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..Olu ie -, issue S - [l.3,..June i0' 6e.
Hermeneutics, Narrative, and Social Science: A Discussion of the
Contemporary Relevance of Aristotelian Phronesis
Regev Ben Jacob
Practical wisdom, prudenca (prudence), and phronesis are all analogs for a c,pe or human understanding thac
is directly related to experience and application. The theoretical development of this faculty harks back to
classical Greece when Aristotle, in his moral philosophy, used it as the conceptual framework to bridge the
gap between universal principles and their practical application. In this sense, phronesis was that mediating force
in unknown and alien circumstances. We live in a world of uncertain foundations, yet there is a present existence
with which must engage despite such uncertainty. For Heidegger it is "throwness," a condition in which we
find ourselves existing and interacting with the world and through which we develop the grounds for
understanding. Leslie Thiele writes, "Practical judgment is called for when firm knowledge, moral certainty, and
valid rules-whether promulgated by an authoritative institution or derived from an internal process of cogitation-
do not supply us with clear solutions to our problems." The person enacting practical wisdom is constantly
drawing back self-reflexively on intuitions and senses developed over time through lived experiences in
concrete situations. This reflex entails a correct disposition through the habituation of action. This kind of
knowledge, which emerges from action and context, is a different kind of knowledge, according to Aristotle, from
the apprehension of general and universal principles. In recent times, this same concept of phronesis has
evolved into a center for reorienting the conversation about contemporary philosophical problems and the ways
in which we can engage them.
By studying the work of Hans-Georg Gadamer, I will analyze a contemporary attempt to use the concept of
phronesis to validate the positive role of interpretive knowledge. What is of interest is the fundamental way in
which Gadamer uniquely recognizes and utilizes Aristotle's phronesis, how the resuscitation of this ancient
concept allows him to articulate crucial issues facing modern society. An underlying anxiety in his thought about
a scientism permeates modern society. Gadamer characterizes the problem as an idolatry of the authority of
science and scientific method in our culture which, subsequently, has led to a deficit in our ability define our ends;
a deformation of our praxis. Following an analysis of Gadamer, I will use Bent Flyvbjerg's Making Social
Science Matter to see how a reformed social science, one which focuses on phronesis and narratives of power,
can become meaningful for coping with this problem. I will explore how Flyvbjerg's thought deals with many of
the issues raised in Gadamer's philosophy. Indeed to make social science matter, Flyvbjerg's primary task, it
must contribute to a social and political dialogue which is in accord with our linguistic and
hermeneutic understandings. By conceiving of a social science aimed at elucidating power relationships,
its contribution to dialogue becomes an important aspect for developing praxis in our society.
To understand the background of this modern problem, we will briefly turn our attention to Aristotle's discussion
of phronesis in the 6th book of the Nicomachean Ethics. This discussion is one of the first systematic accounts
of practical wisdom of considerable depth in the classical world. Consequently, we see that many modern
thinkers return to Aristotle to relearn the value of the concept of phronesis in dealing with many of our
contemporary philosophical issues.
Aristotle says that practical wisdom is a virtue which allows an individual to make a correct judgment in
diverging contexts. It is characterized by the ability of the man who has practical wisdom, the phronimos, to
make correct judgment while maintaining a concern for what is good as a whole. Leslie Thiele writes,
Aristotle's man of practical wisdom, the phronimos, employs his intelligence to discover what is good for
the individual and community, what "conduces to the good (eudaimonic) life as a whole." But the phronimos
goes beyond recognizing the components of a good life; he is disposed to achieve them. Unlike the other
intellectual virtues, practical wisdom has an explicitly moral character. Phronesis is not simply knowledge; it is
a capacity for knowledge in action.
Our ability to correctly recognize our "ends" depends on our action in specific circumstances. Additionally,
we cultivate a correct desire for "good" action by acting well in concrete situations. It is an intellectual virtue that
is expressed and determined by good action (eupraxia).
Essentially, our actions have an impact on our ability to deliberate in relation to what is actually good while, at
the same time, creating the emotional disposition (hexis) for wanting to act in this way. For Aristotle, we do not
gain an ethical understanding by imposing technical rules or universal principles; rather, we use our practical
wisdom to make decisions in multifaceted contexts to reach good ends. Aristotle says,
A sign of this is that we also speak of people as having practical judgment concerning some particular thing
when they calculate well with a view to some particular serious end, among those about which there is no art [...]
It remains, therefore, that it is a truth-disclosing active condition involving reason that governs action,
concerned with what is good and bad for a human being.
Again, we see that we gain the ability to perceive and deliberate towards our ends by taking actions in
particular situations. Practical judgment is "truth-disclosing" because we become aware of what the
expedient courses of action are through our exposure and experience to past circumstances where we've had to
use our practical judgment. For Aristotle, our universal ends are synchronically shaped by our particular
actions. Hence, theoretical knowledge of what is right and wrong is insufficient grounds to determine a correct
action in every instance.
A critical distinction that Aristotle develops in relation to phronesis, one that is particularly important for this work,
is the division he delineates between the different intellectual virtues. Aristotle distinguishes between
episteme, techne, and phronesis as different intellectual virtues that correspond to different types of knowledge
and their matching spheres of relevance. Episteme is what we think of as scientific reasoning or the comprehension
of universal truths through specific types of proofs and demonstrations. He writes that, "a thing that is known is
by necessity, and therefore it is everlasting, since all things that are simply by necessity are everlasting,
and everlasting things are ungenerated and indestructible. Also, all knowledge seems to be teachable, and what
is known is learnable." This comes very close to our notions of a modern scientific project which we
consider legitimate "science." We learn the rules and principles of the universe through the accretion of
verifiable epistemic knowledge in accordance to scientific method and reasoning. The intellectual virtue of episteme
is knowledge of what is "not capable of being otherwise;" or knowledge that we consider true regardless of
the changing contexts of those who apprehend it.
What Aristotle terms techne is the active condition involved in the making of something, often translated as
"art." This type of knowledge is analogous to a technical skill we posses. The goal of this type of knowledge is
the creation of a particular thing or product. "All art [techne] is concerned with the process of coming into being,
and to practice an art is also to consider how something capable of being or not being...may come into being..." It
is the knowledge of production and process similar to what we would call a craft, such as building a table. Aristotle
is careful to show us that both phronesis and techne help us achieve certain ends, but the ends are entirely
different. "Among things that are capable of being otherwise, there is something that is made and also
something that is done, but making and action are different...and so the active condition involving reason
that governs action is also different form the active condition involving reason that governs making."
Both Gadamer and Flyvbjerg take the distinctions discussed above very seriously. It helps them better
understand how important phronesis actually is to human life. This virtue becomes an essential component
in Gadamer's assessment that there has been a deformation of praxis in modern society. We are in a state of
lost orientations in which we falsely look to science as a way to deliberate about our ends. For Flyvbjerg, the failing
of social science relative to natural science in predictive and explanatory power lies precisely in their neglect
of phronesis. I believe that these two concerns are interrelated: the unsatisfactory emulation of scientific
explanation and prediction in the social sciences can be viewed as part of the idolization of science which
Gadamer worries about. Furthermore, for Flyvbjerg, a return to phronesis can make social science relevant
toward social and political praxis and contribute to a "reflexive analysis and discussion of values and interests,
which is the prerequisite for an enlightened political, economic, and cultural development in any society,"
something which cannot be achieved through a reliance on a scientific approach.
Let's begin the discussion of Gadamer by outlining certain central components of his philosophy. In his
magnum opus, Truth and Method, Gadamer's aim is to argue that authentic understanding necessitates not
only interpretation, but also application. Gadamer imports thematic elements from both Husserl and
Heidegger towards a reformulation of the notion of "hermeneutics." Hermeneutics derives its name from Hermes
-the messenger of the gods to humanity. If we think of the term narrowly, it refers to a method used "to interpret
or understand unfamiliar text, work of art, historical event or even a conversation." With the steady dismantling
of the medieval world view, hermeneutics arose as a response to the problems of correct interpretation of
biblical texts. Since, hermeneutics has evolved from a method of interpretation to a theory of human moral and
social sciences. Developments in the twentieth century have contributed to a much richer hermeneutical theory
with an essential emphasis on the importance of language. Concordantly, Dallmyr and McCarthy write
that, "Gadamer's main work, Wahreheit und Methode (Truth and Method) (1960), was markedly influenced
by Heidegger's ontology of language. In it he was not so much concerned to work out methodological procedures
for the cultural sciences, or to elucidate their social and theoretical foundations; he wanted instead to
disclose 'linguisticality' as the basic mode of human existence." He wanted to argue for an essential validity in
the form of knowledge gained from the interpretive-hermeneutic understanding of the humanities and,
subsequently, he wanted to extend this mode of being as the fundamental way in which we are in the world.In
the introductory remarks to Truth and Method, Gadamer writes,
The Hermeneutics developed here is not, therefore, a methodology of the human sciences, but an attempt
to understand what human sciences truly are, beyond their methodological self-consciousness, and what
connects them with the totality of our experience with the world.
The hermeneutical experience is Gadamer's way of describing how interpretation is central to our being.
Scientific investigations depend on method to validate certain claims of what would constitute ratified knowledge,
but hermeneutic interpretation offers a distinctive type of knowledge which for Gadamer has an equally valid claim
To be able to have any interpretive understanding at all we rely on our prejudices. Prejudices for Gadamer are
the fore-structures that we employ to come to any genuine understanding. In Truth and Method
Gadamer rehabilitates the concept of prejudice in order to strip it of the negative connotations it had accrued
from Enlightenment thinking. Gadamer writes, "If we want to do justice to man's finite, historical mode of being, it
is necessary to fundamentally rehabilitate the concept of prejudice and acknowledge the fact that there are
legitimate prejudices." It is imperative, Gadamer suggests, that we see that all our understandings are pre-
grounded in our own historical situations and that we must grapple with the internalized conceptions of our
inherited tradition. In essence, we find that this tradition exists linguistically. Dallmyr and McCarthy both point
out that according to Gadamer languageae and tradition are inextricably bound together: language is the "mode
of being of tradition," and tradition is the medium in which language continues and develops." Furthermore,
because we are constituted linguistically, this tradition is constitutive of our very selves: "Language is not just one
of man's possessions in the world; rather, on it depends the fact that man has a world at all."
The theme of being's linguistic inhabitance of world had been explored by Heidegger. It should be emphasized
that for Heidegger, as well as Gadamer, language is always active. It is active not in the sense of an activity of
a subject "man," but rather language takes a constituting role in at the center of being. The explication of
language must necessarily then be of language. In other words, there is no thinking that can circumvent it.
However, unlike Heidegger, Gadamer views our continual absorption in language as integration into culture
and community. This is our tradition with which we must grapple. P. Christopher Smith writes that, for
Gadamer, learning in language is "learning to rise above our individuated and private existences and to participate
in the communities of language and culture to which we have always already belonged from time out of mind."
Gadamer sees our prejudices, both negative and positive, as enabling any attempts at understanding. We are
not slaves to our prejudices or tradition because we find ourselves in a dialogical relation to them. Meaning is
only revealed through our active encounter with tradition. We must then constantly test our prejudices
against tradition. Through our engagement we make critical evaluations of what we understood in the past.
For Gadamer this is very similar to the concept of play which he introduces to highlight our mode of being, one
which is characteristic to our relation with our tradition. "The 'subject' of the experience of art, that which
remains and endures, is not the subjectivity of the person who experiences it but the work itself...The players are
not the subjects of play; instead play merely reaches presentation (Darstellung) through the players." There is a
to-and-fro movement that occurs from the interaction of both players and the "play." Richard Bernstein writes that
Gadamer introduces the concept of play in order to highlight the subtle dialectical and dialogical relation that
exists between the interpreter and what he seeks to interpret....The aim of hermeneutical understanding is to
open ourselves to what texts and tradition "says to us," to open ourselves to their meaning and the claim to
truth that they make upon us.
In other words, we cannot escape our own historical situation; rather, we use our own history, our tradition
an prejudices, to come to see the "truth" of what we are attempting to interpret. Through what is described as
the "hermeneutic circle" we project our biases, our fore-projections, onto a text and we work out and revise what
we understand with each encounter. The hermeneutic circle is not a closed one, but, rather, one that is
endlessly changing. Essentially, we project our present biases and prejudices as a "horizon" of understanding,
our unique historically effected vantage point, onto the otherness of what seek to understand:
Projecting a historical horizon, then, is only one phase in the process of understanding; it does not become
solidified into self-alienation of a past consciousness, but is overtaken by our own present horizon of
understanding. In the process of understanding, a real fusing of horizons occurs-which means that as the
historical horizon is projected, it is simultaneously superseded.
We are changed; our understanding is broadened as we transcend our prejudices and gain a different and
It is in this context that Gadamer's appropriation of phronesis becomes significant. He views phronesis as a mode
of knowledge that is a model to our own fundamental hermeneutic understanding. As we saw above,
Aristotle differentiated the intellectual virtues of empisteme, techne, and phronesis. The difference
between empisteme (scientific reason) and phronesis is quite evident from our discussion above.It is the
subtler difference between phronesis and techne which is important for Gadamer. While both techne and
phronesis deal with changing circumstances and application, they have a separate conceptual relation between
their means and ends. While techne is a skill that can be taught and can also be forgotten, practical judgment, on
the other hand, is a virtue that is intrinsic to one's moral character and is constantly being constituted by our
actions. It is instructive that phronesis is not simply the application of universal principles towards
concrete situations, but that it is the coeval determination of the ends within actions that take place in the
particular circumstances. Gadamer states that "What is right, for example, cannot be fully determined
independently of the situation that requires a right action from me, whereas the eidos of what a craftsman wants
to make is fully determined by the use for which it was intended."
The importance of application to phronesis is the same importance of application to all genuine understanding.
We must apply the other (text, event, or person) to our very own situation. We must not remove our own
subjectivity or prejudices, but rather risk them to fuse horizons in order to gain an authentic grasp of what the
text might 'say' to us. I follow Bernstein here when he points out that Gadamer's own encounter with Aristotle,
which allows him to come to his description of our hermeneutical understanding, is actually exemplary of
a hermeneutic understanding itself. We fuse our own historical horizon with that of Aristotle's and we achieve
an insight into the problems that we deal with today. Bernstein writes,
... Gadamer tells us that if we are to understand what a text or piece of tradition says, then we must not
disregard ourselves and our hermeneutical situation. This is characteristic of the way in which Gadamer
approaches Aristotle. For what Gadamer takes to be basic for our hermeneutical situation is that we are
confronted with a world in which there has been a "domination of technology based on science," that there is a
"false idolatry of the expert," a "scientific mystification of the modern society of specialization," and a
dangerous "inner longing in our society to find in science a substitute for lost orientations."
Fundamentally, the hermeneutics developed by Gadamer compels us toward praxis. Philosophical
hermeneutics opens us up to a new understanding of the social and political beyond what we could understand
from any technical knowledge. In Gadamer, therefore, we find a great emphasis on conversation and dialogue
which is analogous to our hermeneutical situation. While not identical, our encounter with tradition or a text
is reminiscent of a conversation with a person. Gadamer writes that everyey conversation presupposes a
common language, or better, creates a common language. Something is placed in the center, as the Greeks
say, which the partners in dialogue both share, and concerning which they can exchange ideas with
another." Through such dialogical encounters ethical and political experience can be interrogated and subjected
to endless possibilities of interpretations. Vincent writes that this dialogue "opens up the whole sphere of
practical judgment and reason (phronesis)...in Gadamer differences can be dynamically and creatively fused. There
is dialectic of growth, change, and psychological maturity in individuals." We are creatures of dialogue and
our hermeneutic situation can help us bridge political differences by steering both our actions and ends. This type
of hermeneutics is best practiced as dialogue in an open pluralistic arena where information and alternatives
However, many criticize Gadamer on this point. Jurgen Habermas suggests that in order to criticize what
is dominating in tradition's authority we must seek a normative ground that transcends it; our
hermeneutic understandings are not sufficient. "The right of reflection demands that the hermeneutic
approach restrict itself. It calls for a reference system that goes beyond the framework of tradition as such; only
then can tradition also be criticized." Bernstein notes that there is a paradox when we think about
Gadamer's philosophy in terms of praxis. "For on the one hand, he acutely analyzes the deformation of praxis in
the contemporary world and shows how the main problem facing our civilization is one in which the very
possibility for the exercise of phronesis is undermined; and yet on the other hand he seems to suggest
that, regardless of the type of community in which we live, phronesis is always a real possibility." How can
we effectively criticize and transcend the distortion of dialogue in our society? Bernstein's point is that we must
look for the source of what "blocks and distorts such dialogue" and look for ways to work through it "to make
much genuine dialogue a living reality."
It is in relation to this living reality that I want to introduce Flyvbjerg's Making Social Science Matter. In this
book, Flyvbjerg wants to re-imagine the social sciences as an endeavor which requires phronesis and would
be directly relevant to the development of praxis. He characterizes the social sciences as weakened by their
attempt to emulate the empirical explanatory and predictive success of the natural sciences. He writes,
it is indicative of the degree to which thinking in the social sciences has allowed itself to be colonized by natural
and technical science that we today do not even have a word for the one intellectual virtue, phronesis which
Aristotle saw not only as the necessary basis for social and political inquiry, but as the most important
We see here that Flyvbjerg shares Gadamer's concern with the domination of scientific methods in regards
to deliberations about our ends. Instead of attempts at explanation through method j la scientific reason,
Flyvbjerg wants to call attention for the need to return to phronesis in the practice of our social science. How,
then, can a "phonetic"social science be a contributing factor to our praxis while taking into account factors
that oppress and distort dialogue?
Flyvbjerg argues that the social sciences must recast their role, from one of looking for explanatory
universal theories, towards context-dependent narratives of power that tackle questions which are relevant to
issues of our society. If we can better understand how power relationships are working, then we might be able
to enact positive change. Following Richard Rorty, Flyvbjerg suggests, that political situations get clarified
through detailed stories of our societal relations of power. "Such clarification is a principal concern for phronetic
social science and provides the main link to praxis. Phronetic social science explores historic circumstances
and current practices to find avenues for praxis."
The principal theorist of power that is important for Flyvbjerg is Michel Foucault. For Flyvbjerg, Foucault's
"power analytics" serve as a better model over Habermas's "discourse ethics" for understanding power in our
society. Habermas wants to use constitution-writing and argumentative consensus building to bring forth an
ideal speech situation; he seeks undistorted communication with appeals to a type of transcendental
procedural rationality. Flyvbjerg points to this weakness when he says that "The basic weakness of
Habermas's project is its lack of agreement between ideal and reality...Habermas lacks the kind of
concrete understanding of relations of power, which is needed for political change."
We need to effectively understand the domination and play of power in concrete cases through genealogical
studies that give us an effective place from which to struggle towards freedom. Flyvbjerg points out that
"For Foucault the socially and historically conditioned context, and not fictive universals, constitutes the
most effective bulwark against relativism and nihilism, and the best basis for action. Our sociality and
history, according to Foucault, is the only foundation we have, the only solid ground under our feet. And this
socio-historical foundation is fully adequate." An understanding of how specific situations of domination have
been created leads to the realization that they are not necessitated by history and, hence, can be changed.
Flyvbjerg quotes Foucault as saying that "...Foucault's genealogical studies are carried out in order to show
how things can be done differently to 'separate out, from the contingency that has made us what we are,
the possibility of no longer being, doing or thinking what we are, do or think.'" In this sense, we can think
of Gadamer who emphasized that our prejudices could be used to enlarge our horizons. As Leslie Thiele
writes, "Narratives construct us before we ever get a chance to construct them." The conflict that occurs in
relations of power becomes part of the discourse that has shaped us and can be used to clarify negative
domination and move toward change.
A social science that creates these types of narratives can become very important for individuals and
their community. Leslie Thiele underscores the importance of narratives when he points out what Richard Rorty
calls "redescription." He holds that people do not change their "central projects" as a consequence of
rational argument. If they undergo a significant change, it is because they come to embrace a revised narrative
that offers a retooled plot, set of characters, and themes. Only thus are life projects adjusted. Foucault, Thiele
points out, uses genealogical stories to combat what might seem like transcendental and ahistorical claims
of authority. They can be used to cultivate practical judgment to help us cope with problems facing our modern life.
In this context we can understand how new narratives from reformed social science can increase our horizons
while being cautious of dominating relationships. Again, we can return to Gadamer's thought. He writes that
"Both rhetoric and the transmission of scientific knowledge are monological in form; both need the counterbalance
of hermeneutical appropriation, which works in the form of dialogue. And precisely and especially practical
and political reason can only be realized and transmitted dialogically." To be significant, social science
must contribute to the conversation of society while offering the grounds for the practice of phronesis. It must
reach beyond the specialized journals of academia and involve itself in the process that it studies. This
is acknowledged by Flyvbjerg which writes that "Phronetic research is dialogical in the sense that it includes, and,
if successful, is itself included in, a polyphony of voices, with no one voice, including that of the researcher,
claiming final authority. Thus, the goal of phronetic research is to produce input to the ongoing social dialogue
and praxis in a society, rather than to generate ultimate, unequivocally verified knowledge."
The practical wisdom that can be generated by a phronetic social science speaks directly to Gadamer's emphasis
of our dialogical natures. For it is with Gadamer's formulation of hermeneutics that we can comprehend how we
can move beyond our own specific horizon towards a questioning and assimilation of other
interpretations. Gadamerian hermeneutics instructs us that we are deceived if we grant "the power of reflection,"
a universally abstracted reason, the power to circumvent tradition and authority. Habermas's approach to
dialogue, which is such an attempt, relies on implicit and universal validity claims that are present in
everyday speech and which are only valid if they are justified argumentatively in practical discourse. His
"universal pragmatics" is an approach for reconstructing the grounds for such validity claims. There is not a
heavy reliance of our hermeneutic task, but rather we use our reason to grasp the rational claims put forth by
others. Thus, in the political realm we can achieve consensus by sidestepping our prejudices and accepting the
force of the better argument.
With Gadamer, it is clear that we must use our hermeneutic situation and our inter-subjective linguistic natures
to come to an understanding. Therefore, we cannot appeal to the concept of "reason" to bail us out. If we want
to reach a collective action and deliberation about our ends, we must engage in a dialogue with the purpose
of "fusing horizons" with others. Just as we must listen to what our tradition or a text has to say to us, we must
also use our prejudices to interpret the words of others so that we may come to an understanding with
them. Through dialogue we can share horizons and move towards action while at the same time tuning the
direction of our ends. Still, Bernstein suggests that it would be naive to consider our entire political and social
realms comprised principally on dialogue. However, he adds that it does provide a "powerful regulative ideal that
can orient our practical and political lives." He continues by saying that "If the quintessence of what we are is to
be dialogical...then whatever the limitations of the practical realization of this ideal, it nevertheless can and
should give practical orientation to our lives. We must ask what is it that blocks and distorts such dialogue and
what is to be done... to make much genuine dialogue a living reality." This is why the narratives of
Flyvbjerg's phronetic social science are of such significance. If we cannot depend on a universal pragmatics,
with transcendental validity claims, to pave the way for undistorted communication, then it is with the
incorporation of narratives of power that we can use our hermeneutic understandings to guide us towards
better social and political action. By tackling socially and politically relevant questions, the social scientist offers
a hermeneutic interpretation of our historical situation and creates a narrative that makes us aware of
domination and power exists in our society. By becoming aware and sensitive to these issues we can have
informed social and political action which, ultimately, can move us towards change.
1. L. Nathan Oaklander, Existentialist Philosophy An Introduction, 2nd ed. (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1996) 150-151.
2. Leslie Thiele, forthcoming, (Cambridge University Press, 2006) 7.
3. Hans-Georg Gadamer, "Hermeneutics and Social Science," Cultural Hermeneutics V. 2 (Boston: D. Reidel
Publishing Company, 1974) 316.
4. Bent Flyvbjerg, Making Social Science Matter (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001) 5.
5. Leslie Thiele 17.
6. Ibid. 19.
7. Ibid. 20.
8. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics (Massachusetts: Focus Publishing, 2002) 106.
9. Ibid. 104.
10. Ibid. 105.
11. Flyvbjerg 3.
12. Andrew Bowie, Introduction to German Philosophy: From Kant to Habermas, (Massachusetts: Polity Press,
13. Andrew Vincent, The Nature of Political Theory (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004) 294.
14. Ibid. 294.
15. Fred R. Dallmayr and Thomas A. McCarthy, eds., Understanding and Social Inquiry (Indiana: University of
Notre Dame Press, 1977) 287.
16. Hans-Georg Gadamer, Truth and Method, 2nd ed. (New York: Crossroad Publishing Corporation, 1989) xxxiii.
17. Ibid. 270.
18. Ibid. 277.
19. Dallmyr and McCarthy 288.
20. Truth and Method 443.
21. Martin Heidegger, "Language," The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism, ed. Vincent B.
Leitch (New York: Norton & Company, 2001) 1121-1134.
22. P. Christopher Smith, "The I-Thou Encounter (Begegnung) in Gadamer's Reception of Heidegger." The Philosophy
of Hans-Georq Gadamer, ed. Lewis Edwin Hahn (Illinois: Open Court Publishing, 1997) 517.
23. Truth and Method 102-103.
24. Richard Bernstein, "From Hermeneutics to Praxis," Hermeneutics and Modern Philosophy ed. Brice R.
Wachterhauser (New York: State University of New York Press, 1986) 89.
25. Truth and Method 266-267.
26. Truth and Method 306-307.
27. Bernstein 92.
28. Truth and Method 317.
29. Bernstein 93.
30. Ibid 103.
31. Truth and Method 379.
32. Vincent 309.
33. Jurgen Habermas, "A Review of Gadamer's Truth and Method," Understanding and Social Inquiry eds. Fred
R. Dallmayr and Thomas A. McCarthy (Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 1977) 358.
34. Bernstein 102.
35. Ibid. 104.
36. Flyvbjerg 3-4.
37. Ibid. 140.
38. Ibid. 88-93.
39. Ibid. 101.
40. Ibid 103.
41. Thiele 157.
42. Thiele 166.
43. Thiele 171.
44. "Hermeneutics and Social Science" 316.
45. Flyvbjerg 139.
46. Vincent 286-288.
47. Bernstein 104.
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