Hot Tack Seal Test on Golden Flake VFFS Machines Report and Activities

Material Information

Hot Tack Seal Test on Golden Flake VFFS Machines Report and Activities
Howell, Bryan
Welt, Bruce ( Mentor )
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
University of Florida
Publication Date:


serial ( sobekcm )

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


This item has the following downloads:

Full Text

JOurn.31 or in.,ner.r.3du.3- Re--search

..Olu1eie 5, i..ue , - a.3, 2i:1114

Hot Tack Seal Test on Golden Flake VFFS Machines Report and Activities

Bryan Howell

Mentor: Bruce Welt

College of Agricultural and Life Sciences


Hot Tack and Peel strength performance tests were performed on samples of sealed and unsealed

thermoplastic potato chip pouches from the Golden Flake Potato Chip factory located in Ocala Florida.

Comparisons were made against competitive salty snack packages (Frito-lay) purchased at a local

supermarket. Results suggest that virtually all samples exhibited heat-seal problems that could be mitigated

by modifying sealing temperatures and dwell times.

Key Words: Heat seal, hot tack, impulse, seal strength


Hot Tack is defined as the ability of a heat seal to withstand stress while the seal is still hot

(Soroka, 1999). Hot Tack performance is important in today's fast-paced snack food packaging

world. The higher a heat seal's hot tack strength the faster products can be packaged.

Hot Tack is one of the most important characteristics of thermoplastic films used in bag-

making applications, particularly in vertical-form-fill-seal (VFFS) machines. Vertical-form-fill-

seal machines utilize hot tack strength when products fall on newly formed seals within fractions of

a second after the seal is formed. Soroka, (1999) describes a good hot-tack seal as one that will be

able to resist peeling apart, even though it is still hot.

"The Hot Tack performance of the seal will directly influence the speed at which the VFFS

packaging machine can be operated and/or the maximum weight of product that can be packed

per packing unit" (Anonymous, 2003).

Several companies make Hot Tack testing devices. Solvay Polyolefins Europe, H. W. Theller LLC,

and Brugger are just a few of the companies that have developed machines to test the Hot Tack of

seals using the ASTM F1921-98 guidelines.

The strength of heat seals is often determined by measuring the force required to pull apart the pieces

of film which have been sealed together, either in a dynamic load test or a static load test

(Robertson, 1993). Different laboratory tests have been developed to evaluate hot tack performance

of thermoplastic resins in the form of films:

. The spring test method, according to ASTM D 3706

. The instrumented hot tack testing method, according to ASTM F1921-98

. The falling weight method, according to industry common practice

. The practical test on a VFFS packaging machine

All these methods consist of submitting the hot seal to a tensile force shortly after it has been

formed (Internet, 2003). Work performed in this study involved the use of a dynamic load-

testing instrument.


. * Realization of defects in Golden Flake bag seals

. * Research Hypotheses: Defects in Golden Flake heat seals are attributable to improperly defined

heat seal settings on Golden flakes VFFS machines.

. * It is expected that analysis of hot tack parameters of Golden flake seals will help to define

more appropriate heat sealing parameters that will significantly reduce heat seal defects


The objective of this study was to determine appropriate seal characteristics for the Golden Flake

chip bags. The manufacturer noted several complaints about the strength and completeness of

these seals and, in particular, the rear seam seal. Golden Flake uses two types of VFFS machines. Lines

A, B, and E are Woodman Co. 1992 models, while lines C and D are 1985 Write models. Observation

of operating lines revealed the following operational parameters (May 27, 2003):

Table 1

Typical operating parameters observed on Golden Flake VFFS machines

Machine Line Upper Jaw Lower Jaw Seam Temp. Dwell Time Seating Pressure
Temp. (F) Temp. (F) (F) (s) (PSI)

A 295 294 320 0.45 42

B 265 270 314 0.45 42

C No Data No Data No Data No Data No Data

D No Data No Data No Data No Data No Data

E 280 278 317 0.45 42

Mrs. B's 285 285 310 0.34 46


Test Instruments

. Dynisco/Theller Hot Tack Heatsealer with Computer

. * Ruler and scalpel

. * 14 sample unsealed strips (Hot Tack Test)

. 12 Sample bags of chips (3 from each running line samples at 15 min. intervals)

. 3 seals per bag with 4 test strips per seal (144 test strips)

. * 3 Mrs. B's Sample Bags with 12 samples each (36 Samples)

. 10 Mrs. B's Sample shot Tack Strips

. 9 Sample seals from competitor Frito Lay

Test Methods (Theory)

The Theller Hot Tack Heatsealer was used to perform Hot Tack tests on twelve unsealed strips of

source film to identify appropriate sealing parameters. Temperature, dwell time, seal pressure,

and cooling time were evaluated. Ideally, a heat seal should provide uniform strength throughout

the seal, resulting in a profile similar to Figure 1.


.l mp_ -_.|er tiFn - Mr,|, SI
_ ________________lk * sap� arat og [n

Figure 1. Desirable uniform heat seal profile

The Peel strength test was used to determine the seal profiles of sample bags formed under

conditions outlined in Table 1. "Peel Strength" refers to strength of a heat seal after it has cooled

to ambient temperature and achieved strength stability.

Test Procedures

Initially, each VFFS machines sealing parameters was programmed into the Theller Hot tack tester

using the Peel Strength test option. Testing began with Machine Line A, Bag 1 but continued

randomly thereafter. Each seal area (Top, Bottom, and Seam) was averaged from all three bags.

Fourteen virgin film test strips were sealed and tested for Hot Tack. Initial parameters from the 4

VFFS machines were used as the test parameters to eliminate the possibility of sensor readout error

on the actual machines. Next, depending on the seal profiles obtained from these initial tests,

the variables (dwell time, temp, cooling time, and pressure) will be altered slightly to obtain a

normal seal strength profile as shown above.

Chip density testing was performed on sample bags of chips. The contents of each bag were placed into

a container of known volume. This container was then lightly tapped three times to ensure that the

chips settled naturally. The contents were then measured with a ruler by measuring the height of

the container not occupied by chip materials. Once the volume of chips was estimated, bag volume

was estimated using measured bag dimensions. Chip volume density was estimated by dividing

bag volume by chip volume. Experienced potato chip manufacturers suggest that chips should not

take up more than 80 percent of available space in order to minimize catching chip material within

seals (Anonymous, 2003).


Test Data & Results

Golden Flake Potato Chip Line. About 65% of all the standard Golden Flake bags had successful peels

and only 69% of all bags had acceptable peel profiles. Seal strengths and peel profiles for sealed

bags coming off different lines varied in a seemingly random fashion. On several instances, chip

and seasoning matter was located between the seal crimps creating a bumpy profile as can be seen

in Figure 2.



z 2a-

0 5 le a5 20 25 3B 35 40 45
Cl-ap Sep4ration il"crease. nn

Figure 2. Chip matter between seals

This problem was not specific to Golden Flake, since it was observed in virtually all samples tested.

Hot Tack tests were initiated with same parameters as the Golden Flake lines. Initially the first

variable changed was a temperature increase from 2650F to 2750F. After several tests, this proved to

be the cause of an increasing arch forward in the profiles. The test temperatures were then lowered

to 2570F and then again to 2440F. These changes caused a peak at the end of the profile indicating

that the last part of the seal was stronger than the interior areas of the seal, which may result in

a bursting effect when bags are opened (Figure 3).




N 2s8


ABDee re jae 141

Figure 3. Seal strength peaks at edge of seal

Seal temperature was set back to 2650F and dwell time was increased from 0.45 to 0.50 seconds.

This resulted in a bumpy profile. Dwell time was increased again to confirm this trend. Increase in

dwell time also created a peak at the end of the profile similar to the increased temperatures. Dwell

time was then reduced to 0.40 seconds, which resulted in an acceptable profile, but seal strength

was reduced by as much as 30 percent. This trend was confirmed by reducing dwell time to 0.38 and

0.36 seconds. However at 0.38 seconds and 2650F, seal profile appeared optimal, but with a

strength reduction of about 18%.

Mrs. B's� Line. The Mrs. B's line did not perform as well as the Golden Flake potato chip line. Only 11%

of all tests resulted in peel behavior, while none of these provided desirable peel

performance. Delamination of seals accounted for about 88% of all test profiles. Chip and

seasoning matter was present between many of the seals as can be seen in Figure 4. Initial

force required to pull seals apart was fairly high. An average of 26.18 N (+/- 3.3 N) was needed

to separate each seal in all three seal areas. This initially high force, followed by an abrupt decline

in force, indicated that seal would open in a tug and burst manner.


AS -


9S~iZ i's 1 l Z 3@n
a Ion-

Figure 4. Delamination and chip debris

Initial hot tack testing parameters were sealing temperature of 3100F, and dwell time of 0.34 seconds

at 46 PSI. This resulted in a flat curve with a large peak at the end as evident by Figure 5.



S8 a' 4e 14
aTin. niSe]

Figure 5. Improved seal profile for Mrs. B's Brand chips

Initially dwell time was increased to 0.38 sec, which evened out the curve but resulted in a

slightly melted seal. Temperature was then dropped to 2850F at 0.38 sec dwell time and 46 PSI.

This profile became closer to ideal except for a larger peak at the end of the test as seen in Figure 6.

FI Fir.- rr-.1

2 age 4"B 60B 8so le00 1260 14
Tine,. nStm

Figure 6. Improving seal profile for Mrs. B's Brand chips

Dwell time was reduced to 0.34 sec and then increased to 0.420 sec, which resulted in an

unfavorably curved profile and then flat profile with a peak, respectively. Dwell time was increased

again to 0.45 sec, which melted the seal. To compensate the temperature was reduced to 275�F

with 0.45 sec dwell time and 46 PSI. This produced the best profile, however, the seal was still

slightly melted. Temperature was reduced again to 2650F, which resulted in a near ideal profile.

Seal strength remained an issue, as this seal was relatively weak. The force required to separate the

seal was about 2.15 N. Dwell time was increased to compensate to 0.46 sec, which increased

seal strength to about 2.59 N. This profile was not as even, as can be seen in Figure 7.

I' FL'T~r

u 4

I 35K 4ie 6RI Goa loaa laos 141
TI*o. nSoe

Figure 7. Best seal performance found Mrs. B's Brand chips

Therefore, it appears that significant improvements to Mrs. B's seal characteristics are possible

by running at a lower temperature of 2650F, and slightly longer dwell time of about 0.46 sec.

Frito Lay@ Line. Results showed that only about 55% of all seals resulted in a smooth peel.

Remaining seals resulted in delamination and seal breaks. No Frito-Lay samples displayed ideal

seal profiles. Profiles indicated several problems including uneven seal temperatures and chip

and seasoning matter between seal crimps as can be seen in Figure 8.



3 i e A 5 2S a 3S 35 s 4U '4
Clani Separatt on increaseA W I

Figure 8. Bumpy seal performance from Frito-Lay due to chip debris

Bulk Density Tests

Industry practice suggests that chip density should not exceed 80% of pouch volume. There are

two ways to determine the volume of a pouch. First, a pouch can be filled with a known volume of

water until full. Another approach is to calculate the volume of a pouch by using a calculation

involving the length, width, height, and air fill space. The latter can be very involved and time

consuming, so for the purposes of these experiments the water fill method was used. The following

are the results of the Bulk Density tests.

Table 2

Chip volume as percent of total bag volume

Measurement Golden Flake� Line Mrs. B's� Line Frito-Lay�

Pouch Volume (cm3) 4750.00 3700.00 1000.00

Container Volume (cm3) 8390.17 8390.17 1191.79

Chip Head (cm3) 6030.44 6817.02 786.05

Chip Volume (cm3) 2359.73 1573.15 405.74

Chip Density (%) 49.68 42.52 40.57


The Golden Flake potato chip line sealing specifications need to be checked and maintained

more rigorously. Trials should be done with temperatures approaching 2650F and dwell time of

about 0.38 seconds at 42 PSZ. Line B is running closest to these specifications and is indicated by

its nearly 92% peel success rate.

The Mrs. B's lines sealing specifications need to be considerably altered. Trials should be run

with temperatures being reduced from 310 F to about 2650F. As temperature is reduced, dwell

times should be increased from 0.34 s to between 0.45s and 0.46s at 46 PSI.

Bulk density testing results were inconclusive in determining a reason for chip matter being
found between the seals. All brands tested had a bulk density of well under the 80% rule of thumb.
Other causes for this phenomenon may include drop height of more than 6-8 feet, too much
seasoning being added, and/or not enough air pressure to blow past the seal area just prior to sealing.


1. Internet. 2003.

2. Robertson, Gordon L.. 1993 Food Packaging Principles and Practices. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. 137P

3. Saroka, Walter. 1999. Fundamentals of Packaging Technology. Naperville, Illinois: Institute of
Packaging Professionals. 204P, 270P 346P-348P

4. July 25, 2003

5. July 25, 2003


Back to the Journal of Undergraduate Research

College of Liberal Arts and Sciences I University Scholars Program I University of Florida I

The - ,dahnisf ms K, Thf GO-i' NahI-

� University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611; (352) 846-2032.