County Commission rejected
Farmland's request to build the chemical
plant, but gave approval to the 2-million-
ton-per-year mine. Farmland did not ap-
peal, but was considering either increasing
production at its Green Bay plant or pur-
chasing an existing plant.
Gardinier, Inc., received permission to
expand its fertilizer plant adjoining Hills-
borough Bay and the Alafia River. The $67
million expansion program will convert the

plant to wet grinding, increase production
capacity by 20%, and reduce emissions. The
company purchased mineral rights to more
than 7,000 acres in Hardee County for over
$10 million.
W. R. Grace & Co. announced plans to
spend $300 million from 1980 to 1984 for
environmental controls; the 1980 budget
was $52.7 million, compared with $38.9
million in 1979. W. R. Grace & Co. and
International Minerals & Chemical Corp.
(IMC) continued development of their Four
Corners Mine in Hardee, Hillsborough,
Manatee, and Polk Counties. The $500 mil-
lion venture will have a design capacity of 5
million tons per year. Grace, which is plan-
ning to expand its Hooker Praire Mine, is
participating in a joint venture with U.S.S.
Agri-Chemicals, Inc. The companies plan a
$200 million fertilizer plant at Fort Meade
to include two sulfuric acid facilities.
IMC announced a planned $400 million
expansion of its Florida phosphate oper-
ations. In addition to its venture with
Grace, IMC plans to spend $58 million to
expand its New Wales plant, increasing
overall output by 500,000 tons per year. IMC
purchased additional reserves, including a
$4 million purchase of land from Bartow
Minerals near IMC's Clear Springs oper-
ation. IMC also purchased a $13.5 million
dragline capable of removing overburden in
excess of 40 feet thick.
Mississippi Chemical Corp. filed a propos-
al to develop a 3-million-ton-per-year mine
and beneficiation plant in Hardee County.
Reserves are reportedly sufficient for over
30 years. A decision on when the mine
will be developed has not been made by
Mississippi Chemical Co.
Mobil Oil Corp. received permits from the
South Florida Water Management District
to develop a new mine in the Fort Meade
area. The 3-million-ton-per-year mine, to be
in operation by 1984, will replace Mobil's
Fort Meade Mine scheduled to close in 1988.
Mobil has been purchasing land.east and
southeast of the proposed site.
Occidental Petroleum Corp. (Oxy) contin-
ued construction of a $3.2 million animal
feed supplement plant at White Springs.
Although an embargo was placed on phos-
phate fertilizer shipments to the Soviet
Union, Oxy's major customer, the company
was able to develop other markets to sus-
tain its operations. Oxy and South Africa's
Triomf Fertilizer agreed in principle to a
marketing program whereby Oxy would
have an alternative source of phosphoric


acid to fulfill its contracts with the Soviet
Union, while Triomf would utilize Oxy as a
source of phosphate rock. Oxy also was
negotiating with mainland China to con-
struct production plants in China and re-
ceive phosphoric acid in return.
Bartow Minerals and T. A. Minerals
Corp. closed their phosphate rock mining
operations in Polk County in 1980.
Zellars-Williams, Inc., Lakeland, was
awarded a $36,000 contract by the South
Florida Water Management District to pro-
ject the water needs and possible water
sources for the phosphate industry over the
next 20 years. The area to be studied in-
cludes land in the Alafia, Manasota, and the
Peace River Basins.
Sand and Gravel.-Total sand and gravel
output decreased in 1980. Lake, Polk, and
Glades were the leading producing counties.
During 1980, 34 companies operated 46
mines in 19 counties. Transportation was

primarily by truck, with the balance
shipped by railroad and waterway. Sand
and gravel was used mainly for construc-
tion purposes, which included concrete ag-
gregate and fill, with the balance going into
industrial uses. Four companies produced
over 1 million tons each; the top 14 compa-
nies, with 25 pits, mined 90% of the total
sand and gravel in the State. Florida Rock
Industries, Inc., opened an industrial sand
operation at Interlachen in Putnam Coun-
ty. The sand will be used by southeastern
glass manufacturers and foundries. Glass
sand is shipped to Anchor Hocking Corp. in
Jacksonville, with foundry sands shipped to
the Alabama markets. The company also
obtained permits for a $2 million sand plant
in Marion County. Construction started at
the end of the year with financing through
Industrial Development Revenue Bonds.
The plant will serve the Daytona Beach

Table 4.-Florida: Construction sand and gravel sold or used, by major use category
1979 1980
Use Quantity Value Value Quantity Value Value
(thousand (thou- per (thousand (thou- per
short tons) sands) ton short tons) sands) ton
Concrete aggregate ----------------------- 11,949 $19,200 $1.61 7,927 $16,713 $2.11
Plasterandgunitesands -------------------- 239 584 2.44 W W 2.99
Concrete products --- ____ ____ 869 1,765 2.03 2,424 4,998 2.06
Asphalticconcrete --- ------_ --------__- 868 2,195 2.53 619 1,855 3.00
Roadbase and coverings -------------------_ 2,214 2,845 1.28 680 1,907 2.80
Fill---------------------------------__ 4,503 4,556 1.01 2,432 2,310 .95
Other -- ----- -------------------------_-_-__ -_ 383 1,049 2.74
Total' or average --- ------------------ 20,642 31,145 1.51 14,464 28,831 1.99
W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included in "Other."
'Data may not add to totals shown because of independent rounding.

Table 5.-Florida: Sand and gravel sold or used by producers, by use
1979 1980
Use (antty Value Value u ity Value Value
u short (thou- per hor (thou- per
s) sands) ton tns sands) ton
tons) tons)
Sand --------_ ------------------- 18,143 $26,843 $1.48 13,305 $26,238 $1.97
Gravel-- ------------- 2,500 4,302 1.72 1,159 2,592 2.24
Total oraverage ------------------- 20,642 31,145 1.51 14,464 28,831 1.99
Industrial sand --------------_----_------_ 1,066 8,375 7.86 W W 6.32
Grand total or average -_---_-----------_ 21,708 39,520 1.82 W W 2.12
W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data.
'Data may not add to totals shown because of independent rounding.


Staurolite.-Florida is the only State
with a recorded production of staurolite.
Staurolite was recovered as a byproduct of
ilmenite production at the Highland and
Trail Ridge plants of E. I. du Pont de
Nemours & Co., Clay County, and by Asso-
ciated Minerals Ltd., Inc. (United States),
also in Clay County. Production decreased
in 1980. Staurolite was mainly used in
sandblasting, with minor amounts used in
cement and as a foundry sand.
Stone.-Florida ranked second in the Na-
tion in crushed stone production, which
included limestone, marl, and oyster shell.
Stone was produced by 89 companies at
128 quarries in 24 counties. The three lead-
ing counties were Broward, Dade, and Her-

nando, which supplied 65% of the State's
total production. Sixteen companies pro-
duced over 1 million tons each from 36
quarries, and accounted for 67% of the
production and 71% of the value.
Crushed stone was transported mainly by
truck and railroad, and was used for dense-
graded roadbase, concrete and bituminous
aggregate, and cement manufacture. Two
companies processed oyster shell for road-
bed material.
Sulfur.-Florida ranked fifth in the Na-
tion in the production of recovered elemen-
tal sulfur. Recovered sulfur from Exxon's
desulfurization plants in Escambia and
Santa Rosa Counties decreased in 1980.

Table 6.-Florida: Crushed stone sold or used by producers, by use
(Thousand short tons and thousand dollars)
Use 19791 19802
Quantity Value Quantity Value
Agricultural limestone_____--------------------_ 1,131 6,036 1,729 8,299
Agricultural marl and other soil conditioners __________---52 452 115 632
Poultrygrit andmineral food--______ -------_ 490 2,837 497 3,064
Concreteaggregate _--- ---------------------_ 14,085 53,980 14,583 57,691
Bituminous aggregate --------------------------- 3,498 12,490 4,604 17,010
Dense-graded roadbase stone ----__----------------- 17,603 37,602 16,497 40,325
Surface treatment aggregate ---_-----_--- -___-- 2,885 12,804 3,708 14,716
Other construction aggregate and roadstone-____________ 13,409 30,858 12,164 32,946
Riprap and jetty stone ________________________--------------------------_ 58 277 59 398
Filter stone----------- ----------------------- 55 233 W W
Manufactured fine aggregate (stone sand) ----------- 5,642 19,770 5,813 23,134
Cement manufacture --_------- -- ----- ---_ 2,344 5,139 2,337 5,615
Lime manufacture -__-- --------------- 367 1,007 449 1,120
Asphalt filler _______________________________ 21 209 20 221
Other fillers ------------------------____-- 188 1,222 184 1,288
FilL------------------------------------- 1,580 2,919 2,288 5,068
Glass manufacture __--__-- __--- __----___--- W W 20 191
Other3 ___________________________________---200 632 1,140 4,257
Total' --------_ -------------------- 63,609 188,467 66,209 215,972
W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included with "Other."
'Crushed limestone only.
2Includes limestone, shell, and marl.
'Includes stone used for macadam aggregate, railroad ballast, and filter stone (1979).
'Data may not add to totals shown because of independent rounding.

Vermiculite.-Exfoliated vermiculite was
produced by two operators at four plants in
Broward, Duval, and Hillsborough Counties
from crude ore shipped into the State.
Production increased 11% over that of 1979;
principal uses were for lightweight aggre-
gate, horticulture, and insulation.


Mineral Sands.-Du Pont and Associated
Minerals produced concentrates from their
heavy mineral operations in Clay County.
In May 1980, Associated Minerals Consoli-
dated Ltd. (AMC) of Sydney, New South
Wales, Australia, acquired the properties
of Titanium Enterprises at Green Cove

Springs for $11.7 million. The properties
were mined thereafter by Associated Miner-
als Ltd., Inc., a subsidiary of the Australian
firm AMC. AMC plans to invest an addition-
al $6 million for working capital and im-
provements to bring the operation up to
optimum capacity. Reserves at Green Cove
Springs are projected to last 16 years at an
average annual production rate of 25,000
tons of rutile, 25,000 tons of zircon, and
50,000 tons of ilmenite, plus significant
quantities of leucoxene, staurolite, and
Rare-Earth Minerals.-AMC produced
monazite concentrates as a byproduct from
its operations in Clay County. Florida was


the only domestic producer of rare earths
from mineral sands mining.
Tianium.-Du Pont and AMC, Clay
County, produced titanium concentrates for
use in titanium dioxide pigment manufac-
Zircon.-Production and value of zircon
concentrates from Du Pont and AMC, both

in Clay County, decreased in 1980. Florida
was the only producer of zircon concern
trates in the United States.

'State mineral specialist, Bureau of Mines, Tuscaloosa;
2State geologist, Florida Bureau of Geology, Tallahassee,l

Commodity and company

Table 7.-Principal producers

Address Type of activity

Florida Mining & Materials Corp
General Portland, Inc ------

Lonestar Florida, Inc ------

Rinker Portland Cement Corp -
Florida Mining & Materials Corp
Mid-Florida Mining -------
Pennsylvania Glass Sand Corp -
Gypsum calcinedd)
Jim Walter Corp ------
National Gypsum Co ------
United States Gypsum Co-----
Chemical Lime, Inc.-___ _-

Dixie Lime & Stone Co.1- _
Magnesium compounds:
Basic Magnesia, Inc -
F. Stearns Peat ---
Peace River Peat Co -__--
Superior Peat & Soil ---_-- _
Perlite (expanded).
Airiite Processing Corp. of
Armstrong Cork Co -------
Chemrock Corp ----

W. L Grace & Co.' ---
Phosphate rock:
Agrico Chemical Co ___
Borden Inc --_ _--
BmrsterPhosphates _______
C F. Industries --------

Atach. Inc_--____
Gardinier, Inc _---------_
International Minerals &
Chemical Corp.
Mobe Oil Corp. ----------
Occidental Petroleum Corp ___
UrS. Agri-Chemicals. Inc --_
W. .I Grace & Co -------

Box 23965
Tampa. FL 33622
12700 Park Central Place
Suite 2100
Dallas, TX 75251
Box 2035 PVS
Hialeah, FL 33012
Box 650679
Miami, FL 33165
Box 6
Brooksville, FL 33512
Box 68-F
Lowell, FL 32663
Berkeley Springs, WV 35411 -
Box 135
Jacksonville, FL 32226
4100 First Intl. Bldg.
Dallas, TX 75270
101 South Wacker Dr.
Chicago, IL 60606
Box 250
Ocala, FL 32670
Drawer 217
Sumterville, FL 33585
Box 160
Port St Joe, FL 32456
Route 1, Box 542D
Dover, FL 33527
Box 1192
Bartow, FL 33830
Box 2688
Sebring, FL 33870
Route 2, Box 740
Vero Beach, FL 32960
Box 1991
Pensacola, FL 32589
End of Osage Street
Nashville. TN 37208
62 Whittemore Ave.
Cambridge, MA 02140
Box 3166
Tulsa, OK 74101
Box 790
Plant City, FL 33566
Bra y .FL 33835-________

Plant City, FL 33566
Box 208
Bartow, FL 33830
Box 3269
Tam FL 33601
Bartow, FL 38830
Box 311
Nichols, FL 33863
White Springs, FL 32096 -----
Box 867
Fort Meade, FL 33841
Box 471
Bartow, FL 33830

Plant-------- Hern
Plants ------- Dade
Plant-------- Dade.
_----do ---- D

Open pit mine Herne
---- do------ Mario
-.-- do -_---- Gadsd
Plant-------- Duval
---do ------ Hillsb
_- do ------ Duval

_ _do _- -_- Hern
--- do------ Sumt

--- do______ Gulf.

Bog--------- Hillsl

Bog -------- Polk.
Bog-------- High

Plant-------- India
_- -do ------ Esca

--- -do ----- Duva
---_do ------ Brow

Open pit mines Polk.
and plants.
Open pit mine and Hills
plant. an
---- do ------
--- do ------ Hard
Open pit mines Polk.
Open pit mine and
Open pit mines- -

Open pit mine Ham
do------ Polk
Open pit mine and









n River.


d Polk.



See footnotes at end of table.



Table 7.-Principal producers -Continued

Commodity and company Address Type of activity County

Sand and gravel:
Florida Rock Industries, Inc., 744 Riverside Ave.
Shands & Baker. Jacksonville. FL 32201
General Development Corp --- 1111 South Bayshore Dr.
Miami, FL 33131
E. R. Jahna Industries, Inc., First & East Tillman
Ortona Sand Co. Div. Lake Wales, Fl 33853
Silver Sand Co. of Clermont Inc Route 1, Box US 1
Clermont, FL 32711
E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co _ DuPont Bldg. D-10084
Wilmington, DE 19898
Florida Crushed Stone Co---__ Box 317
Leesburg, FL 32748
Florida Rock Industries, Inc.5 Box 4467
Jacksonville, FL 32201
Lone Star Florida, Inc ------- Box 6097
Fort Lauderdale,
FL 33310
Rinker Southeastern Materials, Box 2634
Inc. Hialeah, FL 33012
Vulcan Materials Co -------_ Box 7324-A
Birmingham, AL 35223
Titanium concentrates:
Associated Minerals Consolidated Green Cove Springs,
Ltd. FL 32043
E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.' DuPont Bldg. D-10084
Wilmington, DE 19898


--- do ______
_ _ do
----_do -_____

Pit ____

Mines and plants_

Quarries _____
--_- do ____

Quarry ------

Quarries -----

___- do ____

Mine and plant_ _
Mines and plants_

Clay, Lake,
Lee, Putnam.
St. Lucie, and
Glades, Lake,


Hernando and
Collier, Lee,


Broward and


1Also stone.
2Also lime.
'Also phosphate rock and exfoliated vermiculite.
4Also elemental phosphorus.
SAlso sand and gravel.
SAlso zircon concentrate and rare-earth oxides and thorium oxide in monazite concentrate.