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Fall Focus on the Arts and Humanities: Gustav Klimt and the Erotic Female Nude

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Fall Focus on the Arts and Humanities: Gustav Klimt and the Erotic Female Nude
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Journal of Undergraduate Research
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Romanach, Monica
Tsai, Joyce
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Gainesville, Fla.
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University of Florida
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University of Florida | Journal of Undergraduate Research | Volume 16, Issue 1 | Fall 2014 1 Gustav Klimt and the Erotic Female Nude Monica Romanach and Dr. Joyce Tsai College of Fine Arts, University of Florida Gustav Klimt was an important Viennese artist from the fin de sicle noted for his highly embellished paintings , which were shown as part of the Secessionist movement. C elebrated f or his paintings, the artist worked and reworked themes of love, sexuality, and the mysterious. Klimt’s sketches and drawings are fundamental to his oeuvre, showing his work with lines and interest in cap turing erotic female positions.i Author Frank Whitford claims these erotic nude sketches relate to the changing woman’s role in turn of the century Vienna at a moment when gender inequality was contested. An emergent feminist consciousness challenged tradi tionally accepted gender dynamics, and sought improvements in women’s education, paid work, and political rights.ii Whitford further explains that , during the early twentieth century , women’s growing demands for political and social rights threatened male s exual identity.iii Due to the limited writings by Klimt, few primary sources survive to explain the motivation behind his erotic nude sketches. His sketches could be read as attempts to accentuate a woman’s sexuality over her intellectual and economic abili ties. Whitford argues that they exist to whet the appetite of the male viewer, making him a potential lover and a spectator.iv Gustav Klimt’s graphic line, while inscribing the eroticized female nude in his private sketches, seeks to corral the independence that women were beginning to enjoy at the turn of the century in Vienna. My paper addresses his treatment of the female form in his sketches and private drawings, works that stand in tension with his finished paintings, revealing anxieties about changing gender role s i n social and political spheres . Vienna’s bourgeoisie rose to political and social power in the early twentieth century , when political and economic influence shifted to the middle class. However, cultural historian Carl Schorske explains tha t , unlike the French and British bourgeoisie, Austrians learned to coexist with their aristocracy, and remained “dependent upon and deeply loyal to the emperor as a remote but necessary father protector .”v A growing appreciation of culture allowed middle class citizens t o enter higher, longer established social circles. Conversations over architecture, theatre, and music linked together a reputable aristocracy and rising bourgeoisie. However, as Schorske explains, this union between a bour geois cul ture of reason and law and an aristocratic culture of sensuous feeling and grace could only form an unstable compound.vi Schorske continues his discussion on Vienna’s background by describing the rise of the modern man, whose interests and knowledge rest in both the sciences and the arts. Arthur Schnitzler, a medical student turned playwright of Klimt’s era , is the embodiment of such an intellectual.vii He explored t he cultural instability of the b ourgeoisie in his plays by blurring the lines between the patr ons and the players, where the “corruption of art and art of corruption blend.”viii In his novel Der Weg ins Freie (The Road into the Open) , Schnitzler invests both strands of contemporary Viennese culture in his character Georg von Wergenthin. The protagoni st is both artist and aristocrat, whose conflicting values lead him to become what Schorske considers a “value vacuum ,” allowing h im to accept contrasting ideals and eventually leading to his downfall. He runs off from Vienna with a middle class girl, Anna , to Lugano, where he begins to compose until the stillborn death of their first child. According to Schorske, the eventual breakup between Georg and Anna “symbolizes the end of a half century’s effort to wed bourgeoisie and aristocracy through aesthetic culture,” symbolically leading to political and social turmoil.ix Additionally, Schnitzler’s novel reflects the conflict between art’s role in aesthetic and socio political Vienna, in which contrasting ideals were being forced together to mesh two differing groups, as is reflected in the paintings of Gustav Klimt. Klimt’s reputation initially grew through his private commissions, especially his work in Vienna’s newly constructed Ringstrasse. Though he was trained in the Academic painting style, he became a strong supporter of die Jungen, an artistic revolt that eventually became known through the Secession.x The three main objectives of the movement were to break with their fore fathers in philosophy and the arts , to speak the truth about modern man, and to en sure that art provided an asylum for the modern man from the pressure of modern life.xi Klimt, therefore, was a conflicted modern man: his knowledge of and training in painting stems from a traditional style, though his support and direction leads to a revolutionary style. The artist’s conflict between both styles was first seen in the earlier university paintings , which caused an uproar from critics and scholars alike.xii Schorske considers this radical combination of cla ssical themes and new art forms a “political liability” for all modern art.xiii Art was not Vienna’s only controversial topic. Agatha Schwartz, professor of modern languages at the University of Ottawa , considers t he changing role of women in 1900.xiv According to Schwartz, gender role confl ict “arose when women abandoned the role of ‘bearers of meaning’ to ‘makers of meaning’, and thereby became threateni ng to the disciplinary culture.” xv Such ideas stemmed from the feminist writings of Rosa Mayreder and

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GUSTAV KLIMT AND THE EROTIC FEMALE NUDE University of Florida | Journal of Undergraduate Research | Volume 16, Issue 1 | Fall 2014 2 Grete Meisel Hess, creating an inten se dialogue with opposing philosophers, especially Otto Weininger . Weininger, a prominent Viennese philosopher of the early twentieth century, is a clear example of the effort to hamper feminine progres s . Known for postulating radical claims about gender differences, he published a book Sex and Character, in which he assigned and delineated the differences between men and women. He claimed that women are defined by their sexuality because it is their main contribution to society.xviii xvi Man possesses sexual org ans, while sexual organs possess woman, and once she is absorbed by her sexuality, she cannot be beautiful.xvii Weininger’s claim emphasizes beauty as a defining female characteristic, which he believes is directly affected by her sexual nature. According to this claim, women’s lack of sexual control make them inferior, while men are fully capable of controlling their sexual desires. Additionally, Weininger links the possession of sexual organs as a mode of agency, which Schwartz relates to in the abstract as the “ argument of biology versus the social construction of gender dominating the debate.” Weininger continues, “While woman is absorbed by sex, man knows more: fighting and playing, socializing and feasting, discussions and learning, business and polit ic s, religion and art . ”xix These ideas were popularized in the fin de sicle era due to issues of gender inequality, especially in the fields of education, work pay, and political rights.xx Weininger, labeled by Schwartz a “blatant misogynist ,” considered chi ldbearing and tending to children to be women’s most important social contribution.xxi This perspective, coined by Weininger as a reaction to feminists’ works of the time, embodies this attitude toward evolving female roles.xxii Weininger’s radical claims were a response to the changing attitudes of 1900. These attitudes were present not only in economics and politics, but also in social and cultural fields. Regarding women in art, Weininger stated: It is well known that woman is not most beautiful in the nude. I admit that in pictures they may look well. But the sexual impulse makes it impossible to look at a living woman in a nude condition with the purely critical, unemotional eye, which is an essential feature in judging any object of beauty.xxiii This claim by Weininger contradicts his position on masculine sexual control. While Weininger claims men cannot help their sexual impul se when looking at a nude woman, he frequently applauds men for their ability to separate their sexuality from intellect . Schwartz argues that he “makes extensive use of essentialist arguments and gender stereotypes to support his misogynistic ideology.”xxiv His opposition to the women’s movement leads to framing sexuality and reproductive functions as a straight binary oppos ition, though their beliefs proved far more extensive.xxv Schwartz summarizes: “The misogynistic discourse plainly reveals an underlying interest in keeping women in an economically less favorable and dependent position, which is challenged by the feminists. ”xxvi Gustav Klimt’s 4,000 e rotic female nude sketches were drawn around the same time that feminist publications were becoming more prominent. However, his way of portraying women as highly sexual creatures coincides with the evidence of male fears of female sexuality. Influential men of the era were unsure how to approach woman’s emerging prominence in society and politics. Such uneasiness is especially seen in Klimt’s femmes fatales .xxvii xxviii Jan Thompson, doctor of philosophy in art history and current faculty mem ber at San Jos State University, argues from the iconographic Art Nouveau perspective: “In spite of, or perhaps because of woman’s increasing public role, she was even more zealously patronized as a fragile, helpless object, used in a decorative and liter al sense to adorn .” Thompson claims that Klimt weighs down his female subjects in his paintings with ornate embellishments, as in “obliterating three dimensionality and thus the living reality of his females.”xxix This is seen especially in Portrait of Adele Bloch Bauer I (1907), where the female subject’s body is barely seen, but instead serves as an anchor for the rich, surrounding ornamentation. Thompson clearly states: “The Art Nouveau preoccupation with the female as decorative object appears as a last ditch anxiety ridden attempt to keep women in their traditional places.”xxx In his nude sketches, Klimt portrays these women as more than mer ely decorative figures. Their highly sexualized portrayal confronts the viewer in a very direct manner . Klimt, a supp osed modern man, fall s victim to Weininge r’s accusations: he is apparently unable to separate his sexual needs and desires from the intellectual and artistic realm. Klimt is faced with the carnal impulse, relinquishing the control that is supposed to be pa rt of the masculine domain. Critic and curator Angelika Bume r argues, “The naked woman, surrendering herself, falling asleep after lovemaking, satisfying herself, alluring, waiting for her man with legs apart and lips half open, writhing in all direction s, ever ready for love making – all these Klimt has depicted countless times. In so doing he adopts the role of the dominating male. ”xxxii xxxiii xxxiv xxxi Depicting women in such a beautiful yet remote way emphasizes the “unbridgeable distance” between men and women. Whitfor d elaborates: “These women are exclusively sexual objectsThe pencil or crayon line with which they are described explores and caresses as though the act of drawing was itself part of the process of foreplay and intercourseThey exist only to whet the appe tite of the male spectator who is not only a potential lover but also a voyeur.” The male viewer suffers because of his inability to possess her and failure to understand her beyond her sexuality.

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MONICA ROMANACH University of Florida | Journal of Undergraduate Research | Volume 16, Issue 1 | Fall 2014 3 Eroticism and intimacy are seen in many of Klimt’s sketches, namely his studies for the 1913 painting The Virgin ( Figure 1). The finished oil on canvas includes seven women lying along a diagonal across the canvas. Some open their eyes slightly, while othe rs avert their gaze. The central figure cocks her head to the viewer’s left, while her arms are spread on either side of her head. Figure 1. Gustav Klimt, The Virgin, 190 x 200 cm, Nrodn galerie, Prague, 1913. Source: Marian Bisanz Prakken. Gustav Klimt: The Magic of the Line . 1st ed. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2012) . According to Marian BisanzPrakken, former curator of the Albertina in Vienna, the figure’s arms are her implied spread legs, which are covered by a swirling, vibrantly designed dress.xxxvi xxxvii xxxv Klimt surrounds the central figure with six other women of varying poses, all framing the central figure. Bisanz Prakken argues that Klimt “grapples comprehensi vely for the first time with the various stages of erotic consciousness – from young girl to mature woman – which he saw as characterizing feminine existence”. Such a survey of erotic consciousness ranging across different personalities and ages required many studies of female forms. Several of these studies are drawings that are still kept in the inventory of the Albertina in Vienna, Austria, and are considered “an autonomous step in the process of carefully analyzing this theme, one that would intensely occupy Klimt as draftsman .” Though they are not as popularized as his paintings, the importance of these drawings is seen as a vital step in the development of the female figure. In Standing Nude with Bent Arm , 191112 ( Figure 2), a nude woman is depicte d in a basic pose with simple lines . The woman stands, shifting all her weight onto her own right side, in a classical contrapposto manner. She holds her left hand at her waist while allowing her right arm to dangle down, similar to her lowered head. The l ine depicting her left forearm is lost in the contours, but properly implied given the flow and rhythm of the rest of the dra wing. The subject, though nude, is not highly erotic. She becomes yet another model in his studio; her emphasized attributes are li mited to the S shaped curve of her body and her darkened lips.xxxviii The woman is an object to be looked at. Figure 2. Gustav Klimt, Standing Nude with Bent Arm , Study for The Virgin , Graphite, 56.5 x 36.8 cm, 191112. Source: Marian Bisanz Prakken. Gustav Klimt: The Magic of the Line. 1st ed. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2012) . In Nude with One Leg Propped Up, Seen from Behind with Repetition on Left , 191112 ( Figure 3), Klimt further emphasizes the curves of a woman’s body. She has no distinct features that would set her aside from any other female. The identity of the subject is strictly limited to the backside of her bare body. She crouches over and sets a similar tone to the previous pose of F igure 2 – powerless, compliant, and removed. Figure 3. Gustav Klimt, Nude with One Leg Propped Up, Seen from Behind, with Repetition on the Left , Study for The Virgin, Graphite, 53.6 x 37.4 cm, 191112. Source: Marian Bis anz Prakken. Gustav Klimt: The Magic of the Line . 1st ed. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2012) .

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GUSTAV KLIMT AND THE EROTIC FEMALE NUDE University of Florida | Journal of Undergraduate Research | Volume 16, Issue 1 | Fall 2014 4 One may argue that Klimt’s lack of characterizing details in his studies simply reflects a focus on forms and composition, a style that is distinctly separate from any rising gender role issues of twentieth century Vienna. However, in the drawing Seated Nude from Back Facing Right (Strobl 2219), 1913 (Figure 4), the artist reveals other motivations. The work portrays a similar position to Nude with One Leg Propped Up, Seen from Behind, with Repetition on the Left (Figure 3), except the figure Figure 4. Gustav Klimt, Seated Nude from Back, Facing Right (Strobl 2219), study for the painting The Virgin, pencil, 56.5 x 37.3 cm, 1913. Source: Rainer Metzger. Gustav Klimt: Drawings and Watercolors . (London: Thames and Hudson, Inc., 2005) . sits along the edge of what appears to be a bed wit h her ankles crossed. Again, the viewer is blocked from any defining features, leaving only a nondescript nude in the center of the paper. On the lower left hand side of the drawing is an autographed dedication that reads: “Most warmly dedicated to Mr. Gustav Nebehay.” By signing and dedicating the drawing to another, it breaks free from being just another study or sketch. It is finished . A ll that is seen of the drawing is all that is intended to be seen. Furthermore, it is interesting to note the exchange between two men over an over tly sexual drawing, when, according to Weininger, males should be capable of controlling such desires and looking into the further complexities of life. Not all of Klimt’s studies for The Virgin avoided the female’s face. Reclining Seminude, Arms Crossed B ehind her Head , 191112 ( Figure 5), depicts a woman lying across the paper in a more erotic pose. She wears a dress that has been pulled up, exposing her rear and some of her genitals. Her legs are lost in the brisk contours of the drawing, leaving her floating in the middle of the composition. By setting her in such a position, she becomes swallowed by the background, as if lying provocatively on an in finite bed. Whitford points out that “a lack of background conspires to draw attention to [her] sex.”xxxix He r eyes remain closed as she separates herself from the viewer through a provocative slumber. Figure 5. Gustav Klimt, Reclining Seminude, Arms Crossed behind Her Head, Study for The Virgin, graphite, 56.1 x 36.7 cm, 19111912 Source: Rainer Metzger. Gustav Klimt: Drawings and Watercolors . (London: Thames and Hudson, Inc., 2005) . In Semi Nude (Strobl 2285), 1913 ( Figure 6), the woman lies again diagonally across an infinite mattress, this time fully exposing everything below her upper abdominals. Her legs are spread open, inviting the viewer to gaze directly upon her genitalia. Once more, her head is tilted, her eyes are barely open, but this time, Klimt draws her lips slightly apart, for an additionally erotic touch. The female, much like many of his other drawings of women masturbating, involves a passive protagonist. Her tilted head and lack of eye contact strip away of any of the subject’s agency. The Figure 6. Gustav Klimt, Semi Nude (Strobl 2285), Study for The Virgin, pencil, 56 x 37 cm, 1913. Rainer Metzger. Gustav Klimt: Drawings and Watercolors . (London: Thames and Hudson, Inc., 2005) .

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MONICA ROMANACH University of Florida | Journal of Undergraduate Research | Volume 16, Issue 1 | Fall 2014 5 drawing is openly sexual, and is signed on the left corner, marking it another finished artwork. It is difficult to argue against an implied voyeuristic app roach with the described drawings. Though they are all labeled as studies for the painting The Virgin , none very closely relate to the finished product. Their similarities are restricted to diagonal compositions, closed eyes, and tilted heads. In Semi Nude with Arms Crossed Behind Head (Strobl 2272), 1913 ( Figure 7), one is faced with one of Klimt’s most active erotic nudes. She is drawn in the center of the paper, her body again curving in an S shape. He depicts more tension along the woman’s own right sid e as she poses nude atop a mess of covers. Her eyes and mouth are open, with more detail on the mouth. Her shape references classical Greek sculpture and a fascination with the lean muscular ability of the female. The focal point is simply the body being drawn. Her placement and depiction in this manner is another way in which Klimt limits the woman to a strictly sexualized view. Figure 7. Gustav Klimt, Seated Nude with Arms Crossed Behind Head (Strobl 2272), Study for The Virgin, pencil, 56.9 x 37.3 cm, 1913 Rainer Metzger. Gustav Klimt: Drawings and Watercolors . (London: Thames and Hudson, Inc., 2005) . Bu mer argues that “while woman has liberated herself in the constraints of society, no longer bei ng man’s appendage, she has instilled fear in man.”xl In some cases, as in Standing Nude with Bent Arm ( Figure 2) and Nude with One Leg Propped Up, Seen from Behind, with Repetition on the Left ( Figure 3), the model’s entire face is completely void. In others, such as Reclining Seminude, Arms Crossed behind Her Head ( Figure 5) and Semi Nude ( Figure 6) , the subject becomes an object as she lies diagonally across the picture plane. She is almost always passive. Though hi s claims are not as blunt as Weininger, the need to frame the female in a way that is understandable to the male prevails. Misogyny was a prevalent attitude during turn of the century Vienna. Women gained both power and influence, making their mark in are as outside just the home. In an effort to hamper their cause, philosophers such as Weininger labeled them as nothing more than sexual animals that could never break out of their erotic nature. Gustav Klimt, the avant garde artist, exhibits restricted views of women in this place by manipulating their sexuality. His drawings of nudes, especially those that served as studies for later paintings (like The Virgin ), were a way of keeping women in their place. His characters are highly superficial, which he succe eds in depicting thr ough the use of a thin, flowing contour line. Though they are anatomically factual and express another side of Klimt’s artistic talent, the women portrayed lose all sense of individuality. Given the time of turmoil between the genders, a sense of repressing the new woman was expected. Gustav Klimt’s manner of female repression, however, revolutionized the artistic world through his manipulation of mere thin, pencil lines. ENDNOTES i “The pencil or crayon line with which [the nudes] are described explores and caresses as though the act of drawing was itself part of the process of foreplay and intercourse.” ( Frank Whitford, Klimt, (London: Thames and Hudson, Inc., 1990), 161.) ii Agath a Schwartz, "Austrian Fin -de -Sicle Gender Heteroglossia: The Dialogism of Misogyny, Feminism, and Viriphobia," German Studies Review , 28, no. 2 (2005): 348) iii Frank Whitford, Klimt, (London: Tha mes and Hudson, Inc., 1990), 169. iv “The women in these d rawings have no identity as individuals. They are anonymous and largely passive. They exist only to whet the appetite of the male spectator, who is not only a potential lover but also voyeur.” ( Frank Whitford, Klimt, (London: Thames and Hudson, Inc., 1990), 119.) v Carl Schorske explains the effects of politics and the psyche in his book, Fin de -Sicle Vienna . Vienna’s bourgeoisie came to power after the fall of the Hapsburgs in the late 1800s. Schorske explains: “More significant for our concern is the aesthetic culture of the educated bourgeoisie after the mid -century, for out of it grew the peculiar receptivity of a whole class to the life of art, and concomitantly at the individual level, a sensitivity to the psychic states. By the beginning of our ce ntury, the usual moralistic culture of the European bourgeoisie was in Austria both overlaid and undermined by an amoral Gefhlskultur.” ( Carl E. Schorske, Fin de Sicle Vienna , (New York: Random House, Inc., 1980), chap 1.) vi Ibid. vii Schorske comments: “In Arthur Schnitzler (18621931), the two strands of Austrian fin-de -siecle culture, the moralistic -scientific and the aesthetic, were present in almost equal proportions.” ( Carl E.

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GUSTAV KLIMT AND THE EROTIC FEMALE NUDE University of Florida | Journal of Undergraduate Research | Volume 16, Issue 1 | Fall 2014 6 Schorske, Fin de -Sicle Vienna , (New York: Random House, Inc., 1980), chap 1.) viii Schnitzler’s play, The Green Cockatoo , is set in a cabaret -theatre, “where performances aim at obliterating for patrons the distinction between play and reality, mask and manToo much dedication to the life of the senses has destroyed in the upper class the power to distinguish politics from play, sexual aggression from social revolution, art from reality. Irrationality reigns supreme over the whole.” ( Carl E. Schorske, Fin de -Sicle Vienna , (New York: Random House, Inc., 1980), chap 1.) ix Carl E. Schorske, Fin -de Sicle Vienna , (New York: Random House, Inc., 1980), chap 1. x “The Secession defined itself not as a mere salon des rfuss , but as a new Roman secesio plebis , in which the plebs, defiantly rejecting the misrule of the patricians, was withdrawing from the republicWhere in Rome the elders pledged their children to a divine mission to save society, in Vienna the young pledged themselves to save culture from their elders.” Carl E. Schorske, Fin -de -Sicle Vienna , (New York: Random House, Inc., 1980), chap 5. xi Carl E. Schorske, Fi n -de Sicle Vienna , (New York: Random House, Inc., 1980), chap 5. xii In 1894, Klimt was commissioned to paint the frescoes of the Burgtheater, one of the main buildings of Vienna’s Ringstrasse. His portrayal of woman as sexual and mysterious in Philosophy , Medicine, and Jurisprudence angered many critics, causing divisions among many critics. The many disagreements that stemmed from these paintings also revealed the intricate relationship between culture and politics during this time. Carl E. Schorske, Fin de -Sicle Vienna , (New York: Random House, Inc., 1980), chap 5. xiii Carl E. Schorske, Fin de -Sicle Vienna , (New York: Random House, Inc., 1980), 243. xiv Agatha Schwartz’s paper aims to discuss the attitudes of misogynists, feminists, and viriphobics in fin -de -sicle Austria. She argues:”misogynists focused on the danger of the ‘feminization’ of culture, feminists sought to integrate the feminine, while viriphobic authors aimed to exclude the masculine.” xv Schwartz, Agatha. "Austrian Fin -de -Sicle G ender Heteroglossia: The Dialogism of Misogyny, Feminism, and Viriphobia." German Studies Review . 28.2 (2005): 348. Web. 7 Jan. 2014. xvi Otto Weininger, Sex & Character , (New York: G.P Putnam's Sons, 1906), 162. xvii Ibid. xviii Schwartz, Agatha. "Austrian Fin de -Sicle Gender Heteroglossia: The Dialogism of Misogyny, Feminism, and Viriphobia." German Studies Review . 28.2 (2005): 348. Web. 7 Jan. 2014. xix Ibid. xx Schwartz, Agatha. "Austrian Fin -de -Sicle Gender Heteroglossia: The Dialogism of Misogyny, Feminism , and Viriphobia." German Studies Review . 28.2 (2005): 347 366. Web. 7 Jan. 2014. xxi Ibid. xxii Agatha Schwartz points to feminist literature by Rosa Mayreder, Irma von Troll -Borostyani, and Grette Meisel -Hess. ( Schwartz, Agatha. "Austrian Fin de -Sicle Gender Heteroglossia: The Dialogism of Misogyny, Feminism, and Viriphobia." German Studies Review . 28.2 (2005): 348. Web. 7 Jan. 2014) xxiii Otto Weininger, Sex & Character , (New York: G.P Putnam's Sons, 1906), 162. xxiv Schwartz, Agatha. "Austrian Fin de -Sicle Gender Heteroglossia: The Dialogism of Misogyny, Feminism, and Viriphobia." German Studies Review . 28.2 (2005): 351. Web. 7 Jan. 2014. xxv Ibid. xxvi Ibid. xxvii Susan Anderson, "Otto Weininger's Masculine Utopia," German Studies Review , 19, no. 3 (1996) xxviii Jan Thompson, "The Role of Women in the Iconography of Art Nouveau," College Art Association , 31, no. 2 (1972): 158 -167 xxix Ibid. xxx Ibid. xxxi Angeli k a Bumer. Women . (New York: Rizzoli, 1987), 12. xxxii Ibid. xxxiii Frank Whitford, Klimt , (London: Thames and Hudson, Inc., 1990), 119. xxxiv Angelica Bumer. Women . (New York: Rizzoli, 1987), 12. xxxv Marian BisanzPrakken. Gustav Klimt: The Magic of the Line . 1st ed. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2012) xxxvi Ibid. xxxvii Ibid. xxxviii “Like Rodin, Klimt always had two or three models at his beck and call. When they weren’t being drawn, they lounged around naked or in their underwear and invariably surprised any visitor who had never been to the studio before.” ( Frank Whitford, Klimt, ( London: Thames and Hudson, Inc., 1990), 163166.) xxxix Frank Whitford, Klimt , (London: Thames and Hudson, Inc., 1990), 163 xl Angelica Bumer. Women . (New York: Rizzoli, 1987),12.