Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Description of the series
 Description of the major mapping...
 Physical, chemical, and mineralogical...
 Soil qualities
 Management practices with yield...
 Estimated yields
 Literature cited

Group Title: Department of Soils mimeograph report
Title: Benchmark soils : Red Bay soils of Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00091543/00001
 Material Information
Title: Benchmark soils : Red Bay soils of Florida
Alternate Title: Red Bay soils of Florida
Department of Soils mimeograph report 61-4 ; University of Florida
Physical Description: 24 leaves : map ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Caldwell, R. E ( Robert Edward ), 1915-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Soils
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Department of Soils, Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: June 1961
Subject: Soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Soil permeability -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by R.E. Caldwell.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaves 23-24).
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "June 1961."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00091543
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 310171654

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Description of the series
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Description of the major mapping units
        Page 10
    Physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties of Red Bay
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Soil qualities
        Page 15
    Management practices with yield data
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Estimated yields
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Literature cited
        Page 23
        Page 24
Full Text

,'L13 r






R. E. Caldwell

Department of Soils
Agricultural Experiment Sts
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida

100 copies


Introduction . . . . . .. . . .. 1
General Characterization of the Series . . . 1
Distribution . . .. . . . . . . . 1
Figure 1. Location of Major Areas of Red Bay and
Associated Soils . . .... ...... 2
Geology . . . . . . . 3
Physiography . . . . . . . . . . 3
Climate . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Description of the Series . . . . . 4
History of the Series . . . .. .. . 4
Cultural History .. . ...... . . $
Genesis . . . . .... .. . . 5
Official Series Description . . . . . 6

Description of the Major Mapping Units . . . .. 10

Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical Properties of
Red Bay . . . .. ..... . . . 11
Table 1. Physical Properties of Red Bay . . . 12
Table 2. Chemical and Mineralogical Properties of
Red Bay . . .. . . . . . . 1

Soil Qualities . . . . . . . . . . 15
Erodibility . . . . . . . . . 15
Air and Moisture Regimes .. . .. 15

Management Practices with Yield Data . . . . . 16
Continuous Crop and Rotation Experiments . . . 16
Table 3. Effect of Management on Chemical Status
of Red Bay fine sandy loam, 1949-1952. . . 18
Fertility Experiments on Red Bay Soils . . . 19
Corn . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Peanuts . . . . . . . . . 19
Soybeans . . . . . . . . 19
Oats . . . . . . . . . 19
Cover Crops . . . . . . . . 20

Estimated Yields. . .... ...... 21
Average Acre Yields . . . .... 21
Table 4. Principal Crops Grown in Escambia County,
Florida on Red Bay Soils . . . 21
Site Indicies for Loblolly, Slash, and Longleaf
Pines . . . . . . . . . 22
Table 5. Site Indicies for Loblolly, Slash, and
Longleaf Pines .. . ... ... .. . 22

Literature Cited . . . . . . . . 23


General Characterization of the Series

The Red Bay series consists of well-drained Reddish-Brown Lateritic

soils that have developed from moderately coarse and medium textured marine

sediments along the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains. They occur on level

to strongly sloping upland areas mostly in the Gulf Coastal region. Slopes

range from 0 to 15 percent, with slopes of 0 to 8 percent being most common.

Red Bay soils are most commonly associated with soils of the Ruston, Faceville,

Orangeburg, Magnolia, Luverne, Greenville, Eustis and Americus series. They

are redder than the Ruston and Faceville soils. They differ from the Orange-

burg, Magnolia, and Luverne soils by having browner surfaces and a darker red

subsoil. In addition, they are not as fine-textured as the Magnolia and

Luverne. Red Bay soils resemble the Greenville soils in most characteristics

which include color, drainage, and depth of profile, They do differ from the

Greenville soils, however, by possessing more friable subsoils and containing

lower amounts of clay throughout the profile.

Most of the Red Bay acreage on gentle slopes is cleared and used for

growing cotton, corn, some truck crops, shade tobacco, hay crops, small grain

and pasture. Under good management they are quite productive. On steeper

slopes most of the acreage is used for growing pine and hardwood timber.


The Red Bay soils occur, only in the extreme northwestern portion of the

State of Florida in areas bordering Alabama and Georgia (see Figure 1). The

total acreage is small, (occupying less than 100,000 acres) but wherever

found they are important agricultural soils.





Red Bay soils have developed from unconsolidated beds of sandy loams and

sandy clay loams of the Coastal Plains (5). These coastal plain materials

were transported from the uplands farther north during the interglacial

periods when the present coastal plains were inundated by waters of the Gulf

of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean.


Red Bay soils in Florida occur mostly on broad, nearly level (0 to 2

percent) to very gently sloping (2 to 5 percent) areas, although a few small

areas occur on slopes ranging up to about 15 percent. On these steeper

slopes, Red Bay soils tend to be coarser-textured and are usually not as

well developed in their profile characteristics. These sloping areas also

tend to have inclusions of other soils and are often mapped as complexes and

undifferentiated units of Red Bay and associated soils.


The climate of the Red Bay soil area in Florida is characterized by

warm temperature and high humidity both of which are very favorable for

growing most crops and adapted trees common to the region. The summers are

long and warm, and the winters are short and mild.

The average annual temperature is approximately 700F., with maximums

of about 1000F. during the months of June to August and minimums around

100F. in January and February. The average growing season is approximately

275 days.

The annual rainfall is fairly high, averaging about 60 inches. Rainfall

is fairly well distributed with larger amounts of precipitation generally

occurring in July and August. At times a short drought late in the spring

causes considerable damage to crops, grasses, and trees. Snowfalls are rare,

but amounts measuring up to 3 inches have been recorded under unusual weather



History of the Series

The Red Bay series was established in Franklin County, Alabama in 1927.

The type location for the revised description is in Baldwin County, Alabama.

Prior to the establishment of this series, the Red Bay soils were included

and mapped with soils characterized as belonging to either the Orangeburg or

Greenville series. The Soil Survey Report of the Marianna Area, Florida (9)

issued in 1909 described an Orangeburg which would now be classified as a

Red Bay as follows:

The surface soil is a gray, brown, or reddish-brown fine sandy

loam varying in depth from 6 to 15 inches, with an average depth of

12 inches. The subsoil is a red sandy clay, in which the finer

grades of sand predominate. Iron concretions are usually present in

both soil and subsoil, and occasionally considerable quantities are

found upon the surface.

This soil is developed mainly in the northeastern part of the

area, north of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad and east of the

Atlanta and St. Andrews Bay Railroad. A few small areas occur

scattered through the central part of the survey. The topography

is rolling, which, in connection with the open character of both

soil and subsoil, gives the areas good natural drainage. Upon the

steeper slopes there has been somic erosion, as indicated by more

shallow surface soil and the exposure of the subsoil in a few places.

However, the slopes are not steep enough to cause gullying. The

Orangeburg fine sandy loam, like the other members of the Orangeburg

series, is the weathered product of materials of the Lafayette

formation. The native vegetation is oak, hickory and pine.

The following table gives the results of mechanical

soil and subsoil of this type:

Mechanical analysis of Orangeburg fine sandy loam

analyses of

Fine Coarse Medium Fine V. fine
Description gravel sand sand sand sand silt clay
------ --- -- --- -- ---^-

Soil 1.2 o10. 8.3 35.7 25.7 10.0 8.8

Subsoil 1.2 7.8 5.7 25.1 18.7 8.7 32.8

All soils similar to the above described soil with brown or reddish-

brown colored surfaces would now be classified and mapped as Red Bay. The

Greenville loamy sand and Greenville sandy loam described in this report (9)

would also now be included with the Red Bay soils because their profiles

lack sufficient clay to be classed Greenville according to later revised


Cultural History

Red Bay soils were among some of the first soils cultivated by the early

settlers of West Florida as they were soon found to be more productive than

the gray-surfaced Orangeburg (9). The fine-textured subsoil retained a

relatively larger quantity of moisture than the other sandy soils of the area,

thus making Red Bay a desirable soil for both general farm and special crops.

The yields of cotton ranged from one-fourth to two-thirds bale, of corn from

10 to 30 bushels, and of oats from 15 to 30 bushels per acre. Cane was

successfully grown on this soil and yielded about 500 gallons of syrup per

acre. Cabbage, tomatoes, lettuce, cucumbers, melons and potatoes also do

exceptionally well, although grown mostly only for home use.


Red Bay soils are zonal members of the Reddish-Brown Lateritic great

soil group (16). They have been derived from moderately coarse and medium

textured marine sediments in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain. Native

vegetative cover consisted mostly of longleaf and loblolly pine, wiregrass,

some hickory and various species of oaks. The climatic factors of high temp-

eratures and rainfall have materially speeded up the soil forming processes.

Red Bay soils have developed in a well-drained topographic position where the

surface run off of water is low to medium, and permeability is moderate to

rapid. The relative free movement of water through these soils has contri-

buted to their normal development. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to

slightly acid. The combination of all these influences has caused the soil

forming process to exhibit weak latosolization. This process causes a soil

to be leached of its bases, becoming only slightly acid in reaction, and

involves the more rapid downward movement of silica than of iron and aluminum.

Red Bay soils generally have 4 to 6 inches of A1 with little or no Aoo

or Ao horizon except under forest vegetation. The A2 horizons are subject

to most leaching of their minerals and are characterized by a lower cation

exchange capacity, generally in the range from 2 to 10 me./100 g. in the Al,

from 1.5 to 8 me./lOO g. in the A2, and from 3 to 12 me./lO0 g. in the B and

C horizons.

The B horizons are well oxidized, thus giving rise to the intense red

color. Strong textural and structural development are also commonly present.

Texture of the B2 horizons range from light sandy loams to loams or heavy

sandy clay loams. This increase in clay content is due to the movement of

clay downward from the A horizons.

The C horizons are generally loamy sands or sandy loams but may be


Official Series Description

The Red Bay series consists of well-drained Reddish-Brown Lateritic

soils derived from marine sediments of moderately coarse and medium textures

in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain. These soils are associated with the

Greenville, Magnolia, Orangeburg, Luverne, Ruston, Faceville, Atwood, Ora,

Eustis, and Americus series. They closely resemble the Greenville and Atwood

soils in color, drainage, and depth, but are coarser-textured and more friable

in the subsoil. In addition, they are much less silty than the Atwood series.

Red Bay soils are redder than the Eustis soils, and they are finer in texture

than the Eustis and Americus soils, which are loamy sands or sands throughout.

They are redder than the Ruston, Ora, and Faceville soils, lack the mottlings

in the lower part of the solum which are characteristic of the Faceville series,

and do not have fragipans as do Ora soils. Red Bay soils are browner and

redder in the upper part of the profile than the AMagnolia, Luverne, and

Orangeburg soils and are also coarser-textured than the Magnolia and Luverne

series. The Red Bay soils are widely distributed in relatively large bodies

and are important to agriculture.

Soil Profile: Red Bay sandy loam cultivated

Ap 0-7" Dark brown (7,5YR 3/2) sandy loam; moderate fine crumb

structure; very friable; many fine roots; root and worm

holes filled with material chiefly from B horizon; very

strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary; 6 to 10 inches


A3 7-1$" Dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/4) sandy loam; weak fine crumb

structure; very friable; many fine roots; old root and

worm holes filled with material from the Ap horizon; very

strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary; 4 to 25 inches


B21 15-21" Dark red (2.5YR 3/6) light sandy clay loam or sandy loam;
weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable, slightly

plastic; many fine roots; few root and worm holes; few fine

pores; few coarse quartz grains; very strongly acid; gradual

smooth boundary; 6 to 12 inches thick.

B22 21-33" Dark red (2.5YR 3/6) light sandy clay loam; weak medium
subangular blocky structure; friable; slightly plastic;

many fine roots; few root and worm holes; few fine pores;

very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary; 10 to 20

inches thick.

B23 33-50" Dark red (2.$YR 3/6) sandy clay loam; weak medium sub-

angular blocky structure; friable, slightly sticky and

slightly plastic; few fine roots; very strongly acid;

gradual smooth boundary; 6 to 20 inches thick.

C 50-80" + Dark red (2.5YR 3/6) sandy loam; weak fine subangular

structure; very friable; very strongly acid; 8 inches to

several feet thick.

Range in Characteristics: Sandy loams and loamy sands are the principal

types, but texture of the A horizon ranges from loam to fine sand. Textures

of the B2 horizons ranges from sandy loam to sandy clay loam, that of the C

horizon from light sandy clay loam to loamy fine sand. Color of the surface

soil ranges from dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) to dusky red (2.5YR 3/2-3/3), that

cf the B1 horizon from dark reddish-brown (SYR 3/4) to red (2.MYR 4/8), and

that of the B2 and C horizons from dark red (1QR 3/6) to red (10R 4/6-4/8).

In places there are a few ironstone fragments and iron concretions on the

surface and throughout the profile, The lower B and C horizons may have

numerous thin iron crusts horizontally imbedded. Thick surface phases are

recognized where the A horizon is over 18 inches thick. Colors given above

are for moist soil. Dry color of the subsoil horizons is seldom more than 1

unit higher in value.

Topography: Mostly nearly level to gently sloping but ranging from nearly

level to strongly sloping with gradients from 0 to 15 percent.

Drainage and Permeability: Well-drained; runoff medium; permeability

moderate to rapid.

Vegetation: Originally longleaf and loblolly pines and wiregrass; some oaks

and hickory.

Use: Cotton, corn, small grains, truck crops, orchards, shade grown tobacco,

annual legumes pasture, and some woodland.

Distribution: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and

South Carolina.

Type Location: Baldwin County, Alabama; NG 1/4 SW 1/4 Sec. 33, T. 5S., R. 3E.;

aerial photo CLP-3E-176 (9-28A), 1 miles north of Silverhill on Silverhill-

Loxly road, thence 2 miles west, thence 1/10 mile south of road,

Series Established: Franklin County, Alabama, 1927.

Rev. YHH-LHB National Cooperative Soil Survey
8-19-60 USA


Red Bay sandy loam, level phase.

This mapping unit is similar to the one described in the official

series description.

Red Bay fine sandy loam, level phase,

This unit is similar to the official series description except the

sands in the surface are composed mostly of fine sand sized particles.

Red Bay fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase.

This unit is very similar to the level phase except that it occurs

on slopes of 2 to 5 percent.

Red Bay fine sandy lom, gently sloping phase.

The soils of this mapping unit differ from those previously described

only by occurring on slopes ranging from 5 to 8 percent.

Red Bay fine sandy loam, sloping phase.

This unit consists of soils occurring on steeper slopes; those ranging

from 8 to 12 percent.

Red Bay fine sandy loam, slightly eroded, sloping phase.

Some sheet erosion has occurred on these soils causing the A horizons

to be somewhat thinner than normal, usually ranging from 8 to 16 inches in


Red Bay fine sandy loam, moderately eroded, sloping phase.

The A horizons of these soils are normally thinner, usually ranging

from 5 to 8 inches in thickness. Occasionally there may be a few spots

where the B horizon is exposed under plowing.

Red Bay loamy fine sand, level phase.

This unit differs only from the level phase of the Red Bay fine

sandy loam by having a coarser-textured A horizon.

Red Bay loamy fine sand, very gently sloping phase.

The soils of this mapping unit are similar to the Red Bay fine sandy

loam, very gently sloping phase but are coarser-textured in their surface


Red Bay loamy fine sand, gently sloping phase.

The soils of this unit occur on slopes ranging from 5 to 8 percent and

are similar to but have coarser-textured surface horizons than do the Red Bay

fine sandy loam, gently sloping soils.

Red Bay loamy fine sand, sloping phase.

This unit consists of soils occurring on slopes of 8 to 12 percent

with loamy fine sand surfaces.

Red Bay loamy fine sand, slightly eroded, sloping phase.

These soils have suffered some sheet erosion so that their loamy fine

sandy surfaces are usually thinner than normal. They occur on slopes of 8

to 12 percent.

Red Bay loamy fine sand, moderately eroded, sloping phase.

The A horizons of these soils usually range from 5 to 8 inches in

thickness so that occasionally the B horizon may be exposed in a few spots

when the soil is plowed.


Table 1 gives the physical properties of three Red Bay soil profiles.

Color is recorded according to the Munsell system for soil color nomenclature

and is for moist soil unless otherwise designated. Color of the surface soils

varied from dark brown to very dark grayish-brown, while subsurface horizons

were generally a dark reddish-brown, and the subsoils were red to dark red in


Table 1.

Physical Properties of Red Bay
Particle Size Distribution, % Organic Water at
Horizon Depth, In. Color* Texture* Structure* Consistence* Sand Silt Clay Matter M.E.

Zscambia County A/
\Al1 0- 7.5YR3/2 fsl Ifcr mrfr 60.2 22.6 17.2 4.0 14.8
A12 4-10 5YR3/3 fsl lmcr mrfr 56.2 22.3 21.1 1.8 13.1
B21 10-20 2.5YR3/6 fscl Imsbk mfr 56.3 20.1 23.6 0.3 14.0
B22 20-36 2.5YR3/6 fscl Imsbk mfi 52.7 U1.8 32.5 -- 16.4
B5 36-48 2.5YR3/6 fscl Imsbk mfi 56.1 12.9 31.0 --- 15.5
Santa Rosa County |/
A, 0-6 1OYR3/2 fsl Ifcr mrfr 67.7 14.5 13.8 3.6 12.5
Agl 6-12 5YR3/4 fsl Ifsbk mf- 66.1 15.6 18.3 1.2 11.1
B21 12-30 2.5YR3/6 fscl 2fsbk mfi 60.2 10.5 29.3 0.1 12.1
B22 30-48 2.5YR3/6 fscl 2msbk mfi 59.3 11.3 29.4 --- 12.8
Jackson County 23
All 0-2j 10YR3/2 fsl 78.0 11.1 10.8 4.3 13.9
12 2j-9 5YR4/3 fsl 76.6 9.4 13.9 1.1 8.6
B21 9-17 2.5YR3/6 fscl 65.2 9.2 25.4 0.6 11.8
B22 17-24 10R 4/8 fcl 63.1 8.0 28.7 13.0
B23 24-2 10R 4/8 fscl 67.6 6.3 26.1 --- 12.9

*,Terminology and abbreviations used correspond to those used in Soil Survey Manual (14, pp 139-1o0)
/Laboratory Sample No. R1160; first mapped as Greenville, but later correlated as Red Bay (3).
Laboratory Sample No. R1161; classified as Greenville in 1952, but now considered to be Red Bay (3).
Z/Laboratory Sample No. S32-4; collected and analyzed as Red Bay in 1914 (6).

_ __ I __

Particle size distribution was determined by the Bouyoucos Hydrometer

Method (2), and the textures of each horizon sampled were characterized

according to the latest USDA Soil Triangle (14, p. 209). Textures of

these three profiles ranged from fine sandy loam in the surface horizons to

fine sandy clay loam in the subsoils, although other analyses reveal many

Red Bay soils to have coarser-textured horizons than these.

Structure ranged generally from weak, fine crumb in the All horizons to

weak, medium crumb or weak, fine, subqngular blocky in the A12 horizons to

weak or moderate medium, subangular blocky in the B or subsoil horizons.

Consistence of the moist soil was very friable in the surface horizons but

changed with increasing depth and clay percentages to friable and finally

to firm to the subsoils.

Organic matter was about 4 percent in the surface soils and rapidly

decreased with depth so that little or none occurred in the B22 horizons.

Moisture equivalents of the various Red Bay horizons were determined to

characterize their water retention properties. Values ranged from about

12 to 15 percent in the surface horizons, decreased to values of 8 to 13

percent in the subsurface horizons, and increased again in the subsoil

horizons with amounts ranging from 12 to 16 percent, the higher values

generally reflecting an increase in either organic matter or clay content.

Table 2 gives the chemical and mineralogical properties of two profiles

of Red Bay soils. The pH was determined with the glass electrode using a

1:1 suspension of Soil and water, pH values were mostly strongly acid and

ranged from 4.9 to $.6. Cation exchange capacity was obtained using the

method of Peech et. al. (11) and exchangeable cations by modified methods of

Adams and Rouse (1) and Driskell (4). Values for exchange capacity varied

from 3.7 to 10.0 me./100 g. and were generally higher in the surfae o Asons

where there was more organic matter. Calcium was the dominant basic cation

followed by lesser quantities of magnesium, potassium, manganese, and iron,

Table 2.

Chemical and Mineralogical Properties of Red Bay

Horizon Depth, In. pH C.E.C. Exchangeable Cations (me./lOOg.) Minerals* in <2 p Fraction
me./lOOg. Ca Mg K Mn Fe
Escambia County 1/
All 0-4 l.9 9.3 0.80 0.25 0.08 --- -- KiV2Gi3Q3
A12 4-10 5.1 8.8 .32 .21 .03 KIV2Gi3Q3F3
B21 10-20 5.0 6.1 .30 .20 .03 --- --- --
B22 20-36 5.1 7.7 .21 .16 .03 -- -- ----
B3 36-48 5.1 6.0 .20 .10 .02 ---- --- Gi2K2V2F3Q3
Santa Rosa County 2/
All 0-6 5.4 10.0 1.10 0.34 0.07 0.18 0.06 Gi1Q2K3V3
A12 6-12 5.5 5.1 0.70 .31 .o4 .16 .07 GilK2V2Q3F3
B21 12-30 5.6 3.7 .40 .25 .02 .15 .20 -
B22 30-48 5.4 4.9 .30 .11 .02 .15 .17 GilK2V2F3Q3

Abbreviations for mineral names are as follows: F = feldspar; Gi = gibbsite; K kaolinite;
Q = quartz; and V = vermiculite. Number subscript indicates quantity of mineral present with most
abundant mineral indicated first. 1 = abundant component, greater than 40%
2 = less abundant, 10 to 40%
3 = minor component, less than 10%
1/Laboratory Sample No. R1160; first mapped as Greenville, but later correlated as Red Bay (3).
I/Laboratory Sample No. R1161; classified as Greenville in 1952, but now considered to be Red Bay (3).

I 'I I


Red Bay soils are generally low in plant nutrients and natural fertility

although they do average slightly higher in these respects than do most other

mineral soils of Florida. Organic matter content of the surface soil is

higher under virgin conditions, usually ranging from 2 to 5 percent but

becomes less under cultivation. Cation exchange capacity of the A horizons

of the few soils analyzed varied from about 5 to 12 me./l00 9g (3),

The exchange capacity of the B horizons varies from about 3 to 15

me,/100 g, Base saturation of virgin soils is nearly always less than

50 percent and the soils are strongly to slightly acid. Lime is thus needed

if acid-sensitive plants are to be grown. In addition, complete fertilizers

are needed for growing most crops which respond well as Red Bay soils are

quite productive.


Red Bay soils are considered to have fairly good infiltration rates and

moderate to moderately rapid permeability. On sloping areas, however, sheet

erosion can vary from slight to quite severe depending upon the degree of

slope and type of vegetative cover. Some rill and gullys are also fairly

common on some of the steeper slopes which have been cultivated.

Air and Moisture Regimes

The effective rooting depth of Red Bay soils in Florida is considered

to be quite deep as there is generally nothing to impede root growth to a

depth of 5 feet. For the more commonly grown crops, available water is

usually calculated to a depth of 36 inches. This available moisture varies

considerably, depending on the amount of organic matter present and texture

of the soil. Moisture equivalent values generally range from about 8 to

16 percent.


Most of the field research on Red Bay soils has been carried out in

north and west Florida as these soils and other related soil types comprise

approximately one-third of the cultivated crop land of the area. Crops more

commonly grown include corn, peanuts, soybeans, and such cover crops as

crotalaria, lupines, and oats grown as green manure.

Lipscomb and Robertson (10) reported results obtained over a three-

year period on experiments designed to evaluate some soil management practices

on the yield of corn and peanuts and on the maintenance of soil fertility.

These experiments were carried out on soils which were predominantly Red Bay

fine sandy loam near Marianna, Florida. The area had been cultivated for

many years prior to 1942, had lain idle from 1942 to 1948, and then planted

to peanuts. When 300 pounds per acre of 2-10-5 fertilizer were applied plus

three applications of 20 pounds per acre of sulfur, yields of approximately

2000 pounds per acre of peanuts were obtained. Following the 1948 peanut

harvest, the area was divided into experimental plots.

Continuous Crop and Rotation Experiments

In a study of the major crops grown on Red Bay soils, Lipscomb and

Robertson (10) obtained little response in corn yields to cover crop rotation

treatments and concluded that this may have been due to a combination of

factors. Some of these factors were poor cover crop yields in 1950 with no

yields at all in 1951 and the bumper weed growth following continuous corn.

The first tended to decrease the response to cover crop treatments, while

the second tended to add more organic matter to the continuous corn treatment

and therefore cause it to more nearly resemble a cover crop rotation. Corn

and peanuts with native cover were superior to continuous corn, but the

increase was not significant in 1949 and only approached significance in 1950
and 1951. A three-year rotation of corn, oats and peanuts yielded signifi-

cantly more than continuous corn in 1950 but the increase was small in 1951.

Yields of peanuts grown continuously decreased after the first year and

then remained about the same in the following year. This decrease was about

900 pounds per acre and was no doubt affected by the winter cover. Without

a planted cover crop, wedd growth was sparce. Yields of peanuts also de-

creased when oats and lupines were planted as winter crops; but the decreases

were smaller, being approximately 300 and 550 pounds respectively. In the

two and three year rotations the yield of peanuts was maintained at about the

same. level and suffered no decrease.

The yield of oats decreased after the first year, probably due to a

nitrogen deficiency and not to the growth of other crops in the rotation.

Lipscomb and Robertson (10) stated that the lupine yields were low both

years, especially in 1952, after peanuts. This decrease in lupine yield was

greatest when lupines were grown with continuous peanuts. In the two-year

peanut rotation the decrease was approximately one-half as great as in

continuous peanuts.

Table 3 gives chemical analyses data of the soil both before and after

three years of cropping under the various treatments. The effect6of manage-

ment on the chemical status of Red Bay fine sandy loam were generally as

follows: Cropping to continuous corn maintained or slightly increased the

pH of the soil, while the pH of the plots planted to peanuts decreased markedly;

Exchangeable potassium levels were maintained or increased on the continuous

corn plots, but decreased where peanuts were grown alone or included in the

rotation with corn; L:c.rin able calcium levels were generally correlated

with pH of the soil and mostly showed slight decreases after three years of

cropping; Available phosphorus increased an average of 48 pounds per acre

and revealed no consistent difference in amounts on the soil between treat-

ments; Also, there was little change in organic matter content as the soil

had been cropped for many years prior to this study and the level of organic
matter had somewhat stablized.

Table 3.
Effect of Management on Chemical Status of Red Bay
Fine Sandy Loam, 1949-1952 (10).

Pounds per Acre %
S changeable Bray 0..
K Ca P

Initial Levels (1949) 5.8 100 452 194 0.94
After 3 Years Cropping (1952)_
No. Crops
1 Corn (Weeds) 6.0 130 380 310 0.94
2 Corn "Crotalaria" 6.0 140 380 230 1.11
3 Corn (Lupines)* 6.0 100 420 210 0.97
4 Corn (Lupines)-* 6.1 100 340 210 0.81
5 Corn (Oats) 6.0 100 380 260 1.31
6 Peanuts (Weeds) 5.2 60 220 240 1.01
7 Peanuts (Lupines) 5.0 80 260 310 1.06
8 Peanuts (Oats) 5.6 60 460 230 0.76
9 Peanuts (Weeds) 5.2 40 320 240 1.04
Corn (Weeds) 5.7 60 380 250 1.18
10 Peanuts (Lupines)t 5.3 60 320 250 0.92
Corn "Velvet Beans" 5.7 80 380 240 1.1l
11 Peanuts (Lupines) 5.5 60 420 270 1.08
Rest (Weeds) 6.0 100 500 240 0.99
Peanuts (Lupines) 5.7 80 340 240 0.89
12 Corn "Crotalaria" 5.6 60 300 230 0.97
Corn, "Crot." (Lupines) 5.6 80 300 260 0.97
Corn, Oats 5.5 60 340 260 0.99
13 (Crotalaria, Oats) 5.6 60 340 200 1.04
Peanuts (Lupines) 5.8 40 460 150 0.76
Average 5.66 78 357 242 1.00

Corn received 500 pounds per acre 4-7-5 and 60 pounds N side-dressing;
lupines, 350 pounds O-14-10.
*4;- Corn received regular fertilization; lupines not fertilized.
t Peanuts not fertilized; lupines received 350 pounds per acre 0-14-10,

Fertility Experiments on Red Bay Soils

Corn: A significant response to all levels of nitrogen was obtained

in 1949 and higher but less significant yields of corn were obtained in 1950

and 1951. The investigators (10) reasoned that the corn obtained some of its

nitrogen in the latter two years from the cover crop of lupines, despite

the severely cold weather that killed the lupines in February of 1951.

No significant response to potash as revealed in corn yields was ob-

tained during the first two years, but highly significant responses were

obtained to all added amounts of potash the third year. It is probably

that the corn depleted the potash supply in the soil the first two years

and then needed supplementary amounts of potash to maintain yields.

Peanuts: While no significant yield differences for any of the

treatments of the elements tested were obtained, there was a general average

increase in peanut production in 1950 and 1951 as compared to 1919. It was

suggested that this increase could have been due to the beneficial effects of

crop rotation. The 1949 peanut crop followed peanuts planted the previous

season while the 1950 and 1951 crops followed cover crops.

Soybeans: In general, yields of soybeans were very low due to dis-

ease. damage. The unfertilized soybeans suffered the most from both diseases

and insects which partially accounted for the relatively large responses to

fertilizers. The authors (10) suggested that the low soybean yields might

have been due to the residual undecomposed organic matter left after the

preceding oat crop which was harvested. The plots were small and it was

difficult to disk the straw in deeply enough to permit complete decay before

planting the soybeans. Hence, the decaying straw probably used much of the

moisture and nitrogen needed by the soybeans in their early stages of growth,

Oats: Yields obtained from a variety of fertilizer treatments

indicated that nitrogen gave some significant yield responses for oats

harvested for grain but these responses varied from season to season. A

reasonable application for growing oats for grain seems to be about 10

pounds of nitrogen at time of planting followed by 15 to 30 pounds of nitrogen

top-dressed during the growing season. The high rate of nitrogen masked

responses to phosphorus and potassium during 1950; however, increased yields

of oats were obtained in 1951 and 1952 when applications of these fertilizer

elements were increased,

Cover Crops: Lupines and oats were grown as green manure crops.

The lupines were not fertilized but responded somewhat to residual effects of

fertilizers applied to preceding crops. Oats grown for green manure were


Other investigators (13) have studied the effect of lime on yields of

corn, peanuts, soybeans and oats grown on Red Bay fine sandy loam at the

West Florida Station near the town of Jay. Four experiments were set up,

The first was designed to test the effects of 0, 1000, 2000, and 4000 pounds

of dolomitic limestone on a three-year rotation consisting of lupines plowed

under followed by corn the first year, oats for green manure followed by

peanuts the second year, and oats for grain followed by soybeans the third

year. pH values of the soil so treated were 5.1, 5.3, 5.5, and 5.8 respectively

and corresponding exchangeable calcium values were approximately 160, 240,

420, and 600 pounds per acre. No significant responses to lime were noted

for corn, soybeans, oats, or for peanuts during the first three years of the

experiment. However, in .1953 and 1955 peanut yield increases were significant.

The second and third experiments (13) compared sources of phosphorus

with check and sources of nitrogen with check, with and without lime, on a

three-year rotation similar to that in the preceding experiment. In these

experiments the limed plots received 5300 pounds of dolomite per acre, a ton

of which was applied at the beginning of the experiment and the balance in the

spring of 1952. A study of the data indicated that the second application

of lime generally gave increased yields of corn, peanuts and soybeans over

those where only one ton of lime was applied. Little response to lime was

obtained for oats.

The fourth experiment (13) was a factorial of five levels each of nitrogen,

phosphorus, and potash on a two-year rotation consisting of lupines plowed

under followed by corn the first year and oats as a green manure crop followed

by peanuts the second year. The treatments of this experiment and the pre-

ceding second and third experiment are fully described in previous publications

(7, 8, 12). Increases in yield of corn on limed soils were significant every
year and yield of peanuts showed significant increases every year except the

first. Largest increases were obtained in 1953 most probably due to the

residual effect of the second application of lime in 1952. Expected high

yields in 1952 did not materialize due to an unusually dry year.


Average Acre Yields

Table 4 gives estimated average acre yields of principal corn grown in

Escambia County (17) on Red Bay soils. Yields in columns A are those to be
expected under common management practices; those in columns B, under good

management practices.

Table 4. Estimated Average Acre Yields on Principal
Crops grown in Escambia County, Florida on Red Bay soils (17),
Co n Cotton Soybeans Oats
Soil Type W 7 A B A A B -
BI'u u es ales Bu. Bu. Bu. Bu.
Red Bay fine sandy loam level
phase 35 50 3/4 l1 20 25 35 60
Red Bay fine sandy loam very
gently sloping phase 35 50 3/h 1- 20 25 35 60
Red Bay fine sandy loam gently
sloping phase 25 40 1/2 3/4 15 20 35 60
Red Bay loamy fine sand level
thick surface phase 25 35 1/4 1/2 15 20 25 45
Red Bay loamy fine sand very gently
sloping thick surface phase 25 35 1/4 1/2 15 20 25 45

Site Indicies for Loblolly, Slash, and Longleaf Pines

Site index is a term used to denote the average height in feet of the

dominant trees in a stand at fifty years of age. Thomas and Weeks (15) have

classified the various mapping units of Red Bay soils with certain other

soils into "Woodland Suitability Group 1" which they define as "Deep, well-

drained soils that have a loamy sand to fine sandy loam surface layer under-

lain by fine sandy clay loam at depths of less than 30 inches; permeability

is moderate and available moisture-holding capacity is high." Table S shows

the site index of loblolly, slash, and longleaf pines of each mapping unit

of Red Bay soils in Gadsden County, Florida.

Table 5. Soil type and Estimated Productivity, by
Site Indicies, for Loblolly, Slash, and Longleaf Pines (15).
..--.. .. .. .Site. index .
Soil Type and Phase Loblolly Slash Longleaf
Red Bay loamy fine sand,
0 to 2 percent slopes - - --- 0 - - 80 -70
Red Bay loamy fine sand,
2 to 5 percent slopes - - - - 90 - - 80 - -70
Red Bay loamy fine sand,
2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded ----- 85 - - 75 -65
Red Bay loamy fine sand,
5 to 8 percent slopes - - - 90 - - 80 - -70
Red Bay loamy fine sand,
5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded -- 85 - -75 - -65
Red Bay loamy fine sand,
8 to 12 percent slopes -- - -- -85 - - 80 - - -70
Red Bay fine sandy loam,
2 to 5 percent, severely eroded - -- - -70 - - -65
Red Bay fine sandy loam,
5 to 8 percent slopes, severely eroded -80 - - 70 - - -65
Red Bay fine sandy loam,
8 to 12 percent slopes severelyerodd-80 - - 65 - -65
8 to 12 percent slplees, severely eo~ _~ _f


1. Adams, F. and R. D. Rouse. Use of an Anion Exchange Resin to Eleminate
Anion Interference in Calcium Determination by Flame Photometry.
Soil Sci. 83: 305-312, 1957.

2. Bouyoucos, G. J. A Recalibration of the Hydrometer Method for making
Mechanical Analysis of Soils. Agron. Jour. 43: 434-438, 1951

3. Certain Properties of Selected Southeastern United States Soils and
Mineralogical Procedures for Their Study, Southern Cooperative
Series Bul. 61, 1959.

4. Driskell, B. N. Methods of Procedures for Soil and Plant Analyses.
Mimeographed, Agronomy Dept. L.S.U. Baton Rouge, Ia. 1955.

5. Fenneman, Neville ii. Physiography of the Eastern United States.
McGraw Hill, 1938.

6. Gammon, N., Jr., J. R. Henderson, R. A. Carrigan, R. E. Caldwell, R. G.
Leighty, and F. B. Smith. Physical, Spectrographic and Chemical
Analyses of Some Virgin Florida Soils. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech.
Bul. 524, 1953.

7, Hutton, C. E. and W. K. Robertson. A Study of Minor Element Applications
on West Florida Soils. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 14: 100-110, 1954.

8. Hutton, C. E., W. K. Robertson, and W. D. Hanson. Crop Response to
Different Soil Fertility Levels in a $x5xx2. Factorial Experiment.
1 Corn. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 20: 531-537, 1956.

9. Jones, G. B., R. W. Rowe, J. E. Britton, R. B. Hardison, and C. R.
Zappone, Jr. Soil Survey of the Marianna Area, Florida, 1909.

10. Lipscomb, R. W. and W. K. Robertson. Soil Management Practices on
Red Bay Fine Sandy Loam, Univ. of Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 537, 1954.

11. Peech, M., L. T. Alexander, L. A. Dean, and J. F. Reed. Methods of Soil
Analysis for Soil Fertility Investigations. U.S.D.A. Cir. 757, 1957.

12. Robertson, W. K. and C E. Hutton. An Evaluation of Some Nitrogen
Sources for General Farm Crops grown on Red Bay Fine Sandy Loam.
Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc. 15: 68-75, 1955.

13. Robertson, W. K., C. E. button, H. W. Lundy, L. G. Thompson, and R. W.
Lipscomb. Effect of Lime of Some North Florida Soils. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla. 17: 72-85, 1957.

14. Soil Survey Staff. U.S.D.A. Agricultural Handbook No. 18. Soil Survey
Manual. Gov't Printing Office, 503 pp. 1951

15. Thomas, B. P. and H. H. Weeks. "Woodland Uses of Soils" from Soil
Survey of Gadsden County, Florida (in Press).


16. Thorp, J. and G. D. Smith. Higher Categories of Soil Classification:
Order, Suborder, and Great Soil Groups. Soil Science 67: 117-126,

17. Walker, J. H. and V, W. Carlisle. Soil Survey of Escambia County,
Florida. U.S.D.A. Publ. Series 1955, No, 8, 1960.

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