University of Florida-
*: ". ":";
Laboratory Notes: 3 Gainesville, Florida August, 1959
SOURCE MATERIALS FOR THE STUDY OF THE
"FLORIDA SEMINOLE INDIANS
a ,', ,'.. ::. ". .. .
John M. Goggin
: 'The Seminole Indians of Florida have been one of the few Indian
tribes of the United States to capture wide public 'interest. This
Sis probably due to their ignoble treatment by our government, the
long but futile defense of their homeland against government forces,
and the colorfulness of their most famous leader, Osceola. To
satisfy some of the requests for source material on these people,
.the present data have been prepared.1
The ancestors of the people we now call Seminole were relative
latecomers to Florida. The original inhabitants of northern Florida,
the Apalachee and Timucua, disappeared for all practical purposes by
1706, leaving 'ibs6 of the area between the Apalachicola and St.
Johns rivers unpopulated. This vacant area was used as a hunting
ground by various Creek tribes from Georgia and Alabama. These
peoples were apparentlytin the process of population expansion and
at the same time weroe:under,pressure on their eastern borders as
the white settlements of the Georgia and South Carolina seaboards
began to move west. As a result, then,, some of the Lower Creeks,
*non-Muskogee speakers, began to settle in northern Florida:some
t.me after 1725, and by 1750 were well established near what is now
Gainesville. Shortly thereafter Muskogee speaking peoples also
These people lived in individual towns or '.tribelets,".each a
political unit with little sense of commonness. In their earlier
years they were still a part of the "Creek Confederacy" with weak
political ties to their northern brethren. But as time went by,
Distance and .lack of common problems weakened.these ties.
SThe .:ndians 'living in Florida: .wre sometimes referred to as
Semincies2' during the latter part of the 18th century but more
1. I am grateful to Dr. William C. Sturtevant for making
r -. useful suggestions and additions to this paper.
91 .7 2. The name is apparently a corruption of the Spanish
cUO cimarrones--wild ones.
'7/3, 7 / -
frequently by the name Of a particular town or chief. Reasonable
working relations were established with the various whites
controlling their country--Spanish, English, then Spanish again,
and finally the Americans in 1820.
However, American occupation turned out to be different than
the previous ones and the demands of land-hungry white frontiersmen
soon raised the question of Indian removal to the west. This the
Indians rested by recourse to arms. The resulting "wars"--mainly
intermittent skirmishes and small engagements with a few battles--
did not end until 1858. As a result, some thousands of the Indians
not killed were moved west to what is now Oklahoma, with a remnant
of perhaps 200 left, hiding in the Everglades and Big Cypress Swamp.
The commonness of cause against the whites tended to fuse the
many original units together into one "Seminole Tribe" and the towns
lost their identity& The aftermath of the wak saw the Florida
remnant as scattered bands without political organization. Secure
in the swamps and unmolested by whites for the last 100 years the
people have grown to a population of over 10001
These Indians are divided into two groups speaking the
related, but not mutually intelligible, Muskogee (Creek) and
Mikasuki (Hitchiti) languages. Other than this their culture is
similar. To a remarkable degree they have retained much of their
Indian culture, more so than any other eastern Indian tribe.
Despite this, their cultural history has been dyhnmic, not
static. They have judiciously adopted man* white triis and also
modified their own, Therefore when one studies Semido e culture
it must be done on a single time level to givb k functional picture
or comparatively, for different time periods.
NONPUBL SI1ED MATERIALS
Surces of information on these peoples are numerous and
widespread, ranging from the accounts of early travelers and
official government reports, to modern studies made by trained
anthropologists. Unpublished materials also exist in archives and
collections. Then too, many museums contain collections illustrative
of Seminole arts and crafts. Finally, of course, there are the
living Indians themselves.
For anyone, except a patient and long-suffering individual, be
he a friendly visitor or a trained anthropologist the present
Indians are not recommended as a source of information about
themselves. Generations o:f resistance to outsiders, internal
political factionalizing, and linguistic problems all combine to
make satisfactory contacts between most Indians and most whites
virtually impossible. 2
Major Museum Collections
.A,.;, ~a, A.. :iABod source of material data on the Seminoles are the
oc. .. +oUectiwons to betfond, in various museums in Florida and elsewhere.
; >The fiestaspecimens were obtained some years ago when many arti-
facts were more common and, as.a result, now repose in northern
museums. The following list of museums indicates the important
i r:,.:- collections or exhibits;. those, of major significance are indicated
.i: :..by :an. asterik.
., : *American Museum of Natural History (New York City).
,A, variety of material; most important is the
: ,Alanson Skinner collection.
*Chicago Museum of Natural History (Chicago, Ill.).
An important collection, the bulk of which
Si : was: collected by Charles B. Cory,
SEverglades National Park Museum (Flamingo, Pia.).
*Florida State Museum (Gainesville, Fla.). A
varied series of specimens, mainly
; collected by John Ma Goggin (circa 1935-1953).
.House of Refuge Museum (Stuart, Fla.). A small,
but very fine, collection made in the 1890's
by Hugh L. Willoughby.
a Miami Museum of Science and History (Miami, Fla.).
*Milwaukee Public Museum (Milwaukee, Wise.).
S.*Museum.of the American Indian, Heye Foundations
S .-(New York). The finest and largest veminole
*.. :collection in existence. It indbdes.a wide
range of early to late material.: However,
the bulk was collected by M, R. Harrington.
*National Museum, Smithsonian Institution
: :: (Washington,, D. C.:) .iCollection covers a
:;:: i:.. wide rabge"ot time from mid 19th century to
.:.- modern times. -:
Oklahoma Historical Society (Oklahoma City, Okla.).
:. *Peabody Museum, Harvard University (Cambridge,
* .....: : S )' /.:" .: ". .. ..
University Museum, University of Pennsylvania
.: (Philadelphia, Pa.). Some important early
*Yale Peabody Museum (New Haven,' Conn.). The
broadest collection of recent Seminole
%material, primarily obtained by Dr. William
:: ...: C. Sturtevant..
. 1. '. :
The amount of unpublished material on the Seminole is unknown,
but probably is considerable and important in terms of historical
background. Most is in official government files and reports
reposing in various archives.
For the 18th and very early 19th century, data can be found in
English and Spanish sources. Probably a considerable, but certainly
an unknown amount is in the files of the Colonial Record Office,
now in the Public Record Office, London.3 Other significant sources
are the personal papers of English leaders such as Sir Henry Gage,
Commander-in-Chief of English forces in North America, who left an
extensive series of papers now in the Clements Library, University
Archival material of the second Spanish period, especially the
East Florida Papers, may be found in the United States (Library of
Congress), Cuba (Archivo Nacional) and Spain.5 Some of these
documents contain d'ta on Seminole history.
The National Archives of the United States (Washington, D. C.)
contains thousands of documents on Territorial Florida, many of
which are important for Seminole history.6 The selective publishing
of these has begun; volumes to date cover 1821-1824 (Carter, 1956)
and 1'24-1828 (Carter, 1953). These archives also contain later
materials relative to the Seminoles emanating from other agencies
including the Indian Service.' Lastly we can mentiondata on more
recent Seminoles to be found in the files of the Seminole Agency
Office at Dania. These recent materials may be restricted in use
by the public.
A last group of unpublished materials which can be mentioned
are unpublished Mastcr's a.d Doctoral theses and dissertations in
the files of American universities. Most of these are listed in
Dockstader (1957) and many may be borrowed*
Published material on the Florida Seminoles appears in widely
scattered sources (some very difficult to find) and varies greatly
in quality and detail. Some accounts are casual observations made
3. Microfilms and transcripts of some of these are in the P.K.
Yonge Library of Florida j.story, University of Florida, Gainesville.
4. Microfilms of these are also at the P.K. Yonge Library of
5. Microfilms of many are in the P.K. Yonge Library of Florida
History. An indexed list of Cuban documents has been published
6. Microfilms of many are in the P.K. Yonge Library of Florida
7. The Archives, with few exceptions are open to the public;
some material may even be obtained by correspondence.
S -by travelers.of the 18th or 19th century; in contrast we have
a* specialized studies by modern anthropologists. The resulting
literature amounts to some hundreds of titles of varying depth and
concentration, most of which by title alone will prove to be
puzzling to the average researcher. People using the standard
bibliographic sources are faced with a difficult problem of
evaluating and analyzing these references, since many may not be
'l.readily at hand. Most of the recent studies by historians and
anthropologists are concerned with Specific topics of Seminole life.
Ye.t on the other hand, many of the earlier accounts of non-professional
scholars are invaluable for detail on certain aspects of'Seminole
S culture. Both types of material may be equally valuable in their
: : .own right.
Any serious student of Seminole history or anthropology must
utilize all possible pertinent references which will mean digging
deep in library stacks and catalogs. On the other hand other
S persons may have less'intensive interests and it is for this group
.:..:that the following bibliography has been primarily prepared. It is
: highly selective, containing only a fraction of the titles dealing
., .with these.Indians. Its greatest emphasis is on anthropological
materials and the least on historical events. Some "classic" titles
are missing; their absence reflects their unimportance for serious
Conspicuous also by their virtual absence in this bibliography,
but implying nothing about their quality, are the hundreds of titles
i:; :. in Congressional Documents and other governmental sources (for
:--: -.` example, American State Papers: Indian Affairs and Military Affairs)
-: :dealing mainly with governmental relationship with the Indians,
especially in the Seminole Wars, but containing material on the
subsequent establishment of reservations, and'details and "problems"
continuing up to modern times.
Finally, another major source must be mentioned--that is
.v ::.newspapers. .To utilize them properly is a fantastically time-
.r .:.consuming job which can only be afforded by the most dedicated
scholar. Newspapers do, though often have information not to be
:found elsewhere. Newspapers of value are, of course, first of all
Flrida-publications;8 and in addition for the Seminole Wars period
S.. the major periodicals of the South, such as those of Charleston.
For this same period we can also suggest such northern journals as
Niles Weekly Registrar (Baltimore, Washington and Philadelphia at
: different periods) and the National Intelligencer (Washington).
: With a literature'as broad and varied as. indicated for the
Florida Seminole, it is not surprising that few attempts have been
made to prepare a reasonably detailed bibliography of these peoples.
S .i8. The P. K. Yonge Library of Florida History has originals
or microfilms of all known early 19th century Florida papers.
The first response to the demand of the Florida public for
information on their native Indians was met by the University of
Florida Library which prepared in 1940 a bibliography on the
Seminole Indians based on their (then limited) library holdings
(University of Florida Library, 1940).
The next year saw the appearance of Murdock.'s (1941)
Ethnographic Bibliography of North America, the first scholarly
attempt to survey the literature, concentrating on ethnographic
emphasis.9 A few years later, an Anthropological Bibliography of
the Eastern Seaboa:71 was published (Rouse and Goggin, 1947).
Re6Terences for the lcrciC Seminole are found in two sections,
"History" and "Ethnology." Those in the former section had the
acknowledged limita-tions of little use of Congressional Documents;
in the latter a tho::ough completeness was attempted to the utmost
of ?or abilities.
The period after the publication of this bibliography marks
the greatest era of interest and publications on the Seminoles.
This is ably discussed by William C. Sturtevant (1958). Most of
the significant papers appearing in this intervening period are
listed in his bibliography, That bibliography can;be safely used
as a supplement to Rouse n.d Goggin (1947) until the proposed
revision of that work appears.
Lodation of Published Materials
Many of the titles listed in the bibliography are not to be
found in the Usual public library. However, most will be found in
the larger public libraries of Florida and in the major universities
of this and other states and may be obtained through interlibrary
loan. Practically all are in the P. K. Yonge Library of Florida
History, University of Florida, Gainesville.
KEY TO BIBLIOGRAPHY
In order to make the use of the bibliography more effective,
the following key has been prepared. To use it one looks first
to the major section of History, Ethnology, or Physical
Anthropology and then to the appropriate division. There a
reference is given by means of author's name and date of publication.
With this the complete citation can be found in the Bibliography.
The most useful papers are marked with an asterik (*).
This key is only a guide, nothing more. It merely refers to
the major material on that subject. For example, data in Food is
found in many articles and books but no significant paper has yet
been written on this subject. Important material on most divisions
of Ethnology will be found in MacCauley (1887) although he is listed
but once. Almost every topic should be checked in this major work.
9. A second edition (Murdock, 1953) contains ethnological
references from Rouse and Goggin (1047). A third edition is in
*" 0 ";:o i' -.. ,- '.7 "
Seminole Archeology. 'ullen, 1958;" Goggin, 1958; Goggin et al.,
1949, Neil 1 55c, 1957; Sears, 1959. .. ,. .
General History (Excluding Seminole-War Period Accounts). Coo
"158; foreman, 1934;* McReynolads, lO7I; wanton, 15z';"* Varwiou
Origin and Early History (Pre-1820). Boyd, 1958a; Porter,.18`0,
1951c, 1952a; wanton, 1922.*
Spanish Indians. Neill, 1955a; Sturtevant, 1953.' '
Seminole a:s. Boyd, 1951,* i1955; dohen, 1836, "Foreman, 3-i* -1934;
MIcReynolds 1957; Motte, 1953; Potter, 1836; prague, 1848;*
Swanton, ''- A -..:
.. .. "'. :- - ... : -:' : -' """-- ";: -7 ." -
Seminole-Negro History (General). Foster, 1935; Giddings, 1858
Porter,- 1932, '1943a, 43b, -143c .1946b, 1946c, 1950,; "1951b,955,
Seminole-Negroes in 'the Bahamas. "dggi. 1939, 1:468; PorterA'.945.
Seminoles in Mexico. Foster, 1935; Porter, 1946a, 1947b, 1951a,
1951d, 1952b, 1956.
Seminoles in Oklahoma. Foreman, 1934; Hadley. 1935; Mcaeyndods :'.
9b57; Wright, 1951.
Modern History.. Anonymous, 1958a, 1958b; Madigan, 1959;* Osceola,
1959; U. S. LCongress,: 1954. -' .. ..
Various. McKenney and Hall '( 133.-34y -' ...
John Caesar. Porter, 1946b.
Osceola. Body, 1955;* Catlin, 1844; Coe, 1939, 1955; Fundaburk,
1958; foggin, 1955; Neill, 1955c; Porter, 1947a, 1955;
S:Sturtevant, 1955,' 1956c; Vtrious-, 1955;3 Ward, 1955, i
General Works.i MaoCauley, ,8?18;* ;Nei ell, :-1956b'* Swanton, 1946.
Fa:rly Des itxiptitoas (Bfoke 1880). -Bartram, 1958;' Beverly, 1875; .:
ioyd, 1958b; Griffin, 1957; Ober, 1875; Pierce,' 125;"Romans, 1775;
Simmons, 1822; Sturtevant, 1956b; Young, 1934-35.
Later Descriptions. (1880-1931). Cory, .1896; Henshall, 1884;
Mur-oe, 1892;. Nta's, 193r1; 'Innei:, 19.13; Stephens, 1883,
Seminoles and Modern Lift:el Anonymous,. 1956; Capron,. 1956b; -'Freeman,
1942, 1944; Goggn, 1951a' Sturt4nt, ;I 195.' .i
Material Culture. Only the most specific and detailed references
are given below. Almost any paper on the Seminole contains some
information on more than one aspect of this field.
Beadwork. Goggin, 1951b, 1952; 1955; Skinner, 1913.
Boats. Neill, 1953, 1956a.
Clothing and Accessories. Catlin, 1844; H. J. Davis, 1955;
Goggin, 1940, 1951b, 1952, 1955; Hatt, 1916; McKenney and Hall,
1933-34; Sturtevant, 1956c.
Pottery. Goggin, 1958.
Silverwork. Goggin, 1940, 1955; Skinner, 1913; Woodward, 1926.
Art. (Also see Beadwork, Clothing, etc., Pottery, Silverwork.)
H. N. Davis, 1955; Goggin, 1952; Skinner, 1913.
Dance. Capron, 1953, 1956a; Densmore, 1956; Greenlee, 1945b;
NeTll, 1955b; Sturtevant, 1954.
Folklore. Densmore, 1956; Gatschet, 1888; Greenlee, 1942,
T95a; *Sturtevant, 1953, 1955, 1956a.
Music. Densmore, 1956.
Social and Religious Life.
Life Cycle. Freeman, 1944; Greenlee, 1945b.
Social Organization. Greenlee, 1942, 1945b, 1952; Sphoer,
1941,* 1942,* 1944;* Swanton, 1928a.
Names (Personal and Place). Read, 1934; Simpson, 1956;
Medicine. Capron, 1953; Greenlee, 1942, 1944; Sturtevant, 1954;
Burial Customs. Goggin et al., 1949; Greenlee, 1945b; Laxson,
Ritual and Ceremonies. Capron, 1953,* 1956a; Greenlee, 1945b;
Neill, 1955b; Sturtevant, 1954;* Swanton, 1928a, 1928b.
Language. Haas,' 1941; Gatschet, 1888; Loughbridge and Hodge; 1914;
Sturtevant, .1958- p. 28...
General. Krogman, 1934, 1935a, 1935b, 1936, 1948; Ward, 1955.
Seminole Portraits. Catlin, 1844;* Goggin, 1955; McCarthy,
1949; McKenney and Hall, 1933-34;* Peithman, 1957.*
;;7- . ;'BIBLIOGBRABHY :
Anonymous /Harmon' Kenneth A.7
1944.- CataloRo-de ls.Fondos de las Floridae. Archivo
rip-; .Uo:TT tionta, nomi3. La Habana,
1956. The Seminole Indians of Florida. Bureau of Indian
...T 7 airs, U. .S, Dept. oInterior. eRiverside, Calif.
"(Also distributed by the Florida Department of
Agriculture, Tallahassee, Fla.)
1958a. Constitution and Bylaws of the Seminole Tribe of
S:ati d August 217T907. Bureau of indian
S Aas, T. Dp ero5 T Washington, D. C.
1958b. Corporate Charter of the Seminole Tribe of Florida
i .. : . iie ugst 21l7l~S IBreau of Indan Affars,
S ..... :. .. Pept. ortHe Inei or. Washington, D. C.
Bartram, William. Francis Harper, ed. .,....ri
1958. The Travels of William Bartram.' New ..ven, Conn.
... .;;o. :-.jTas .- thei 'i'at compftely annotated of the many
S.. i .ed otns:o. Btam's. 'Travels through North and
:',' a :no s~:Sduth Carolina, "-eorgia, Ea~t' and West Florida,...")
Beverly, Fred, pseud. /7. A. Ober.7.
1875. Among the Seminoles. In "Camp Life In, Florida," pp.
s,- '79T 19 5 Char ies Halock, c~ip. New York.
Boyd, Mark F.
, 1951. The-iE ~- noe War:.. Its Background and Onset. Florida
r; .n Histoi8TcI l QartelTy, voL. 30, no.7 pp. 3-115.
Gainesville. '(Reprinted as "Florida Aflame, the
Background and Onset of the Seminole War, 1835."
Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials,
1955.0 Asi-Yaholo or Osceola. Florida Historical Quarterly,
voL. 33, nos. 3-4, pp. 249-305. Tallahassae, Fla.
1958a H~toric ite lIn and-Around he Jim Woodruff Reservoir
Area, Florida-Georgia. Bureau? off"Ner ani Ethnology,
B 5tiin, no. 19, pp. 15-314. Washington, D. C.
1968b, o -.i:Hratib S. enterr and Events Leading to the Treaty of
Moultriereek with the Seminole0 E ianst ~ ,oria -
Anthropoloit,-?~T. no. 2, pp. 5r,.
S... -I Tal8lafa.i.e: la. ".
Bullen, Ripley, :p -,-:' -C ... -
1958. Six Sites Near the Chattahophee: Rver in .rhe Jim
Wodruf. Reservoir Ara a Bupeu or Ameranican
D.C a gy' ec~ o 69pp 315-358. Washington,
D C. VV.
The Medicine Bundles f the Floridga Smipole and the
rein cprn ane. Bueau f American Ethnology,
BeIT-tih, no. 151, Anthropologibal Paper, no. 35,
pp, 155-210. Washington, D. C,
Notes on the Hunting Dance of the Cow Creek Seminole.
T TFodEr-AnTHropologlst, vo. -9,nos.3-- pp. 67-78.
Flgrida's Wild Indians. National Geographic Magazine,
Vol. 110, pp. 819-40. Washington, D. C.
Carter, Clarence Edwin
1956, The Territorial Papers of the United States, The
Teirr itory of Florida, -l--I Tg24. TVo ?T.
1958. The Territoriai Papers df the United States The
Territory of Florida, -64-l 287. Vol. XXII.
Washington, D. -
1844. Ltieds and Notes on the alft~ ,.Custk i and
ons the X iW I iLericap Itn43s. ITvols.
op-, lnglanT. Wther editifos with varying
Coe Chai til i
1898. o ; at ~ i r the Seminples. Cincinnati,
1939. The Parentage and Birthplace of bsdeol4 Florida
Historical Quarterly, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 304-311.
/Julian Yonge, ed.7
1955. The Parentage of Osceola. Florida Historical
irurterly, vo1"-33, nos. 3-4, pp. 202-205. Gainesville.
(A synopsis and critique of Coe, 1939.)
Cohen, M. M.
1836. Notices of Florida and the Campaigns. New York.
Cory, Charles B.
1896. Hunting and Fishing in Florida. 2nd ed. Boston, Mass.
This edition has the most seminole data.)
Davis, Hilda J.
1955. The History of Seminole Clothing and Its Multi-
60Iored Desigs. American Anthropologist, v1o. 57,
no. 5, pp. 974-980. Menasha, Wisc.
Davis, Hugh N., Jr.
1955. Designs from the Seminoles /and7 Sewing Art of the
Seminoles. McCall1s Needlewo-r and CrafT sAn-nuaT,
vol. 6, pp. 61-63.
!4: D m 1
1956. Seminole Music-. Biurau of American Ethnology,
BTlletin, no. 161. Washington, D.. C.
Ikstader, Frederick -:JJ.'
1957. The American 'Indian in Graduate Studies, A
Biblography of Theses and DisseWrtp.tions. Museum of
t t ierl2ia ian,:He~' F7oundation, Contributions
no. 15. "New York.
S o : 1932.
B'nr ~~'Poster,' Laurenc
1 i '.'c : *
. o-.. r ... ". -.. *.'
to : ..!- :G : '
. ..f-.^ C qq ,*
i",..T 'C .:T.
Indian' Removal.,. Norman,l kla. '"
i-a .. ".. .
The Frive Civilized Tribes. Norman, Okla.
;e : . 5 j .
Negro-Indian Relationships in 'th -t Southast.
niversityof Penny nia, Pitadelphia, Pa.
We Live with the Seminoles. Natural History, vol.
no. 4, pp. 22.-236. York.
The Seminole Woman of the Big Cypress and Her
TInliuence in ModernTife erica Indigena, vol.
no. : piL:12IBE7: -Mico, Mexico'.
L Lila :. *''. '-"..-.-.* -
Southeastern Indians, Life Portraits, A Catalogue of
Pi-, -ebi 1 564-l~1: i rne. Al ~ ---- ---
r ~ ;~j~
Tchikilli's Kasi'hta Legend in the Creek and Hitchiti
' Lagge TramS ions of"Ee emy of
Sc lci' tSEt.7 Louisr c1. 5, nos. 1-2, pp. 33-239.
St. Louis, Mo.
Giddings, J. R
Goggin, John M
The 'i- lb of kl4ida.
- -~ II~D.-i;-
An Anthropological Reconnaissance of Andros Island
Bhamas. American Antiquity,' vol."-5 o- p. 21-
SMenasha, "WiSCe ....- .
'." i 'f J. 6 I q.. ..o
Silverwork of the&Fo1rida Seminole. El Palacio, vol.
47, no. 2, p."55-327- anta Fe, New Mexico.
The eSeminole Neg-oes of Andros Island, Bahamas.
FloriLa Historica-. Quarterly, v-"ol. no. 3, pp.
201-206. Tallahaisee, Fla.
Florida's Indiafs.- Economic Leaflets, vol. 10, no. 8,
College of Business Administration, University of
Beaded Shoulder Pouches of the Florida Seminole.
Floriaa Anthropologist, -17-, nos. 1-2, pp -17.
1952. Style Areas in Historic Southeastern Art. Proceedings
of- the6-7 T international Congress of, mericanists,
vol. 3, pp. 172-176. Chicago, I1l.
o.; U 19558
Osceola: Portraits, Features, and Dress. Florida
Historical Quarterly, vol. 33, nos. 3-4, pp. 161-192.
Seminole Pottery. Ih "Prehistoric Pottery of the
Eastern United states." Museum of Anthropology,
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.
Goggin, John M., Mary E. Godwin, Earl Hester, David Prange, and
Robet, Spangenberg ..:.,
1.949. An Historic Indian Baujal, Alachua County, Florida.
Tiorida Anthropologist, vol. 2, no. 1, pp.-1-24.
Greenlee, Robert F..
1942. Ceremonial Practices of the Modern Seminoles.
;L. Tequesta, vol. 1, no.,. pp. 25-3. iCoral Gables, Fla.
1944. Mp icine and Curing Practices of the Modern Florida
eminoles". American Anthro5pol i V--3 vol. 46, no. 3,
pp. 317-328. Menasha, C..c, .
194a.. ; olktales jo the F1ori0 Semino Journal of
Ampriqln FPokTo-e, vol. 58U no. 228, pp. 138-144.
Menasha. Wis, ....
194'5b. le l oi ethe ren Florida
eminoe So Fllore QUiterly, vol. 9, no.
3, pp. 145-52. Gainesville.
1952. Aspects of Social Organization and Material Culture
of the Seminole of Big Cypress swamp. 7 Florida
Anthropologist, vol. 5, .nos. 3-4, pp. 25-32.
Griffin, John' W
1957. Some Comments on the Seminole in 1818. Florida
Anthropologist7vo-lTT. 10, nos. 3-47- p. 41-49.
Haas, Mary R.
1941: The Classifiation of the Muskogean Languages. In
1"Language, Culture,-and-Personality: Essays in
Memory of Edward Sapir," edited by Leslie Spier, A.
Irving Hallowell, and Stanley S. Newman, pp. 41-56.
S Menasha, Wisc.
Hadley, :.t.J. N.
1935. Notes en the Socio-Economic Status of the Oklahoma
soainoTel i n Krogman, i13 1-3-953.
Moccaains and Their Relation to Arctic Footwear.
American AnE-ropoiogical Assoclation, memoir, vol.
3, no', 3. Lancaster, Pa.
Henshall, James A.
1884. Camping and Cruising in Florida.
Krogman, Wilton M.
1934 The Racial Comosition
,4T-pa 0al. homa.
19, no. 4, pp. 412-30.
of the Seminole Indians of
journal oiFNegroT Hisry, vol.
Washington, D. C.
S 1935. T Physical Anthrop logy of the Seminole of Florida
.: nOk h "ra ma. Comitato ItaTiano per lo atudiio del
Problem della Popolazione, series 3, vol. 2, pp.
;1-199. Rome, Italy.
:i ;" ." '? "
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