Front Cover
 Florida Sunshine State Standar...
 Table of Contents
 Northwest Florida: waterways and...
 Teacher and student resources
 Related exhibitions and progra...
 Exhibit map

Group Title: Florida Museum of Natural History educators' guides
Title: Northwest Florida: waterways and wildlife
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00090933/00003
 Material Information
Title: Northwest Florida: waterways and wildlife
Series Title: Florida Museum of Natural History educators' guides
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida
Publisher: Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090933
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Florida Sunshine State Standards
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
    Northwest Florida: waterways and wildlife exhibition
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Teacher and student resources
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Related exhibitions and programs
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Exhibit map
        Page 50
Full Text

Northwest Florida: Waterways and Wildlife
at the Florida Museum of Natural History

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This Educators' Guide to Northwest Florida: Waterways and Wildlife
was produced by the Florida Museum of Natural History with the support
from the Institute of Museum and Library Services.

2008 Florida Museum of Natural History
University of Florida Cultural Plaza
Powell Hall on Hull Road P.O. Box 112710 Gainesville, FL 32611-2710
(352) 846-2000 www.flmnh.ufl.edu

FLORIDA .. MuseumandLibrar
Writers: Lauren Matisoff, David Webb and Jamie C. Creola
Supervising Editor: Jamie C. Creola
Graphic Designers: Elecia Crumpton, Hollis Wooley

We would like to thank the Institute of Museum and Library Services for their support.

For more information about the variety of educational programming
offered by the Florida Museum, please visit our website:


The Florida Museum of Natural History's Educators' Guides, in combination with ongoing teacher
workshops and field trips to its permanent and temporary exhibitions, will help you structure learning
experiences that correspond to the following Florida Sunshine State Standards. All guides contain materials
and online resources to supplement and enhance student learning in the classroom and during in-gallery
experiences, tying Museum exhibits to the state standards and enhancing school fieldtrips.

Language Arts
Reading Standard 1:
The student uses the reading process effectively

Reading Standard 2:
The student constructs meaning from a wide range of texts.

Writing Standard 1:
The student uses writing processes effectively.

Writing Standard 2:
The student writes to communicate ideas and information effectively.

Listening, Viewing and Speaking Standard 1:
The student uses listening strategies effectively

Listening, Viewing and Speaking Standard 2:
The student uses viewing strategies effectively.

Measurement Standard 1:
The student measures quantities in the real world and uses
the measures to solve problems.

Data Analysis and Probability Standard 3:
The student uses statistical methods to make
inferences and valid arguments about real-world situations.


Processes that Shape the Earth Standard 1:
The student recognizes that processes in the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere interact
to shape the Earth.

Processes that Shape the Earth Standard 2:
The student understands the need for protection of the natural systems on Earth.

Processes of Life Standard 1:
The student describes patterns of structure and function in living things

How Living Things Interact with Their Environment Standard 1:
The student understands the competitive, interdependent, cyclic nature of living things in the environment.

How Living Things Interact with Their Environment Standard 2: The student understands the
consequences of using limited natural resources.

The Nature of Science Standard 3: The student understands that science, technology, and society
are interwoven and interdependent.

Social Studies
Time, Continuity and Change Standard 1: The student understands historical chronology
and the historical perspective.

Time, Continuity and Change Standard 6: The student understands the history of Florida
and its people.

People, Places and Environments (Geography) Standard 1: The student understands the world
in spatial terms.

People, Places and Environments (Geography) Standard 2: The student understands the interactions
of people and the physical environment.

The Arts: Visual Arts
Cultural and Historical Connections Standard 1: | The student understands the visual arts in relation
to history and culture.

Applications to Life Standard 1: | The student makes connections between the visual arts, other disciplines,
and the real world.


Part One: Northwest Florida: Waterways and Wildlife Exhibition
Exhibit Introduction.............................................................. 06
Content Discussion: Interrelated Ecosystems......................................................07
Section One: Hammock ................................... .................................... 08
Section Two: Cave..................................... .................................14
Section Three: Pitcher Plant Bog................................ .............................21
Section Four: Rivers........................................................................25
Section Five: Coastal Ecosystems .................................................................. 31

Part Two: Teacher and Student Resources
Section One: Books ........................................................................39
Section Two: Web Sources ................................... ...................................41
Section Three: Videos, Music.................................. ............................42
Section Four: Current Research at the Florida Museum.....................................43
Section Five: Current Events................................ ...... .....................45

Part Three: Related Exhibitions and Programs
Section One: Permanent Exhibitions............................................. 46
Section Two: School and Outreach Programs......................................................47
Section Three: General Visitor Programs and Special Events............................ 49

Part Four: Exhibit Map ................................................ .............. 50



Exhibit Introduction 6

This exhibit follows water as it flows through Northwest Florida habitats, from limestone caves and springs to
the Gulf of Mexico. All living things are interconnected. The physical environments and the plants and animals
in them, all interact to form the many ecosystems that make up Florida and our planet. Explore a hardwood
hammock featuring a life-sized limestone cave, a seepage bog with its carnivorous plants, a Prehistoric Native
American trading scene and more.

Entrance to the cave in the Northwest Florida Permanent Exhibit



Content Discussion: Interrelated Ecosystems 7

Nature is like a puzzle. The pieces of natural systems fit together; no piece can exist in isolation. All living
things need energy to survive. The sun is the source for most of this energy. During photosynthesis, plants
absorb the sun's energy. Animals breathe oxygen, the waste product released by plants during photosynthesis.
Plants also transform light energy into a sugar called glucose, which serves as energy for numerous animals as
it passes from one organism to another along a food chain. Green plants produce the food. Herbivorous animals
eat the green plants. Carnivorous animals eat the herbivores and other carnivores. Decomposers (saprovores)
consume dead plants and animals. The network of interconnections in an ecosystem is very complex. If one
species declines, many others are likely to be affected.

Green plants Carnivores Herbivores

The same principles of interconnectedness are
true with aquatic systems. All sources of water are
connected through the water cycle. Therefore, if
one source is polluted, diminished or otherwise
affected, all other sources will also be influenced. In
addition, plants and animals that live in the water or
depend on particular water sources for survival will
change, in turn affecting food chains and food webs.

Fun Fact: Northwest Florida, frequently called the
Panhandle because of its shape, has the greatest variety
of native plants and animals of any region in the state.
Many plants and animals reach the United States'
southern limit of their ranges here. Some occur only in
the Panhandle.



Section One: Hammock 8

Hammocks are diverse hardwood forests. North Florida ham-
mocks have the greatest number of tree and shrub species per
acre of all temperate forests in the continental United States.
They provide homes for other plants and animals. Some of these
species occur nowhere else in the world. People in Florida have
long enjoyed hammocks as cool, shady, places for walks, picnics,
and homesteads.
Elevation, along with organic matter and soil moisture
determines the type of plants that can grow in a particular
hammock. There are three types of hammocks: hydric
hammocks are wet; xeric hammocks are dry; mesic
hammocks are in-between. One can remember these by
looking at the roots of the words. Hydro means water,
therefore hydric hammocks have a lot of water. Meso means
middle, therefore mesic hammocks are in between wet and
dry and xeric means dry. Hammock inhabitants
Hammock inhabitants
Within the hammock ecosystem, there are three zones:
Uplands, bluff and floodplain.

The uplands are areas of higher ground. These habitats usually have well drained soil, and therefore are home
to more xeric species. Upland habitats are often governed by fire, so plants and animals living there have
adaptations that help them to survive brush fires.

A bluff is formed when plant roots grow into small cracks in the rock and down into the floodplain soils. As
the roots grow they split the rock further and soil fills the cracks, providing homes for ferns and other resilient
plants. Plants both hold the bluff together and break it apart by clinging to tumbled boulders and rocky edges.

Floodplains are low areas along the edges of rivers and streams. The trees here slow floodwaters, which allows
the water to seep into the ground. Floodplain trees have special features to survive floods such as extensive root
systems that grip the soil. Floodplain plants also trap organic sediments that enrich the floodplain soils with
nutrients needed by plants.

Currently, logging, land development, and pollution threaten floodplain forests. It is essential that we preserve
Florida's floodplains in order to prevent property damage caused by floodwaters, provide valuable habitats for
wildlife, and create rich soils.

Fun Fact: A floodplain can contain 100 or even 1000 times as many species as a river.



Section One: Hammock continued 9

Vocabulary Words
Bluff: A high steep bank or cliff.
Canopy: The uppermost layer of a forest that consists primarily of the tops of trees, vines and epiphytes.
Epiphytes: A plant that grows on top of another plant, but does not depend on it for nutrients.

Floodplain: Low areas along the edges of rivers and streams that are covered with sediment due to
frequent flooding.
Hammock: An "island" of primarily hardwood trees growing on an elevated site. These trees are surrounded
by vegetation characteristic of lower, wetter surroundings.
Hardwood Forest: A forest made of primarily hardwood trees, such as oak, poplar, holly and magnolia.
Hydric: A term used to describe an environment that is extremely wet.
Mesic: A term used to describe an environment that has moderate moisture.
Temperate: A climate that has a range of moderate temperatures.
Understory: A layer of small trees and shrubs below the level of taller trees in a forest.
Uplands: Areas of higher ground with well-drained soil and xeric species of plants.
Xeric: A term used to describe an environment that is dry.


I . . . . .


Section One: Hammock continued 10

Guiding Questions and Answers
1) What happens to the tree and the forest when a tree dies?
Organisms called decomposers (such as fungi, certain insects, and
bacteria) live in decaying wood. When plants and animals die, their
bodies break down into sugars and other nutrients. Decomposers
extract those nutrients from dead organisms.

Carpenter ants, termites, and wood roaches are a few of the many
insects that inhabit fallen trees. Scorpions, squirrel tree frogs, and
southeastern five-lined skinks hide under the bark and eat the insects. Decaying wood
Bess beetles create tunnels as they eat their way through dead wood.
Decomposers such as bacteria and molds enter the tunnels and
penetrate deep inside the log. This speeds the breakdown of wood
into useable nutrients.

2) Where do animals live in a hammock?

Animals live throughout the forest layers. Some species spend most A4'
of their time in only one or two levels, while others use all levels. .

The leafy crowns of the largest trees form a canopy more than 50 feet
high. This dense canopy shuts out most of the sunlight other plants
need for photosynthesis. Only shade-tolerant plants can survive
under the canopy to form an understory. The different levels of the
hammock range from the top of the canopy, to underground and
everywhere in between.

Some plants use other plants to help them reach the light. Vines root
in the soil but climb up other plants to reach sunlight. Greenbriars
and grapevines cling to trees with tendrils; poison ivy attaches to
tree bark with small, densely branched roots. Resurrection ferns and
Spanish moss grow directly on larger plants. These epiphytes absorb
nutrients from dew and wind-blown dust and debris. Levels in a hammock range from the
top of the canopy, to the underground.



Section One: Hammock continued 11

Pre Activity
The Water Cycle: All ecosystems are connected with the water cycle.

*Clear aquarium with lid
*Petri Dish

Set Up:
*Form a mountain out of the clay and place it on one side of the aquarium.
-Fill the aquarium with water so that the mountain is about 1/ covered. Cover the aquarium with a lid.
*Place the Petri dish on the lid above the area where the mountain is located.
*Fill the Petri dish with ice.
*Place a lamp so that it is shining over the open water.

*Begin by discussing the water cycle and its process (condensation, precipitation, evaporation,
transpiration, percolation). Give students the hand out to show the cycle.
*Have students observe the aquarium and record their observations.
*Discuss what they observed:
Which part showed evaporation?
Evaporation was shown as the open water (ocean) was heated by the lamp.
Which part showed condensation?
Condensation occurred as the evaporated water from the ocean cooled on the lid
near the Petri dish of ice.
Which part showed precipitation?
Precipitation occurred as the drops of water from the lid became large and heavy enough to fall.
What parts of the water cycle are not represented in this experiment?
Transpiration and percolation are not shown in this experiment.
How can we show transpiration in this activity?
If we added live plants to the aquarium, there would be a source for transpiration as the plant
absorbed the water in the open water and released it into the air through its leaves.
Does the world ever lose water in the water cycle?
No. Water is continually recycled through the various parts of the water cycle.
There is always the same amount of water on Earth; it is just always changing in form.


Section One: Hammock continued 12

Evaporation: The changing of water from a liquid to a vapor when water is heated. You can show this by
heating water on an electric hot plate. There is steam that rises from the pot. Eventually, the water level in the
pot will decrease.
Precipitation: Water molecules condense and become heavy enough to fall to Earth's surface. This happens in
the form of rain or snow.
Transpiration: The process of water traveling through plants from roots to leaves where it changes to water
vapor and is released into the air.
Condensation: The changing of water from a vapor to a liquid. An example of this is after someone has taken
a hot bath or shower, condensation forms on the mirror. Steam (water in vapor form) condensed to liquid form
on the cooler mirror surface.

Water storage t
in ice and snow Water storage in the atmosphere Condensation
precipitation Evapotranspiration


^. lf7 Surfea punoff-
a etr no

Water storage
in oceans

e Wtr Cle.: Pictre frm U S wsit, Sie fr a c in wrld.
The Water Cycle.: Picture from USGS website, Science for a changing world.


Section One: Hammock continued 13

Field Trip Activity
Make sure to look under the logs. What types of critters live in and under the log? How do students
think that these animals help the hammock? They decompose the dead tree and allow it to help fertilize
new growth.
Look for the animals that live in the different layers of the hammock.
There is a field guide in the exhibit to help you look.

Where do you see water? How did it get there?
What parts of the water cycle do students see within the exhibit?

Post Activity
Food Chain: All animals within an ecosystem are interconnected through food chains.

Assign each student one of four roles: plant, insect, omnivore, and carnivore. Give each group a card that
corresponds to their role. This is so that other students can identify them. There should be more plants than
insects, more insects than omnivores, and more omnivores than carnivores.
Each insect needs two plants to survive, each omnivore needs either two plants, two insects or one of each
to survive, each carnivore needs two omnivores to survive.

Play the game out like tag to see if everyone survives. After all the "food" available has been captured,
assess if everyone had enough to survive. If there is someone that did not, they should sit out for the next
round. Keep going until there are not many survivors left.

Alter the number of each role to see how it affects the survival of all creatures. Water pollution or human
in and around their houses reduce the number of insects available.Farmers protecting their livestock reduce
the number of carnivores.

Try adding a "safe base" that represents a specific habitat that animals would utilize to help protect them
from predators. To keep the game moving, put a limit on the number of people that can be on safe at any
time or enforce a time limit. If they stay too long, they "starve to death" because they did not find enough
food in time.

After playing out numerous situations, return to the classroom to discuss what happened:
What happened when there were not many plants?
What happened when there were not many insects?
What happened when there were not many carnivores?
What happened when there was a safe base?


Section Two: Cave 14

Caves form when groundwater fills limestone cavities.
This groundwater is weakly acidic and slowly dissolves the limestone
by a chemical process called dissolution. Later, water drains out and
the cave fills with air

Groundwater is water that accumulates in soil and rock and is a
valuable source of drinking water. The surface of the groundwater is
called the water table. An aquifer is the soil and rock that holds
groundwater. The primary aquifer for most of our state is the Ocala
Limestone, commonly called the Floridan Aquifer.

Caves can be dangerous, and visitors can easily damage fragile cave
formations and disturb wildlife. You can safely visit a cave, open to
the public, at Florida Caverns State Park in Marianna. The Florida
Museum of Natural History has a life size replica of this natural

wonder. Caves forming underground

Green plants cannot live in caves because they need sunlight for photosynthesis. Since animals depend,
directly or indirectly, on green plants for food, their numbers decrease dramatically the deeper you go
into the cave.

Troglophiles are animals that regularly inhabit caves. They also can live in dark, damp habitats outside
of caves. An example is a raccoon or bat. Cave visitors (trogloxenes) are animals that normally live
outside of caves. They occasionally enter caves or live around cave entrances. Some trogloxenes use
caves as temporary or winter shelters. An example of a trogloxene is a beetle. Troglobites are animals
that only live in caves. They have special adaptations such as sensitivity to light that make it impossible
for them to survive outside of the cave. Examples are cave fish or a cave salamander.

Fun Fact: The longest cave system is Mammoth Cave located in Kentucky. It is 367.2 miles in length.
The deepest cave known is Voronya Cave in Abkhazia, Georgia with a depth of 1.3 miles.



Section Two: Cave continued 15

Vocabulary Words
Aquifer: A layer of porous rock, sand, or gravel through which groundwater flows.
Column: A type of speleothem that occurs when a stalactite and stalagmite reach each
other or a stalactite reaches the cave floor.

Dissolution: The separating, decomposing, or disintegrating of something into smaller
or more basic constituents.

Echolocation: The process of locating an object using an emitted sound and its reflection back.

Flowstone: A type of speleothem that forms from flowing water.

Guano: The droppings of birds, bats, and seals.

Groundwater: Water held underground in soil or porous rock.

Insectivorous: A term used to describe animals that feed on insects.

Photosynthesis: The process by which green plants convert carbon dioxide and hydrogen into simple
carbohydrates using light as an energy source.

Predator: A carnivorous animal that hunts, kills, and eats other animals in order to survive.

Scavenger: An animal that feeds on dead and rotting flesh or discarded food scraps.

Speleology: The study of caves.

Speleothem: Cave formations.

Stelactite: A type of speleothem that forms from water seeping through the cave roof.

Stelagmite: A type of speleothem that forms from dripping water from the cave roof.

Troglobite: An animal that lives solely in caves. They have adaptations that do not allow them to
leave the cave environment.

Troglophile: An animal that regularly lives in caves but is also found in dark, damp areas outside of caves.

Trogloxene: An animal that normally lives outside of caves but will occasionally live near cave entrances.

Water table: The upper surface of groundwater.



Section Two: Cave continued 16

Guiding Questions and Answers
1) What are some examples of cave-dwelling animals? What are some of their adaptations for cave-life?
Few animal species live in caves, relative to the numbers that live in surface environments. But cave animals
are uniquely adapted to living in an environment with little or no light and a limited food supply. Each species
lives in distinct zones defined by variations in temperature, humidity, and the amount of light. Cave animals are
grouped by the amount of time they spend in caves.

Cave dwellers (troglobites) live only in caves. Their bodies have adapted to the dark. Troglobites are often
colorless since they don't need camouflage colors in the dark nor any pigment to protect them from the sun.
Their legs, feelers, and eyestalks are longer than those of their relatives outside the cave, magnifying their senses
of touch, taste, and smell.

In Florida, there are 26 known troglobites. Most have very limited distributions and many live in only one cave
system. The Apalachicola cave crayfish (Cambarus cryptodytes) and the cave salamander (Haideotriton wallacei)
live only in Chipola River area caves and caves in southwestern Georgia.Three of Florida's bat species regularly
live in Panhandle caves: gray bats (Myotis grisescens), southeastern bats (Myotis austroriparius), and eastern
pipistrelles (Pipistrellus subflavus). Gray bats and southeastern bats roost in mixed colonies in heat-collecting
domes in the ceilings of caves. Eastern pipistrelles, Florida's smallest bats, are solitary mammals and roost on
the cooler cave walls. As many as 50,000 to 100,000 bats can inhabit a single cave.

All Florida bats are insectivorous. They eat moths, mosquitoes, beetles,
and other flying insects. They are also the only mammals that truly fly.
Bats are not blind. They are able to fly and capture prey at night aided by
echolocation and vision. Bats emit a high-pitched sound that bounces off
objects and returns information as an "echo" to the bat. A single gray bat
may eat 6,000 insects in a night.

Many bat populations have declined over the last several decades. The gray
bat declined by 50%, mostly due to loss or disturbance of caves. Many
species also suffer severely from pesticides and habitat destruction outside
the cave.

Most animals of the deep cave are scavengers, feeding on dead plant and
animal matter. Some eat cave bacteria adapted to growth without sunlight.
A few deep cave dwellers are predators and eat smaller cave animals.
Apalachicola cave crayfishes (Cambarus cryptodytes) are scavengers that live
in pools under bat roosts. They eat bat guano that consists mostly of dead Florida Gray bat
insects. Sometimes crayfish eat bats that fall into the water and drown.
These blind scavengers use their long legs, antennae, and other sensory organs
to locate food in the pool.



Section Two: Cave continued 17

The Georgia cave salamander (Haideotriton wallacei) is a predator without
functioning eyes and no pigment. It eats small aquatic crustaceans and
insects that it locates by sensing vibrations. The salamander also may eat
microorganisms that live in the fine-grained mud on the bottom of cave pools.

2) What are the different cave formations? How is each one created?

Rainwater percolates down through the soil and limestone into the air-filled
cave. As it moves, the water dissolves tiny quantities of limestone. The water
re-deposits the minerals from the limestone on the ceilings, walls, and floors Georgia Cave Salamander
of the cave in formations called speleothems. Speleothems take various forms,
depending on whether the water drips, seeps, condenses, flows, or ponds.

Stalactites are pointed mineral deposits that hang from the cave ceiling. They are formed from ground water
that seeps through the cave roof. Some specific types of stalactites are soda straws and chandeliers. Soda straws
are stalactites that have an extremely long and elongated shape while chandeliers are clusters of stalactites.

Stalagmites are mounds of mineral deposits found most often underneath a stalactite. Stalagmites are formed
from the ground up by water and minerals that drip from the cave roof or off the end of a stalactite.

Columns form when stalactites and stalagmites meet or a stalactite reaches the floor of the cave.

Draperies and bacon are specific examples of flowstone, which is formed by the deposition of minerals as
water flows through the cave. Draperies are thin wavy pieces of stone that hang from the ceiling. Bacon looks
the same as draperies but is characterized by alternating bands of color. Stone waterfalls as its name suggests
look like waterfalls frozen in time.

Stalagmites Columns




Section Two: Cave continued 18

3) How have humans used caves in Florida?

For centuries people have visited caves. Some panhandle caves have
provided shelter, resources, and refuge for many different people. Caves
have served as temporary shelters or hunting camps for thousands of years.
In one Marianna cavern, prehistoric people took clay to make pottery.
They left behind their footprints.

Later, pioneers settled near caves and springs. Caves provided water,
shelter, and cave earth (potassium nitrate) to make gunpowder. Local lore
often associated caves with superstitions and myths, inspiring names such Cave inhabitants
as Devil's Den and Hell Hole.

Some Panhandle caves have provided refuge.
"During Andrew Jackson's punitive expedition against the Seminoles in 1818,
it is believed a large band of Indians escaped by concealing themselves in the
underground passages... Again, during the raid by the Federals on Marianna
in 1864, women, children, and slaves are said to have taken refuge in the caves
while the battle raged..."

(Stanley, J.R. 1950. History of Jackson County. p. 13)

Speleology is the study of the geology and biology of caves. Speleologists
are scientists who investigate the cave and its unique features. Spelunkers
are cavers who explore caves as a hobby. Together, scientists and cavers
frequently collaborate to make new scientific discoveries.

Cave exploration can be dangerous. Responsible cavers learn about safety
rules, procedures, and equipment. They minimize the impact of their
presence on these fragile environments. Damage to cave formations
caused in a moment can last for centuries.




Section Two: Cave continued 19

Pre Activities
Stalactites and Stalagmites: Stalactites and Stalagmites are two of the most well known types of speleothems
caused by water seeping and dripping from the cave's roof.

2 glasses of hot water
Epsom salt
1 cotton thread
1 plate

Fill the 2 glasses with hot water.
Dissolve as much Epsom salt as possible in the water.
Place the ends of the thread in each of the 2 glasses.
Position the plate between the two glasses.
The salt water should travel along the thread and drip from the lowest point in the middle onto the plate.
If this happens slowly enough and the surroundings are warm enough, evaporation at the thread and at
the plate brings about the formation of crystals, which resemble stalactites and stalagmites.

Identifying Limestone: Caves form in areas where the ground is primarily limestone.
Sea shells
Natural chalk
Ordinary rocks
Safety goggles for each student
Lemon juice
Eye droppers
Pictures of statues of buildings that have been eroded by acid rain



Section Two: Cave continued 20

While wearing the safety goggles, mix all of the above solid items together.
Ask students to identify the limestone samples by testing them with the acid solution of vinegar
or lemon juice.
Wearing safety goggles, have the students put a few drops of the acids on the rocks with an eyedropper
Students should listen for a fizzing sound. A fizzing sound means that the solid is made of limestone.
Show pictures of limestone statues that have been eroded by
acid rain. Caves form easily and often in limestone because
limestone dissolves so easily.

Field Trip Activity
What animals can students find inside the cave?
Are they animals that visit caves?
Sometimes live in caves? Or cannot leave caves?
Where is the spelunker?
What do students see when they crawl through
the tunnel?
Can students find evidence of humans having
used the cave?
Can students identify the different speleothems?

Post Activity
Devil's Millhopper State Park
Sinkholes are formed when the ceiling of a cave collapses. Suggest .
that parents bring their students to visit Devil's Millhopper State
Park to explore the sinkhole and the hammock that surrounds it.
http://www.floridastateparks.org/devilsmillhopper/ Give students
questions to think about when they visit the site.

How do the plants and animals here compare to the
life size replica seen at the museum?
How would the water have affected the cave before
it collapsed?
Why do students think the cave roof collapsed? .: ,

Devil's Millhopper State Park
photo credit: Gainesville/Alachua
County Visitors and Convention Bureau



Section Three: Pitcher Plant Bogs 2J

Seepage bogs are habitats characterized by saturated, highly acidic, sandy soil with low nutrient availability.
They are dominated by low growing plant species, such as grasses and carnivorous plants. Bogs form in areas
where rainwater has been trapped near the surface by a layer of clay. Bogs often occur on slopes where water
seeps from the surrounding elevated pinelands. Seepage creates the moist environment, favored by bog plants.
The process of bog formation is:
1. Rainwater soaks into the coarse sand near the surface.
2. As water seeps downhill, it is forced back to the surface by the underlying clay layer.
3. The water flows across the surface of the slope, contributing to the formation of a bog.

Streams often form at the bottom of these slopes. They join other streams, and eventually become rivers that
flow to the Gulf of Mexico. Unique types of plants found in bogs are carnivorous plants.

The role of carnivory in plants is not completely understood. Carnivory may be an adaptation that allows these
species to thrive in nutrient poor soils. Soil nutrient levels in bogs decline during periods of rapid plant growth
or after several years without fire, perhaps making carnivory an important mechanism for survival during times
of nutritional stress. Captured prey also may supply necessary micronutrients absent in the bog's acidic soil.

Carnivorous plants attract insects using shape and color, as well as the odor of secreted nectar. Some species,
for example the yellow pitcher plant, use patterns created by ultraviolet light absorption along with red or
purple pigmentation, while others produce odors that mimic pheromones of insects.

Some species of carnivorous plants
grow side by side in bogs but attract
different prey. Other plants are
separated from one another because
they prefer slightly wetter or drier
conditions. These factors affect the
type of prey captured, ensuring that
each species catches the insects
necessary for its survival

Fun Fact: The Venus Flytrap is
native to a 100-mile radius around
Wilmington, North Carolina. It was
transported to North Florida by birds
dropping the seeds in their feces
during migration.



Section Three: Pitcher Plant Bogs continued 22

Guiding Questions and Answers
1) How do plants attract, catch, and digest their prey?
There are 4 types of ways carnivorous plants trap their prey:
a) Adhesive traps with fine hairs that are coated with a glue-like fluid. When an insect struggles, it becomes
trapped in the sticky gel. The leaves on some species fold around the prey and secrete digestive enzymes.
Insects eventually die in plants that do not have moving parts after becoming tangled and trapped in the
sticky coating on the plant's leaves.
b) Closing traps, such as Venus flytraps, have leaves that snap shut when insects brush against hair-
like triggers.
c) Pitfall traps in pitcher plants have downward-pointing hairs. This allows an insect to climb into the
flower, but not out. The plant also produces waxy secretions inside their vase-shaped leaves to prevent
insects from escaping. The insect eventually falls to the very bottom where it drowns in rainwater that
accumulates in the leaf. Insects may be attracted to nectar which has a narcotic effect and aids in drowning.
d) Trap doors in aquatic bladderworts have underwater bladders that trap small invertebrates and an
occasional small fish. Hairs trigger a trap door to open and water, carrying prey, rushes in.

Downward-pointing hairs

Climb into the flower

Drowns in rainwater


Section Three: Pitcher Plant Bogs continued

2) Why is fire important to bogs?
Frequent fires caused by summer lightning storms have shaped many
Florida habitats. Without fire, a bog is gradually invaded by woody shrubs
and trees, and will turn into a shrub bog within 20 years. Fire slows the
process and adds nutrients to the soil that is essential to bog life.
3) What is the difference between a bog, a marsh, and a swamp?
All three are types of wetlands.
Marshes are dominated by grasses and other plants rooted in
shallow water.

Bogs are specialized marshes that accumulate acidic peat, a deposit of
dead plant material. Because of the high acidic content, bogs do not have
high quantities of plants growing in them.
Swamps have a large water surface and are deeper than marshes.
Plant life primarily consists of trees rather than grasses.

l|--A*~iwr***ycfMtlllml 1.;. _* ,
& ..i

Summer fires






Section Three: Pitcher Plant Bogs continued 24

4) What animals live in a bog?
Spiders, centipedes and other arthropods live on bog plants and the spongy bog soils. Insects feed on bog plants,
including the pitcher plants, and pollinate their flowers. Several species of crayfish burrow in the muck, aerating
the thick organic soils. Reptiles and amphibians such as coal skinks, eastern glass lizards, southern chorus frogs,
and pinewoods frogs live in bogs. Numerous species of birds and mammals can be found there as well.

Pre Activity
Cave and Bog Formation: Caves form when there is a large amount of limestone that dissolves easily
due to acid in water and soil. Bogs form when there is a large clay deposit in or above the limestone.

Clear plastic cups
Sponges, cut to fit tightly in the top of the cup

Explain that the sponge represents limestone. Northwest Florida is primarily limestone based.
Place the sponge in the top of one cup. Pour water on top. What happens to the water? It percolates
down through the limestone. This is how caves begin to form. The acidic value of the water dissolves
the limestone creating caverns.

Next form a disc of clay to fit into the top of a second cup. Have the edges of the clay curl up the side
of the cup so that it stays in place. This represents areas where the ground has a layer of clay in it such
as the confining layer of clay in the Floridan Aquifer.

Pour a small amount of water on top. What happens to the water? It sits on the top of the clay and does
not percolate down. Anywhere the soil has enough clay to form a barrier, water pools into lakes, or bogs.

Field Trip Activity
What animals can students find in the bog? There is a field guide in the exhibit to help you look.
Look at the large pitcher plant. What features can the students pick out that will help the plant attract
and catch prey?


Section Four: Rivers 25

Florida's Panhandle is the most biologically rich area of the
state. The freshwater mussel and turtle faunas in the region
are good examples of this diversity. Over the last few million
years, repeated sea level changes covered much of the Florida
peninsula with saltwater, altering freshwater ecosystems and
killing the organisms adapted to freshwater. Rivers and streams
at higher elevations in Northwest Florida served as a refuge for
freshwater species, allowing these species to survive. Often,
areas of higher elevation became islands during warmer
periods, isolating populations of animals. Diversification of
animals occurred between these islands due to a limited breed-
ing pool and different available resources. The Apalachicola
River basin supports the highest number of reptile and
amphibian species in Florida, the second highest in the United
States. River forests are important nesting and migratory
habitats for many birds. This diversity arises from an abundance
of nesting and roosting cavities, plants, and water.
Florida has more than 1,700 streams and rivers. Twenty-one
Florida rivers flow directly into the Gulf of Mexico; only two
drain into the Atlantic Ocean. Six major rivers in Northwest
Florida carry 19 million gallons of freshwater per minute to the
Gulf of Mexico. These rivers support a rich diversity of species.
Water flows from seeps, springs, and surface runoff through
drainage basins. These basins interconnect uplands to ponds,
lakes, swamps, streams, and rivers.

Fun Fact: Freshwater makes up only 3% of the world's water.
Most freshwater is frozen in glaciers and polar ice caps, leaving
less than 1% as a liquid.


Florida river flowing into Gulf of Mexico

< 0


Section Four: Rivers continued 26

Vocabulary Words
Fort Walton: A term used to refer to an ancient culture that built mounds in the southeastern region of the
United States
Mississippian: A term used to refer to an archaeological culture of the Southeast region of the United States

Guiding Questions and Answers
1) How have people in Northwest Florida
utilized rivers?

The area we now call Northwest Florida was
once a major political and cultural crossroads.
People flourished along the numerous
Panhandle rivers because they sustained
important animal foods such as turtles, fish,
and mussels. Riverine forests were full of
deer, turkey, and squirrel, as well as wild plant
foods such as hickory nuts, grapes, acorns, and
persimmons. Fertile floodplain soils supported
corn and other agriculture. In addition, the
rivers served as highways for communication,
travel, and trade.

Before European influence, the native people
of Northwest Florida shared cultural traits
with most societies east of the Mississippi
River. Archaeologists refer to these societies
as Mississippian. Powerful leaders ruled
large, agricultural populations. Extensive
trade networks located along rivers and over
land, connected Mississippian societies.
Archaeologists call the Mississippian societies
in Northwest Florida, Southeast Alabama, and
Southwest Georgia the Fort Walton culture.
Florida's Fort Walton people lived between the
Aucilla River and the Chipola River uplands.
Fort Walton leaders expressed their power
t Walton leader expired their powr Cheifly exchange of exotic goods. Scene from Northwest
by building large earthen mounds and by
.d g re ad v e w s Florida exhibit.
displaying rare and valuable wares obtained



Section Four: Rivers continued 27

in ceremonial exchange with other Mississippian leaders. Items made of copper, marine shell, and greenstone
served as symbols of high status throughout the Southeast.

As far back as 5,000 years ago, trade networks extended throughout eastern North America. Native people in
what is now Florida imported copper from the Appalachian Piedmont and Great Lakes, galena from Missouri,
mica from Georgia, steatite and mica from the Appalachians, greenstone from the Piedmont, and elaborate
ornamental objects from other areas. In exchange, Florida native people exported marine shells, shell beads
and ornaments, marine pearls, shark tooth ornaments and whelk shell dippers.

2) How is the biodiversity of Florida's freshwater affected by pollution?

Many of the aquatic species living in Northwest Florida have restricted distributions and specific habitat
requirements. This increases their vulnerability to extinction, and many river species are declining.

Plants and animals are in danger of extinction due to pollution from agriculture, industry and urban
runoff, destruction of freshwater habitats by canalization, damming and development, sedimentation
from deforestation, soil erosion, and competition with non-indigenous species.

Pre Activity:
River Erosion: Dirt eroded from rivers deposits further downstream or in the oceans. Pollutants that enter
a river also are deposited downstream or in the oceans.

Cardboard milk carton
Fine-grained dirt
Watering can with diffuser top (water sprinkles out instead of pours
Containers of water
Empty glass jar
Plastic tub
Scissors or knife (teacher use only)
Plastic sandwich bags
Measuring cup
aper or student journal
Pencil or pen


Section Four: Rivers continued 28

Set Up:
* Cut the back off of the milk carton.
* Measure equal amounts of dirt into sandwich bags. There should be two bags for each group.
* Fill containers with water.

* Divide the class into groups of 2-3 students.
* Give each group: milk carton, two bags of dirt, ruler, plastic tub, empty jar, paper, pencil or pen,
container of water, and watering can.
* Have students put one bag of dirt into the milk carton. The dirt should be spread out so that it
covers the bottom.
* Drag a finger or pencil down the middle of the dirt to create a groove.
* One student should hold the milk carton so that the spout is over the plastic tub. For the first try,
have them hold the carton at a slight slope
* Another student should then measure a specified amount of water and put it in the watering can.
Sprinkle the water on the top of the slope. Allow the excess water and dirt to drain into the tub.
* Pour the contents of the tub into the empty jar. Allow the dirt to settle to the bottom.
* With the ruler, measure how much dirt and how much water is in the jar. Record this amount on
the paper.
* Rinse out the jar, tub and milk carton.
* Empty the second bag of dirt into the milk carton, spread the dirt, make a groove, and measure
water into the watering can.
* Hold the milk carton over the plastic tub at a steeper slope than the first time.
* Sprinkle the water over the top of the slope. Allow the excess water and dirt to drain into the tub.
* Pour the contents of the tub into the empty jar. Allow the dirt to settle to the bottom.
* With the ruler, measure how much dirt and water is in the jar. Record this amount on the paper.



Section Four: Rivers continued 29

*Discuss the results with students:
Which time did the river run faster? Would a river run faster in the mountains or near the coast? Why?
Which time did more dirt and water end up in the tub? Why?
What do students think happens to all the dirt that is eroded or carried away in steep rivers?
Does all of it get deposited further downstream? What happens to dirt that does not get
deposited further downstream?
Since dirt and water that starts in the mountains runs all the way to the sea or ocean,
what does this mean for pollution and garbage that is dumped into rivers in the mountains?

Field Trip Activity
Look at the trade scene.
What do students see that gives a clue that these people lived near water?
Who is the leader? What is unique about the leader? Why is the fact that the leader is a woman unique?
Which group is from Florida? Which group is from up North? How can students tell?
How did they travel here?
What did they eat?
Look in the water.
What types of animals can students find?

Post Activity
Watershed: Water moves downhill to form rivers, lakes, streams or deposits into the ocean.

Paper (8 1/2 x 11)
Blue marker (water soluble)
Black marker (water soluble)
Spray bottle filled with water
Cardboard or tag board (8 V2 x 11 or larger)



Section Four: Rivers continued 30

* Have each student crumple a piece of paper into a loose wad. If it is crumpled too much, the watershed
model will be too complicated.
* Open the piece of paper, but do not flatten it out.
* Tape the piece of paper to the cardboard or tag board, so that the peaks and valleys are easily distinguished.
Have each student write their name on their paper.
* Using the black marker, mark all of the tops of mountains and mountain ridges. Help students follow each
ridge as far as it goes.
* Using the blue marker, mark all of the rivers, streams, or lakes seen. Explain that students will need to
carefully look for all the folds and height changes in the paper. They should pretend that they are a drop
of water and think about how they would fall and slowly move downhill. There will be places that the
water cannot go down any further. This is likely a place to draw a lake.
* Mist the paper with water from the spray bottle. This is a representation of rain. Students should
observe the water as it moves downhill as rivers and forms lakes. The colored ink will move to leave
a trail where watershed is occurring.
* Allow the papers to dry.
* Discuss with students the methods they used to predict where watershed would occur.
Were they correct?
Did they miss some places?
Was there water that ran off the edge of the paper?



Section Five: Coastal Ecosystems 31

Coastlines are biological edges. These specialized habitats form the transition between land-based ecosystems
and the open sea. Plants and animals in these coastal habitats are exposed to rigorous, ever-changing
environmental conditions caused by regular tidal flooding, mixing of fresh and salt water, hurricanes, and
oceanic weather patterns.
Coastal environments, such as bays, lagoons, and sounds are links in a larger landscape of rivers, bayous,
estuaries, and the sea. Although much of Florida's coastline has been developed, the Panhandle still has intact
coastal environments and a vast array of plant and animal species. These contribute significantly to Florida's
unusually rich biodiversity.
The Gulf of Mexico covers more than 600,000 square miles and has an average depth of 5,000 feet. Some areas
are over 12,000 feet deep. The Loop Current enters the Gulf through the Yucatan Channel and exits through the
Straits of Florida. Exiting water helps form the Gulf Stream, a current that brings warm water along the eastern
coast of the United States. Surrounded by the United States, Mexico, and Cuba, the Gulf of Mexico is one of the
largest enclosed bodies of salt water in the world with a watershed of more than two million square miles.

Fun Fact: The Apalachicola River discharges an average of 20,000 cubic feet of water per second.



Section Five: Coastal Ecosystems continued 32

Vocabulary Words
Barrier Island: A long sandy island that runs parallel to a coastline and serves to protect the shore
from erosion.
Bay: An inlet of the sea or other body of water, usually smaller than a gulf.
Bayou: A creek, secondary watercourse, or minor river that is a tributary to another river or body of water.
Dune: A mound of sand formed from wind and water.
Ecotone: A zone of transition between two different ecosystems.
Estuary: The seaward end of a river where tidal effects occur and freshwater comes into contact
with saltwater.
Intertidal: The area between high and low tide levels.
Lagoon: A shallow body of water near or connected to a larger water body.
Pine: An evergreen tree with needle-shaped leaves and woody cones.
Sound: A long passage of water connecting two larger bodies.
Oak: A tree that has acorns as fruit.
Salinity: The salt content of water.
Tidal: Fluctuations that occur in relation to the tides.



Section Five: Coastal Ecosystems continued 33

Guiding Questions and Answers :
1) How have humans impacted coastal ecosystems?

Upland forests are frequently developed because they are not
subject to flooding. Development can reduce the flow of clean,
fresh water to the coastal system.

Tidal marshes have also been impacted negatively by human
development. Widespread pesticide use, in an attempt to
control mosquitoes and other pest insects, has disturbed this Mother nature over development
fragile ecosystem.

2) How does plant life change as one moves toward
the coast?-

The ecotone (transition) between coastal forests and the
open salt marsh is abrupt. Only salt-tolerant, shrubby plants,
particularly yaupon holly (Ilex vomitoria) and southern red
cedar (Juniperus silicicola), invade the margins of the marsh.
Expanses of salt-tolerant grasses and winding creeks give
marshes an open, distinctive look. Low wave energy allows
the growth of non-woody, salt-tolerant plants. Life in coastal
marshes is challenging, though, because changing tides
constantly alter water and salinity levels. Few plant and animal .i s.
species are adapted to this habitat.
Coastal plants
3) What are the different types of coastal ecosystems?

Lagoons are intertidal wetlands. They are protected from open marine waters by barrier islands. Lagoon species
have adapted to high variations in salinity, wind and tidal currents, and low wave action. These plants and
animals grow and utilize the abundant nutrients resulting in a highly productive ecosystem. This productivity is
due to relatively shallow depths, the mixing of fresh and salt water, and organic materials flowing from rivers.
Florida lagoon ecosystems provide a critical developmental habitat for most commercial and sport fisheries.
Pollutants, development, and over-fishing threaten the future of Florida's lagoon species.

Barrier islands are long, narrow islands of sand that lie parallel to the coastline. Barrier islands are characterized
by a beach on the seaward side, active and stabilized dunes in the interior, and a shore on the marsh side.
Sculpted by waves and wind, they form an almost continuous fortification along Florida's Panhandle coast.
They permit the formation of lagoons by providing protection from wave action and hurricanes. Desert-like
plants and animals dominate these islands. They also provide migration stops and nesting habitats for many
animal species. Unfortunately, because of their beauty, people often over-develop barrier islands.



Section Five: Coastal Ecosystems continued 34

Barrier islands are dynamic. Sand deposition and removal
continually reshapes barrier islands throughout the world.
For example, Perdido Key has grown by nearly four miles in
the last 100 years, while Cape San Blas looses approximately
100 feet each year. The vegetation growing on barrier
islands is affected by wind-driven sand, salt spray, wave-
and wind-driven erosion, and storm surges. Only hardy,
drought-resistant plants live on dunes. The root systems
of sea oats, other grasses, and shrubs stabilize the shifting
beach sands.

Migrating birds and butterflies find food and a place to rest
on barrier islands. These islands are used both in spring and
fall. During fall migration, birds and butterflies congregate
on barrier islands before crossing the Gulf of Mexico or
moving into peninsular Florida. The flowers of fall-blooming
plants and the fruits of the dune forests provide energy
necessary for such long flights.

Ten species of shore and seabirds breed on barrier islands
in Northwest Florida. Undisturbed beaches and dunes are
important to the successful reproduction of these ground-
nesting birds. Islands usually harbor fewer terrestrial
predators than the mainland. In addition to natural
predators, adult birds, their eggs, and their young are also
vulnerable to domestic animals and human activities.

Tidal marshes often are thought of as inhospitable places
with little value. However, these very important habitats
provide: entrapment of sediments and pollutants, protection
against storms, a habitat for a rich variety of animals and
plants, and a habitat for valuable seafood species. Coastal
marshes are challenging environments since tides flood
the marsh daily. As the tides rise and fall, animals and
plants must tolerate immersion in saltwater or exposure to
air, as well as changes in salinity and temperature. Plants
and animals live where they are best adapted to survive.
In tidal marshes, plants typically grow in distinct or non-
overlapping zones.

Barrier islands

Migrating birds

Tidal marsh



Section Five: Coastal Ecosystems continued 35

Pre Activity
Intertidal Zones: Intertidal zones are home to a wide variety of organisms.

A variety of different sized and shaped shells, starfish, gastropods, limpets, etc.
Pen or pencil
Markers, crayons, or colored pencils
Pair students up. Have them sit back to back. Give each student one shell, starfish, etc.

Explain that all the organisms that they have are a few examples of the types of things that live in
intertidal zones. They are going to pretend that they are scientists that just discovered a new species
of animal.

Each student should now take turns with their partner describing their object without telling their
partner what it is. The partner should try and draw what is being described.

After the entire class has finished, have the partners share their drawings while revealing the object.

What characteristics did students use to describe their objects? Did their tactics work? Why or why not?

Field Trip Activity
How might the plants seen in the tidal marsh help prevent erosion?

How are eggs of birds and turtles camouflaged for the coast? What creatures do students think prey
on eggs? What other dangers do the eggs face during development? What dangers do baby turtles face
when they have hatched?

What do students notice about the butterflies? Where are they going?

Why do you think the osprey (sea hawk) is carrying the sticks? Has anyone seen an osprey before?

Have students create a food chain from the animals they see in the tidal marsh diorama.



Section Five: Coastal Environments continued 36

Post Activity
Sand: Looking at sand closely can reveal what it is made of and where it came from.

Sand from as many locations as you can collect or buy
Magnifying glasses
Note cards
White glue
Pencil or pen
Rock and mineral kits
Glass jars with lids

Set up:
Ask students and parents to collect sand from any locations they visit whether it is a lake, stream,
river, creek, playground, beach, or their backyard.

As samples come in, label the bags with their location.

Divide sand samples into enough bags for 1 for each group. Label each bag with the location the
sand was collected.

Discuss as a class what students think sand is made of. How do students think sand is made?
Divide students into groups and give each group a set of sand samples.
Work as a group to make observations about individual samples of sand by looking and feeling it
while still in the bag.
How big are the sand grains?
Can you tell what they're made of?
What colors do you see?
What does the sand look like?

Compare the different samples based on the observations they just made.

Come together as a class and discuss the observations that different groups made.
Record observations by sample location.


Section Five: Coastal Environments continued 37

* Distribute note cards to groups. Each student should make a note card for one sample by writing the
name of the location on one half of the card and gluing a small amount of sand on the other half. Use a
black or dark colored note card for lighter colored samples and a white note card for darker colored samples.

* Have students look at their note card with a magnifying glass.
Record the colors you see.
Draw a few grains of sand, but draw them much bigger than they are in real life.
What shapes are the grains of sand?
Do the grains have rounded edges or angular edges? Rounded grains have been worn
smooth over hundreds or thousands of years. Angular grains have broken off of rock,
coral, or shell more recently.
What size are the grains of sand? Are they all the same size?

* Gently rub a magnet on the outside of their bag of sand. Are any of the grains attracted to the magnet?
If so, what color are the magnetic sand grains? If any grains are attracted, this is evidence that the sand
contains some magnetic minerals, such as iron or magnetite. These magnetic minerals are usually black
in color.

Distribute the rock and mineral kits. Have students compare their grains of sand to the kits.
Does your sand have pieces of rock or minerals that match some in the kits?

* List the kinds of rocks and minerals that may be in their sand.

* Compare the different colors of sand in each group.
Which sand is the lightest in color?
Which is the darkest?
Arrange them in order from lightest to darkest.
What can one learn by looking at the color of sand? Colors give you clues about what your
sand is made of. Dark sands are often volcanic in origin. Light sands can be made of animals like
shells or corals, or of quartz or granite.


Section Five: Coastal Environments continued 38

* Compare the different size grains of sand in each group
Which sand has the smallest grains?
Which has the largest grains?
Arrange them in order from smallest to largest
Put a few pinches of the smallest grained sand in a jar with water. Put the lid on.
Do the same with the largest grained sand. Shake the two jars and put them down
at the same time. Which sand settles to the bottom first?
Swirl the jars around. Which sand moves around?
What can one learn by looking at the size of grains in sand? If grains are very small, they were
probably from an area with slow moving water such as a protected bay beach or a pool in a slowly
moving stream. Tiny particles can stay put only where the water is moving slowly and gently.
Large waves (or fast water) pick up small grains and carry them away down the river or off the
beach and out to the ocean. If their sand grains are mainly large, they were probably from a wave
tossed beach where the rough water carried all the smaller grains away. Only the larger grains
remained because they were not picked up by the waves.

* Discuss as a class the observations made.
Are larger grains of sand typically a certain color?
Are small grains of sand typically a certain color?
Are larger grains of sand typically made of a certain rock or mineral?
Are small grains of sand typically made of a certain rock or mineral?
What are some of the ways sand comes to beaches?" Rocks, minerals and sediment are carried
to the shore by rivers and creeks. Shells and bones of creatures that live on shore and at sea are
brought to the shore by ocean currents. Sea cliffs and marine outcrops and terraces also erode.
If there is consistency among color, size, and composition, what can student guess about their sand?



Section One: Books 39

Ackerman, Diane. Animal Sense. Knopf Books for Young Readers, 2003.

Aulenbach, Nancy Holler. Exploring Caves: Journeys into the Earth. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic
Society, 2001.

Arnoskly, Jim. All About Owls. 1995.

Batten, Mary. Hungry Plants. New York: Random House, 2003.

Bice, David A. Panorama of Florida. Jalamp Publications, 1982.

Bix, Cynthia Overbeck. Carnivorous Plants. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Co., 1992.

Cannon, Janell. Stellaluna. Harcourt, 1997.

Cerullo, Mary. Sea Turtles: Ocean Nomads. New York: Dutton's Children's Press, 2003.

Costain, Meredith. Into the Earth: The Story of Caves. Washington D.C: National Geographic, 2006.

Eluetarius, Lionel N. Tidal Marsh Plants. Gretna, LA: Pelican, 1990.

Fleming, Denise. Where Once there was a Wood. New York: H. Holt, 1996.

Fredricks, Anthony. In One Tidepool: Crabs, Snails, and Salty Tails. Nevada City, CA: Dawn Publications, 2002.

Gaff, Jackie. I Wonder Why Stalactites Hang Down and Other Questions About Caves. Boston: Kingfisher, 2003.

Gallant, Roy. Limestone Caves. New York: Franklin Watts, 1998.

Greenaway, Frank. Amazing Bats. New York: Knopf, 1991.

Hann, John H. and Bonnie G. McEwan. The Appalachee Indians and Mission San Luis. Gainesville: University
Press of Florida, 1998.

Hann, John H. A History of the Timucua Indians and Missions. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1996.

Henderson, Ann L. and Gary R. Mormino, eds. Spanish Pathways in Florida: 1492-1992. Sarasota, FL: Pineapple
Press, 1991.

Hooper, Meredith. The Drop in my Drink: The Story of Water on Our Planet. New York: Viking, 1998.

Hooper, Meredith. River Story. Cambridge Press: Candlewick Press, 2000.

Howes, Chris. Caving. Chicago: Heinemann Library, 2003.

Kalman, Bobbie. The Life Cycle of a Sea Turtle. New York: Crabtree Publishing, 2002.



Section One: Books continued 40

Lasky, Kathryn. Interrupted Journey. London: Walker, 2001.
Lindhop, Laurie. Cave Sleuths. Minneapolis: Twenty-first Century Books, 2006.
Markle, Sandra. Little Lost Bat. Watertown, MA: Charlesbridge, 2006.
Marks, Cynthia. Bats of Florida. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2006.
Miller, Debbie S. River of Life. New York: Clarion Books, 2000.
Ruff, Sue and Don E. Wilson. Bats. New York: Benchmark Books, 2001.
Schnell, Donald E. Carnivorous Plants of the United States and Canada. Portland: Timber Press, 2002.
Silver, Donald. Cave. New York: Scientific American Books for Young Readers, 1993.
Silver, Donald. One Small Square: Seashore. New York: Scientific American Books for Young Readers, 1993.
Singer, Marilyn. Footprints on the Roof: Poems about the Earth. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002.
Strauss, Rochelle. One Well: The Story of Water on Earth. Toronto: Kids Can Press, 2007.
Swinburne, Stephen R. Turtle Tide: The ways of Sea Turtles. Honesdale, PA: Boyds Mills Press, 2005.
Taylor, Michael Ray. Caves: Exploring Hidden Realms. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 2000.
VanCleave, Janice. Biology for Every Kid: 101Easy Experiments that Really Work. New York: Wiley, 1990.
Weitzel, Kelley. The Timucuan Indians: A Native American Detective Story. Gainesville:
University Press of Florida, 2000.
Wells, Robert E. Did a Dinosaur Drink this Water? Morton Grove: A Whitman, 2006.



Section Two: Web Resources 41

Florida Bat Conservancy
Florida Caverns State Park
Florida Coastal Strategies
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Florida Museum of Natural History Education Resources
Florida Museum of Natural History Research and Collections
Lubee Bat Conservancy
National Museum of the American Indian
Northwest Florida Water Management District
United States Environmental Protection Agency



Section Three: Videos and Music 42

Bill Nye the Science Guy. Caves. 26 min. video: Disney Educational Productions, 1999.
Billy Nye the Science Guy. Food Web. 26 min. video: Disney Educational Productions, 1995.
Bill Nye the Science Guy. Forests. 26 min. video: Disney Educational Productions, 1995.
Bill Nye the Science Guy. Rivers and Streams. 26 min. video: Disney Educational Productions, 1997.
Bill Nye the Science Guy. Water Cycle. 26 min. video: Disney Educational Productions, 1995.
Karst Productions Inc. Water's Journey: The Hidden Rivers of Florida. 60 min. video: Tony Haines, 2003.
National Geographic Society. Mysteries Underground. 60 min. video: Lionel Friedberg, 1992.



Section Four: Current Research at the Florida Museum 43

Florida Museum of Natural History Research and Collections


Florida Museum of Natural History research in southwest Florida addresses issues of interest to scholars and a
wide range of the American public. Research topics include:
1. The Calusa Domain
2. People and the Environment
3. Post-Contact Transformations

Staff, research associates and graduate students of the University of Florida Herbarium (FLAS) have been
collaborators in the Generic Flora of the Southeastern United States, a NSF-supported project, for many years.
The Melastomataceae are the seventh largest family of flowering plants. They are liberally distributed
throughout tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Most species are instantly recognizable as melastomes
by the acrodromous ("checkerboard") venation.
The Melastomataceae are particularly notable for their diversity of hair types and modifications of the stamens.
In many areas, the family comprises a large percentage of the flora and is generally of considerable ecological
importance. Despite being a very conspicuous component of most tropical ecosystems, their patterns of
explosive evolution, intriguing biogeography and natural history, the Melastomataceae remain, to a large degree,
an understudied family.



Section Four: Current Research at the Florida Museum continued 44


The Florida Museum of Natural History receives all of the Florida Panthers that are found dead from various
causes (e.g., hit by cars, male/male aggression, etc.). Therefore, the mammalogy department has an amazing
resource of over 100 Florida Panther specimens that can be used to address various questions about diet and
health. They examine the osteopathologies that these cats suffer from (likely the result of severe inbreeding)
to track changes in severity and prevalence over the past 50 years. Mammalogy also uses stable isotope
geochemistry to examine panther diet, which is highly variable.

FLMNH has an outstanding collection of the monotypic Florida Mouse thanks to the collecting efforts of Jim
Layne and others. They will be looking at the population genetics of the historical populations sampled from
within the collection, and their collaborator, James Austin, will be sampling current populations for comparison.


The FLMNH Recent bird skeleton collection of 24,500 specimens, representing about 3,000 species, is
approximately the fifth largest in the world in number of specimens and species. In 1992, the FLMNH received
a bird skeleton collection. With the assistance of a National Science Foundation grant, this skeleton collection
was computer-cataloged and integrated into the FLMNH bird collection. The skeleton collection has grown by
140% in the last five years. It contains specimens from 47 U.S. states and 103 countries.

The bird skin collection contains approximately 20,500 specimens representing at least 2,300 species. In 1992,
the division received a collection of approximately 3,000 skins. The skin collection has grown by 23% in the last
five years. It is 99% computerized and contains specimens from 45 U.S. states and 77 countries.

The egg collection, consisting of 10,400 sets representing 733 species, is 11th largest in North America in
number of sets and 15th largest in number of species. It represents approximately 90% of the species and
subspecies of North American birds. The egg collection has grown by 1% in the last five years. It is cataloged in
a card file that includes original collectors' data slips or page references to the collector's field notes. Especially
well represented are sets from New England and Florida.

The bird sound collection, in the FLMNH Bioacoustic Archives, with 20,500 cataloged recordings representing
about 3,000 species, is perhaps third or fourth largest in the world in number of species. In the western
hemisphere it is the second largest in number of species and third largest in number of recordings. Ornithology
is now processing one of the largest accessions ever, the collection of Ben B. Coffey, Jr., with thousands of high-
quality recordings from the southeastern USA and the Neotropics. The sound collection has grown by 20% in
the last five years, not counting the Coffey accession.


Section Five: Current Events 45

Although Florida receives about 55-60 inches of rainfall a year, not all the water is available for use. Evaporation
and transpiration results in a loss of 45 inches of rain annually. The dry season brings droughts that result
in reduced amounts of stored water in aquifers. Aquifers are filled by rainwater soaking down through the
soil. During a drought, reduced rainfall means less water reaching the underground aquifers, making them
vulnerable to saltwater intrusion.
Water supply in Florida is also affected by droughts further north in the United States. As other states
experience water shortages, they rely on a larger proportion of water in rivers, streams, and aquifers. The more
water northern states utilize for consumption and agriculture, the less that is available to Florida residents.
In response to growing water usage needs by human populations, southern states have implemented water
management regulations including restricted use for watering yards and gardens. For more information and
additional classroom activities please see the following websites:



Section One: Permanent Exhibitions 46

South Florida People and Environments
This exhibit celebrates the story of native people in South Florida and the environments that supported them.
Walk along a boardwalk through a mangrove forest, travel underwater to view larger-than-life marine creatures,
visit the house of a Calusa leader and much more.

Butterfly Rainforests: Where Science Takes Flight
Stroll through this 6,400-square-foot screened, outdoor enclosure with subtropical and tropical plants and
hundreds of living butterflies. View thousands of Lepidoptera species on the "Wall of Wings" and learn about
butterfly and moth biology. See scientists working in the Butterfly Rearing Lab and the Research Labs.



Section Two: School and Outreach Programs 47

Programs Overview
School groups include home schools and public, private and faith-based PreK-12 schools within a school district.

The Florida Museum of Natural History offers the following field trip opportunities for school groups:
Guided School Programs
Join our museum docents for hands-on classroom activities and interactive walks through our state-of-the-art
exhibits and outdoor natural areas. Guided programs are offered Tuesday through Friday mornings, Oct. 7, 2008,
through May 22, 2009. Programs fill quickly, especially for the months of October, November, April and May.
To avoid disappointment, reserve your date as early in the school year as possible. Reservations must be made
a minimum of three weeks in advance of the program date.

Indoor Programming
10-60 students per program
Each program is 60 minutes in length
$3 student, 1/10 ratio chaperone free, additional chaperones $3/each
Butterfly-focused programs will have additional entry fee into the Rainforest
Programs will work with grades pre-school to 12th grade. Each program will be
individualized to provide age-appropriate activities

Indoor Program Options:
Butterfly and Moth Explorations
Fossils No Bones About It!
Trails in Time Florida's Indian Peoples
Waterways and Wildlife of Florida

Outdoor Programming
10-40 students per program
Each program is 60 minutes in length
$3 student, 1/10 ratio chaperone free, additional chaperones $3/each
Outdoor Programs are available for pre-school through 5th grade students only

Outdoor Program Options:
Eye on Insects Fall Only
Green Machine Spring Only
Stayin' Alive


Section Two: School and Outreach Programs continued 48

Self-Guided Visits
Suitable for groups that prefer to visit the museum without the benefit of docents or staff. Reservations are
required for all self-guided visits of 10 or more students to ensure a positive experience for your group. Self-
guided visits must be reserved at least two weeks in advance and are available Monday through Friday during
Museum hours. A staff member will greet your group and facilitate the purchase of any tickets before you
enter the Museum. After that, your group leaders are entirely responsible for the educational experience of
the students.
School Group Self-Guided Tickets (10 or more individuals)
See link http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/education/self_guided.htm

Outreach Inquiry Boxes
The Florida Museum of Natural History currently offers five Inquiry Box outreach programs for use in your class-
room. They are also a great way to compliment your docent-led program or self-guided field trip to the Museum.
Our Inquiry Boxes are correlated to the Sunshine State Standards and are designed to enhance FCAT preparation.

Each Inquiry Box contains selected natural history objects, games, a video, reference materials and a teacher's
guide. Classroom teachers at any grade level may check out the Inquiry Boxes at a cost of $25/box for a two-week
period. Teachers will be responsible for the pick-up and return of the Inquiry Boxes to and from museum. If in-
terested, please contact tours@flmnh.ufl.edu.

Florida's Butterflies and Moths grades K-4
Florida's Reptiles and Amphibians grades 2-6
Northern Florida's Early Native People grades 4-8
Southern Florida's Early Native People grades 4-8
Florida's Seminole People grades 2-6

Coming Soon!
Florida's Fossils grades 5-8
The Geology of Florida grades 5-8

http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/education/inquiry boxes.htm


Section Three: General Visitor Programs and Special Events 49

Programs for Children and Adults
The Florida Museum offers a wide variety of educational programming for visitors of all ages. These programs
include summer and spring break camps, adult workshops and classes, field trips, lectures, weekend and school
holiday classes for kids, and a preschool program for tots and parents. Programming for the general public also
includes annual and special events such as Collector's Day, Museum Nights, Butterfly Fest, Earth Day and Family
Days at each exhibition opening.

Discovery Room
Swim through the shallows of a coral reef, puzzle together a prairie and create creatures from Florida's diverse
ecosystems in our self-guided discovery stations. Visit our hands-on Discovery Room filled with activities and
join us during scheduled program times for stories, puppets, Museum exploration with Dr. Discovery and more!
To utilize the Discovery Room, groups must have one adult chaperone for every 5 students. The Discovery Room
attendant reserves the right to limit the number of room participants or ask visitors to leave.




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