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Formulation and Sensory Analysis of a Ketogenic Snack to Improve Compliance with Ketogenic Therapy

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Title:
Formulation and Sensory Analysis of a Ketogenic Snack to Improve Compliance with Ketogenic Therapy
Series Title:
Journal of Undergraduate Research
Creator:
Owen, Russell J.
Dahl, Wendy ( Mentor )
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Gainesville, Fla.
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University of Florida
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Language:
English

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serial ( sobekcm )

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Abstract:
Limited dietary choices in the ketogenic diet may compromise compliance and reduce overall quality of life, and the low provision of fiber may further diminish quality of life. The purpose of this study was to develop highly acceptable high fiber, ketogenic snacks. Broccoli bites and crab rangoon were developed approximately at a 3.5 to 1 ketogenic ratio. The snacks were formulated using fiber isolates, pea hull fiber, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and inulin as an alternative breading for frying. Sensory evaluation was carried out by students and staff at the University of Florida to determine the acceptability of overall taste, mouthfeel, and appearance of the snacks. Using a hedonic scaling method, panelists (n=67) determined acceptability, with 1 indicating extreme dislike, and 9 indicating extreme liking. For the broccoli bites, the mean hedonic rankings for overall taste, mouthfeel, and appearance were 6.54 ± 1.78 (mean ± SD), 6.27 ± 1.71, and 5.85 ± 1.73, respectively. For the crab rangoon, the mean hedonic rankings for overall taste, mouthfeel, and appearance were 5.60 ± 1.86, 4.93 ± 2.00, and 5.79 ± 1.78, respectively. In addition, hedonic rankings for the overall taste, mouthfeel, and appearance for the crab rangoon were rated as 6 (like slightly) or higher by 58.2%, 47.8%, and 67.2% of panelists, respectively. Hedonic rankings for the overall taste, mouthfeel, and appearance for the broccoli bites were rated as 6 (like slightly) or higher by 76.1%, 73.1%, and 62.7% of panelists, respectively.

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Formulation and Sensory Analysis of a Ketogenic Snack to
Improve Compliance with Ketogenic Therapy


Russell J. Owen*


College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Florida


Limited dietary choices in the ketogenic diet may compromise compliance and reduce overall quality of life, and the low provision of
fiber may further diminish quality of life. The purpose of this study was to develop highly acceptable high fiber, ketogenic snacks.
Broccoli bites and crab rangoon were developed approximately at a 3.5 to 1 ketogenic ratio. The snacks were formulated using fiber
isolates, pea hull fiber, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and inulin as an alternative breading for frying. Sensory evaluation was carried
out by students and staff at the University of Florida to determine the acceptability of overall taste, mouthfeel, and appearance of the
snacks. Using a hedonic scaling method, panelists (n=67) determined acceptability, with 1 indicating extreme dislike, and 9 indicating
extreme liking. For the broccoli bites, the mean hedonic rankings for overall taste, mouthfeel, and appearance were 6.54 � 1.78 (mean
� SD), 6.27 � 1.71, and 5.85 � 1.73, respectively. For the crab rangoon, the mean hedonic rankings for overall taste, mouthfeel, and
appearance were 5.60 � 1.86, 4.93 � 2.00, and 5.79 � 1.78, respectively. In addition, hedonic rankings for the overall taste, mouthfeel,
and appearance for the crab rangoon were rated as 6 (like slightly) or higher by 58.2%, 47.8%, and 67.2% of panelists, respectively.
Hedonic rankings for the overall taste, mouthfeel, and appearance for the broccoli bites were rated as 6 (like slightly) or higher by
76.1%, 73.1%, and 62.7% of panelists, respectively.


Introduction

The ketogenic diet, first developed in the 1920s, is
widely used to treat intractable epilepsy. Originally,
bromides and phenobarbital were used for the treatment
of epilepsy. The heavy sedating effects of these anti-
epileptic drugs contributed to the acceptance of
ketogenic therapy in treatment of intractable epilepsy.
Hugh Conklin, an osteopathic physician, believed that
epilepsy was caused by intoxication of the brain from
substances originating in the intestines (Freeman and
Kossoff, 2007). Conklin hypothesized that putting the
intestines at rest would prevent intoxication and prevent
seizures. Conklin used "water therapy" to treat epilepsy,
giving nothing but water for as long as 25 days. Conklin
reported prolonged reduction in seizures activity, and
news of his findings spread rapidly (Freeman and
Kossoff, 2007).
The discovery that diets high in fat and low in
carbohydrates could mimic starvation gave rise to
ketogenic therapy. Ketogenic therapy consists of a high
fat (up to 90% of total intake), low carbohydrate, and
adequate protein diet. The mechanism behind the neural
protection of ketogenic therapy remains a mystery, but in
many cases is very effective in treating intractable
epilepsy. Ketogenic therapy has been shown to reduce
seizures by >50 % in 60-75% of children who maintain

* with Wendy J. Dahl and Charles A. Sims


ketogenic therapy (Freeman and Vining, 1998). The dietary
restrictions of ketogenic therapy are accompanied by
psychosocial issues: patients feel isolated from peers because
they eat completely distinct foods (Pfeifer and Thiele, 2005).
GI disturbances are frequently reported among KD
patients with nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, and constipation
being most common (Kang and Chung, 2004). The restriction
of carbohydrate in ketogenic therapy limits intake of fiber,
and may be a factor contributing GI disturbances. Dietary
fiber is derived from the cell wall of edible plants or
analogous carbohydrates that are resistant to digestion and
absorption in the human small intestine with partial or
complete fermentation in the large intestine (Nelson, 2001).
Carbohydrates that are indigestible in the small intestine are
fermented in the large bowel to produce short chain fatty
acids (SCFA's). Increased fiber intake reduces the risk of
prevalent Western diseases ((McCleary and Prosky, 2001),
and demonstrates the importance of maintaining a healthy
gut. Insufficient intake of soluble and insoluble fiber in
ketogenic therapy may impart additional stress, and
potentially increase the frequency and severity of seizures.
Ketogenic therapy alters the metabolism of the brain by
limiting carbohydrates and forcing the brain and body to
utilize alternative sources of fuel. Utilizing fatty acids as
energy substrates in times of food depravation is crucial for
survival. The brains ability to adapt to these metabolic
changes in times of starvation is thought to be the foundation
of ketogenic therapy. Ketogenic therapy mimics starvation by
limiting glucose and providing high amounts of fatty acids,


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RUSSELL J. OWEN


ultimately shifting the metabolism of the brain to utilize
ketone bodies as a major fuel (Matthews and Van Holde,
2000).
Challenges of administration of ketogenic therapy
can be contributed to numerous factors. An obvious
obstacle is the lack of commercial foods that are
consistent with the nutritional demands of ketogenic
diet. A major hurdle in developing widely available
ketogenic foods is creating foods that are acceptable
amongst large populations. In order to have widely
available foods compatible with ketogenic therapy a
large enough market must exist to produce affordable
products. Producing foods that are acceptable amongst
the general public creates the possibility of marketing
ketogenic foods within grocery stores, and making
ketogenic foods widely available to patients utilizing
ketogenic therapy. Meal components of ketogenic
therapy must be viewed as typical for the average diet,
and not therapeutic in nature to appeal to the average
consumer. Creating foods that appeal to the average
consumer, while therapeutic in composition, may be a
promising approach to improving compliance with
ketogenic therapy. Sensory evaluation could determine
the acceptability of these foods amongst the normal
population.
Affective tests measure subjective attitudes towards a
product based on sensory properties. Affective testing
methods may include paired comparison, hedonic scale,
and ranking. Hedonic scaling tests are effective in
measuring a degree of liking for a particular food
product. Hedonic scaling is commonly performed with a
nine point scale, ranging from "like extremely" to
"dislike extremely." A neutral response exists in the
central location, with the response corresponding to
"neither like or dislike." Hedonic scaling is a useful tool
in determining if a given food product would be
successful in the market place.
The effects fiber intake of the efficacy of ketogenic
diet are unknown, however, with isolated fiber (devoid
of protein and with very low levels of available
carbohydrate), we may be able to provide adequate
levels of fiber in the ketogenic diet. Increasing fiber
intake in the diet of those on ketogenic therapy has the
potential to enhance quality of life while easing the
burden of implementing ketogenic therapy. Through
product development and sensory testing it may be
possible to create highly acceptable foods that are
compliant with ketogenic therapy.

Materials and Methods

Fiber isolates were utilized to supplement fiber into
the ketogenic snacks, and sensory analysis was used to


determine the acceptability amongst students and staff at the
University of Florida.

2.1 - Product Development

Product development initially focused on designing a
cracker type snack that may be consumed with, or between
meals. After numerous attempts to formulate snack-like
crackers, cookies, and breads, it became apparent that
minimization of carbohydrate and protein content would limit
the type of snacks that could be developed. Through trial and
error, it was discovered that the fiber isolates, in combination
with gluten, could function as a breading for fried foods. To
formulate a snack that would provide maximum clinical
effectiveness, it was necessary to minimize protein and
carbohydrate content of the fiber breading, while maximizing
fiber content.
The fiber mixture contained the protein gluten to provide
stability to the fiber breading. The amount of protein used in
the fiber mix was determined by reducing the gluten content
until the fiber mix was unstable when fried. Gluten content
was minimized as alternative sources of protein need to be
included in the ketogenic diet. Guar was utilized to provide
additional stability to the fiber breading when moistened with
water. It was speculated that the absorptive capacity of guar
was very effective in stabilizing the snack in the uncooked
state. Also, guar seemed to form a protective barrier to oil
when used in frying applications, as thermal gelation occurs
when guar is exposed to high temperatures (Sahin and
Sumnu, 2005). The ketogenic snacks contained a high fat
content, mostly in the form unsaturated oils. The goal was to
develop high fiber snacks compliant with ketogenic therapy
(high fat, low available carbohydrate and protein) that were
stable throughout the cooking process. The stability and
consistency of the ketogenic snack was dependent on
preventing the leaking of internal oils into the cooking
medium. Hydropropyl methyl cellulose behaved similarly to
guar when exposed to temperature extremes, forming a
protective gel and stabilizing the ketogenic snack while
cooking.
Initially, the fiber mix was combined with water and
rolled thin in a dough-like consistency. The fiber mix was cut
into 2in x 2in squares, stuffed with fillings, and folded into a
triangle. The products were then fried, and sampled. A
variety of fillings were sampled, including spicy chicken
pizza, cheese sticks, vanilla ice cream, and cheese cake.
Overall, this method of preparation proved to be very time-
consuming. The products chosen for sensory analysis
included crab rangoon, and broccoli bites. Instead of
preparing in the manner previously mentioned, the broccoli
bites and crab rangoon were dredged in a dry fiber mix, and
then moistened with water. Moistening the fiber mix after
coating the food products was more efficient in preparation


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KETOGENIC SNACKS


time and consistency. Following a series of steps to
achieve the desired products (see Appendix A & B), the
ketogenic snacks were fried and stored for sensory
evaluation to be performed at a later time.
The fiber mix consisted of Inulin (Fruitafit-TEX!,
Sensus America Inc., Monmouth Junction, NJ, USA) .
Guar gum (3500F-D, Tic Gums, Belcamp, MD, USA).
Hydropropyl Methyl Cellulose (Methocel A4M, Dow
Chemicals, Midland, MI, USA). Gluten (Arise 8000,
MGP Ingredients, Atchison, KS, USA). Pea Fibre (Best
Pea Fibre, Best Cooking Pulses, Portaga la Prairie,
Manitoba, Canada). A dry mixture consisting of 33.5 %
inulin, 33.5 % pea fiber, 23.5 % gluten, 7.0% cellulose,
and 2.5% guar was prepared. The dry ingredients were
combined in a mixing bowl and mixed until a
homogenous color and consistency was reached.
The ketogenic snacks products were prepared under
commercial-like conditions in the pilot plant of the Food
Science and Human Nutrition Department. The snacks
were prepared at approximately a 3.5:1 ratio (3.5 parts
fat to 1 part carbohydrate plus protein). The ratio of the
ketogenic snacks were determined using an excel
spreadsheet that yields accurate percentages of protein,
carbohydrate, and lipid based on gram measurements of
food items used to prepare the ketogenic snacks.

2.2 - Sensory Evaluation

Sensory evaluation was performed on both the
broccoli bite (Appendix A) and crab rangoon (Appendix
B) in the sensory lab at the University of Florida.
Panelists signed informed consent (standing protocol #
2003-U-0491).


Panelists were asked to respond to a series of demographic
questions to determine age, gender, and frequency of fried
food consumption. Panelists were given a small cup of water
and crackers to cleanse their palate between samples.
Panelists were presented with two foods samples, broccoli
bite and crab rangoon, and responded to a series of computer
generated questions (Appendix C) regarding the overall
appearance, taste, and mouthfeel of the product being
sampled. Panelists were also instructed to comment on
appearance, taste, and mouthfeel.

Results

The resulting ketogenic snacks included broccoli bites
(Appendix A) and crab rangoon (Appendix B) formulated at a
ketogenic ratio of 3.47 to 1 and 3.42 to 1, respectively.
Overall, 67 people including students and staff at the
University of Florida participated in sensory evaluation.
Hedonic scaling results for the overall appearance, taste, and
mouthfeel of the broccoli bite and crab rangoon were 5.85 �
1.72 and 5.79 � 1.78, 6.54 � 1.78 and 5.60 � 1.86, and 6.27 �
1.71 and 4.93 � 2.00, respectively (Figure 1). In addition,
hedonic rankings for the overall taste, mouthfeel, and
appearance for the crab rangoon were rated as 6 (like slightly)
or higher by 58.2%, 47.8%, and 67.2%, respectively. Hedonic
rankings for the overall taste, mouthfeel, and appearance for
the broccoli bites were rated as 6 (like slightly) or higher by
76.1%, 73.1%, and 62.7%, respectively. Figure 1 depicts the
sensory evaluation hedonic results for overall appearance,
taste, and mouthfeel of the crab rangoon, while figure 2
depicts the sensory evaluation hedonic results for overall
appearance, taste, and mouthfeel of the broccoli bites.


Hedonic Results for Crab Rangoon


20

30
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Hed~onkr Ranki..


Figure 1: Sensory Results for Crab Rangoon






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RUSSELL J. OWEN


Hedonic Results for Broccoli Bites


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Figure 2: Sensory Results for Broccoli Bites


Panelists were also asked to comment on the
appearance, taste, and mouthfeel of the broccoli bites
and crab rangoon. Comments for the broccoli bites
included "looks crunchy, nice golden color", "It's very
good. It's a nice mix of natural, fried, and cheesy flavor.
I would recommend this item because of the
taste...seems like a perfect snack", and "not very
broccoli taste, sort of tastes like dirt with a gritty crust".
Comments for the crab rangoon included "batter looks
crispy with some flakiness, looks good", "no real shape,
could be darker in color", "I really like the fried taste
and the gooeyness of the sample...YUMMY! It wasn't
too fishy either", and "it tastes like old bad tuna"
Figure 3 depicts the demographic results for age and
gender of the 67 panelists that participated in sensory
evaluation are as follows. The majority of panelists fell
between the ages of 18 and 24, with 30% of panelists
reporting to be between 18 and 20 years of age, and 46%
of panelists reporting to be between 21 and 24 years of
age. The highest reported age was between 55 and 59
years of age.

Discussion

The purpose of the research project was to develop
high fiber ketogenic snacks, and to determine the
sensory acceptability of the developed food products. It
has been shown that the developed high-fiber ketogenic
snacks are acceptable sensory participants in this study,
but acceptability amongst patients on ketogenic therapy
is undetermined. Underlying factors that contribute to
acceptability of the ketogenic snacks amongst the public
are likely to influence acceptability amongst ketogenic
patients. For instance, preferences for certain types of
foods will have a major influence on acceptability, as
was evident in sensory evaluation of the ketogenic
snacks. Hedonic scaling results varied from a score of 1


(disliked extremely) to a score of 9 (liked extremely) for
overall appearance, taste, and mouthfeel. The discrepancy in
acceptability may be attributed to preference for certain types
of food and methods of preparation. Interestingly, sensory
panelists who consumed fried foods on an average times per year reported a lower acceptability for both
ketogenic snacks in terms of overall appearance, taste, and
mouthfeel with the exception of the overall appearance of the
crab rangoon. It is expected that children who suffer from
intractable epilepsy will have a greater preference for high-fat
foods, however, it is not clear if ketogenic patients will prefer
the types of ketogenic snacks evaluated by the students and
staff at the Univesity of Florida. Amari et al. (2008) has
shown that children who have seizures show a significant
higher preference for high-fat foods. The children who
participated in this study had never been initiated on
ketogenic therapy, but showed a significant preference for
high fat foods when compared to a control group of children
who did not have seizures. One child in the study with
seizures stated that "this one makes me feel better" after
consuming samples of butter, cream, cheese, and mayonnaise.
Development of the ketogenic snacks offered many
challenges, but yielded a novel method of preparing
ketogenic foods. Frying foods would be the ideal method of
delivering high fat food items to ketogenic patients, but the
usage of flours to bread foods prior to being fried presents
many challenges. Using a fiber mix to replace the
carbohydrates in flour creates an opportunity to provide fried
foods to ketogenic patients. Fiber is similar in structure to
carbohydrate, except it is indigestible by the humans.
Interestingly, soluble fibers may be fermented by bacteria in
the large intestine to yield short-chain fatty acids, as opposed
to being broken down into mono and disaccharides for
absorption. The effects of increasing the fiber intake of those
on ketogenic therapy is uncertain, however, determining how
fiber intake influences ketogenic therapy may present
opportunities to improve the efficacy of ketogenic therapy.


University of Florida I Journal of Undergraduate Research I Volume 11, Issue 1 I Fall 2009


ApprlllpcrlS





KETOGENIC SNACKS


Age Demographics


m Female
18-20 21-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59
Age Range


Figure 3: Age and gender demographics for sensory panelists of ketogenic snacks


Included in the fiber breading mix were gluten
(wheat protein), guar (gum), hydropropyl methyl
cellulose, inulin, and pea fibre. Gluten provided structure
to the fiber mix, creating a protein matrix that stabilized
the fiber mix when moistened. Hydropropyl methyl
cellulose and guar form thermal gels at high
temperatures, preventing the leakage and absorption of
oils while cooking. Inulin and pea fiber were used to
fortify the fiber mixture, and replace the digestible forms
of carbohydrate commonly found in flour. The
application of the fiber mixture is similar to the
application of wheat based flours.
Fiber intake, and the effects of fiber on those who
suffer from intractable epilepsy, is a topic which needs
greater exploration to determine the importance of fiber
in the diet of ketogenic patients. The importance of fiber
is well documented in the general population, but it is
uncertain the effects that fiber supplementation will have
on ketogenic patients. However, our current knowledge
of fiber, and the role it plays in maintaining the integrity
of the large intestine, indicates that the effects of fiber
fortification in the ketogenic population may be
beneficial.
The ethics of ketogenic therapy are called into
question when considering the high fat, and often times,
caloric restriction of ketogenic therapy. However, not
implementing ketogenic therapy leaves few alternatives
for those who suffer from intractable epilepsy.
Individuals who are unresponsive to antiepileptic
therapy in the form of pharmaceuticals are limited in
options for the management of intractable epilepsy.
Ketogenic therapy may be the most effective means of
treating intractable epilepsy, as scientific studies support
the theory that ketogenic therapy is more effective in
treating intractable epilepsy than traditional
pharmacological approaches. Justification for utilizing
ketogenic therapy is evident when examining the
beneficial effects of ketogenic therapy in managing


intractable epilepsy, however, ketogenic therapy could be
vastly improved by understanding the effects that dietary
components such as fiber have on ketogenic patients.
To maximize the efficacy of ketogenic therapy, research is
needed to understand the role of fiber in ketogenic therapy,
and how it may influence patients on ketogenic therapy.
Understanding the intestinal environment before and after
supplementation with fiber may help to determine how much
fiber is needed to maximize the efficacy of ketogenic therapy.
High fiber ketogenic snacks may provide an adequate vehicle
for the delivery of fiber, while possibly improving
compliance with ketogenic diet. Further research is needed to
determine how ketogenic snacks may impact ketogenic
therapy, and if the ketogenic snacks are acceptable to those on
ketogenic therapy.

Acknowledgements

Thanks to Dr. Wendy Dahl and Charles Sims and his staff
for assistance with sensory analysis and evaluation and to
Sensus America Inc, Tic Gums, Dow Chemicals, MGP
Ingredients, and Best Cooking Pulses for their generous
donation of products.

Literature Cited

Amari, A., L. Dahlquist, E.H. Kossoff, E.P. Vining, W.H. Trescher, and K.J. Slifer.
2007. Children with seizures exhibit preferences for foods compatible with the
ketogenic diet. Epilepsy Behav. 11:98-104.

Freeman, J. M., E. H. Kossoff, and A. L. Hartman. 2007. The ketogenic diet: one
decade later. Pediatrics. 119:535-543.United States

John M. Freeman, Eileen P. G. Vining, Diana J. Pillas, Paula L. Pyzik, Jane C.
Casey, and LCSW, and and Millicent T. Kelly. 1998. The Efficacy of the Ketogenic
Diet: A Prospective Evaluation of Intervention in 150 Children. PEDIATRICS.
102:1358-1363.

Kang, H. C., D. E. Chung, D. W. Kim, and H. D. Kim. 2004. Early- and late-onset
complications of the ketogenic diet for intractable epilepsy. International League
Against Epilepsy. Epilepsia. 45:1116-1123.


University of Florida I Journal of Undergraduate Research I Volume 11, Issue 1 I Fall 2009
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RUSSELL J. OWEN


Matthews, C.K., K.E. v. Holde, and K.G. Ahem. 2000. Biochemistry, p. 650.
Benjamin-Cummings Publishing Company, San Francisco, CA.


Nelson, A. L. 2001. High-Fiber Ingredients Handbook. Eagan Press, St. Paul,
Minnesota


I kt I..i B.V., and L. Prosky. 2001. Advanced Dietary Fibre Technology, p. Pfeifer, H.H., and Thiele, E. 2005. Low-glycemic-index treatment: A liberalized
157. Blackwell Science, United Kingdom. ketogenic diet for treatment of intractable epilepsy. Neurology. 65:1810-1812.


Appendix A


Broccoli Bites - Recipe


Yield: 16 - 6.5 oz Broccoli Bites
Serving Size - 4 ea
Servings - 4

Ingredients

32.5 g - Frozen Chopped Broccoli (thawed, rung dry, and chopped)
24.9 g - Sargento Cheddar Jack Cheese Blend (pre-shredded)
17.5 g - Canola Oil
7.5 g - Crisco (Trans-Fat Free)
31.1 g - Philadelphia Original Cream Cheese-Room Temp
10.0 g - Fresh Garlic (minced)
0.8 g -Kosher Salt
Oil for frying (amount will depend) on method used)


Utensils for Preparation

3 Med Size Mixing Bowls
Cheesecloth or clean dry towel
Cutting Board
Chefs Knife
3 Sheet pans
Wax paper
Digital food scale
Freezer Bags
Paper Towels


Utensils for Cooking

2 Qt Pot or Deep Fryer
Fry Skimmer


Preparation Directions

1) Allow broccoli to thaw overnight in refrigerator. If not completely thawed, run water over broccoli while still in package.
2) Slice cream cheese into smaller portions (2in x 2in), and allow to come to room temperature (about 1 hour).
3) Remove broccoli from package and rind dry using a clean dry towel or cheesecloth.
4) Roughly chop broccoli so that no large chunks are visible.
5) Place chopped broccoli in mixing bowl.
6) Mix cream cheese with broccoli.
7) Add remaining ingredients and mix thoroughly.
8) Refrigerate for 1 hour, or until chilled.
9) In small batches, weight out 6.5g portions of broccoli mix. Roll portions into ball shape, place on sheet pan covered with wax
paper, and freeze. Repeat process until all mix has been weighed, shaped, and froze (Figure A).











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KETOGENIC SNACKS


Fig. 1: rolled, shaped, and frozen


Fig. 2: freeze in fiber mix


Fig. 3: breaded product


10) Once completely frozen, remove broccoli bites from freezer and allow to sit at room temperature for five minutes. Using a spray
bottle, lightly mist bites with water, and roll in hands to form a moist round ball.
11) Dredge bites in dry mix, and return to freezer while still in dry mix. Bites should be covered with dry mix (Figure B).
12) Allow outer coating to freeze (about 45 minutes), and remove from dry mix. Lightly mist with water, and toss lightly in dry mix
(Figure 3).
13) Place coated bites on sheet pan covered with wax paper. Freeze bites until outer coating is completely frozen.

Cooking Instructions

1) Preheat deep fryer or fry oil to 3500F
2) Remove bites from freezer and very lightly mist with water
3) In small batches, fry bites for 15-25 seconds (If you will be eating immediately fry for
35-45 seconds).
4) Remove bites using skimmer, and lay on sheet pan covered with paper towels to
absorb excess oil.
5) Once cool, place in freezer. For long-term storage, place bites in freezer bags once
completely frozen.
6) To reheat, bake in over for approximately 15-20 minutes at 200�F, serve immediately.



Figure 4: Finished Product




Appendix B Crab Rangoon Snacks - Recipe

Yield: 11- 6.5 oz Crab Rangoon Snacks
Serving Size - 4 ea
Servings - 2.5

Ingredients

12.3 g -White Crab Meat
1.7 g - Fresh Ginger
8.2 g - Bok Choy
36.1 g- Philadelphia Original Cream Cheese
0.8 g - Green Onion
2.6 g - Worcestershire
7.0 g - Canola Oil
7.0 g - Crisco (Trans-Fat Free)
0.2 g - Guar Gum




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RUSSELL J. OWEN


Utensils for Preparation

3 Med Size Mixing Bowls
Cutting Board
Chefs Knife
3 Sheet pans
Wax paper
Digital food scale
Freezer Bags
Paper Towels


Utensils for Cooking

2Qt Pot or Deep Fryer
Oil for frying (amount will depend on method used)
Fry Skimmer


Preparation Directions

1) Drain excess water from crab meat.
2) Slice cream cheese into smaller portions (2in x 2in), and allow to come to room temperature (about 1 hour).
3) Cut tops and bottoms (1") off of bok choy, and finely chop the remainder (use half greens and half stalk for mixture).
4) Place crab and bok choy into mixing bowl.
6) Mix cream cheese with crab and bok choy.
7) Add remaining ingredients and mix thoroughly.
8) Refrigerate for 1 hour, or until chilled (it may be necessary to cool in freezer to achieve desired shape as described below).
9) In small batches, weight out 6.5g portions of crab mix. Roll portions into ball shape, place on sheet pan covered with wax paper,
and freeze.
Repeat process until all mix has been weighed, shaped, and froze.
10) Once completely frozen, remove crab rangoon from freezer and allow to sit at room temperature for five minutes. Using a spray
bottle, lightly mist bites with water, and roll in hands to form a moist round ball.
11) Dredge crab rangoon in dry mix, and return to freezer while still in dry mix. Bites should be covered with dry mix (Figure 1).













Fig. 1: freeze in fiber mix Fig. 2: breaded product

12) Allow outer coating to freeze (about 45 minutes), and remove from dry mix. Lightly mist with water, and toss lightly in dry mix
(Figure 2).
13) Place coated bites on sheet pan covered with wax paper. Freeze bites until outer coating is completely frozen.

Cooking Instructions

1) Preheat deep fryer or fry oil to 3500F
2) Remove crab rangoon from freezer and very lightly mist with water
3) In small batches, fry crab rangoon for 15-25 seconds (If you will be eating
immediately fry for 35-45 seconds).
4) Remove using skimmer, and lay on sheet pan covered with paper towels to
absorb excess oil.
5) Once cool, place in freezer. For long-term storage, place bites in freezer bags
once completely frozen.

6) To reheat, bake in oven at 2000F for 15-20 minutes; serve immediately.
Fig. 3: Finished Product


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