Table of Contents
 Series description
 Descriptions and extent of correlated...
 List of mapping units of Leon soils...
 Management of Leon soils
 Estimated average acre yields
 Some properties of the organic...
 Physical, chemical and spectrographic...
 Literature cited

Group Title: Mimeograph report
Title: Benchmark soils
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00091542/00001
 Material Information
Title: Benchmark soils Leon soils of Florida
Alternate Title: Leon soils of Florida
Mimeograph report 61-3 ; University of Florida
Physical Description: 43, 11 leaves : map ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Leighty, Ralph George, 1912-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Soils
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Department of Soils, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: June 1961
Subject: Soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Soil permeability -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by Ralph G. Leighty.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaves 44-47).
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "June 1961."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00091542
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 310369552

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Series description
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Descriptions and extent of correlated Leon soils in counties
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    List of mapping units of Leon soils within Florida
        Page 12
    Management of Leon soils
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Estimated average acre yields
        Page 40
    Some properties of the organic pan in Leon soils
        Page 41
    Physical, chemical and spectrographic analyses of some Leon soils
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Literature cited
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
Full Text

Mimeograph Report 61-3 June 1961



Ralph G..Leighty


Introduction . . . . * . * 1

Series Description ..... .. . ... .. .

Descriptions and extent of correlated Leon soils in
counties . . . . . .* * .* 6

List of mapping units of Leon soils within Florida . 12

Management of Leon soils . . .. . . . . 13
1. Cost of clearing areas . . . 1
2. Water management on Leon soils . . 15

3. Potato Production . . ... . . . 18

4. Improved grasses and legumes for pasture . . 20

5. Corn production . . . . . . . 22
6. Celery production . . . . . . 2

7. Deep placement of nutrients in Leon soils . .25
8. Fertilization of pine trees . . . . 30
9. Minor element needs of Leon soils . . 30

10. Microbial activities . . . . . 38

Estimated average acre yields of vegetable and truck crops 40

Some properties of the organic pan .. .. . . \.4*

Physical, chemical and spectrographic analyses of ~e
Leon soils . . . * * 2

Department of Soils
Fla. Agr. Expt. Station
Gainesville, Florida
100 copies



The Leon soils occur on approximately one-fourth to one-third of the

land area in Florida. Throughout the state these soils are used mainly for

growing pine trees and pasture grasses and legumes, but the greater acreage

of improved pastures on these soils exists in central and southern Florida.

Artificial drainage of some areas is beneficial for the grasses and legumes.

When water management (drainage and irrigation) is installed, the Leon soils

are used for the production of vegetable and truck crops and gladiolus.

Truck crops are grown on Leon soils principally during the fall, winter,

and spring months to help supply fresh products for the northern and local

markets. Citrus trees are grown on some of the drained areas in southern

Florida. It is desirable to provide at least 36 to 48 inches of drained

rooting zone for the citrus trees (48).

The Leon soils are characterized by a thin, gray to very dark gray

surface layer, a light gray or white leached layer, and a black to dark

brown organic pan that begins at depths between 14 and 30 inche.;. These

soils have formed from moderately thick deposits of marine sand;. They occur

on level to very gently sloping areas which have the water table level

fluctuating from shallow (10 to 20-inch depth) to moderately deep (40 to

60-inch depth). The dominant vegetation consists of pine, sawpalmetto,

gallberry, huckleberry, runner oak, and wiregrass.

The Leon series was established in Leon County, Florida in 1905.. The

soil was described having a surface layer of gray or light gray sand, 6 to

10 inches thick, which occasionally contained sufficient organic matter to

give it a dark gray color. The remaining portion of the 36-inch profile

consisted of white compact sand which was saturated with water. No state-

ment was made concerning an organic pan which is a noted feature of this

soil at the present time.

Between 1903 and 1910, the Portsmouth sand (now Rutlege) included soils

with a reddish-brown to yellowish-brown layer at 16 to 36-inch depths. At

present, some of the profiles would be included with the Leon series and

others with the St. Johns series.

It was not until 1910 in the Jacksonville area that the Leon series was

mapped and described with a black or rusty-brown organic pan at depths of 10

to 20 inches, similar to the present description of the series.

The Leon soils are still described with the organic pan and with

approximately similar profiles characteristics from 1910 to the present date.

About 1945 the Immokalee series was established out of the Leon soils to

include the soils having the organic pan below the 30-inch depth and having

a gray to very dark gray surface layer. In 1959 the Pomello series was

redescribed to include soils having a very thin, light gray to gray surface

layer, a leached subsurface layer, and an organic pan usually beginning at

depths between 30 and 42 inches, but, which sometimes occurs slightly

shallower depths.




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The Leon series comprises Ground-Water Podzols formed from moderately

thick beds of sand in the seaward portions of the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal

Plains. These soils are most often associated with the St. Lucie, Blanton,

Immokalee, Ona, Plummer, Pomello, Rutlege, and St, Johns series. They may

also be associated with a number of other soils which represent great soil

groups much different from Ground-Water Podzols. The presence of a prominent

humus B horizon within a depth of 30 inches distinguishes the Leon series.

This horizon may or may not be cemented into a hardpan. The Leon soils are

not as wet and have much lighter colored and thinner AI horizons and thicker

A2 horizons than the St, Johns series. They have more distinct B horizons at

shallower depths than do Immokalee soils. They have lighter colored and much

thinner A1 horizons and a more distinct B horizon than the Ona soils which

also lack an A2 horizon. Leon soils are widely distributed along the coast

and are extensive in Florida and Georgia. The soils are assuming increasing

agricultural importance in Florida but have limited usefulness elsewhere.

Soil Profile: Leon fine sand

A 0-4" Dark gray (2.5Y 4/1) fine sand with very weak fine granular
structure to single-grained; very friable to loose; some
fine roots and few coarse ones; very strongly acid; clear
boundary. 1 to 6 inches thick.

A2 4-18" Light gray (5Y 7/1) to white fine sand; single-grained;
loose; very strongly acid; clear boundary. 10 to 24 inches

B2h 18-22" Very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) to black (10YR 2/1) fine
sand; commonly massive; firm to friable when moist, very hard
to extremely hard when dry; very strongly to extremely acid;
gradual boundary. 2 to 6 inches thick.

B3 22-26" Dark brown (10YR 3/2) to dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) fine
sand; essentially structureless; friable to very friable
when moist, hard to soft when dry; very strongly acid;
gradual boundary. 3 to 7 inches thick.

C1 26-32" Light grayish-brown (10YT 6/2) fine sand; single-grained;
loose; usually wet and saturated; strongly acid; gradual
boundary. 4 to 10 inches thick.

C 32-60" Light gray (5Y 7/1) fine sand; single-grained; loose,
usually wet and saturated; strongly acid.

Range in Characteristics: Principal types in the series are fine sand and

sand. The Al horizon ranges in color from very dark gray (2.5Y 3/1) to a

mixture of very dark gray and white which gives a salt and pepper effect.

Some profiles have a grayish brown (10YR 5/2) B1 horizon up to 3 inches

thick between the A2 and B2h horizons The B2h horizon ranges from dark

brown (10YR 2/2) through very dark gray (10YR 3/1) to very dusky red

(2.5YR 2/2) in color. It may be weakly to strongly cemented or lack

cementation entirely. Many of the B2h horizons will harden upon exposure

to air. Mottled gray and yellow sandy clay loam to sandy clay or alkaline

layers may be found at depths of 3-1/2 to 5 feet in some localities. Heavy

substratum and alkaline substratum are recognized for such soils. Pebble

phosphate underlies Leon soils in places in central Florida, usually at

great depths. One or more buried B2h horizons may also occur beneath the

solum, commonly at depths of 5 feet or more. Colors given are moist con-

ditions. When soil is dry, colors are one or two units of value higher,

Topography: Dominantly level to nearly level with occasional but rare

very gentle slopes. Gradients are normally less than 1 percent and seldom

exceed 2 percent.

Drainage: Somewhat poorly to poorly drained with slow surface runoff and

slow internal drainage. Permeability of the B horizon is variable but

seldom low. The water table is seasonally high or generally high and is

responsible for wetness of the soil.

Vegetation: Open stands of longleaf pine, slash pine or both with thick

undergrowth of saw palmetto (Serenea repens), runner oak (Quercus pumila),

Gallberry, and wiregrass. Scattered scrub oak may be present among the trees.

Use: Most areas are used for forestry, turpentining, and open range, though

large acreages in Florida are being converted to improved pastures or are

used for special crops.

Distribution Largely in Florida and southeastern Georgia, with some areas

occurring near the Atlantic and Gulf coasts from Alabama to New Jersey.

Type Location: Brantley County, Georgia; just north of Hoboken.

Series Established: Leon County, Florida, 1905.

National Cooperative
Soil Survey USA

Rev. RWS


Leon fine sand
Orange County, Florida

Profile description:

0 to 5 inches, dark gray nearly loose fine sand; contains light gray

sand grains to give a salt-and-pepper appearance.

5 to 18 inches, light gray loose fine sand.

18 to 20 inches, black fine sand; cemented with organic matter; firm

and friable when moist, hard when dry.

20 to 26 inches, dark brown fine sand; weakly cemented.

26 to 48 inches plus, brown or yellowish-brown in upper portion of horizon

and grading to light brownish-gray and light brownish-gray and

light gray with depth; fine sand.

The surface soil varies from gray to very dark gray in color and from

3 to 8 inches in thickness. The third horizon or the organic pan ranges

from black to dark brown in color and from 2 to 6 inches in thickness. The

upper portion of the organic pan is usually dense and hard when dry. Some-

times, the dark colors extend to depths greater than 42 inches. In places

the organic pan is brown in color and is weakly cemented or lacks cementation


The heavy substratum phases have mottled light gray, yellow, and

yellowish-brown sandy clay loam or sandy clay beginning at depths usually

between 30 and 42 inches. The very gently sloping areas have two to five

percent slopes.

Approximate acreage and proportionate extent of the soils,

Soil Acreage Proportionate

Leon fine sand 166,705 28.4%
Level heavy substratum phase 1,071 .2
Very gently sloping heavy substratum phase 628 .1

Leon sand
Escambia County, Florida

Profile description:

0 to h inches, dark-dry to very dark gray sand; loose and single grained,

4 to 18 inches, light-gray sand; loose and single grained.

18 to 22. inches, dark reddish-brown sand; strongly cemented; massive

(structureless); this is an organic-matter stained pan.

22 to 28 inches, yellow sand mottled with reddish yellow; loose and

single grained.

28 to 42 inches, yellow, reddish-yellow, and very pale brown sand;

mottled; loose and single grained; lighter colored as depth


The light colored surface phase differs from the Leon sand in having a

thin gray surface layer and having the organic pan at great depth.

Approximate acreage and proportionate extent of the soils

Soil Acreage Proportionate

Leon sand Z,800 0.7%
Leon sand, light colored surface phase 230 .1

Leon fine sand
Sarasota County, Florida

Profile description:

0 to 7 inches, dark-gray or very dark gray, nearly loose fine sand

that has a salt-and-pepper appearance; strongly acid; this

layer ranges from 6 to 10 inches in thickness.

7 to 14 inches, light-gray, loose fine sand; strongly acid; ranges

from 6 to 12 inches in thickness.

14 to 22.inches, white, loose fine sand; locally contains a few,

medium, faint, light-gray and gray spotches; slightly compact

in place; strongly acid; ranges from 6 to 12 inches in thickness.

22 to 26 inches, black or very dark grayish-brown fine sand cemented by

organic matter; firmly cemented when dry; moderately firm or

firm when moist; strongly acid.

26 to 28 inches, dark-brown or dark grayish-brown fine sand; hard and

cemented when dry, pulverable and moderately firm when moist;

strongly acid.

28 to 38 inches, pale-brown, dark grayish-brown, or brownish-yellow,

loose fine sand; common, medium, distinct, rust-colored

mottles; strongly acid.

38 to 50 inches, light-gray, loose fine sand; a few streaks of gray and


The light colored surface phase differs from the other Leon fine sand

in having thin, light gray to gray surface layer.

The heavy substratum phase has mottled light gray, yellow and brown

sandy clay loam layers beneath the organic pan.

Approximate acreage and proportionate extent of the soils

Soils Acreage Proportionate

Leon fine sand 6L,063 17.1%
Leon fine sand, light colored surface phase 3,$62 .9
Leon fine sand, heavy substratum phase 708 .2

Leon fine sand
Hillisborough County, Florida

Profile description:

0 to 5 inches, dark-gray nearly loose fine sand; contains a small

amount of organic matter, which gives it a salt-and-pepper


$ to 20 inches, light-gray loose fine sand.

20 to 24 inches, very dark grayish-brown or black fine sand cemented

with organic matter; firm and friable when moist; hard when dry.

21 to 30 inches, dark-brown fine sand; weakly cemented.

30 to 42 inches +, yellowish-brown loose fine sand in upper part, grades

to lighter colors with increasing depth.

The surface layer ranges from dark gray.to very dark gray in color and

3 to 8 inches in thickness.

The heavy substratum phase differs from the above description in having

mottled light gray, yellow and yellowish-brown sandy clay loam beneath the

organic pan.

The light colored surface phase differs from Leon fine sand in having

a light gray or gray surface layer and the organic pan at depths of 24 to

42 inches.

Approximate acreage and proportionate extent of the soils

Soil Acreage Proportionate

Leon fine sand 154,107 23.2%
Heavy substratum phase 4,976 .7
Light-colored surface phase 17,117 2.6

Leon fine sand
Manatee County, Florida

Profile description:

0 to 4 inches, medium-gray fine sand,

4 to 20 inches, light-gray to almost white loose fine sand.

20 to 22 inches, brownish-black pan layer consisting of fine sand and

an accumulation or organic matter and cementing materials;

hardness of this layer varies with its moisture content, and

it is hardest when dry.

22 to 26 inches, dark-brown to brown fine sand and an accumulation of

partially cemented organic matter; grades to a lighter brown

near the lower limits.

26 to 2. inches +, light-brown, yellow, or light-gray fine sand;

lighter in color with depth.

Approximate acreage and proportionate extent of soils

Soils Acreage Proportionate

Leon fine sand, heavy substratum phase 13,795 3.1%
Leon fine sand, light colored surface phase 17,863 4.1
Leon Immokalee fine sands, 0-2: slopes 167,663 37.4
Leon Immokalee fine sands, 2-5% slopes 1,873 .4

Leon fine sand
Alachua County, Florida

Profile in a virgin area:

0 to 4 inches, medium-gray nearly loose fine sand containing some

grass roots and many long large roots of saw palmetto; very

strongly acid.

4 to 18 inches, white or yellowish-white loose fine sand; very strongly


18 to 21 inches, black or very dark-brown hardpan consisting of fine

sand cemented with organic matter; hardens on exposure to

air and becomes extremely hard but brittle when dry; firm to

friable when moist; contains coarse vegetable matter; very

strongly to extremely acid.

21 to 26 inches, dark-brown partly cemented fine sand; upper 1 or 2

inches is moderately hard but brittle, and the rest is friable;

very strongly acid.

26 to 32 inches, yellowish-brown loose fine sand usually saturated

with water; strongly acid.

32 to 60 inches, light-gray loose fine sand with streaks of brown or

dark gray; usually wet; strongly acid.

Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils
Soil Acreage Proportionate Extent

Leon fine sand 93,193 16.3


Leon fine sand

Leon fine sand, heavy substratum phase

Leon fine sand, heavy, neutral substratum phase

Leon sand

Leon sand, light colored surface phase

Leon fine sand, light colored surface phase

Leon fine sand, dark colored surface phase

The above soils may be mapped as slope phases for 0 to 2 percent

slopes and 2 to 5 percent slopes.


Under natural drainage conditions, the Leon soils are suitable for

pine trees and improved and native pastures. The trees make a fair growth

on these soils when a proper management system is used. Native pastures

furnish poor to fair grazing. It takes 15 to 25 acres of range pasture to

provide enough herbage for one cow and a calf. The acreage of improved

pastures increased immensely during the past ten years and is continuing

to do so. About two to four acres of improved pasture give enough forage for

a cow and a calf. The plants commonly found in improved pastures are

Pangolagrass, Pensacola and common bahiagrasses, coastal Bermudagrass, white

clover, Huban clover, Black medic clover, and hairy indigo. These pastures

receive adequate amounts of fertilizers, lime when needed, and other proper

management practices.

Water management is of primary importance for successful production of

cultivated crops. Excess surface water can be removed through ditches or

tile, and during dry seasons supplemental moisture can be applied to the

crops by a subirrigation system through the ditches or by an overhead

irrigation system. The ditches should contain control structures for

regulating the water runoff. Under a good management system which includes

the management of the ground water and frequent applications of fertilizers

and lime when necessary, medium to high yields could be obtained from

vegetable and truck crops and field crops grown on the Leon soils. Cover

crops should be grown in the crop rotation to replenish or to increase the

organic matter content for better moisture holding and nutrient holding

capacities. If some of the organic materials are allowed to remain above

the ground, or if a strip of close-growing plants ate grown in the culti-

vated fields, they would retard movement of soil particles across the

cultivated fields during strong winds. A cropping system that consists

of grass alternated with vegetable crops is adapted to these soils.

This soil is not recommended commonly for citrus production. However,

fair yields of citrus can be expected from areas which have favorable weather

conditions and which receive intensive management practices. Frequent

applications of fertilizers and lime when necessary, cover crops, drainage,

and irrigation are some of the management practices required for the pro-

duction of citrus on Leon soils. Drainage should be provided to a depth of

36 to 48 inches for adequate rooting area above the level of the fluctuating

water table. During dry seasons the citrus trees should receive supple-

mental moisture through an overhead irrigation system (26).

1. Cost of clearing areas

Total costs per acre for clearing land, preparing the seed-bed,

adding soil amendments and seeding forage plants depend largely upon

the density of cover of trees and plants that must be eradicated and also

upon the amount of drainage work required. Per-acre costs calculated by

Reuss (47) from records for 1951-53, a period of rapid pasture development,

are as follows: $33 to $89 in the Pasco County area; and $31 to $63 in

the DeSoto County area.

The sites studied in the Pasco County area were moderately stocked

with trees and stumps. The sites in DeSoto County were lightly stocked

and contained much palmetto land susceptible to clearing by use of an

undercutting plow at modest per-acre cost.

Per-acre costs of clearing comparable land for pastures increased

approximately 15 percent from 1952-53 to 1956-57. This increase in cost

of clearing was caused by higher prices for equipment, repairs, fuel and


2. Water Management

In a study by Blue and Hammond (7 ) the hydraulic conductivity of a

typical Leon fine sand profile near Gainesville indicated that a sandy

clay layer below the organic pan supported the perched water table.

Approximately 16,500 feet of three-inch diameter vinyl plastic mole lines

were installed in Leon fine sand and Plummer fine sand near Gainesville

(24). Various treatments included tile spacings of 10 feet, 20 feet, and

40 feet and depths of 18 inches, 24 inches, and 30 inches. Studies

included soil moisture distribution from subirrigation for one fluctuating

and two constant water table levels. Each of these three plots of approx-

imately one acre will be subdivided for testing a member of crop and

fertility levels. At the end of one year none of the thirty 40o-foot lines

spaced 10 feet apart at depths of 18 and 30 inches have remained open and

operative for the entire distance (26). The 200 foot laberal lines spaced

20 feet apart plus the clay-tile main installed at 24 inches have been

effective in removing heavy precipitation from pasture and corn plots,

which were usually damaged by flooded conditions during previous years.

Good growth of corn was obtained on the drained plot in 1959. The yield

was 109 bushels per acre.

An experimental area was established by Hammond and Myers (25) to

study the design criteria for water table control systems for soils of the

flatwood areas, dominantly Leon fine sand. Each of the three plots was

square in shape and had side lengths of 67 feet, 133 feet, and 200 feet.

Each plot had a ditch 5 feet deep along two opposite sides, Pumping

facilities were available for regulating the water levels in the ditches.

Depth to the water table in the plots was measured in water table tubes

located in three rows 10 feet apart, placed across the center of each plot

between the ditches. Readings from the soil moisture tensionmeter and

soil samples taken mechanically were used to determine the effect of the

water table location on soil moisture in the plant root zones.

The horizontal movement of water was at a rather slow rate when there

were low pressure heads in the upper 30-inch layer of soil. When the water

level in the ditch was raised from a 30-inch to a 2l-inch depth for 1.75

hours, the water table level was raised 0.16 feet at a distance of 10 feet

from the ditch and was not changed at the 30 feet distance. In another

test it took 25 hours for a 1,5 foot static pressure head in the ditch to

cause the water table to begin to rise at a horizontal distance of 90

feet from the ditch, and the water table was raised only 0.15 feet during

72. hours.

The agricultural potential of millions of acres of sandy soils in

Florida can be developed and maintained only by the use of subsurface drainage

(31). Open ditches can be used successfully in most situations to provide

this drainage, but ditch systems have the disadvantages of utilizing other-

wise productive land, restricting machinery movement and making necessary

regular maintenance involving significant expense to assure the function

of the system. Tile systems might be expected to do much of this drainage

for less cost, but so many tile systems have failed that the general con-

clusion among growers is that tile drainage is not suitable for sandy soils.

Preliminary work has been started to evaluate the use of various filters

as a mean of minimizing the problem of sand entry into tile lines.

Moisture Properties and Bulk Densities of Leon Fine Sand Profiles

Depth Bulk Hydraulic Moisture Contet (dry weight basis)
DensityY/ Conductivity2/ 60cm.L/ 0.1atm./ Moisture 15atm.J/
in. gm/c in/hr.






















































Layer of Organic pan.
Layer of sandy clay loam or sandy clay.
SFrom Permeability Determinations by D. P. Powell, Soil Conservation Serivee,
SFrom Progress Report of Project 576, "The Relationship Between Several Soil-
Water Constants and the Moisture Content of Soils Under Supplemental
Irrigation," L. C. Hammond and F. B. Smith. June 30, 1960

3. Potato Production

Research findings by Myhre (32) showed that the quality of potatoes

grown in Leon soils was improved and yield was increased 23 cwt. per acre

by leveling the soil and breaking the organic pan,

Improvement of soil porosity and maintenance of high soil moisture

content appeared to be key factors in increasing potato productivity on

old land. Results indicated that Sebago potato yields on old land in the

Hastings area can be doubled or increased to at least 300 cwt, per acre by

breaking the organic pan under Leon 'white caps', leveling the land to an

uniform slope, maintaining a high soil moisture content throughout the

entire growing season, employing good cultural and spraying practices

and using about 2,500 pounds per acre of both seed and 6-8-8 fertilizer.

Whole Sebago seed was used in the following experiment.

The brownish organic pan of the Leon soil was broken up with a

bulldozer blade and mixed throughly with the dark and light colored sandy

top layers in the area. This hard, slowly permeable layer was 2 to 12

inches thick and about 18 inches below the surface. The area was leveled

to provide a uniform slope of about 0.3 foot drop per 100 feet. Breaking

the organic pan and mixing it throughly with the top soil appeared to

have an aggregate forming effect which increased the number of larger

air spaces. This beneficial structural improvement appeared to facilitate

better water movement which was an important factor in obtaining a high

potato yield.

The leveled area and an adjacent undisturbed, nonleveled area were

limed with 1 ton per acre of dolomite. Potatoes were planted in both areas,

using 2,500 pounds per acre of both seed and 6-8-8 fertilizer. Some plots

were sidedressed one, two, or three times with 500 pounds per acre of

6-8-8. Artesian water was maintained in irrigation furrows adjacent to

the plots from time of planting until one week before harvest.

On an acre basis, average yield in the leveled area was 338 cwt.,

of which 95 percent were U.S. 1A size potatoes, and exceeded the yield

in the nonleveled area by 23 cwt. Yields were not increased significantly

by side-dressing in either the leveled or nonleveled areas. Yields were

significantly higher in the center rows of the 8-row bed than in those

near to or far from the irrigation furrow. The improved quality of the

potatoes in the leveled area was of more importance than the increased yield.

The fourth crop following treatment gave an 11 percent increase in

potato yields (34).

Eddins and Myhre (10) found that corky ringspot did not develop in

soil where pangolagrass had been grown for one year, several years, and

in an adjacent area where potatoes had been severely affected with the

disease in previous years.

Corky ringspot did not occur in a leveled area where the organic pan

had been broken-up and mixed with topsoil. A considerable amount of scurf

and 'growth cracks' and some corky ringspot occurred in an adjacent area

which had not been disturbed. No corky ringspot appeared in another leveled

field in which potatoes were severely affected with the disease before the

land was leveled.
In the following year Eddins and Myhre (10) reported that Sebago and

Red Pontiac tubers grown in the same field of Leon fine sand did not develop

corky ringspot. In an adjacent undisturbed, nonleveled area, the disease

occurred in 70, 5p, 42, and 23 percent (by weight) of Sebago tubers in the

first, second, third, and fourth rows from the irrigation furrows, respecti-

vely. These results showed that severity of corky ringspot increased as

soil moisture content increased.
Further evidence was obtained by Eddins and Myhre (12) in 1959 which
showed excess soil moisture content increased the development of corky

ringspot.. The disease was very mild in 1959 in one dry, sandy, Leon

'white capped area that showed very severe in the same area kept wet by

excessive rainfall and irrigation in 1957. Additional information was

obtained to show that development and severity of corky ringspot in tubers

increased with length of time they remained in the soil.

Myhre (33) found that the physical condition of the soil was improved

by the use of one or two years of pangolagrass in the rotation. Volume

weight values for the continuously cropped soil were about 10 percent

higher than in the former sodded soil, indicating that aeration and water

movement were more favorable for root growth and tuber formation in the

sodded soil.

4. Improved Grasses and Legumes for Pastures

Blue (2) reported that the analytical data for soil samples taken in

February 1955 showed very efficient retention of Fall-applied potassium

through the winter months in the Leon and related soils. There were approx-

imately 113 inches of rain during this period The data indicated that

potash leached less rapidly from these soils than had been previously sup-

posed. This may be of considerable importance in the fertilization of

pastures growing on Leon fine sand and associated soil types, Analysis

showed that phosphorus had accumulated in these soils where phosphate

fertilizers and lime were applied.

Fall-applied potash was retained again in 1956 in Leon fine sand (3).

Under grazing conditions, very little benefit is obtained from additional

spring-applied potash on this soil. He also found that one ton of lime gave

approximately the maximum conversion of nitrogen on Leon fine sand. The

values were 11 ppm of nitrate nitrogen from unlimed soil and 34 ppm from

limed soil. The data may be useful in fertilizing for the establishment

of pastures on new soil.

The results of the four years of pasture experiments were reported by

Blue (4) in 1958. The phosphate accumulated in the soil with years and

increasing rates of phosphate application. Potash did not accumulate from

year to year any appreciable extent, but was retained efficiently from

October to February. Rainfall during this period varied from 1.2 to 14.9

inches, Soil organic matter was increased by 0.72 percent. Accumulation

of organic matter was not significantly different for programs. Soil pH

was inversely correlated with soil organic matter and total phosphorus was

directly correlated with organic matter.

It was found (6) that a mixture of boron, copper, and zinc gave

significant response to the white clover Pensacola bahiagrass, pasture

on Leon fine sand.

After phosphates were withheld from the fertilizer applied in the

proceeding November to the phosphate source plots on Leon fine sand,

Neller and Robertson (36) reported that the spring growth of Ladino clover

for the fifth year of the experiment was fully as good for each of the

following treatments: (1) application of 2000 pounds per acre of rock

phosphate when the grass and clover were planted, (2) application of 1000

pounds per acre of rock phosphate when grass and clover were planted and
supplemented with 30 pounds of P205 per acre in superphosphate, and (3)

application of 60 pounds of P205 per acre annually in superphosphate. The

residual effects of basic slag, applied at the rate of 30 pounds per acre

soluble P205 annually, were as good as any of the above phosphate treatments.
The annual air-dry weight seven-year average of Ladino clover and

Pensacola bahiagrass clipped from plots on Leon fine sand was 5.95 tons per

acre where rock phosphate had been added initially at 300 pounds P2a5 per

acre together with superphosphate annually at 30 pounds P205 per acre (37).

The next best growth was with rock phosphate applied initially at 600 pounds

per acre P20 Response to basic slag used at the rate of 30 pounds citrate
soluble per acre was 5.66 tons of forage annually. The poorest growth was

from the plots that received superphosphate at 15 pounds P205 per acre

annually. Uniform amounts of potash, minor elements and dolomitic lime, but

no nitrogen, were added to these plots. Clover predominated in the early

springs, cuttings and the grass was dominant, for most years, in the latter

part of the summer. Poorest growth of clover was where the least (15 pounds

P205 per acre) amounts of superphosphate had been added. The exchange
capacity and organic matter content of the surface four inches of soil

was somewhat higher where basic slag had been used.

In a greenhouse experiment with Ladino clover, growing on Leon fine

sand, growth of the first cutting was best where gypsum, copper and manganese

sulfates, and borax were added in appropriate amounts to basic slag. Use

of superphosphate '20 percent P205) plus the minor elements resulted in

slightly better growth than with an equivalent amount of phosphorus added

as basic slag.

Neller (35) found that elemental sulfur and rock phosphate increased

yields of clover and Pensacola bahiagrass on virgin Leon fine sand and

increased the phosphorus content of the herbage.
Volk (51) made direct measurements of volatile loss of ammonia from 50

pounds of nitrogen on sod on Leon fine sand of pH 5.8 and found that surface

liming significantly increased volatile loss of ammonia from ammonium sulfate

but not from ammonium nitrate.
5. Corn Production
Soils of the flatwood areas are often considered unsuitable for the

production of cultivated field crops, and corn is not generally grown on

These soils in Florida. However, five leading hybrids of corn were planted

by Norden (38) on Leon fine sand May 1, 1958. Two seeding rates, 15,000 and

8,000 plants per acre, were used and the crop received a total of 112 pounds

of nitrogen, 84 pounds of phosphorus, and 168 pounds of potassium per acre.

The high rate of seeding gave an average yield of 103 bushels per acre,

compared to 75 bushels for the low rate. Yield differences among varieties

were not statistically significant. Although more ears were produced per

plot at the high seeding rate, they were not significantly smaller than the

ears produced on the low population plots. The number of ears per plant

decreased from 1.43 to 1.O as the plant population increased from 8,000

to 15,000 plants per acre, and the percent of lodged plants increased from

6 to 10 percent.

Results of this test suggested that on flatwood soils where moisture

is usually not limiting, plant populations might be higher than those

normally recommended for the well drained soil on which most of the corn

in Florida is now being grown.

In a study by Robertson (43) corn grown with high rates of fertilizer

on Leon fine sand gave yields up to 129 bushels per acre in 1959. The
distribution of rainfall was good during the growing season and the total

rainfall was above average. Where the highest yield was obtained, the

exchangeable calcium (CaO), potassium (K20), and magnesium (MgO) and the

acid acetate-soluble phosphorus (P205) content of the surface six inches

was approximately 2000 pounds, 120 pounds, 50 pounds, and 150 pounds per

acre respectively and the pH was 6.3.

His experiment at the Dairy Research Unit in 1957 showed no consistent

yield responses to magnesium for oats on Leon fine sand, although corn grown

on the same area had previously shown symptoms of magnesium deficiency (42).

6. Celery Production

Westgate (52) reported that the maximum yields of marketable crop of

celery was obtained on the Leon fine sand in the Sanford area by using from

300 to 500 pounds per acre of nitrogen. Marked increases of marketable

celery have been obtained by the use of all nitrate nitrogen, either from

sodium nitrate of calcium nitrate, in comparison to equal amounts of nitrogen

from ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate. The addition of lime to neu-

tralize the acidity of the ammonium sulfate has not corrected the trouble.

He found that the stunted, light celery plants with short, down

curving petioles, and curled leaves characteristic were due to excessive

amounts of ammonia nitrogen in the soil.
Various amounts of nitrogen applied per acre and
yield of Marketable Celery, 1925
Fertilizer applied Average yield
pounds per acre Marketable celery
6-6-6 Crates per acre

0 0
1,000 256
2,000 383
3,000 523
4,000 542.
5,000 612
6,000 664
8,000 661
10,000 727

Relation of amount of nitrogen applied per acre
to yield of marketable celery, 1951.
Fertilizer applied Yield of
pounds per acre Marketable Celery
5-5-8 Crates per acre

0 109
2,000 513
,o000 815
6,000 906
8,000 844
10,000 637

Relation of amounts of nitrogen applied per acre and
yield of marketable celery, 1954

Fertilizer applied Yield of
pounds per acre Marketable Celery
5-5-8 Crates per acre
0 157
2,000 513
4,000 650
6,000 663
8,000 563
10,000 578
Nitrate Nitrogen versus Ammonia Nitrogen for Celery, 1937

Source of nitrogen Nitrogen applied Average yield of
(pounds per acre) Marketable Celery
Crates per acre

All nitrogen from
ammonium sulfate 330 354
All nitrogen from
ammonium sulfate plus lime 330 346
All nitrogen from
sodium nitrate 330 1,047

7. Deep Placement of Nutrients

On Leon fine sand yield increases were obtained for subsoiling alone

and for fertilizer, lime, and/or minor elements placed in the subsoil (44).

Responses to fertilizer were related to the chemical composition of the soil

profile and rainfall distribution. Better responses were obtained when

moisture stress periods occurred during the first part of the season. The

residual effects of the subsoiling treatments were generally small.

The field of Leon fine sand had been cultivated for many years and had

relatively high fertilizer residuals of calcium in the profile and phosphorus

in the surface. (Table 1). The soil had an organic pan beginning about 12

to 16 inches beneath the surface.

Subsoiling alone and deep placed and shallow placed fertilizersin-

creased corn yields significantly above the check. (Table 2.). Chemical

analyses of the corn ear leaf (Table 2) indicated that the roots were


absorbing the nutrients from the fertilizer bands and excavations across

the corn row showed that shattering of the subsoil helped root development

in the subsoil. The significant yield increase for fertilizer was probably

caused by phosphorus since phosphorus added in the subsoil significantly

increased the uptake of this element. Originally, the subsoil was low in

phosphorus (Table 1). Applying the fertilizer 14 inches deep gave only 3

bushels more corn than the surface application. The early dry season

encouraged roots to go deeper for moisture and fertilizer but the good

moisture distribution later in the season minimized the advantage of the

deeper root system.

Minor elements did not significantly increase corn yields on Leon fine

sand. Minor element data are given in Table 3. The manganese values for

the soil and the leaf tissue were very low and manganese added in the frit

significantly increased the intake of this element. In the early growth

stages, leaf deficiency symptonis attributed to magnesium and zinc were

observed but these disappeared at later growth stages.

The Leon fine sand was replanted to corn in 1956 to test the residual

effect of treatments. Since rainfall was evenly distributed in 1956, it

was assumed that there was little residual effect of the 1955 applications.

It was further found by Robertson and Fiskell (h4)(46) that subsoiling

improved root penetration in soils having plow soles or hardpans when the

beginning of the growing season had periods of moisture stress. If the

rainfall was heavy during the early stage of plant growth, the effect of

subsoiling on root penetration was less. Placement of fertilizer and lime

in the subsoil generally improved root development. The placement of

fertilizer in a vertical band was preferred to lateral placement and re-

sulted in continuous root development with deeper penetration by the roots.

Higher yields were associated usually with the improved root development.

Table 1.

Soil Analyses Data of Pre-fertilization Profile Samples from
the Experimental Site on Leon Fine Sand

Depth pH Ca P 0 K 0 Mg Organic Moisture
inches lbs/A bsA A l bs/A Matter Equivalent

0-6 5.9 500 890 60 80 1.8 4h.
6-12 5.2 1070 120 30 20 1.4 5.0
12-18 5.1 1560 30 40 10 1.7 4.4
18-24 5.2 380 0 20 10 0.5 2.9

Table 2.

Corn and Oat Yields and Chemical Data from Corn Ear Leaf from Leon Fine Sand

Treatment* 1956 Data
No. High Calcic Fertilizer Depth Corn Yield Ear leaf content Gr. Wt. Corn Yield Ear leaf content
Lime Placed P Ca K Oats P Ca K M
lbs./A lbs./A inches bu./A % % % lbs./A bu./A % % $ %

1 3100 0 14 71.9 0.23 0.27 2.43 6970 39.5 0.26 0.29 1.85 0.140
2 0 110-110-110 14 80.7 0.33 0.24 2.61 2900 44.2 0.27 0.29 1.84 0.136

3 2500 60-60-60 14 81.8 0.29 0.27 2.61 6390 44.5 0.25 0.29 1.84 0.137
4 2500 60-60-60o 14 80.2 0.26 0.24 2.33 6530 44.8 0.27 0.26 1.84 0.145

5 2500 60-60-60* 0 77.1 0.28 0.24 2.57 5880 43.0 0.24 0.21 1.77 0.152
6 0 0 14 70.3 0.26 0.24 2.30 5230 46.0 0.27 0.25 1.80 0.133

7 0 0 0 60.0 0.24 0.23 2.30 5660 13.8 0.27 0.27 1.80 0.139
LSD 5% S .. .... o.. .. ..9.8 0.04 0.04 N.S. 1050 N.S. N.S. O.04 .s. N.S.
LSD 1% .. .. ..... .. .. .. 13.7 0.06 I.S.
All treatments received in addition 300 pounds per acre 4-12-12 at planting and 30 pounds per acre N

as a sidedressing when corn was knee high in

1955 and 1956.

SFrit FN-501 added to mixture equivalent to a rate of 70 pounds per acre,

Table 3.
Profile Analysis for Available Iron and Magnesium and Minor
Element Composition of Corn Ear Leaves from Leon Fine Sand.

Depth Available Iron* Available Magnesium*
inches ppm. ppm.
0-6 1.02 0.124
6-12 0.56 0.112
12-18 0.98 0.068
18-24 1.56 0.052.
Coef. Var. 18% 25%

Chemical Data From Ear Leaf from Leon Fine Sand

Treatmentst Ear Leaf Content
N~o. High Calcic Fertilizer Depth Mn Fe Zn
lime Placed
Ibs./A lbs./A inches ppm. ppm. ppm. ppm.

1 3100 0 14 33.1 12.9 83 22.9
2 0 110-110-110 14 21.3 12.6 69 19.4

3 2500 60-60-60 14 29.3 15.7 93 17.4

4 2500 60-60-60t 14 56.1 12.0 76 24.1
5 2500 60-60-60o 0 29.6 14.3 83 25.1
6 0 0 14 26.4 12.4 82 20.1
7 0 0 0 16.3 11.1 75 12.0
LSD . . .... . . .19. 2.6 N.S. N.S.

*As Measured by extraction with 0.1% KC1.
tAll treatments received in addition 300 Ibs. per acre 4-12-12 at
planting and 30 lbs. per acre N as a side-dressing when corn was knee high
in 1955 and 1956.
*Frit FN-501 added to mixture equivalent to a rate of 70 lbs. per acre

Deep liming of Leon fine sand to 24 inches increased the number of

Ladine clover roots and microflora in the lower layers of this soil (5).

The larger root systems provided some drought resistance. The placement

of limestone to depths of 18 inches promoted a proliferation of roots of

alfalfa, Huban clover, and white clover in the limed zone during a period

of mild drought and lowered water table in the soil (22). Deep placement

of lime had no influence on yields during short drought periods.

8. Fertilization of Pine Trees

Pritchett and Swinford (40) reported that after fifteen years follow-

ing applications of 0.5 to 2.0 tons of colloidal phosphate, made at the

time of planting slash pines on Leon fine sand at two locations in north-

central Florida, cordwood volumes in treated plots were significantly

greater than in the control plots. If a stumpage value of $7.00 per cord

was used, the value of the increased yields from the best treatment was

$28.70 in the experiment near Gainesville and $48.30 at Welaka. The most

economical treatment was tit application of 0.5 ton of colloidal phosphate

applied in alternate 4-foot strips and disked. This treatment cost ap-
proximately f$11.63 per acre and resulted in a financial gain of $h2.71 at

the Welaka area over that of the untreated plots. The return on the initial

investment was slightly more than 9 percent interest, compounded annually,

for the 15-year period. The authors stated that the results indicated

commercial feasibility of fertilizing slash pine plantations on Leon and

related acid soils with relatively inexpensive phosphate materials.

9. Minor Element Needs of Leon Soils

Forage, consisting chiefly of white clover with some pangolagrass

which was produced on Leon fine sand at the Beef Research Unit, yielded

five tons of oven-dry weight per acre from five cuttings removed in the

period July 1954 to April 1955. This yield was not significantly different

Average pH, total phosphorus and nitrogen, and 1/
extractable nutrients of soil samples collected
from colloidal phosphate experiment in 1960.

Zone of sampling pH Phosphorus Total Extractablel/ bases
I Total Extractable/-. N Ca Mg K
inches ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm
Near Gainesville
0-8 4.25 103 2.3 .047 197 29 13.3
8-16 4.90 70 1.1 .021 65 5 9.5

At Welaka
0-8 4.4o 59 1.9 .056 143 38 10.5
8-16 5.00 34 1.0 .008 62 8 l.0

1/ Ammonium Acetate (pH 4.8) extractable.

The site indices for growing loblolly, slash, and longleaf pines on Leon

sand were reported by Thomas (50).

Woodland suitability groups of soils and
estimated productivity by site indices
for loblolly, slash and longleaf pines.

Soil name Site index
Loblolly Slash Longleaf

Leon sand 85 70 65

where all the minor elements were applied, or where copper, zinc, manganese,

iron, or molybdenum was omitted. (15) However, plots without boron yielded

three tons less with poor clover persistence and stand. On adjacent plots

clover persisted over the summer months, with best stands at the higher

phosphate and higher lime rates and in each plot in a pattern such that

plot margins showed least clover. These observations indicated both boron

and calcium are involved in clover persistence in a program of high

potassium, phosphate, and sulfate fertilization. Little wilting of

clover occurred, although the season was unusually dry in the spring of


Fiskell and Winsor (19) found that white clover growth persisted over

the summer months of 1955 mostly on plots receiving boron, with lime, and

supplied at three tons per acre in 1952. With uniform potash fertilization

and no fertilizer nitrogen over a two-year period, yields on an oven-dry

basis average 6,000 pounds per acre. Nitrogen content of the hays was

the same where molybdenum, manganese, zinc, copper, or iron was committed

or where they were all together in the minor element application which

was made in 1952. Where neither these minor elements not boron had been

applied, much less nitrogen content was found because there was little or

no clover growth on these plots. Total production of treatment with all

the minor elements averaged 164 pounds of nitrogen and 4.7 tons of oven

dry hay per acre, compared to 131 pounds of nitrogen and 4.1 tons with

boron only, or to 49 pounds of nitrogen and 2.5 tons hay without boron.

Poorer stands of clover in 1956 were observed on plots that had not re-

ceived copper in the 1952 treatments.

In 1957 Fiskell (16) reported that white clover continued to grow

throughout the 12 months for the third straight year on Leon sand limed

to pH 5.5. On plots limed at half the above level, clover stands were

much less. A significant decline in clover stand and production of small,

slightly chlorotic leaves occurred where copper was absent in the 1952

fertilization. Clover on the plots without boron and without manganese

was paler than where these elements were added, but leaf size remained

large. A notable improvement in clover growth occurred after a fall

application of 300 pounds per acre of sulfate of potash magnesia. After

this treatment, clover established strongly on plots previously doing

poorly. Clover growth up to March was significantly lower on the plots with-

out copper. The plots were retreated with minors at the rate of 1 pound

per acre per element in March. Clover yielded lower in April where boron,

copper, or all the minors were omitted. In the May yields, clover growth

was uniformly good. Total yield for the year averaged 5.5 tons from the

six cuttings.

Fiskell and Winsor (20) observed in November 1957 that the Ladino

clover on Leon fine sand near Gainesville showed a remarkable response to

frit FN-501 at 30 pounds per acre applied at seeding the previous spring.

this effect persisted during the winter months but not for clover growth

in April and May. Liming levels and gypsum treatments all showed the

response on the half of the plot receiving the frit. Causes for the better

clover growth may have been better nodulation, since inoculation and lime

with the seed was uniform on all the plot areas. However, the effect was

likely nutritional since nearby clover plots have shown a need for boron

and copper. Clover seeding was done in the spring as well as in the fall

on the above plots.

In 1958 Fiskell (17) found that the survival of Ladino clover over the

summer months of the previous year was markedly better on those plots that

had received copper and boron. For 12 months the average oven-dry yield was

5.9 tons from plots that received all the minor elements, compared to 5.4

tons without copper, and 4.8 tons where either manganese, boron or all the

minor elements were not added. No nitrogen fertilizer had been applied to

the clover plots since 1952.

From these studies minor elements requirement of such forage on this

soil would appear to be satisfied from soil sources and ordinary fertilizer,

especially for iron, zinc, molybdenum, and perhaps manganese. Ample supply

of boron, manganese, and copper remained six years after fertilization at

the rate of 2a0 pounds per acre each with dolemanite and the sulphates of

manganese and copper.

Winsor (57) reported that Dutch white clover yielded 228 pounds dry

weight per acre on leon fine sand near Gainesville when the soil contained

0.20 ppm. of boron. Where the boron was increased to 0.37 ppm. by frit

FN-501 at 30 pounds per acre, the yield was 1,437 pounds. The additional

boron seems most necessary for establishment, as older stands on Leon and

Ona fine sands were excellent at 0.19 and 0.23 ppm. of boron, respectively.

A definite relationship between soil pH and minimum boron require-

ment in turnips and cabbage was observed by Winsor (58). Where soil p1H

reNected an adequate calcium supply, the amount of boron required was higher

than where pH was low. In the St. Johns and Flagler counties areas a

serious degree of boron deficiency in cabbage was found at boron levels

of 0.11 to 0.21 ppm on Leon and Bladen fine sands. Green beans grew poorly

in Alachua County where boron values were 0.17 to 0.20 ppm. but grew well

at 0.26 to 0.28 ppm. (55).

Westgate (53) reported that truck crops (including celery) on Leon

fine sand responded to boron and chelated iron (Fe EDTA) either as

foliar sprays or soil applications. Iron chlorosis of plants has been

corrected by foliar sprays of ferrous sulfate, but not by soil applications

of this iron compound. Other minor elements have not given response. The

essential elements N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S also gave responses to the crops.

Becker, Erwin, and Henderson (1) showed significant correlation between

the incidence of "salt-sickness" in cattle and the cobalt content of soils

on which animals were pastured.

Composition of Soils From Deficient Ranges, as Related to
the Occurrence of Nutritional Anemia in Cattle.

Soil Type Acid-Soluble Copper Iron Phosphorus pH
ppm. ppm. percent percent
Leon fine sand 0.007 1.61 0.007 .006 h.59
O. o0 3.15 0.013 .005 4.93

0.003 1.96 0.01o .013 4.72

Cobalt contents of soils from areas on which livestock
responded to cobalt therapy, following symptoms of deficiency.

Soil Type Acid-soluble cobalt (ppm)

Leon Fine Sand .002
" .002

Winsor (56) found that samples of Leon fine sand collected in paper

bags were contaminated by the boron in the bags. The extent of contamination

are shown in the table below. All soil samples to be analyzed for boron

should be protected by aluminum foil or some other materials free of boron.

Boron contamination of Soil Samples Collected in
Paper Bags as Determined by Boiling-Water
Extraction of the Air-Dried Soil
Depth pH Soil Boron When Sampled Boron Combination
Soil Type Sampled and dried in: from Paper Bags
Aluminum Paper Bags
inches ppppm.ppm. ppm.. percent

Leon Fine
Sand 0-6 4.6 0.19 0.40 0.21 111

6-12 4.9 0.09 0.35 0.26 289

12-18 5.0 0.08 0.39 0.31 388

18-24 5.0 0,05 0.44 0.39 780


Analyses by Winsor (55) showed that the virgin Leon soils southeast

of Naples contained 0.12 ppm. of boron and between Naples and Ft. Myers,

0.20 ppm. It is possible that boron deficiency could become a problem in

these and similar intensively cultivated areas between Ft. Myers and Lake

Okeechobee. Unpublished data of analyses by Winsor of Leon samples are

given below for several locations in Florida.

Boron in Leon fine sand from various locations in
Florida, determined as boiling-water extractable.

Analyses by

H. W. Winsor, Department of Soils
(unpublished data)

Sample Miles and Town etc. Use Soil
Direction Boron*
from: ppm.

R1362 -

R1L22 -


1 E.
9 N,

1 E.
5 E.

- 1AP
- 1AP
- 5

R1553 2
R1556 3

R1699 1

R1725 12B

R1803 3

Rl80o -
R1805 -
R1805 -






1/2 E.






Center Hill
Center Hill
















*Boron for the first 5 samples may be somewhat in excess of true values,
as these samples were collected before it was known that samples may
become boron-contaminated from paper bags. All subsequent samples were
collected in bags with aluminum-foil liners.

Microbial Activities

Profile characteristics, nutrient concentrations, and microbial pop-

ulations of Leon fine sand used for vegetable production in the Sanford area

were determined (13). The upper part of the A2 horizon (9- to 12-inch depth)

which has a low organic matter content and low exchange capacity had small

amounts of nutrients and relatively few microorganisms compared to other parts

of the profile. In this layer, nutrient concentrations and numbers of micro-

organisms increased very little with increasing amounts of fertilizer.

Nutrient concentrations in the 12-to 30-inch portion of the profile increased

with rates of fertilization and, in spite of being continuously saturated

with water, numbers of microorganisms increased. There was a very good

correlation between number of fungi and bacteria and concentration of nitrate

and potassium.

Eno (14) found that large applications of wettable powders of DDT,

lindane, toxaphene, chlordane, aldrin, and dieldrin to Leon fine sand did

not affect relative numbers of fungi and bacteria, nitrate production, rate

of carbon dioxide production and urea hydrolysis in the soil. The data

continued to substantiate the opinion that the soil microbes were not being

seriously damaged by the present level of insectiuide residues in these


Malik (30) reported the following data relating to organic matter

content, total nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen production in some surface

layers of Leon soils.

The Organic Matter and Total Nitrogen Content and
Nitrate-Nitrogen Production in Certain
Florida Soils.

Sample No. Percent Percent NO-N Produced
Leon fine Organic Total (pp) in Days Total Ratio
sand Matter Nitrogen 1h 28 2 O.M/N O.M/N N/NO3

94 1.08 0.025 16.0 11.9 6.0 33.9 43.2 318.5 7.4
95 1.04 0.020 7.6 23.0 9.4 40.0 52.0 260.0 5.0
180 9.17 0.01o 0.5 2.9 6.5 9.9 62.8 931.9 14.8
197 2.45 0.0o8 22.1 0.7 0.0 22.8 50.9 1072.8 21.0
209 6.48 0.186 0.2 0.1 30.0 30.3 34.8 2132.7 61.3
213 5.13 0.092 0.2 3.1 0.5 3.8 55.7 1334.8 23.9
215 4.11 0.071 12.0 13.7 8.9 24.6 57.8 1188.3 20.5

Estimated average acre yields of the principal crops under two levels of management

(Yields in Columns A are those expected under common management practices; those in
to be expected under good management practices. Absence of yield figure indicates
not commonly grown.)
From report of Soil Survey of Orange County, Florida (28)

Columns B are
the crop is

Endive and
Escarole Radishes


Leon fine sand,
0 2% slopes

Heavy substratum
O 2 slopes

Heavy substratum
2 5% slopes

Leon fine sand,
0 2% slopes

Heavy substratum
0- 2% slopes

Leon fine sand,
0 2% slopes
Heavy substratum
0 2% slopes

Leon fine sand,
0 2% slopes
Heavy substratum

tons crates bushels crates


125 160 5 7 90 120 125 225 95 140 300 400

140 175 6 8 100 130 130 225

95 1O4

bushels number

90 120 175



325 425 100 150 175 300

140 175 6 8 100 130 130 225 95 140 325 425 100 150 175
--From report of Soil Survey of Hillsborough County, Florida (27)

130 2001 4 7 85 110 160 250 50 90

130 2001 4 7 85 110 160 250 50 90


- 4 200 300 160 250

200 300 160 250

--From report of Soil Survey of Sarasota County, Florida (54)

80 100 5 9 85 110 130 275 95 140

80 loo 5 9 85
--From report of

- 125 300 200 260 125 2302

110 130 275 -
Soil Survey of Manatee County, Florida (9)

- 100 5 125 -
L^ 1rr

_ ten

- LUU -_ 0 -

175 -
S. 200 -

1Polebeans 2Staked tomatoes










125 2002

125 2002

- 3002

___ I __

_ __ ____


The commonly accepted theory that the organic pan layer was toxic to

plant growth because of tannic acid was not supported by the data presented

(1l). The results from plant growth in pots showed that the organic pan

was more productive than the surface layer in all instances, and in no case

was there evidence of toxicity observed. Without fertilizer the organic pan

horizon invariably produced a better growth of oats in pots than did the

surface soil. Aluminum was very definitely concentrated in the organic pan


The Content of Iron, Aluminum, and Calciuk and Loss on
Ignition in the Different Horizons of Hardpan Soils.
--*L-IL----- II111~--- __~~ ___ ___~___ _~ ~ /


o. ,Horizon

1 A

2 A

3 A

Fe20p Alb04
.1211 .0703
.1251 .3829
.1120 .0o04

.1162 .0702
.0908 .3074
.0747 .1654

.0786 .0825
.0871 .4652
.1h98 9 71c





--I .1 7
(Samples collected in the potato fields near Hastings, Flagler Co., frla.)

Carbon, Nitrogen, and Carbon-Nitrogen Ratio in Hardpan Soils.
~--- _---------------- ---
No. Horizon Carbon Nitrogen Carbon-Nitrogen Ratio

1 A .671 .051 13.19
B .818 .0o9 16.69
C .361 .025 14.44

2 A .660 .0t7 16.17
B .516 .037 13.95
c .333 .021 15.86

Loss on Igfnition







Samples of the two organic pans in a Leon soil were collected east of

Cocoa and some of them were analyzed for carbon 14. The organic pan at a

depth less than 30 inches contained carbon approximately 1,100 years old,

and the second organic pan about 72 to 96 inches below the ground surface

contained carbon about 22,000 years old (L9).

Other Observations Concerning the Organic Pans

Two or more organic pans have been observed in other cuts and borings

in many places in Florida. Some of the deeper organic pans studies at the

edges of mine pits, which remain after mining phosphate in central Florida,

were several feet in thickness. The organic pan occurring near the surface

of the ground and the ones at greater depths have not been characterized as

to their forming processes. Some people believe that much of the organic

materials in the uppermost organic pan had moved downward through the sandy

layers and gradually -accumulated and bui3t upward from the location of a

former water table level. Other people believe that each of the organic pan

was formed when that portion of the soil profile was the surface soil and

before it was covered by a later deposition of sands. Some of the deeper

organic pans must have formed from old surface soils of former Bog-like

areas because the pans were several feet thick.


Data of physical, chemical and spectrographic analyses of several Leon

profiles from Alachua, Manatee and Collier counties were reported by Gammon

and et. al. (23). Fine sand and medium sand were the dominant particle-sizes

in the sandy horizons. The surface or topmost layers contained 1.3 to 5.1

percent silt and 0.5 to 1.3 percent clay. The leached horizons contained

less silt and clay than the surface layers. The organic pan layers had 1.7

to 6.3 percent silt and 1.0 to 5.8 percent clay. The organic matter content

ranged from 2.14 to 4.32 percent in the surface layers, from 0.10 to 0.43

percent in the leached layers, and from 1.24 to 5.01 percent in the organic

pan layers. The pH readings varied from 4.27 to 5.75 in the surface layers

and 4.39 to 4.91 in the organic pans. All of the horizons were very low

in calcium, potassium, and magnesium but the surface layers had greater

amounts of these elements than the other layers. The clay minerals of the

0 to 4-inch layer of Leon sample from Collier county consisted mostly of

quartz, hydrous mica, and montmorillonite and the 20 to 24-inch depth

(organic pan layer) consisted of quartz, kaolinite, hydrous mica and

vermiculite. (Analyzed by S. B McCaleb, North Carolina State University.)

Data of chemical analyses of Leon soils used for citrus in Brevard

county are given in Table 1 (39) of tte appendix. Data of pH and chemical

analyses of a virgin, newly cultivated, and old cultivated Leon fine sand

in Alachua county are given in Table 2 (8). The sand, silt, clay and P20g

contents and mineralogy of subsoil samples of Leon soils in Pasco and Citrus

counties are given in Table 3 (18). Data of chemical analyses of Leon soils

in Polk county are given in Table 4 (21). The engineering test data for a

profile of Leon fine sand in Sarasota County are given in Table 5 (54).

Profile samples were collected from several Leon soils near Gainesville

and Jacksonville. The description of the various layers are given in Table

6 (29). The data of the mechanical analyses showed that the upper 30 inches

of the profiles from Alachua county contained approximately 40 to 50 percent

fine sand and 25 to 32 percent medium sand particle sizes. These horizons

had 2.9 to 8.6 percent silt and 0.8 to 5.6 percent clay. Solution losses

ranged from 1.6 to 5.9 percent in the surface layers and from 2.1 to 7.7

percent in the organic pans. The samples from near Jacksonville had 55 to

95 percent fine sand size particles, 1.9 to 6.1 percent silt, and approxima-
tely 1.0 percent clay. The solution losses from these surface samples were

2.2 to 4.4 percent and 2.8 to 7.8 percent from the organic pans.

Literature Cited

1. Becker, R. B., T. C. Erwin, and J. R. Henderson. Relation of Soil Type
and Composition to the Occurrence of Nutritional Anemia in Cattle.
Soil Science 62; 383-392, 1946.

2. Blue, W. G. Pasture Programs and Breeding Systems for Beef Production
on Flatwood soils of Central and North Central Florida. State
Project 627, Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Annual Report, 1955.

3. Pasture Programs and Breeding Systems for Beef Production on
Flatwood Soils of Central and North Central Florida. State Project
627, Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Annual Report, 1956.

-- Pasture Programs and Breeding Systems for Beef Production on Flat-
wood Soils of Central and North Central Florida. State Project 627,
Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Annual Report, 1958.

5. Blue, W. G., N. Gammon, Jr., and J. R. Neller. Maintenance of Soil
Fertility Under Permanent Pasture. Hatch Project 40h, Fla. Agr.
Expt. Sta. Annual Report, 1954.

6. -- Maintenance of Soil Fertility Under Permanent Pasture. Hatch
Project 40h, Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Annual Report, 1958.

7. Blue, W. G. and L. C. Hammond. Pasture Irrigation on Flatwood Soils.
State Project 684, Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Annual Report 1956.

8. Breland, H. L. and J. A. NeSmith. A study of the Reproducibility of
Soil Analysis Results. Fla. Agr, Expt. Sta. Journal Series No. 1217.

9. Caldwell, R. E. and et al. Soil Survey of Manatee County, Florida.
U. S. Dept. of Agr. and Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. 1958.

10. Eddins, A. H. and D. L. Myhre. Corky Ringspot of Potatoes, State Project
715, Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Annual Report, 1956.

11. -- Corky Ringspot of Potatoes, State Project 715, Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta.
Annual Report, 1957.

12. Corky Ringspot of Potatoes, State Project 715, Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta.
Annual Report, 1959.

13. Eno, C. F., W. G. Blue, G. D. Thornton, and F. B. Smith. Interrelation-
ship of Microorganisms Action in Soils and Cropping Systems in
Florida. State Project 328, Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Annual Report, 1955.

14. Eno, C. F. Nitrification in Florida Soils. State Project 771. Fla.
Agr. Expt. Sta. Annual Report, 1959.

15. Fiskell, J. G. A. Availability and Leaching of Minor Elements in
Florida Soils. Purnell Project h47. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Annual
Report, 1955.

16. -- Retention and Availability of Minor Elements in Florida Soils.
Hatch Project 813. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Annual Report, 1957.

17. -- Retention and Availability of Minor Elements in Florida Soils.
Hatch Project 813. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Annual Report, 1958.

18. Fiskell, J. G. A. and L. 0. Rowland. Soil Chemistry of Subsoils of
West Central Florida. Soils and Crop Science Society of Florida.
In Press. 1960.

19. Fiskell, J. G. A. and W. H. Winsor. Availability and Leaching of Minor
Elements in Florida Soils. Purnell Project 447, Fla. Agr. Expt.
Sta. Annual Report, 1956.

20. -- Fertilization Value of Minor Element Sources Having a Moderate Rate
of Nutrient Release. State Project 792. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta.
Annual Report, 1958.

21. Fowler, Earl D. and et al. Soil Survey of Polk County, Florida. U. S.
Dept. of Agr. and Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta., 1927.

22. Gammon, N., Jr., and et al. The Role of Major Bases in Florida Soils.
Hatch Project 598. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Annual Report, 1960.

23. Gammon, N., Jr., and et al. Physical, Spectrographic and Chemical
Analyses of some Virgin Florida Soils. Bul. 524, Fla. Agr. Expt.
Sta., 1953.

24. Hammond, L. C. Drainage of Flatwoods Soils With Plastic-lined Mole
Drains. Fla. Agr. Egpt. Sta. Annual Report, 1958.

25. Hammond, L. C. and J. M. Myers, Open-Ditch Systems for Water Table
Control on North Central Florida Flatwood Soils. State Project
946. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Annual Report, 1959.

26. Hammond, L. C, and F. B. Smith. Moisture Retention, Movement, Measure-
ment and Availability to Plants in Florida Soils. State Project 957,
Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Annual Report, 1959.

27. Leighty, R. G. and et al. Soil Survey of Hillsborough County, Florida.
U. S. Dept. of Agr. and Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta., 1958

28. Leighty, R. G. and et al. Soil survey of Orange County, Florida.
U. S. Dept. of Agr. and Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta., 1960.

29. Leighty, R. G. Unpublished data of soil samples. 1939.

30. Malik, Mohammon N. An Evaluation of Several Methods of Determining the
Nitrogen Status of Florida Soils. Master Thesis, University of
Florida, 1958.

31. Myers, J. M. Tile Drainage Systems for Sandy Soils. Non-project
studies, Annual Report, Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta., 1959.

32. Myhre, D. L. Investigation of Factors Affecting Potato Production on
Old Land. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta., Annual Report, 1956.

33. -- Investigation of Factors Affecting Potato Production on Old Land.
State Project 769, Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Annual Report, 1957.

34. -- Investigation of Factors Affecting Potato Production on Old Land.
State Project 769, Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Annual Report, 1959.

35. Neller, J. R. Sulfur Requirements of Representative Florida Soils.
State Project 608, Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Annual Report, 1956.

36. Neller, J. R. and W. K. Robertson. Availability of Phosphorus from
Various Phosphates Applied to Different Soil Types. State Project
428, Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Annual Report, 1958.

37. Neller, J. R., W. K. Robertson, and T. L. Yuan. Availability of
Phosphorus from Various Phosphates Applied to Different Soil Types.
State Project 428, Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Annual Report, 1960.

38. Norden, A. J. Corn Production on Flatwood Soils. Non-project studies.
Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Annual Report, 1959.

39. Peech, M. and T. W. Young. Chemical Studies On Soils From Florida
Citrus Groves. Bul. 448, Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta., 1948.

40. Pritchett, W. L. and K. R. Swinford. Response of Slash Pine to
Colloidal Phosphate Fertilization. Presented before Division Va,
Soil Science Society of America, 24(1960), in press.

41. Richardson, L. A. The Factors Affecting the Formation of the Organic
Hardpan in the Florida Flatwood Soils. Master Thesis, University
of Florida, 1959.

42. Robertson, W. K. Yield Potential of Soils of the Flatwoods. Non-
project studies. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Annual Report, 1960.

L3. -- Lime Needs of Certain Soils. Non-project studies. Fla. Agr.
Expt. Sta. Annual Report, 1957.

44. Robertson, W. K. and et al. Results from Subsoiling and Deep Fertili-
zation of Corn for Two Years. Soil Science Society of America
Proceedings, 21; 340-346, 1957.

45. Robertson, W. K. and J. G. A. Fiskell. Subsoiling and Deep Placement
of Fertilizers. State Project 764, Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Annual
Report, 1958.

46. -- Subsoiling and Deep Placement of Fertilizers. State Project 764,
Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Annual Report, 1960.

47. Reuss, L. A. Costs of Clearing Land and Establishing Improved Pastures
in Central Florida. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta., Bul. 600, 1958.

48. Sites, J. W., L. C. Hammond, and R. G. Leighty. Information Relative
to the Growing of Citrus on Flatwoods Soils. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta.
Circular (in press), 1961.

49. Soil Survey Laboratory, U.S.D.A., Beltsville, Maryland. Unpublished

50. Thomas, B. P. and et al. Soil Survey of Gadsden County, Florida.
U. S. Dept. of Agr. and Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. In Press.

51. Volk, G. M. Availability of Various Forms of Nitrogen Applied to
Florida Soils. State Project 687, Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Annual
Report, 1960.

52. Westgate, P. J. Nitrogen in Celery Fertilization. Soil Science
Society of Florida, 15: 86-90, 1955.

53. -- Minor Element Response of Vegetables at Sanford. A Review. Soil
Science Society of Florida, Vol. 15, 1954.

5k. Wildermuth, R. and et al. Soil Survey of Sarasota County, Florida.
U. S. Dept. of Agr. and Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. 1959.

55. Winsor, H. W. Rotention and Utilization of Boron in Florida Soils.
State Project 833. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Annual Report, 1955

56. -- Level of Boron in Florida Soils. State Project 785. Fla. Agr.
Expt. Sta. Annual Report, 1957.

57. -- Level of Boron in Florida Soils. State Project 785. Fla. Agr.
Expt. Sta. Annual Report, 1959.

58. -- Level of Boron in Florida Soils. State Project 785. Fla. Agr.
Expt. Sta. Annual Report, 1960.


Table 1. Minimum, Maximum and Average Amounts of Various Constituents Found in Leon Fine Sand in
Different Citrus Groves (1942-1946 Survey) (39).

pH Base Exch.
Sat.% Cap.

Ca Mg K Mn


Cu Acid Water
Sol. Sol.

Total Organic Ratio
Nitrate N % Matter Es.Cap Ratio
N % O.M. C-N'

Surface Soil







64 17
174 247

99 90























123 8
260 55

192 26




































-~--- ---

Table 2. The pH and Easily Extractable Nutrients Levels
Obtained for Leon fine sand,

Location Condition pH CaO Ibs/A MgO lbs/A P205 lbs/A K20 lbs/A

ave. ave. ave, ave. ave.

Alachua Co. Virgin U.6 308 92 7 39
Alachua Co. Newly
Cultivated 5.0 $58 59 9 122
Alachua Co. Old
Cultivated 5.6 2,529 143 78 155

Average of 40 determinations over a period of three months using ammonium
acetate (pH 4.8) extracting solution.

Table 3. The Sand, Silt, Clay and P205 Contents and
Mineralogy of Leon Soils

Depth Particle Siz,e Distribution Total Clay Mineralogy from
Location Sampled Sand Silt Clay P205 Xray Diffraction
INCHES % % % % H20 Dispersed Whole

Pasco Co. 20-30 96.5 e5 1.0 .07 V2 K2 HM3 Q3

Pasco Co. 24-30 93o7 2.3 1.1 .02 V2 K2 Q2

Citrus Co. 20-30 96.9 .8 1.5 Oil KI V2 Q3

1Code for mineralogical data;

hydrous mica
40% or greater
10 to 4C0
less than 10% present

Table h4 Chemical Analyses of Soils from Polk County, Florida

Depth Fe203 A1203 CaO MgO K20 Na20 P205 S03
0 % % % % % % %

Leon sand
(21 mi. east
of Mulberry)






Leon fine sand 0-5"
heavy substratum
(12 mi. north 5-22"
and 4 mi. west
of Carters; 22-30"
5 mi. east of
Lakeland) 30-48"


..07 .15 .09 .03 .004 084 .00 .009

.05 .09 .02 .00 .000 .061 .00 .005

.07 1.17 o02 .01 .005 .056 .00 *000

.08 .68 .01 .00 .004 .041 .01 .000

,08 .47 .00 .00 .003 .062 .00 .000

.02 .00 .07 .03 .001 .076 .00 .010

.02 .00 .00 .00 .000 .039 .00 .002

.27 .53 .05 .02 .004 .052 .00 .000

1.73 4.90 .34 .22 .013 .094 .00 .006
,96 4.08 .27 .15 .018 .121 .06 .001

Soil Type

--- -- -~- -: `i-- -------I------------- ---- ----;-_--- ~

---- -- -- ~--- ------ ------ ------------ ~ ---


T.3 3
18 E.

Name Depth Horizon Moisture-Density
d or Maximum Optimum
tion Inches Layer Dry Density Moisture
lb./cu. ft. %

fine 9-20 3 104 14
7S, R. 20-22 4 101 16
:y. 22-26 5 106 13

26-52 6 109 10

Tests performed by Bureau of Public Roads.

Table 5. Engineering Test Data for Soil Samples1

Mechanical Analysis
Percentage Passing Sieve Percentage Smaller Than:
No. 10 No. 40 No. 60 No. 200
(2.0mn)(0.42mm)(0.25mm)(0.074mm) 0.05m 0.02mm 0.005mm 0.002mm

100 96 76 5 5 5 3 1

100 98 75 12 9 6 6 5

100 97 76 9 8 6 4 3

100 97 78 6 5 4 3 2

Liquid Plasticity
Limit Index





A.A.S.H.0. Unified

A-3(0) SP-SM

A-2-4(0) SP-SM

A-3(0) SP-SM

A-3(0) SP-SM



Table 6.


Profile No. 1. Leon fine sand, loamy phase.2/
Profile samples were taken south of Payne's Prairie on the south
side of the old Gainesville-Micanopy road and 3A miles west of the inter-
section of this road with the new highway.

Sample No.
1. 0-6"
2. 6-17"
3. 17-21"
4. 21-30"
5. 30-38"
6. 38-50"
7. 50-60"

Dark gray fine sand.
Gray fine sand, compact when wet.
Black compact hardpan layer.
Brown loamy fine sand (lower portion of hardpan layer.)
Brownish-gray loamy fine sand with brown pebbles.
Gray sandy clay with brown or reddish-brown streaks.
Gray sandy clay, well saturated with water, some pebbles and also
some brownish mottlings.

Profile No. 2. Leon fine sand.
Profile samples were taken near the above location but nearer to
the road.



13. 44-58"
13 B 58-65"

Dark gray fine sand.
Gray to light gray fine sand.
Dark or black organic hardpan.
Brownish-gray loamy fine sand. Lower portion of hardpan.
Gray loamy fine sand with brown mottlings. Some pebbles or
Gray sandy clay loam. Small amount of mottlings.
Gray sandy clay with brown mottlings.

Profile No. 3. Leon fine sand, loamy phase.l/
Profile samples were taken on the west side of the new Gainesville-
Micanopy road and 1 mile south of Payne's Prairie.

14. 0-4" Dark gray fine sand.
15. 4-11" Gray to light gray fine sand,
16. 11-14" Black organic hardpan.
17. 14-18" Brownish-gray loamy fine sand with brown mottlings.
pebbles. Lower portion of hardpan.
18. 18-32" Brownish-gray loamy fine sand with brown mottlings.
pebbles or concretions.
19. 32-46" Brownish-gray fine sangrloam with brown mottlings.
20. 46-55" Gray sandy clay loam with a few brown mottlings.

Some brown

Some brown

Profile No. h. Leon fine sand, loamy phase./
Profile samples were taken 1 mile north of Marietta, Duval County,
Florida and adjacent to Bladen fine sandy loam.

21. 0-4" Dark gray fine sand, loamy.
22. 4-13" Gray fine sand.
23. 13-16" Black, dense organic hardpan.
24. 16-22" Dark brown fine sand with pale yellowish-gray mottlings, showing
25. 22-40" Gray to light gray fine sand with yellow mottlings.
26. 40-60" Yellowish-gray fine sandy clay loam streaked with reddish-brown

Profile No. 5. Leon fine sand.
Profile samples were taken 1 mile west of Whitehouse, Du'val
County, Florida.

27. 0-5" Dark gray fine sand.
28. 5-17" Light gray fine sand.
30. 18-24" Black organic hardpan.
31. 24-34" Yellowish-brown fine sand. (Lower portion of hardpan).
32. 34-46" Yellowish-gray fine sand with some brown mottlings.
33. 46-60" Dark gray fine sand. (Formerly an old hardpan).

Profile No. 6. Leon fine sand.
Profile samples were taken along the Jacksonville-Jacksonville
Beach Road eight miles east of the St. Johns River Bridge, Duval County,

34. 0-6" Dark gray fine sand.
35. 6-26" Gray fine sand.
36, 26-32" Black organic hardpan.
37. 32-38" Dark brown to brown fine. Lower portion of hardpan,
38. 38-60" Gray fine sand with a little brown colorings.

Profile No. 7. Leon fine sand.
Profile samples were taken 1 miles west of Orange Heights on the
south side of the Gainesville-Melrose road, Alachua County, Florida.

39. 0-4" Gray fine sand, darkened some by organic matter.
4O. 4-18" Gray to light gray fine sand.
41. 18-25" Dark brown fine sand (hardpan layer).
42. 25-32" Yellowish-brown fine sand (lower portion of hardpan layer).
43. 32-52" Yellowish-gray fine sand with a few brown mottlings.
4h, 52-62" Gray fine sandy clay loam with yellow and brown mottlings,
Profile No. 8. Leon fine sand.
Profile samples were taken 3A miles Northwest of Fairbanks, Florida
along the Fairbanks-Louise County road.

45. 0-h" Gray fine sand, darkened with some organic matter.
46. 4-22" Light gray fine sand.
47. 22-25" Dark brown organic hardpan.
48. 25-36" Yellowish-gray to brownish-gray fine sand.
49. 36-58" Yellowish-gray fine sand.
50. 58-70" Dark gray to gray fine sand with light gray mottlings. Could
not reach sandy clay at 9 foot depth.

Profile No. 9. Leon fine sand.
Profile samples were taken l1 miles Northwest of Fairbanks, Alachua
County, Florida.

51. 0-5" Gray fine sand with a small amount of organic matter.
52. 5-24" Light gray fine sand.
53. 24-28" Dark gray fine sand, disintegrated hardpan.
54. 28-40" Brownish-gray to yellowish-gray fine sand,
55. 0O-54" Gray fine sand with a few yellow mottlings.
56. Sh-66" Gray fine sand
2/The heavy substratum phase includes the loamy phase of former years.

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