University of Florida | Journal of Undergraduate Research | Volume 1 6 , Issue 1 | Fall 20 14 1 An Analysis of Social Spaces and the Influence of Residents in a University Setting Mitchell Clarke College of Design Construction and Planning , University of Florida History has seen a transformation of the social constructs of residential halls in the United States, which were influence d by European models that facilitated the interaction s of faculty and students through differing residential arrangements. During the early to mi d 20th century, however, the layout of facilities shifted from residential to institutional in character . This led to a lack of social interaction s amongst residents, and lowered the chances for these residents to transition and acclimate to a university setting. With social changes and heightened social awareness of the late 1960s and 1970s, there was a renewed call for residence halls to accommodate social connectivity between residents and the university. Multiple examples of renovations and architectural planning took place across the country to address the need for social development of students. In these projects, the design of spaces that allow and encourage social interactions has beco me central amongst the factors addressed by architects and facility planners. INTRODUCTION The effective transition of students into a university setting provides the foundation for academic and social success in a higher education environment. Residential living environments that effectively promote the social interaction s of students can facilitate this transition. When these living environment s become more institutionalized and are not designed to promote student sâ€™ social development, however, they can set student s up for failure. With the current rise of mental health issues in college students, an analysis of studentsâ€™ living environment s can be used to understand how these environments may encourage and promote healthy transitions and interactions. As the successful transition of incoming students into college is vital for success in their academic career, their living environment s serve an essential role in nurturing healthy transitions . This work seeks to analyze examples and case studies that provide evidence of how spatial planning and design techniques of residenc e halls can provide its occupants with an improved chance of successful transition into a higher education setting. In no way is this research attempting to say that there is one universal model of how a residence hall is constructed or designed. Rather, i t seeks to provide evidence of the effects of how designers have used techniques to enhance the interaction amongst students, and the effect s that these interactions have had on students. E nvironmental factors, budgetary and administrative restraints, and social attitudes of residents are all part of the equation when it comes to evaluating the ultimate success of residence hall s . BACKGROUND H istorically, residence halls in the United Sta tes have been ba sed on two systems of influence: the British university system and the German university system. These influence s date back to the twelfth century, with British universities such as Oxford and Cambridge using the residential college model f or their campuses.i At these institutions, faculty and student interaction s occurred on a regular basis. Lodging for students involved a full immersion into academic life, in which professors would interact with students both inside and outside the classro om. The class and dwelling were intertwined, and one could not survive without the other. This system was based upon the overall social and academic development of the student .ii The influence of the British system was the first of three phases of the development of student dwellings in the American university system , as evidenced in the founding of Harvard College in 1636.iii Following the pattern s of their predecessors in Britain, the development of the student formally and informally became embodied in the residence halls of American universities. These halls provided a system of interactions among peers and faculty. Young men would travel long distances to attend universities, and the oncampus residence halls at these institutions provided full immersion into university life .iv With an increased emphasis on education in the United
MITCHELL CLARKE University of Florida | Journal of Undergraduate Research | Volume 16, Iss ue 1 | Fall 2014 2 States, enrollment across the nationâ€™s universities increased every year . By the time of th e American Civil War in the mid 19th century , the residential college sy stem was being pushed to capacity .v The decline of this residence college model was fueled by rebellion of students and faculty due to a lack of resources and inadequate facilities. American educators traveled through Europe and analyzed the German system , which believed that the housing of students was not the role of the university, but rather that the primary focus was the academic success of students .vi Some universities, such as Harvard and Columbia, saw their presidents deplore the dormitory system, w ith President Charles Eliot of Harvard University denouncing university housing as a waste of funds and resources for students .vii However, this view left many students scrambling to find housing within walking distance to their classrooms. College towns wer e not equipped for the surge of students arriving each year. By the end of the 19th century, many conditions students faced in their dwellings were much worse than if they had been provided with on campus living .viii The beginning of the 20th century again l ooked to the administration of universities for their involvement in the role of residence halls on campuses. The president of Princeton University, Dr. Woodrow Wilson, strongly supported the construction of new halls on th e Princeton campus, and by 1915 m any other schools took the same approach . The United States federal government took a leading role during the Great Depression and following the end of World War II in 1945. With the return of young men and women from Europe and the Pacific, and with the G I Bill of Rights providing subsidies to veterans and their families, another surge of students entered the American university .ix A shortage of facilities following the war led to mass construction on campuses, a maximization of resources so that schools co uld house as many beds as possible . Low cost maintenance became the focus of design, not livability for the occupant.x By the 1960s, students were more vocal with their distaste for their living arrangements on campus. A study in 1969 at Arizona State University saw that students were unanimously against the management and facilities in which they resided . Concerns of iso lation, lack of security, and limited social interaction were the biggest concerns found in the studyxi, a far cry from the heavy influence of the residence college system that took place in pre colonial American universities. Challenges students face when entering a university setting The challenges that students face today when entering a higher education setting are more visible than ever. The period of time for students transitioning to a new environment is compressed , with an increased amount of facto rs to handle. The increase of student loan debt, weakened job market, and the rigor of academic expectations accompany this transition .xii A national survey of two and four year institutions by the American College Health Association (ACHA) found that 30 per cent of students experience feelings of depression to the point of not being able to function properly during their first year .xiii Michigan State University found an increase of 76 percent over the past five years of students seeking counseling for one or more mental health issues. The Association for University and College Counseling Center Directors reported that 95 percent of directors found an increase in students seeking service, as well as the diagnosis of students with more than one mental health issue reaching 40 percent .xiv This rise of depression is also linked to the increase of suicidal thoughts and attempts by students. Given these issues, it isnâ€™ t surprising that one quarter of students donâ€™t return after their first year of college ,xv with many stu dents making this decision about six weeks into their first semester. This period o f time is critical for students because it is an allotted time of adjustment; if students fail to socialize and reach out to their fellow peers in this time, they are more l ikely to leave the institution at the end of the year .xvi As students adjust to a new environment physically, they also adjust socially, as many are leaving home for the first time. The social ties that students make help reduce the risk of depression, anxie ty, and thoughts of suicide .xvii Another important factor for st udents in their transition is the creation of their own identity. With their parents no longer a key part of their decision making process, students find themselves free to develop their own morals and beliefs.xviii Herman Miller , former director of the Census Bureau , reported on students differing in moral values from the previous generation during the 1960s .xix Psychoanalyst Erick H. Erikson stated that students transitioning into college were ho ping to â€œredefine [themselves] in personal, social and occupational terms after the revolution of sexual maturation.â€xx Erikson also believed that establishing an identity ultimately could be a tragedy if not accomplished.
AN ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL SPACES AND THE INFLUENCE OF RESIDENTS IN A UNIVERSITY SETTING University of Florida | Journal of Undergraduate Research | Volume 16, Issue 1 | Fall 2014 3 Student interaction in a space m eant for living Given the challenges that students face, the question of how students interact in a space meant for living comes into play. The fostering of interactions in the dwellings of a student is conducive to their own opportunity for growth, and students who lived in residence halls that fostered social interactions more consistently saw an easier transition to college .xxiii xxi Researchers found that living on campus and in halls that emphasize social interaction saw that students built communities with their peers. These communities acted as a family and suppo rt system for students.xxii Researcher David Cheng reported in 2004 that out of the top eight factors that students faced, socializing, friendships, and overall residence spatial experience were t he top factors for students . While there may not be conclusive evidence that supports an exact arrangement of specific architectural methods that foster these interactions best, certain environmental factors can promote better interaction s . An analysis o f particular reaction s to certain spatial configurations was conducted by Charles Holahan and Brian Wilcox at the University of Texas at Austin in 1978. Their main focus centered on the social interaction s of students within high density and low density residence halls .xxvii xxiv A number of research studies concerned with the quality of life in student residential environments have reported lower living satisfaction and social cohesion in high rise settings compared to low rise settings. It was predicted that hig hrise dormitories would be characterized by lower levels of satisfaction and friendship development than low rise dormitories .xxv Two types of student residential environments were compared in the study; one high rise mega dorm and a number of low rise dorm itories. The high rise consisted of two towers housing approximately 3,000 students .xxvi The low rise dormitories consisted of two dormitories , each with 250 students . The measure of the analysis did confirm that residents of a high rise dormitory felt isolated more often than students residing in a low rise dormitory . Overall, the residence hallâ€™s spatial layout and set up does play a role in how both affect incoming students in their transition into college. Spatial models designed to help students interact In 1980, Andrew Baum and Glenn Davis were interested in how the intervention of a dormitory building would increase the interaction s that students had with each other. In a controlled environment, they focused on how these interactions of high density re sidencies affected the stress level of freshmen students.xxviii xxxii The research began by attempting to reduce the student stress without changing their environment to determine whether the stress levels themselves were directly influenced by the architectural layo ut of the building .xxix However, these results, according to Baum and Davis , were short lived and instead only worsened over a long period of time. They did find, however, that in facilities with long corridors, students were less likely to gather .xxx They conc luded that students would exhibit anti social behaviors and experience higher levels of stress, anxiety, and isolation .xxxi The second phase of their research was the analysis of three models (see Figure 1) where a long corridor, short corridor, and intervened long corridor were analyzed over a period of 15 weeks. On the third model, three bedrooms were converted into a lounge, while bathrooms were added at each end, reducing the number of residents on the floor. The emphasis was now placed on interac tion within the common space . During the middle of the experiment (week s 512), a sharp contrast occurred in the interaction of students between the intervened corridor and short corridor, compared to the long corridor left alone. The long corridor was reported to be less controlled, and exhibited less social interaction amongst residents (see Figure 2). The intervened and short corridor maintained a consistent level of social interaction amongst residents. The following case studies provide examples of changes, renovations, or overall design concepts that take into account the needs of students, placing emphasis on social interaction. The specific findings and architectural designs all focus on the interaction of the student in terms of proximity, visual guidance, and environment. Each case study offers a different perspective in order to incorporate studentsâ€™ needs architecturally. Case Study: Massachusetts Institute of Technology East Campus Hall (Cambridge, Massachusetts) At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), East Campus Hall (see Figure 3) had the unfortunate reputation of being â€œnot a happy place to live,â€ which was the opinion of Lawrence Bishoff, then Vice President of Operations for Housing at MIT.xxxiii This case study is significant given the use of simple architectural methods and the creativity of architect Harry Ellenzwieg. Since the halls were not to be re modeled until 1978, in 1969, Ellenzweig was hired to assist with a brief renovation.
MITCHELL CLARKE University of Florida | Journal of Undergraduate Research | Volume 16, Iss ue 1 | Fall 2014 4 Figure 1. Diagram of Spatial Shift , from Ba um and Davis, â€œReducing the stress of highdensity living,â€ 472 . Figure 2 . Diagram of Spatial Experience, from Baum and Davis, â€œReducing the stress of highdensity living,â€ 472. Figure 3. Birdâ€™s Eye View of East Campus Hall http://1964.alumclass.mit.edu/s/1314/images/gid55/editor/east_campu s/img_5183_685.jpg. However, it was his opinion not to discuss major design moves until they were approved by the very people they served: the residents themselves.xxxiv xxxvi Every decision (within budgetary reasoning) was approved by the students themselves through a democratic process that the administration at MIT supported. The work involved the conversion of two rooms on each floor into a lounge, painting, softened lighti ng, and the introduction of blackboards into the space , emphasizing personality and education.xxxv The results were seen in the interaction s of students and faculty. For the first time, faculty members were invited to the hall to give seminars on topics relevant to the students. Seeing the success at East Campus Hall, Bishoff proceeded with the overhaul of multiple other dormitory buildings on the campus, which all incorporated the ideals and concerns of the students . Case Study: Utrecht UniversityUtrecht Uithof (Utrecht, Netherlands) Much like how American universities in the early 19th century looked to solve the shortage of housing for students on campuses, Utrecht University came across a similar dilemma. In 2008, De U ithof opened on the campus to provide a supplemental 380 units desperately needed for the university .xxxvii xxxviii Both interior and exterior emphasize color, and adequate spatial planning provided designers with a challenge to create a facility that would encourage interaction and still offer spaces for individual occupation. The faade, from a distance, blends together as a singular mass, but a closer approach reveals the matrix of color (see Figure 4). Each square of color is a window that is s liced into the structure and a colorful array as a plinth above and below .
AN ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL SPACES AND THE INFLUENCE OF RESIDENTS IN A UNIVERSITY SETTING University of Florida | Journal of Undergraduate Research | Volume 16, Issue 1 | Fall 2014 5 Figure 4. Street View of De U ithof http://www.rohmer.nl/data/uithof//757 Uithof 409081030AN 19rb1181akzonobel.jpg. Designer Rem Koolhaas believed that an open floor and access to the urban surrounding provided a greater opportunity for students to interact not only with each other, but also with the surrounding urban context provided to the campus. As opposed to the former facility, which possessed a series of individual , closed off structures, the building was combined into one and lifted up, allowing for a transparent opening to the city, offering itself as both a communal and commercial in teraction of occupants and citizens (see Figure 5 ) .xxxix Figure 5. De U ithof Common Space http://www.rohmer.nl/data/uithof//757_2012112933_R ene_de_Wit.jpg The overall ground floor plan reveals an emphasis on connection with the neighbor. As opposed to a long and narrow hallway, the first three floors offer a short hallway connected to the void of the building (see Figure 6). The subsequent floor plans position the residencies towards the northern and southern ends of the building, establishing the center space as both communal and interactive. The intent of the architect was also that typical necessities of the structure (hallways, stairwells, etc.) would become places of focus , and that interaction would create a microcosm of social development .xl Figure 6. De U ithof Ground Floor Plan http://ad009cdnb.archdaily.net/wpcontent/uploads/2011/03/1300396484plan02copy.jpg. Case Study: KathoHUB01 (Kortrijk. Belgium) The idea of mobile student housing is an idea that has been in place since the housing shortage across campuses post WWII. However, the innovation of attaching those mobile units to provide a contemporary transition space for its occupants was initiated by the design firm dmvA. On the campus of Katho, a catholic academy in Kortrijk, Belgium, the HUB (see Figu re 7 ) was created as a series of units that could be detached and operate on their own .xli The beginning of this process emphasized the needs of the stu dent . The designerâ€™s concept s of â€œmobility ,â€ â€œpersonalized student rooms,â€ and â€œeducational designâ€ were initiated by students themselves .xlii The rooms for students are simple , white units with basic necessities (bed, desk, bathroom, etc.) provided. Figure 7 . HUB 01 Street View http://ad009cdnb.archdaily.net/wpcontent/uploads/2012/12/50dcdd26b3fc4b32300001ed_hub01mobilestudent housingterminal dmva architectena3architects__dsc0021528x350.jpg. The main connector is the HUB itself. This becomes the embodiment of the project, due to its placement as the central body. The units connect through hidden ele ctrical cords and an exterior promenade. The interior of the central
MITCHELL CLARKE University of Florida | Journal of Undergraduate Research | Volume 16, Iss ue 1 | Fall 2014 6 component offers a communal living arrangement (see Figure 8) with a kitchen and entertainment space .xliii Described by the designer as a polyvalent space, the functions of the project cover a range of issues in which the students take interest . Attached with the living units to the hub is also a unit mean for recognizing â€œpassive living .â€ Furnished with vegetation, it incorporates active (solar panels) and passive (material palate) design met hods to both shelter and educate students .xliv Figure 8. HUB 01 Interior View http://ad009cdnb.archdaily.net/wpcontent/uploads/2012/12/50dcdf10b3fc4b32300001f2_hub01mobile student housingterminal dmva architectena3architects__dsc0041528x350.jpg. Case Study: University of Southern DenmarkUniversity College Odense (Odense, Denmark) T he construction of a new residence hall on the campus of the University of Southern Denmark centered on the idea of a vertical campus, emphasizing urban views and connections, as well as connection s through the spatial layout of the facility. Three towers rotate around each other, rooms and balconies facing the city and campus, and the entrances faced inward towards each other. The issues of privacy within a social space were resolved through internal balconies, which would face outward and not into the neighborâ€™s window (see Figure 10). A connection to a research facility constructed earlier on campus was emphasized through the twists and turns of the towers, which bloc k views into neighboring rooms. While the rooms focus on privacy (see Figure 9), their positioning on the floor focus es on social interaction.xlv Placement of circulation, social spaces, and kitchens create a microcosm of spaces for interactions, offering vi ews of the city. On each floor, the central space can be divided into seven different spaces for different functions. This model is an example of a design that focuses on verticality and management of resources, while still focusing on the human scale of s ocial interaction .xlvi Figure 9. Floor/Spatial Diagram http://ad009cdnb.archdaily.net/wpcontent/uploads/2013/01/1358625279floorplanlayout diagram.jpg. Figure 10. Birdâ€™s Eye View http://ad009cdnb.archdaily.net/wpcontent/uploads/2013/01/1358625009ksucvi01 528x396.jpg. Case Study: University of Washington Elk Apartments (Seattle, Washington) As p art of an effort on the campus of the University of Washington to revitalize its studen t housing, Mahlum Architects designed the complex as part of the vibrant urban campus in Seattle, Washington (see Figure 1 1 ), but particularly with an emphasis on social interaction both internally and externally. A series of four blocks developed on the c ampus provided both public access to the numerous amenities the halls held (theatres, terraces, restaurants, etc.) while still providing a refuge for residents in which they might form their own communities.xlvii The introduction of an academic support center, health center, and business
AN ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL SPACES AND THE INFLUENCE OF RESIDENTS IN A UNIVERSITY SETTING University of Florida | Journal of Undergraduate Research | Volume 16, Issue 1 | Fall 2014 7 center for students recall the residential college model of British universities that preceded this building by nearly ten centuries .xlviii Figure 11 .University of Washington Campus Plan http://ad009cdnb.archdaily.net/wpcontent/uploads/2013/07/51f7349ce8e44e3ef7000076_west campus student housingmahlum architects_formatted_finals_site_plan528x408.png. A center courtyard and park allow the flow of pedestrians through the space without int erfering with residents (see Figure 1 2). The real relationship between public and private spaces occurs through the designerâ€™s techniques of concealing and revealing at differing moments .xlix At times, the resident â€™ s common spaces take full view in a public s etting, and at times are marked away for their own seclusion. Visual connections also strengthen relationships between residents, where differ e nt â€œterritoriesâ€ begin to help students with a creation of a community for themselves as a part of the larger who le. Figure 1 2 . Exterior Courtyard View http://ad009cdnb.archdaily.net/wpcontent/uploads/2013/07/51f73495e8e44ef7d4000072_west campus student housingmahlum architects_formatted_finals_8buw_housing_photo528x352.jpg. CONCLUS ION /FUTURE WORK This work recognizes that not every model will work architecturally for all students, but instead takes cues from its environment. Certain conditions of a residence hall begin to assist in fostering a community amongst students. This fostering of community provides opportunity to students who seek academic and mental relief. T his research can be used to help determine trends in certain regions around the world, which use social cues and architectural methods to enhance a studentâ€™s performance and social transition to a university setting. Ultimately , this research can be used in acknowledging the presence of living on campus and the connection between a university setting and a studentâ€™s social influence. It is the hope that this research can be used to continue the d iscovery of how we begin to operate in a university setting when it comes to facilitating a communal environment for students, while offering them the privacy they request as they mature. Some unanswered questions from this research are how we begin to rec ognize and articulate the social cues that truly prepare a student, and how this translates architecturally. REFERENCES "380 Student Units and Public Space Design / Architectenbureau Marlies Rohmer." ArchDaily. http://www.archdaily.com/120265/ (accessed March 4, 2014). "Anxiety, Depression Plague College Students, Survey Finds." Addiction Treatment Elements Drug Rehab Treatment Centers. http://www.elementsbehavioralhealth.com/behavioral-health news/anxiety -depression-plague college-students -survey finds / (accessed April 1, 2014). "Architectenbureau Marlies Rohmer : / home / actueel." Architectenbureau Marlies Rohmer : / home / actueel. http://www.rohmer.nl/?view=detail&pageAlias=projecten&subAlias =highlights&naamLetter=&jaarId=&werkveldId=&stadLetter=& land Id=&projId=22 (accessed April 1, 2014). Baum, Andrew, and Glenn E. Davis. "Reducing the stress of highdensity living: An architectural intervention.." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 38, no. 3 (1980): 471-481. Benschneider, Benjamin . "West Campus Student Housing / Mahlum Architects." ArchDaily. http://www.archdaily.com/408376/ (accessed March 4, 2014). Mahlum . "Cedar Apartments | Mahlum." Cedar Apartments | Mahlum. http://www.mahlum.com/projects/UWCedar/index.asp (accessed April 1, 2014) . "Depression and College Students." NIMH RSS. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/depression-and -collegestudents/index.shtml (accessed April 1, 2014). Farris , Allison . â€œThe Freshmen Adjustment Process: Commuter life versus Residence life.â€ PhD diss., California State University, 2010 .
MITCHELL CLARKE University of Florida | Journal of Undergraduate Research | Volume 16, Iss ue 1 | Fall 2014 8 Furulo, Alison. "University of Southern Denmark Student Housing Winning Proposal / C.F. Mller Architects." ArchDaily. http://www.archdaily.com/321445/ (accessed March 4, 2014). Holahan, Charles J., and Brian L. Wilcox. "Residential satisfaction and friendship formation in highand low -rise student housing: An interactional analysis.â€ Journal of Educational Psychology 70, no. 2 (1978): 237-241. "Hub 01 â€œ Mobile Student Housing Terminal / dmvA Architecten + A3 Architects." ArchDaily. http://www.archdaily.com/312863/ (accessed March 4, 2014). Jarz, Hank. "AME -LOT / Malka Architecture." ArchDaily. http://www.archdaily.com/147738/ (accessed March 4, 2014). Riker, Harold C.. College housing as learning centers,. Washington: American College Personnel Association, 1965. "Student Housing of the Future ." dmvA Architectecten . http://www.dmva -architecten.be/v2/index.php#public|175 (accessed March 31, 2014). Riker, Harold C. Student housing; a report . New York, NY: E ducational Facilities Laboratories, 1972. Winston, Roger B., and Scott Anchors. Student housing and residential life: a handbook for professionals committed to student development goals. San Francisco: Jossey -Bass, 1993 ENDNOTES i Roger B. Winston and Scott Anchors. Student housing and residential life: a handbook for professionals committed to student development goals. (San Francisco: Jossey -Bass), 168. ii Winston, Roger B., and Scott Anchors. Stude nt housing and residential life , 168. iii Roger Winston, and Scott Anchors. Student housing and residential life, 168 . iv Roger Winston and Scott Anchors. Student housing and residential life, 168 . v Roger Winston, and Scott Anchors. Student ho using and residential life, 168. vi Roger Winston, and Scott Anchors. Student housing and residential life, 169 . vii Roger Winston, and Scott Anchors. Student housing and residential life, 171 . viii Roger Winston, and Scott Anchors. Student housing and residential life, 170 . ix Roger Winston, and Scott Anchors. Student housing and residential life, 172 . x Roger Winston, and Scott Anchors. Student housing and residential life, 173 . xi New Directions for Student Services -pg 33. xii "Anxiety, Depression Plague College Students, Survey Finds." Addiction Treatment Elements Drug Rehab Treatment Centers. http://www.elementsbehavioralhealth.com/behavioral-health news/anxiety -depression-plague college-students -survey finds/ . xiii Depression and College Students." NIMH RSS. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/dep ression -and -collegestudents/index.shtml . xiv â€œDepression and College Students." xv Allison K. Farris, â€œThe Freshmen Adjustment Process: Commuter life versus Residence lifeâ€ (PhD diss. , California S tate University , 2010) . xvi Farris, T he Freshmen Adjustment P rocess . xvii Farris, The Freshmen Adjustment Process . xviii Farris, The Freshmen Adjustment Process . xix Riker, Harold C. Student housing; a report. New York, NY: Educational Facilities Laboratories, 17 . xx Riker, Harold C. Student housing; a report, 18. xxi Farris, T he Freshmen Adjustment Process . xxii Farris, The Freshmen Adjustment Process . xxiii Farris, The Freshmen Adjustment Process . xxiv Holahan, Charles J., and Brian L. Wilcox. "Residential satisfaction and friendship formation in highand low -rise student housing: An i nteractional analysis.â€ Journal of Educational Psychology 70, no. 2 (1978): 237. xxv Holahan, Charles J., and Brian L. Wilcox. "Residential satisfaction and friendship formation in highand low -rise student housing: An interactional analysis.â€ 238. xxvi Holaha n, Charles J., and Brian L. Wilcox. "Residential satisfaction and friendship formation in highand low -rise student housing: An interactional analysis.â€ 238. xxvii Holahan, Charles J., and Brian L. Wilcox. "Residential satisfaction and friendship formation in high and low -rise student housi ng: An interactional analysis.â€ 240. xxviii Baum, Andrew, and Glenn E. Davis. "Reducing the stress of highdensity living: An architectural intervention.â€ Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 38, no. 3 (1980): 471. xxix Baum, Andrew, and Glenn E. Davis. "Reducing the stress of highdensity living: An architectural intervention.â€ 472 . xxx Baum, Andrew, and Glenn E. Davis. "Reducing the stress of highdensity living: An architectural intervention.â€ xxxi Baum, Andrew, and Glenn E. Davis. "Reducing the stress of highdensity living: An a rchitectural intervention.â€ 473. xxxii Baum, Andrew, and Glenn E. Davis. "Reducing the stress of highdensity living: An architectural intervention.â€ 473 -474 . xxxiii Student Housing; a report.. New York, NY: Educational Facilities Laboratories, 23 . xxxiv Student Housing, 23. xxxv Student Housing, 23. xxxvi Student Housing, 23. xxxvii "380 Student Units and Public Space Design / Architectenbureau Marlies Rohmer." ArchDaily. http://www.archdaily.com/120265/ (accessed March 4, 2014).
AN ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL SPACES AND THE INFLUENCE OF RESIDENTS IN A UNIVERSITY SETTING University of Florida | Journal of Undergraduate Research | Volume 16, Issue 1 | Fall 2014 9 xxxviii "380 Student Units and Public Space Design / Architectenbureau Marlies Rohmer." xxxix "Architectenbureau Marlies Rohmer : / home / actueel." Architectenbureau Marlies Rohmer : / home / actueel. http://www.rohmer.nl/?view=detail&pageAlias=projecten&subAlias =highlights&naamLetter=&jaarId=&werkveldId=&stadLetter=&land Id=&projId=22 (accessed April 1, 2014). xl Architectenbureau Marlies Rohmer . xli "Student Housing of the Future." dmvA Architectecten . http://www.dmva -architecten.be/v2/index.p hp#public|175 (accessed March 31, 2014). xlii "Student Housing of the Future.â€ xliii "Hub 01 Mobile Student Housing Terminal / dmvA Architecten + A3 Architects." ArchDaily. http://www.archdaily.com/312863/ (accessed March 4, 2014). xliv â€œHub 01 â€œ Mobile Student Housing Terminal . â€ xlv Furulo, Alison. "University of Southern Denmark Student Housing Winning Proposal / C.F. Mller Architects." ArchDaily. xlvi "University of Southern Denmark Student Housing Winning Proposal / C.F. Mller Arc hitects." xlvii Benschneider, Benjamin . "West Campus Student Housing / Mahlum Architects." ArchDaily. http://www.archdaily.com/408376/ (accessed March 4, 2014). xlviii "West Campus Student Housing / Mahlum Architects . xlix Mahlum . "Cedar Apartments | Mahlum." Cedar Apartments | Mahlum. http://www.mahlum.com/projects/UWCedar/index.asp .