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Group Title: Curriculum Resource Unit, University of Florida Harn Museum of Art
Title: Curriculum resource unit
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Full Text

Curriculum Resource Unit


Art ofAsia from the Harn Museum Collection
October 28, 2001 December 2003

SSamuel R l of Art
Ham Museum

Enhancing the ability of museums to sve the public Interest

1-onoring the past, shaping the future


NatHion ide
-.", I-~~l|^a



Produced by the Education Department
Samuel P. Ham Museum of Art


Sherrie Pettigrew, Art Teacher, Kimball Wiles Elementary School
Susan Siorek, 5th Grade Teacher, Kimball Wiles Elementary School

Harn Museum Education Advisory Committee

Hanne Jackson, Art Teacher, Metcalfe Elementary School
Sue Johnson, Art Teacher, Glen Springs Elementary School
Jenny Long, Former Education Specialist for School & Family Programs,
Harn Museum of Art
Shelley IV1tctrs, Docent, Harn Museum of Art

With Contributions By

Bonnie Bernau, Director of Education, Harn Museum of Art
Regina Cheong, Graphic Designer, Vista Graphics
Rachel Gibas, Education Coordinator, School & Family Programs, Harn Museum of Art
Flora MacColl, Senior Art & Publications Specialist, UF Document Services
Lori Nathanson, Research Assistant, University of Florida
Premila Rao, Docent, Harn Museum of Art
Lauren Richardson, Editor
Christie Shaw, Curriculum Supervisor, Fine Arts, School Board of Alachua County
Penghua Zhu, Cultural Consultant, University of Florida

With Special Thanks To

Larry David Perkins, Former Curator of Non-Western Art, Harn Museum of Art

Ham Museum of Art exhibitions and programs are sponsored in part by: Nationwide Insurance and the
Nationwide Foundation; State of Florida, Department of State, Division of Cultural Affairs; Florida Arts
Council; the National Endowment for the Arts; Harn Museum Program Endowment Fund; Harn
Alliance; Museum Store and private donations.

2002 Ham Museum of Art

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Preface and Acknowledgements

The Harn Museum of Art is proud to present Art of Asia from the Harn Museum Collection;
the focus exhibition which has provided us with excellent content for the 2002-2003 School and
Educator Program. Through the work of exceptional Asian artists, cross-cultural connections
throughout time, media and theme are presented, featuring treasures from the museum's
permanent collection. This curriculum resource unit, ExploreASIA, is the third in an on-going
series, following the highly successful Exploring African Arts: A Discovery of African Cultures and
Imagine That! Stories in Art. All three projects represent the on-going, productive collaboration
between the School Board of Alachua County and the Harn Museum of Art, supported by an
Arts in Education grant from the State of Florida, Division of Cultural Affairs. The special
addition this year of the full color transparency set is the result of a generous grant from
Nationwide Insurance and the Nationwide Foundation.

Many individual efforts went into creating this outstanding resource, including the
special vision of Jenny Long, former Education Specialist for School and Family Programs. This
unit would not have come into being without the dedication and devotion to Asian art and the
Harn Museum of Larry David Perkins, Curator of the Art of Asia exhibition. We thank him for
his thoughtful assistance in selection and scholarly translation of the objects from the collection.
Very special thanks to Co-authors Susan Siorek, 5th grade teacher, and art teacher Sherrie
Pettigrew, both from Kimball Wiles Elementary School. Their collaborative effort and
commitment to meaningful, high quality educational opportunities for students resulted in this
interdisciplinary unit reflective of much hard work. Lori Nathanson, University of Florida Art
Education Intern, was amazingly resourceful and her research skills contributed a great deal.
Penghua Zhu, University of Florida Art Education graduate student, contributed the unique
cultural perspective, knowledge and skills and was wonderful to have working with us.

Thank you to the Harn Museum docents, a group of highly talented and generous
individuals, for their ongoing service to the museum as they provide tours for thousands of
school children each year. Special thanks to two docents: Shelley Waters for continuing
educational expertise as we designed and developed this unit, and to Premila Rao, a patient and
gracious tutor who shared the wonderful Hindu myths so we could present them authentically.
Thank you to Christina Shaw, Fine Arts Supervisor for the School Board of Alachua County, for
her continual support in all of the Harn Museum's school and educator programming. Rachel
Gibas, the new Education Coordinator for School and Family Programs at the Harn Museum of
Art, is to be congratulated for bringing the project to completion through many ups and downs
and for applying her professional experience as an art educator to this project. Thank you to
both Sue Johnson and Hanne Jackson, elementary art teachers and past curriculum authors, for
consultations and support. A grateful acknowledgement to the Seattle Art Museum for their
kind permission to include excerpts from their teacher resource packet, Out of the East Horizon;
Chinese Art from the Seattle Art Museum.

Finally, thank you to the many Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art contributors who have
so generously provided the time, energy and financial support that enables us to make
educational opportunities like this possible.

Bonnie Bernau, Director of Education

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Table of Contents

Preface & Acknowledgments

1. Introduction

How to Use this Curriculum Resource Unit .................................1
G raphic O organizer ........................................................................3
Museum & School Partnership ................................... .............. 4
Educational Rationale.................................................. .................. 5
M useum Facts............................................................. .................... 6

2. Selected Works
"Art of Asia from the Ham Museum Collection"

Vase with Landscape and Inscription ................................................ 8
Large Jar (H u) ..................................................... ............................. 10
INlt lht/Oi7 (c r .............................................................................................. 12
Tang H orses ........................................ ................. ........................... 14
Bam boo by a Stream ........................................................ .................... 16
A utumn Landscape................................................. .......................... 18
Cloisonne Meiping Vase.................................................................................20
The Goddess Durga Slaying the Buffalo Demon....................................22
The Ten A vatars of Vishnu .................................................................. 24
Seated Buddha with Naga Canopy .....................................................26
M anuscript Cover................................................ ............................. 28
G anesha............................................................................................... 30

3. Lesson Plans

Language Arts Lesson Plan, Three Vases.........................................32
Language Arts Lesson Plan Large Jar (Hu) ......................................34
Language Arts Lesson Plan Tang Horses................................... ..36
Language Arts Lesson Plan Bamboo by a Stream ..............................38
Language Arts Lesson Plan The Ten Avatars of Vishnu ....................40
Language Arts Lesson Plan Ganesha ...............................................42
Visual Arts Lesson Plan 1V11tctoiWcr ................................................44
Visual Arts Lesson Plan Bamboo by a Stream ......................................48
Brushstroke ................................... ...........................................51
Seal C arving ................................... ........................................52
Calligraphy Brushstrokes .................................................54



A Few Chinese Characters................................................56
Forms from a Few Brushstrokes ...........................................58
Visual Arts Lesson Plan The Ten Avatars of Vishnu ........................60
Visual Arts Lesson Plan Ganesha ...................................................62

4. Resources

G lossary ............................................................................................. 64
Stories from Indian Mythology........................................................67
A sanas and M udras ................................... ........................................70
M ap & W ebsites ........................................................... ..................72
B ook s.................................................................................................. 73
Couplets & Poem s................................................. ......................... 74
Studio A rt Rubric ................................... ............................................75
Studio Art, Self Evaluation Rubric .............................................76
W writing Rubric ................................... ...............................................77
Selected Sunshine State Standards ..............................................79
Bibliography ..................................................... ............................. 81
Brushstroke Handouts A & B

5. Images

Vase with Landscape and Inscription
Large Jar (Hu)

Tang Horses
Bamboo by a Stream
Autumn Landscape
Autumn Landscape Detail
Cloisonnd Meiping Vase
Cloisonnd Meiping Vase Detail
The Goddess Durga Slaying the Buffalo Demon
The Ten Avatars of Vishnu
The Ten Avatars of Vishnu Detail
Seated Buddha with Naga Canopy
Manuscript Cover
Southern Indian Temple Exterior Photo
Southern Indian Temple Interior Photo




Page 7
is missing
from original

Vase With Landscape and Inscription

This beautiful vase was carved from a block of stone
called jade, or yu, in Chinese. Jade is found in two
varieties-nephrite and jadeite. This vase is made of
nephrite, which comes in shades of gray, brown and
white, in addition to the more common shades of green.

The Chinese people used jade as early as the Neolithic
Period (c. 5500-c. 1700 B.C.E.). It was highly valued
as an important indicator of social and political rank.
Jade-carvings were also used for ritual purposes and
often placed in burials. An important source for jade
was Central Asia. There, located to the west of the
Chinese heartland, jade boulders (having fallen from
the mountainsides) could be found in the riverbeds in
the fall of the year when the water levels were low.

Even though the technique of working jade is commonly called "carving," this
term is not accurate. Carving implies that material is cut away by gouging or
chiseling. Until recent times, however, jade was worked through abrasion. By
using an implement such as a bamboo stick and abrasives such as garnet, quartz
and agate, the artisan slowly fashioned jade boulders into a variety of forms.

Objects fashioned from jade have been highly prized throughout Chinese history.
A high point in jade carving was the Ching Dynasty (1644-1911 C.E.) and
especially the reign of Emperor Qianlong (1736-1795 C.E.) who was a renowned
patron of the arts. Qianlong established an important jade carving workshop in the
Forbidden City in Beijing. It was here that this vase likely was created. The
inscription on this vase, identified as the work of Qianlong, is typical of the poetic
verse he often wrote in response to works he thought worthy of special praise. The
inscription reads:

"In the distance, flitting shadows lean agaiilt the clear and shallow waters, as
smoky fragrant incense floats amidst the moon's yellowing rays at dusk. "

This vase is a tour-de-force in jade carving. One side of its thin walls shows a
depiction of birds on a flowering branch and rocks, and the other side shows a
scene of geese taken from a 15th century painting called Geese Gathering on the
Cold Riverbank. Stylized dragons, a symbol of the emperor, adorn the shoulder
and cover of the vase.

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Discussion Theme: Art Is "Making Special"

This vase represents an example of how artists make everyday objects
The intricate carvings and inscription shows its value in social and political
One of the reasons this vase is special is that the emperor at the time was an
important ruler.
On this work of art, we see an inscribed poem by the emperor, which makes
this vase even more valuable.

1. Discuss ways everyday things are made special in our society.
2. Do you have something that is more special because it has words from
an important person on it?
3. Look at magazines and find an everyday object that is made special in
some way.
4. Would you spend more money on an object that had a popular label?

Extension Activities

Language Arts:
1. Would you spend more money on an object that had a popular label?
2. Why?

Visual Arts:
Look in magazines and find a picture of an everyday object made visually
special in some way.
Cut out the object and glue it to a sheet of drawing paper.

1. Where does this everyday object live?
2. Draw your object's new environment.

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Large jar (Hu)

Jars with forms similar to this one,
having high shoulders, a bulbous
body tapering to a broad foot, and a
flaring neck, are known as hu in
Chinese. Such jars may be large or
small, and glazed or unglazed.

A large jar such as this example
may have served a functional
purpose during the owner's
lifetime. It is more likely,
however, given the pristine
condition of this vessel, that it was
not used on a daily basis. More
likely, it was used as a burial
object. The owners believed they
needed to take goods that were
needed in life on earth with them
into the afterlife. It is possible that
this jar held a dry material such as
Lar~r ar (lu) grain, because the unglazed vessel
could not have held a liquid.

The painted decoration is expertly applied. The major theme, seen in the central
band, is that of a dragon and a phoenix. By the Han Dynasty (206 B.C.E.-220
C.E.), the image of the dragon had come to be associated with the emperor and that
of the phoenix with the empress. The meaning of such imagery, then, could
represent cosmic and natural balance-the male and the female-the yang and the
yin. It is possible, therefore, that this vessel had dual significance in a burial
context. As a vessel, it held food to sustain the individual in the afterlife, while the
decoration held the promise of the regeneration of life.

It is most likely that jars of this type were based on inlaid metal prototypes from an
earlier period.

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Discussion Theme: Symbolism

This jar shows a painted representation of dragons.
Within Asian culture, dragons are believed to bring good luck. Some people
believe they may bring rain, which helps crops grow.
The dragon also represents the Chinese emperor, whom, people believed,
could fly between heaven and earth.
However, in other cultures dragons symbolize other concepts. In Mexico,
the dragon is a symbol for wisdom and strength.

1. What do dragons represent to you?
2. Can you think of a story you know where dragons are represented in a
different way?

Extension Activities

Language Arts:
Write a story about your dragon.
Share your story with a primary grade.

Visual Arts:
Discuss the jar with the class.
Lead discussion into dragons.
Have students draw a dragon to illustrate their own story.

1. Is your dragon scary, kind, or does it bring good luck?
2. What is it about your dragon that makes it look scary, kind, or like it
brings good luck?

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This model of a watchtower is an
example of objects made specifically
for burial, known as mingqi. It
represents a type of defensive tower
that was built during the Han
Dynasty (206 B.C.E.-220 C.E.) to
help guard the family compound of a
wealthy landowner. It is possible that
: the occupant of the tomb in which
S ': this model was buried owned such a
tower while alive on earth and
believed it would guard him or her in
the afterlife.

d The model is constructed with four
levels. The ground level consists of a
walled courtyard enclosing what
appear to be fowl, a goat, and a horse
and rider. Human figures can be seen
standing in the second and third
levels of the tower, gazing outward
with their hands clasped in front of
their bodies. One of these may
9 represent the owner of the tomb.
Archers occupy the fourth level of
the tower.

The model watchtower is made of
Earthenware covered in a lead-based
glaze. Coarse wet clay was rolled out
into sheets, cut into shapes, and the parts assembled while the clay was still damp.
Each section was then fired at a low temperature. The outer back wall of the tower
model has been left unglazed suggesting that this wall was intended to face a wall
of the tomb.


Discussion Theme: Rituals

In early Chinese culture, watchtowers, such as this one, were created as part
of the burial ritual.
One way beliefs are passed along within a culture is through rituals and
related objects.
These are traditions that are repeated many times.
Examples of ritual objects you may know are wedding rings, birthday cakes
and flowers at funerals.

1. Look closely at this watchtower to find animals and people.
2. It was believed they provided protection. A family would create a
watchtower while their loved one was alive. Upon the death of the
family member, the tower would be placed in his or her tomb.
3. This ritual is similar to Egyptian burial tradition.
4. Discuss ritual objects from our culture.
5. If you were designing a watchtower, which objects would you place in
it to protect you?

Extension Activities

Language Arts:
Write a memoir about a "ritual" your family does together, such as birthday
party celebrations or holiday gatherings.

Visual Arts:
This tower is an example of the burial goods known as mingqi. Mingqi were
buried with the dead.

1. Think of something that one might be buried with today.
2. Research Egyptian burial practices and hieroglyphics.
3. This tower is an example of a tower built to protect a household.
Research Northwest Native American totem poles as a comparison.



Tang Horses

The Chinese court encouraged cultural contact with other peoples and lands far and
near during the Tang Dynasty (618-907 C.E.).

This was the heyday of the famous Silk Road, a series of land and sea trade routes
that connected the Far East with the West, extending as far as Rome.

These sculptures of horses may well show the spirit of mobility and multi-
culturalism that characterized the Tang Dynasty. Horses and camels were essential
for travel and the transportation of goods. In fact, the breed of horse represented in
these models is one that was imported into China from the territory that bordered it
to the northwest.

Sculptures like these were made specifically for use in burials and are known in
Chinese as mingqi. In addition to horses, popular forms of mingqi included
camels, court ladies, grooms and guardian figures.

Most of sculptures were made in molds but given individual personality through
glaze decoration. The favorite glazing technique combined three colors-green,
brown and straw-known as sancai, which may be seen on the horses here.

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Discussion Theme: Ritual/ Symbol

This horse represents the Chinese value of travel and their desire to know
other cultures.
The broad shoulders, the sturdy legs, and the defined muscles would carry a
traveler far and wide.

1. What would be a symbol of travel in our culture?
2. How do you think people will travel in the future?

Extension Activities

Language Arts:
Use the transparency to encourage discussion about the horses.
Horses were important in the Chinese culture because they helped people
learn about and explore new worlds.
Write about a futuristic vehicle.

1. What would it look like?
2. How would you travel?
3. Where would you go?

Visual Arts:
Have students create a futuristic vehicle with found objects.

1. Where would you go in your new futuristic vehicle?
2. What would you see?
3. What might you learn?



Bamboo by a Stream

Bamboo is an important subject in
Chinese painting, usually depicted in ink
on paper as seen here. Bamboo, in its
many varieties, is a very important plant
in China and other Asian cultures, used
as building material and food, in addition
to being an important plant for gardens.

In painting, bamboo is a symbol of virtue
and determination. For instance,
bamboo is very strong yet flexible. It
will bend in the wind but will not break.

This painting is unusually tall, creating a
sense that a person could walk into the
S-- ,. .. bamboo grove. Through the calligraphic
inscription, the artist tells us his name,
the time of day, and the year in which he
is painting.

It reads,

"On the seventh night of the
.. "seventh month of the yearjihai (1635), I
Smoisten my brush.

-Zhao Long

The artist has, in fact, rendered a moonlit
scene. Through the use of ink washes,
She suggests that the scene is being
viewed at night in the moonlight. While
we do not know whether the artist is painting directly from nature-that he is
viewing this scene as he paints-there is a strong sense that he is doing so.



Discussion Theme: Rituals of the Artist

The Chinese artist's preparation in creating this scroll included certain
practices that can be seen as rituals, such as clearing the mind, preparing the
ink, taking the correct posture and showing reverence for the tools.
The paper, bamboo brush, ink stick and the ink stone are considered "the
four treasures" that the artist would use.

1. Think of an art project that you have done and recall the art steps taken to
2. How were these steps like or unlike those of the Chinese artist?

Extension Activities

Language Arts:
Choose your "treasured" item and write an expository piece on it.

1. Whom would you send it to?
2. Why?

Visual Arts:
Have entire class work together to create a painted scroll that includes all of
their seal marks to exhibit in the school.

Make a special box for your own treasures (refer to the artist Joseph Cornell



Autumn Landscape

S.'; .* _. "

-' ^ >I-'


P a


It is interesting that the artist refers to a hut in the
third line of his poem, yet a hut does not appear
in the painting. Then he tells us that he was
sitting in a hut while viewing this scene. Thus,
the painting is not just about the beautiful
landscape but also the artist's pleasure in seeing it
from the comfort of a rustic shelter.

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Chinese painters have used paper, silk and satin
as painting surfaces for their scroll paintings.
Each support material has different properties that
affect the way the painting will ultimately look.
These include the texture of the material and how
the ink or color pigment is absorbed into it.

Wu Changshuo (1844-1927) painted this
landscape on satin. Satin has a soft, lustrous
S surface. The ink spreads a bit when it is absorbed
;. into the satin causing the edges to blur slightly.
The artist chose satin for this painting to help him
achieve the soft, atmospheric quality he desired.

Wu Changshuo was one of the most popular
calligraphers and painters in China during the late
19th and early 20th centuries. Calligraphy, or
writing, is a very important art form in China. In
this painting, the artist has used calligraphy to
inscribe a poem he has composed that describes
the painting. He wrote,

A host of leafy trees that have become a
single mass,
A single bank of white mist, fluffily drifting,
A grass hut buffeted by the autumn breeze-
To enjoy autumn, this is the place to sit.

Discussion Theme: Different Ways to Express Ideas

This scroll shows an example of how Chinese artists express their
impression of their world through both words and images, often on the same
These Chinese artists were adept at the skill of both painting and calligraphy.

1. Pick your favorite book and discuss how the pictures and the words
express the ideas.

Extension Activities

Language Arts:
Think of a beautiful natural place you have been.

1. What are some of the issues about preserving natural beauty of this
particular place?
2. Write a persuasive piece encouraging someone to be aware of your
concerns for the natural environment.
3. Design a poster to convey your feelings.

Visual Arts:
This scroll was painted on silk.
Before showing students the scroll, read its inscription aloud.

1. Have students paint a scroll that shows how they see the poem.
2. Then, as a class, compare student work with Autumn Landscape.
3. What are the differences?
4. Similarities?

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Cloisonne Meiping Vase

Cloisonn6 is a technique of creating
brightly colored and richly decorated
objects using metal and enamel. Thin
strips of copper, bent into elaborate
shapes or compartments, are adhered to
the outer surface of a metal form, usually
also made of copper or a copper alloy.
These copper strips stand in three-
dimensional relief to the surface of the
form. The artisan then fills the
compartments with enamel frit, a glass-
like material that can vary widely in
color depending on the specific mineral
content, and fires the form so that the
enamel melts.

Because the enamel liquefies and runs
during the firing process, the artisan may
have to re-fill and re-fire the object many
times to build up the enamel to the top of
the copper strips, polishing the form
between firings. In the hands of master
artisans, the results of this complicated and volatile process are exquisitely
decorated objects of remarkable durability.

The technique of making cloisonne enamels was probably developed in the
Byzantine Empire far to the west of China. Exactly how and when the technique
was transported to China remains uncertain. Nevertheless, by the time of the Ming
Dynasty (1368-1644 C.E.) when this vessel was created, Chinese artisans had
perfected the technique.

Meiping is the name given to vessels of this form, having tall shoulders, slightly
flared base and a small neck and lip. This vase is decorated with many typical
Chinese designs, including lotus blossoms, yin-yang symbols and scrolling
flowers. The dominant design on the upper half of the vase is a wan-diaper pattern
(wan is a character meaning ten thousands or infinity) against a characteristic dark
blue background.



Discussion Theme: Method as a Ritual

This cloisonne vase represents the artist's exemplary skill and perseverance
in working with this challenging technique.
Small metal wires separate the colors in the designs.
Each wire is hand-placed by the artist, and each color is individually added
by melting them into each space.

1. Compare this ritual process with the process of using a brush to make
2. Discuss the different thinking behind art done as a ritual and art done
with originality in mind.

Extension Activities

Language Arts:
Yen-Yang is a balance.
To have a balanced whole, you must have equal parts.
Because life can be likened to a teeter-totter, lead a class discussion about
balance in life, such as going to sleep at a specific time or staying up and
then being tired.
Perhaps you choose to skip a sports practice and then find yourself
unprepared for the next game.

1. Write about a choice you made that put your life in balance or out of

Visual Arts:
Discuss cloisonne.
Discuss the yen-yang symbol and the concept of infinity.
Create an "opposites" collage.

1. Have students trace a round template at least ten inches in diameter
(pizza cardboards or cake rounds make good templates) on paper.
2. Cut it out and fold it in half.
3. Using a marker put a dot at each end of the fold (at the circle's edge).
4. Tell students to invent any kind of line connecting the two dots.
5. Cut out magazine pictures to illustrate two contrasting ideas like day
and night, happy and sad, organic and geometric or any other

L _____________________________________________________A


The Goddess Durga Slaying the Buffalo Demon

Sarasvati (goddess of learning and music) are
of one great mother goddess, Devi.

Durga is a popular goddess in the
Hindu religion. Hinduism is a
religion of great antiquity that is
native to the subcontinent of
India. A basic belief of Hindus is
reincarnation, meaning that when
a body dies the soul is reborn in
another physical form. Hindus
believe that if one has led a good
life, the soul will be reborn into a
higher state. They believe a
person's reincarnation continues
until spiritual perfection is

The many gods and goddesses of
Hinduism are worshiped in both
temples and homes. Deities are
often portrayed in sculptural
form to receive the devotion of
the worshiper. The various
goddesses worshiped by Hindus,
including Durga, Parvati,
Lakshmi (goddess of good
fortune and prosperity) and
sometimes considered to be aspects

This sculptural relief, from a niche high on the facade of a medieval Hindu temple,
depicts Durga's moment of victory over Mahisasura, the Buffalo Demon.
According to Hindu belief, Durga was formed from the collective shaktis, or
creative powers, of the gods, including Shiva, Vishnu, Brahma, Indra and Kumara.
Singularly, the gods could not defeat this evil demon. However, possessed of their
powers and armed with their weapons, Durga was invincible and defeated the
demon, which assumed the form of a buffalo during his battle with the goddess.

Durga continues to be a popular goddess among Hindus around the world today.

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Discussion Theme: Sculpture as Part of Ritual

This sculpture, a part of belief rituals, is one of many that would have been
attached to walls of religious buildings (see transparency of Southern Indian
Temple Exterior Photo).
People recognized Durga and other deities through identification of specific
attributes or symbols, such as what she was standing on and holding.
Rituals are part of religious tradition and can pass on stories through images
instead of written words.

Extension Activities

Language Arts:
Identify a recognizable character in popular culture.
Describe their attributes to someone else to see if they can guess who it is.

Visual Arts:
Invent a super hero who can slay demons.

1. What kinds of new inventions or current trends might your super hero
2. What demon or bad influence might he or she be fighting?
3. Make this super hero from clay.



The Ten Avatars of Vishnu

Within the Hindu pantheon (the gods of a
people), Vishnu and Shiva are of the highest
rank. Shiva is the god of destruction.
Vishnu is the god of preservation. He is
frequently depicted as accompanied by
Lakshmi, the goddess of good fortune.

Ancient sacred texts of the Hindu tradition
say that Vishnu has incarnated himself to
the earth many times. He is said to come
down to earth time after time in animal and
human form to rid earth of evil and
establish dharma or righteousness.

Many texts speak of Vishnu as having ten
incarnations, also referred to as avatars.
Nine of these are said to have already
occurred. Followers of Vishnu expect him
to return to earth a final time in this eon.

The ten avatars of Vishnu are represented
in these small folk paintings. The are, in
order of descent, Mastya (fish), Kurma
(tortoise), Varaha (boar), Nara-simha (man-
lion), Vamana (dwarf), Parasu Rama (Rama
with an axe), Rama Chandra (Rama, the
bowman), Krishna (the cowherd),
Shakyamuni (the historical Buddha) and
Kalki (the warrior on a white horse who
The Ten Avatars of Vishnu ends time). These small paintings are
thought to be from a set of modem playing cards.

This set of paintings was created in the 20th century. Also on display nearby in the
gallery is a small sculpture carved in red stone 1,600 to 1,700 years earlier that
depicts Vishnu in human form flanked by his boar and lion manifestations.

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Discussion Theme: Ritual Passing on Stories

Each card in this artwork tells a story of a different powerful character, or
avatar, of one deity, Vishnu.

1. Look at the close-up pictures of two of the avatars as your teacher
reads from "Stories From Indian Mythology" (in the resource section).
2. Now, think of two different challenging situations in your life that call
for you to use different skills or "powers," for example, taking care of
a younger sibling or having your lunch money stolen.
3. Tell your story by describing what your avatars would look like that
would help you use your powers to conquer these challenges.
4. Share your stories.

Extension Activities

Language Arts:
Read the Discussion Theme section and follow that activity.
Then read your descriptive essay to a partner and have that partner illustrate
your character based on your description.

Visual Arts:
These playing cards signify the many faces of Vishnu.
Discuss the differences in each card with students.
Have students design a set of four playing cards.

1. Fold paper in quarters to illustrate four different avatars.
2. Have students select one animal to use on all four cards.
3. In each section have the student depict the animal demonstrating
different powers.



Seated Buddha with Naga Canopy

Buddha was born in India in the 6t
century B.C.E. He was a prince of
the Shakya clan and is thus often
referred to as Shakyamuni. He led
a very comfortable life as a prince.
However, he became troubled by
the suffering he saw in the world
and renounced his old life to seek a
path to transcend suffering. After a
long period of meditation,
Shakyamuni is said to have
achieved enlightenment, also
known as nirvana.

Followers of the Buddha are called
Buddhists, and like Hindus, they
believe in reincarnation. This
endless cycle of birth, death and
rebirth to which Buddhist believe
all living beings are subject, is
known as samsara. Buddhists seek
release from this endless cycle
through enlightenment.

Buddha is usually portrayed in the
clothing of a monk and without
adornment or jewelry, indications
that he had abandoned the material
world. Sculptures such as this one, however, are an exception. This Buddha is
depicted as a royal figure wearing a crown and jewels. These symbols of earthly
kingship were meant to suggest an association between the Khmer kings of
present-day Cambodia and Thailand and the Buddha.

This popular image of Buddha, or Shakyamuni, depicts an episode in which the
serpent king, Muchalinda, shelters the newly enlightened Buddha during a violent
thunderstorm so his meditation will not be disturbed.

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Discussion Theme: Symbolism

In this artwork, Buddha is shown wearing wealthy clothing and jewels.
Sometimes artists use actual objects to symbolize something hard to depict,
like love.
Perhaps the artist is trying to symbolize Buddha's richness in another way.

1. What personal qualities do you think could be represented here other
than the actual clothing and jewels?

Extension Activities

Language Arts:
Create a poem using a color or colors to explain your feelings about an
everyday activity, such as washing the car, making your lunch, or doing your

Visual Arts:
Read the discussion theme.
Think about how colors can represent emotions.
Look at examples of paintings that use color to show feeling.
Think of things you feel strongly about.

1. Which colors would you use to show your feelings?

Select a student from your class and have that student sit in the position of
the Seated Buddha with Naga Canopy.
Have the class draw this person in pencil as a figure study.

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Manuscript Cover

Buddhist thought and imagery were conveyed from India to the Himalayas (Tibet
and Nepal), Southeast Asia and East Asia. For Buddhists, manuscripts (meaning
books written by hand) containing the work of the Buddha are sacred.

In Tibet, manuscripts were written on long rectangular sheets of paper that imitated
Indian manuscript pages made of palm leaves. Tibetan manuscripts, composed of
many separate leaves, were usually bound between two loose wooden covers.
These wooden covers were painted and carved with images and decorations on
both the inside and outside with subjects related to the text they held.

This object was once the bottom cover to a 12th century Tibetan manuscript. The
carved side would have faced in so that the reader would encounter this group of
Buddhist figures after having read the manuscript. Seen here, from left to right, are
the bodhisattva Prajnaparamita (Perfection of Wisdom), the Buddhas of the Five
Directions, and Shakyamuni Buddha.

A bodhisattva is a being that is able to escape the endless cycle of rebirth but
chooses to remain active in the world to help others along the path to
enlightenment. The bodhisattva Prajnaparamita normally holds a rosary and a
book, but when she holds vajra (thunderbolt), as she does here in her left hand, she
is associated with special meditational practices that aim to destroy all illusions
and false knowledge.



Discussion Theme: Cycles Rituals of Learning and Growing

The figures shown on this object represent characters who helped others.
One of the ways they helped was to support learning.

1. Reflect on people in your life who have made a difference in this way,
such as a coach, a teacher or your parents.
2. Discuss with the class specific ways these people have helped you.

Extension Activities

Language Arts:
Using the Discussion theme information, write a letter to one person who
has made a difference in your life.

Visual Arts:
Make a manuscript cover for your portfolio or end of year papers to take
home with several different portraits of you on the cover.

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Ganesha is one of the most
popular and adored deities in
the Hindu pantheon. Revered
by Hindus as the "remover of
obstacles," he may be invoked
at the beginning of any
endeavor. He is also
renowned as the patron of
letters and the god of learning.

The son of Shiva and Parvati,
Ganesha's origins and
exploits are told in numerous
stories. Ganesha is said to
have received his elephant
head after having his human
one cut off accidentally by
Shiva. Like many Hindu
deities, Ganesha has multiple
arms to hold his identifying

A famous story in which
Ganesha quarreled with
Chandra, the Moon god,
resulted in the breaking of his tusk. Ganesha had eaten too many sweets. When
his vehicle, the mouse, collapsed under his weight, Chandra laughed at him.
Angry, Ganesha broke off his tusk and threw it at the moon, then cursed the moon
so that it must wax and wane in the heavens.

Here, Ganesha holds a weapon that he uses to destroy obstacles such as ignorance,
a bowl of sweets and his broken tusk. He stands atop his mount, the mouse or rat,
known as the cunning "finder of the way" who can chew through any obstacle.

In his dancing pose, Ganesha appears very light on his feet given his considerable
girth. In this way, he is also associated with Shiva, who is known as the Lord of
the Dance.

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Discussion Theme: Symbols

Ganesha is one of the most popular Hindu gods.
The story is told that when Ganesha was a baby, his father, Shiva, gave him
an elephant's head after Ganesha's own head was accidentally cut off.
In India, elephants are symbols of wealth and strength.
A person who worships fat, jolly Ganesha hopes to have a rich and happy
Ganesha is the remover of obstacles, because Hindus believe he can break a
path through life just the way a real elephant can open up a path through the
dense jungle.

1. Pick another animal and make up a story telling how it could help you
solve a problem. (Credit: National Gallery of Art Family Guide).

Extension Activities

Language Arts:
Use the Discussion theme information to write an essay.

Visual Arts:
Ganesha rides a mouse that clears his path of obstacles and is the "finder of
the way." What other animal can you think of that would clear your path of
obstacles? The animal could be small or large. It could be tame or wild.
Ganesha has four arms to hold his attributes. Think about what your own
attributes might be.
Ganesha carries a tool to destroy obstacles and ignorance. Think of
something you might carry that would serve the same purpose.
Many myths and legends feature a snake that represents all that is sinister,
cunning and problematic. Since Ganesha is holding the snake, it identifies
him as a remover of obstacles. What might you use in today's world to
serve the same purpose?
Substitute another animal for Ganesha utilizing all of the information and
changes you thought of in the above questions, and then draw this new
animal. This animal may be composed of more than one animal's parts to
create an animal that has never been seen before!



Language Arts Lesson Plan
Three Vases:
Vase with Landscape and Inscription
Large Jar (Hu)
Cloisonne Meiping Vase

Students will write a synonym-rhyming poem.

Students will know the definition of synonym.
Students will create a rhyming poem using synonyms.

Sunshine State Standards:
LA.A.1.2.2; LA.A.1.2.3; LA.A.1.2.4; LA.B.1.2.1; LA.B.1.2.2; LA.B.1.2.3;
LA.D.2.2.1; LA.E.1.2.1

Pictures of the art objects, vases
Example of couplets (see reference section)
Writing paper
Word processing program

1. Read and review couplets.
2. Brainstorm with a partner words that are synonyms for vase.
3. When you have six or seven words, use the word vase as your title.



4. Then try composing your first line of poetry.
5. Write it out and listen to how it sounds.
6. Rearrange words until they make a suitable rhyme.
7. Second line could be: describe the object a bit more or explain how you feel
about the object. It must rhyme.
8. Write final version.
9. Share with class.

Discussion Suggestions:
Synonym: a word that means the same thing or almost the same thing as another
Couplet: two lines of poetry that rhyme. Each synonym poem is made up of one

When you have your couplet written out, listen to how the words sound
Ask yourself if they work with each other to make a suitable rhyme.
If they don't, then move a couple of the words around within the line.
If that doesn't work, then go back to find substitute words.
When your first line sings a song, look for a good second line that will
complete your poem.
Be sure to read your poem aloud to practice the rhythm.

Important Vocabulary: synonym, couplet, rhyme and rhythm

Students' lists will have four synonyms for the word vase.
Students' poems will show evidence of correct use of synonyms with four
synonyms for the word vase.

FCAT Connection:
Comprehension: extending their knowledge of words relating to the word vase
Synthesis: Creating a poem
Evaluation: Critiquing in their own terms


Language Arts Lesson Plan
Large Jar (Hu)

Students will use the dragons in the Asian art works to
write a comparison poem using similes and metaphors
through exaggeration.

Students will incorporate an exaggeration with each
line of the poem.
Students will write a comparison poem describing an
Asian dragon with a Western dragon.
Students will add similes and/or metaphors in their
s'i poems.

Sunshine State Standards:
LA.B.2.2.6; LA.A.2.2.7; LA.E. 1.2.1; LA.E.1.2.5; LA.B.1.2.1; LA.D.1.2.1

Pencil or pen
Selections of vases from the Asian art collection depicting dragons

1. To stimulate student thinking, have students write a few lines proving that
someone they know is the best, nicest, smartest, fastest, strongest or most
beautiful person.
2. Have copies of poems on overhead and read the poems by Bruce Lansky:
My Mom is Better than Your Mom and My Dad is Better than Your Dad.
3. Discuss Lansky's poem: it did not state that the mother is a beauty contest
winner; it proved she has inner beauty rather than outer beauty. Because she
is such a good cook, she makes kid-hated foods delicious. Point out
similarities with the "Dad" poem.
4. Discuss the value of dragons in Asian art and compare it to how dragons are
seen in Western culture. In Asia, dragons have the specific purpose of
helping people. In the West, dragons are a symbol of evil and danger.
5. Have students write a poem comparing and exaggerating their own dragon to
that of a friend's.

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6. Share stories. Encourage changing voice to show exaggeration when

Discussion Suggestions:
Review definitions of similes and metaphors; give common examples: it's
raining cats and dogs; as strong as an ox, as fit as a fiddle; she has a green
thumb; she's a walking encyclopedia.
Review definition of exaggerations: such as, "I've told you a thousand times
not to do that!" Or, "if you keep digging, you could make your way to
Compare the purpose of dragons in Asian art and the way dragons are
viewed in Western art.

Important Vocabulary:
Exaggeration, similes, and metaphors

Assessment Strategies:
Each student's poem will have one exaggeration per line.
Poem will compare two contrasting cultural concepts of a dragon and
include at least one simile or metaphor.

FCAT Connection:
Analysis: use a Venn diagram to compare and contrast two objects
Application: transferring knowledge learned about dragons in Asian culture to
how dragons are thought of in Western culture

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Language Arts Lesson Plan
Tang Horses

Students will know there are a variety of
writing styles.

Students will know that a Venn diagram is a
graphic organizer to organize their thinking.
Students will know that there are different
cultural roles of horses throughout the world.
Students will write a compare and contrast essay in cursive sighting the different
uses of horses between Western and Asian cultures.

Sunshine State Standards:
LA.A.1.2.4; LA.A. 2.2.1; LA.A 2.2.7; LA.B.1.2.1; LA.B.1.2.2; LA.B.1.2.3

Transparency of Tang Horses
Writing paper

1. Establish that this writing will go through the writing process.
2. Brainstorm the use of horses in our culture versus horses used in Asia.
3. Using that information, compose a compare and contrast essay.
4. Conference with at least one student for clarity of content.
5. Peer-edit essay for grammar conventions: spelling, periods, run-on
sentences, etc.
6. Revise and make corrections as needed.
7. Write final copy in cursive.
8. Share with class.

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Discussion Suggestions:
Discuss the traits of a compare and contrast writing piece: it shows the
differences as well as similarities to the object.
Brainstorm where and when we see horses in our own culture: farms,
circuses, horse shows, etc.
In the Asian culture, horses were used for transportation and for funerary

Important Vocabulary:

Assessment Strategies:
Students can effectively use a Venn diagram to organize information.
Compose a compare and contrast essay written in cursive.

FCAT Connection:
Knowledge: asking what is a horse... looking for details.
Synthesis: compile information about a horse in a poem format.
Evaluation: student evaluates the situation offering personal opinion.

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1. Close your eyes ai
2. Write a list of wor
3. Compose a poem
4. Conference with a
5. Edit with a peer fc
6. Share with the cla

Language Arts Lesson Plan
Bamboo by a Stream

Students will write a poem identifying their favorite
place to think, relax or hideaway.

Students will know that some poetry can be expressive.
Students will write a descriptive poem using expressive

Sunshine State Standards:
LA.A.1.2.3; LA.B.1.2.1; LA.B.1.2.2; LA.B.1.2.3;
LA.D.1.2.1; LA.D.2.2.1; LA.E.1.2.1; LA.E.1.2.5

SWriting paper

nd visualize this special place using your five senses.
ds and phrases that describe this place.
using this list.
partner for suggestions to improve or to clarify.
r correct spellings.



Discussion Suggestions:
Review literary terminology, such as similes, metaphors, alliterations and
sensory words.
Review definition of a synonym.

Important Vocabulary:
Synonyms, similes, metaphors, adjectives and alliteration

Read students two poems, one descriptive and one expressive.
Have students identify an expressive poem. Suggestions for descriptive
poem: Raymond by Paul B. Janeczko and expressive poem, When I'm Alone
I... by Ollie Dodge. Both selections are found in, How to Write Poetry by
Paul B. Janeczko.
Students' poems demonstrate four examples of expressive language.

FCAT Connection:
Synthesis: Have students title their poem and explain its meaning.
Synthesis: Have students integrate ideas from their own writing into their artwork.

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T'he Wn Avalon ql Vishnu

Language Arts Lesson Plan
The Ten Avatars of Vishnu

Students will write an expository essay through the
writing process about their own personal strengths or
what they do well.

Students will be able to identify an expository essay.

Sunshine State Standards:
LA.B.1.2.1; LA.B.1.2.2; LA.B.1.2.3

Picture book: The Seven Chinese Brothers by Margaret
Writing paper
Overhead transparency of The Ten Avatars of Vishnu

1. View artwork.
2. Read picture book to students.
3. Allow time for students to think of their own strengths.
4. Create web of ideas.
5. Begin writing five paragraph essay explaining strengths.
6. Conference with another student for clarity.
7. Edit draft with another student for all conventions.
8. Prepare final copy for a grade
9. Share with the class.


Discussion Suggestions:
Explain the story behind the artwork. Point out that each card has a specific
character that shows a specific strength.
Review the picture book story with the students. Encourage students to close
their eyes and imagine the things they do well.

Students will identify an expository essay after examples of other types of
writing are heard.
Essay will be assessed with a writing rubric explaining their three specific

FCAT Connection:
Synthesis: create an essay explaining their personal strength
Evaluation: appraising and validating one's strength through an expository writing

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Language Arts Lesson Plan

Students will know that there are different styles of

Students will know that a narrative piece can be a
retelling or a story.
Students will know the five W's: who, what, when,
where and why.

Sunshine State Standards:
LA.A.2.2.5; LA.B.1.2.1; LA.B.1.2.2; LA.B.1.2.3;
LA.B.2.2.3; LA.B.2.2.5; LA.C.3.2.1; LA.D.1.2.1

Picture of Ganesha
Writing paper

1. Display art picture and allow time to view the piece.
2. Hold discussion about the legend.
3. Review the five W's.
4. Using this information, students will take on the role of news reporters
covering a battle.
5. Create a web of ideas using the five W's.
6. Write narrative essay.
7. Conference for clarity.
8. Peer edit for conventions.
9. Final copy for grade.
10.Share with class: options could be reader's theater.



Discussion Suggestions:
Discuss vocabulary.
Share background information about the legend of the art.
Imagine the scene of the battle. Encourage using five senses, as well as five
W's, when establishing the setting and the body of the story.

Point of View: First person is a character in the story. As a reader, we only know
what he or she feels. Third person is an outside narrator. The information is what
all characters observe, feel or know.

Important Vocabulary:

After hearing examples of different types of writing, students will identify a
narrative piece.
After reading two essays written in different points of views, students will be
able to identify a work written in third person (examples are available in
Harcourt Brace Trophies reading series).

FCAT Connection:
Knowledge: student will assemble information.
Analysis: What inferences can you make about this artwork? Hint: Use what you
already know and what you learned about this artwork to make inferences.
Through classroom discussion with open-ended questions, students will understand
how parts relate to the whole. Use investigative strategies to learn more about this

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Masking tape
Transparency of the Watc

Part One
1. There are four secti
each building super
2. Divide the entire cl
3. Select a supervisor
directions as the sul
4. Pass out directions
5. Pass out scissors, m
6. Have students fold
at no time will thes
they are folded und
7. Group two needs oi
half for group two.
8. Have students keep
9. Pass out directions

Visual Art Lesson Plan

Students will gain an understanding of mingqi (Chinese
burial goods).

Students will learn about mingqi.
Students will construct a watchtower using good

Sunshine State Standards:
VA.A.1.2.1; VA.A.1.2.2; VA.A.1.2.4; VA.B.1.2.1;
VA.C.1.2.2; VA.E.1.2.1

File folders (new or used)
Plastic rulers


ons of the watchtower. Attached you'll find a page for
visor to read aloud to his group.
ass into four groups.
or have the group select a supervisor to read the
pervisor also makes one (the supervisor demonstrates).
to each group supervisor.
asking tape, pencils, and file folders to each group.
under all tabs on folders making sure students understand
e tabs be considered in measuring. Disregard tabs once
ie whole folder and one half folder. Pre-cut folders in

all scraps. They may later wish to use them for the roof.
to each group and have supervisors begin reading and




10.Have students put their name and teacher's name on their work.

Part Two
1. After students have completed their section in their group have them number
off student one, two, three, and so on.
2. Have all the ones come to table one; twos come to table two, and so on until
each table has all four parts of a watchtower at it.
3. Have students put their watchtower parts together without tape just to get an
idea what it looks like so they know how to decorate it. Each tower will be
different with ideas of protective people or animals each student feels would
be helpful in the protection of their tower.
4. Take the parts back out and have each student decorate their tower with
5. When they are finished decorating, have students tape the shapes closed and
combine them to complete their finished watchtowers.

Discussion Suggestions:
The watchtower is an example of the burial goods known as mingqi. Mingqi
were objects buried with the dead that they believed they might need in the
afterlife. Ask students to think of something that one might be buried with
This tower is an example of a tower built to protect a household. Ask
students what kinds of things they might need in their structure that might
help protect the inhabitant today.

Show students other examples of mingqi from the Asian art collection at the Ham
Museum. The horses in this curriculum are also examples of mingqi as they were
believed to be strong steeds to carry the dead into the afterlife.

Important Vocabulary:
Mingqi, vertical, horizontal, watchtower

Assessment Strategies:
Students are able to successfully construct a watchtower using good
Students will identify two characteristics of mingqi.

Have students make a watchtower from clay using slab technique.

FCAT Connection:
Using rulers is an FCAT skill.

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Supervisor One Directions
* Give each student one file folder.
* Open the file folder like a book.
* Measure how long the folder is
from top to bottom
* Divide this number in half.
* Draw a dot on this new number.
* Slide ruler all the way to left
exactly parallel to the fold and
draw another dot there too.
* Now slide ruler all the way to the
right edge exactly parallel to the
fold and make another dot.
* Draw a line across entire folder
connecting all dots using a ruler to
make a straight line.
* Cut on this line making two long pieces.
* Tape these two long pieces together end to end.

Supervisor Two Directions
* Give each student one and one half
file folders.
* Tape the half-folder to end of the
* Measure 8" from bottom and make a
dot on fold.
* Draw a dot 8" from bottom on every
fold and every edge.
* Draw a straight line connecting dots
with a ruler.
* Cut on this line.
* Fold this new larger sheet in half like
a book.
* Fold in half again.
* Stand on end to see a boxlike
* Do not tape closed.

c= Cut

67Th Tape


Fold in half

Fold in half again Stand on end



Supervisor Three Directions
* Give each student one file folder.
* Open the file folder like a book.
* Measure from the center fold to the
outer edge.
* Divide that number in half.
* Measure from the center out and
make a dot there.
* Make one at the top and one at the
* Draw line-connecting dots with a
* Repeat on the other half of the folder
from the center out.
* Fold on those lines.
* Stand on end to create a tall boxlike
* Do not tape closed.

Supervisor Four Directions
* Give each student one file folder.
* Open the file folder like a book.
* Measure how long the folder is
from top to bottom.
* Divide this number in half.
* Draw a dot on this new number.
* Slide ruler all the way to left
exactly parallel to fold and draw
another dot there too.
* Now slide ruler all the way to the
right edge exactly parallel to the
fold and make another dot.
* Draw a line across the entire folder
connecting all dots using a ruler to
make a straight line.
* Find the center from this new line
to the edge of the folder.
* Make a dot every so often.
* Draw a line from dot to dot with a rul
* Repeat on the other half.
* Fold on lines.
* Do not tape closed.

1 6

SFold on
"- -- n


Stand on end



Visual Art Lesson Plan
Bamboo by A Stream

**Before making the scroll, we recommend that you teach the five
preparatory plans found on the pages following this lesson. However,
these plans will function separately as well as together.

Students will use Bamboo by A Stream as a model to create
their own hanging scroll.

Students will compare techniques of Asian and Western
landscape painting
Students will create a landscape painting in a scroll format with
a foreground, middleground and background.

Sunshine State Standards:
VA.A.1.2.2; VA.A.1.2.3; VA.B.1.2; VA.B.1.2.2; VA.B.1.2.3; VA.B.1.2.4;
VA.C.1.2.1; VA.C.1.2.2; VA.D.1.2.1; VA.D.1.2.2; VA.E.1.2.1; VA.D.1.2.2

White, 9x 24in. drawing paper
Black watercolor paint
Soft round (#4 or larger) pointed bamboo brushes
Containers of water
HANDOUT B "Chinese Characters"
Seals (from seal lesson) and red stamp pad
Pictures of landscapes or outdoor scenery (or paint outdoors)
Wallpaper samples
Wooden dowels

Discussion Suggestions:
Western Landscape Painting:
Show examples of 19th century Western landscape oil painting from
reproductions or books (ex. Alfred Bierstadt, Hudson River Valley School
painters, etc).



Identify aspects of nature included in the landscape paintings, such as
mountains, sky, lakes and trees. Are people included?
Discuss the techniques used to create foreground, middle ground and
background. Things in the foreground are large. Things in the distance are
Overlapping shapes (one behind another) define space and distance.
Color and value make forms appear brighter and stronger in the foreground
and appear lighter and less intense in the background.

Asian Landscape Painting
Compare Western techniques with those of Chinese painters. Chinese artists
also use scale, overlapping and value. How are the results different?
In looking at the Chinese painting, do you feel you are looking at it from
overhead? Is this true in Western painting?
How is negative space used in Asian painting? Is there a clear division
between foreground, middle ground and background? Are forms in the
background placed high or low on the canvas?
How are details shown in Asian paintings? Western paintings?
In looking at Chinese painting, one is aware of individual brushstrokes. Is
this true of Western painting?
In Chinese painting, one imagines the gestural movement of the artist's
hand. How does this compare to Western painting? Which artist can change
the image while he works? Which is more spontaneous?
Scroll painting is carefully organized. Try to notice where you think the
artist wants you to start a walk through the painting. The artist may draw
your eye with color, line, shape or size.
Chinese artists have four treasures: the bamboo brush, ink stick, ink stone
and paper. Chinese artists always keep these four treasures well organized
in a very special box.

Part One
1. Allow students to go outside and/or view photographs of landscapes.
2. Ask students to plan their landscape first. How will they use their paper?
Where will they place forms that are near? Distant? What areas will they
leave blank?
3. Remind students to use their paper in a vertical format, so that it is taller
than it is wide. Encourage students to mix a very opaque gray paint to
outline major areas of the painting.

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4. Students will complete their landscapes by mixing different values with the
black watercolor. Remind students that few brushstrokes are necessary.
Part Two
Have students stamp their landscape paintings using their previously made
To mount the scroll:
1. Cut the wallpaper so that there is a narrow border on the sides when
the painting is centered on it. The border should be wider on the top
and bottom than on the sides.
2. Glue the top and bottom ends of the wallpaper to wooden dowels that
extend an inch beyond either side of the wallpaper.
3. Glue the paper to the wallpaper, centering it carefully.
4. Attach a string to each end of the top wooden dowel for hanging.

Variation: Students may wish to prepare their own decorated papers for mounting
the scrolls, using eraser prints or other methods.

Important Vocabulary:
Scroll, seal, brushstroke, bamboo

Display prints of three Asian and three Western landscapes. Students can
identify at least two in each category.
Students' artwork shows foreground, middleground, and background.

Have students make scroll paintings of palm trees to make a connection to
Bring in a potted bamboo plant for students to see detail and make scrolls of
Take a field trip to Kanapaha Botanical Gardens' bamboo garden.

FCAT Connection:
When evaluating student artwork, use rubrics that set standards for student work.
Share these rubrics with students prior to their activities. Have students evaluate
their own work using a similar format (See rubrics in Resources section).

As edited from "Out of the East Horizon Teacher Resource Packet: Chinese Art from the
Seattle Art Museum."

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Visual Art Lesson Plan
Brushstroke for Bamboo By a Steam

Students will know what Chinese brushstrokes are.
Students will create a work of art using Chinese brushstrokes.

Sunshine State Standards:
VA.A.1.2.2; VA.A.1.2.4; VA.B.1.2.2; VA.C.1.2.2; VA.E.1.2.2

-' Materials:
Black watercolor
Water containers
Soft round (#2 or larger) pointed bamboo brushes
HANDOUT A "Brushstrokes"

Discussion Suggestions:
Review qualities of line such as thick/thin, dark/light, wet/dry,
curved/straight, etc.
Select volunteers to model various qualities of line on the board.
Now try to make these different kinds of lines, using a brush and ink.

1. Each student will need a brush, black watercolor and a cup of water.
2. Demonstrate proper seating and posture for Asian brush painting.
3. Use the point for a thin line, or the side of the brush for a thick line.
4. Experiment with brushstrokes by performing three movements: putting the
brush to paper, pulling it across the paper, and lifting it from the paper.
5. Distribute HANDOUT A and ensure understanding of each stroke. Ask
students to practice one page of repetitions for each stroke.

Important Vocabulary:

Students can create Chinese brushstrokes.

FCAT Connection:
See Bamboo by a Stream lesson plan.

As edited from "Out of the East Horizon Teacher Resource Packet Chinese Art from the
Seattle Art Museum."



Visual Art Lesson Plan
Seal Carving for Bamboo by a Stream

Students will study seal carving and understand how it is used
in Asian culture as individual, unique signatures.
Students will produce a seal carving in an Asian style.

Sunshine State Standards:
VA.A.1.2.1; VA.A.1.2.2; VA.A.1.2.3; VA.A.1.2.4;
VA.B.1.2.1 1; VA.B.1.2.2; VA.B.1.2.3; VA.B.1.2.4;
VA.C.1.2.1; VA.C.1.2.2; VA.D.1.2.1; VA.E.1.2.2

Artgum erasers (square)
Sharp pencil or linoleum cutting tools
Stamp pad with red ink or use printing ink, brayers and glass
Scrap paper
Small piece of thick drawing paper (cut and fold in half to use
as a greeting card)
Handout B "Chinese Characters"

Discussion Suggestions:
Ask students if they have rubber stamps, and why they use them.
Asian seals are usually square with straight horizontal or vertical lines,
because these are easier to carve.
A seal would often have one character in each of its four quadrants.
The Chinese scholar would have carved his own seal.
The scholar's seal was personal and individual, and today we determine
which artist did a painting hundreds of years ago by identifying his seal.
How is this different from the way students use rubber stamps?
Seals are made in other cultures as well. Discuss seals made in Egyptian art,
which are called cartouches.

Distribute HANDOUT B to the students.
The Chinese scholar would choose a short phrase to carve in their seal, such
as, "still clouds" or "banana-tree window night rain."
Ask the students to create a phrase using 1 to 4 characters from the handouts
for their seal. Some students may prefer to invent their own characters.
Ask students to plan their design in pencil first.

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Remember that the print will be a mirror image of the pattern that is carved!
If it is too difficult to reverse the images, flip the handout over, trace it from
the back and draw from the tracing.
Lines must be thick enough to print, and the design should fill the space.
Will the characters be printed in red on the white background, or white on a
red background? Have students use pencils to fill in the shapes they will cut
away. These will remain white.
As you distribute the carving tools, remind students to cut away from their
hands. Have them cut away the portion filled in with pencil.
Press the stamps onto the inkpad then onto paper. For better print, roll
printing ink onto glass with a brayer, and use the brayer to apply the ink.
Test stamps on scrap paper, and make any needed adjustments to design.
Ask students to plan their finished piece before stamping the thicker paper to
make a greeting card.
What pattern will they create by repeating their stamp?
What area of the paper will they leave blank?
Students may wish to swap erasers to create a variety of repeated patterns.

Important Vocabulary:
Positive, negative, scholar and seal

Student identifies a seal mark as an individual, unique signature by
identifying at least two of his peers' seal marks.

Create a class roll list with students' names next to prints from their seals.
Provide a long piece of white paper such as butcher paper and have each
student add his or her name and seal print to the list.
During the next week, students can turn in their papers with prints from their
seals as identification. You may wish to post the roll list in the classroom
and mount as a scroll.

FCAT Connection:
Knowledge: Find specific geometric shapes in the stamps.
Application: Print a pattern using squares, triangles, diamonds and zigzag lines.
Analysis: Students can compare and contrast geometric patterns from different

As edited from "Out of the East Horizon Teacher Resource Packet Chinese Art from the
Seattle Art Museum."

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Visual Art Lesson Plan
Calligraphy Brushstrokes for Bamboo by a Stream

Students will know some of the materials and techniques used
in Chinese calligraphy and brush painting.
Students will make beginning calligraphy brushstrokes.

Sunshine State Standards:
VA.A.1.2.2; VA.A.1.2.4; VA.B.1.2.2; VA.C.1.2.2; VA.E.1.2.2

Black watercolor
Water containers
Soft round (#2 or larger) pointed bamboo brushes
HANDOUT A "Brushstrokes"
Cassette tape (from "Out of the East Horizon Teacher Resource
Packet Chinese Art from the Seattle Art Museum" available from the Ham
Museum of Art lending library)
Cassette player

Review qualities of line such as thick/thin, dark/light, wet/dry,
curved/straight, etc.
Select volunteers to model various qualities of line on the board.
Now students will try to make these different kinds of lines, using a brush
and ink.

1. Each student will need a brush, black watercolor and access to a cup of
2. Demonstrate proper seating and posture for Asian brush painting.
3. Begin the tape and listen together for a minute.
4. Have students begin to try different brushstrokes. They do not need to make
a stroke for every sound they hear.
5. Students should try to make strokes that correspond to strong, feathery, soft,
quiet, harsh, crisp, faint, bold or shimmering sounds.

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6. Students may use the point for a thin line or the side of the brush for a thick
7. Allow about 10 minutes.
8. Have students experiment with the variety of brushstrokes they can achieve
by putting the brush on the paper, pulling it across the paper, and lifting it
from the paper.
9. Distribute HANDOUT A. Ensure understanding of the diagrams for each
10.Ask students to do one page of the repetitions of each stroke as illustrated in
the handout.

Important Vocabulary:
Calligraphy, brushstroke, horizontal, vertical

Students will be able to identify tools used in Chinese brushstroke painting.
The student made appropriate brushstrokes that looked like the brushstrokes

Make scrolls of brushstrokes.

FCAT Connection:
See Bamboo by a Stream lesson plan

As edited from "Out of the East Horizon Teacher Resource Packet Chinese Art from the
Seattle Art Museum."

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Visual Art Lesson Plan
A Few Chinese Characters for Bamboo by a Stream

Students will learn what a Chinese character is.
Student will paint a minimum of three Chinese characters.

Sunshine State Standards:
VA.A.1.2.2; VA.A.1.2.4; VA.B.1.2.2; VA.C.1.2.2; VA.E.1.2.2.

White construction paper
Black watercolor
Water containers
Soft round (#2 or larger) pointed bamboo brushes
HANDOUT B "Chinese Characters"
Seals from seal lesson if possible

Recall some of the variety in line and value achieved in the Brushstroke
lesson, such as thick/thin, wet/dry, dark/light.
Today students will apply these elements to writing actual Chinese
characters and then create a work of calligraphy, considering also the
elements of shape, pattern, and use of positive and negative space.
Chinese brushstroke characters are like the letters of the alphabet.

1. Each student will need a brush, black watercolor and access to a cup of
water in addition to paper.
2. Distribute HANDOUT B. You may wish to hold up examples and ask what
they represent.
3. Direct students to practice their characters with the brush, copy them from
the handouts, and achieve a variety of qualities of line and value (thick/thin,
wet/dry, and dark/light).
4. One does not go over or correct a character, but repeats it until satisfied. It
is usually easier to do while standing up.
5. Remind students to hold the brush straight up and to start by touching the tip
of the brush to the paper.



6. After students have had time to practice all the characters, ask them to plan a
page of calligraphy using their own seal. (You may wish to review the use
of shape, pattern, and positive/negative space.)
7. Ask them to think through their plans before they pick up their brushes:

Which characters and how many characters will they use?
Where on the page will they place their characters?
Where will they leave open space on their paper?
Where will they use their seals?

8. If students will be mounting their calligraphy, paper should be used in a
vertical format, so that the height is greater than the width.
9. Now have students execute their calligraphy and stamp the pages with their
10.Reshape brushes by drawing the end of the wet brush over a bar of soap and
re-forming the tip.
11. Store upright with tips in the air. Do not try to replace bamboo or plastic
guards over the tips of the brushes.

Important Vocabulary:
Character and Calligraphy

SDid the student successfully paint a minimum of three recognizable Chinese

Mount Calligraphy as a Hanging Scroll
Materials: wallpaper samples, glue, wooden dowels, string
1. Cut the wallpaper so that when the calligraphy is centered on it there is a
narrow border on the sides and a wider border on the top and bottom.
2. Glue the top and bottom ends of the wallpaper to wooden dowels that
extend an inch beyond either side of the wallpaper.
3. Glue the page of calligraphy to the wallpaper, centering it carefully.
4. Attach a string to the top end for hanging.

FCAT Connection:
See Bamboo by A Stream lesson plan.

*As edited from "Out of the East Horizon Teacher Resource Packet Chinese Art from the Seattle
Art Museum."

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Visual Art Lesson Plan
Forms from a Few Brushstrokes for Bamboo by A Stream

Students will create a fish in ten brushstrokes or less.

Sunshine State Standards:
VA.A.1.2.2; VA.B.1.2.1; VA.B.1.2.2; VA.B.1.2.4;

S.' Materials:
Newsprint or white paper (several sheets per student)
Containers for mixing black water color paint
Black watercolor paint

Discussion Suggestions:
Discuss the concept of creating forms using few
Ask students if any have ever done gesture drawings.
What were they able to communicate in their drawings using just a few
Explain that today students will experiment with creating shapes using just a
few brushstrokes.

1. Distribute brushes, watercolor, containers, water, and paper.
2. Give each student a copy of the fish brushstroke sheet.
3. Students should not try to go over, or correct, a brushstroke.
4. Allow students time to experiment with creating forms using just a few
5. Students can use a brushstroke to create a shape, rather than to outline a
6. Use water to mix lighter and darker values.
7. Direct students to visualize how they will paint their fish in 15 brushstrokes.
8. Allow two or three minutes for completion.
9. Repeat the fish and use 10 brushstrokes.
10.Repeat the form once again, using 5 brushstrokes.
11. You may wish to repeat this exercise several times, choosing different forms
each time.



Important Vocabulary:
Gesture, brushstroke

Students will create fish using ten brushstrokes or less.

Have students practice gesture drawing with a variety of still life objects while
remembering to use an economy of line.

FCAT Connection:
See Bamboo by a Stream Lesson Plan.

* As edited from "Out of the East Horizon Teacher Resource Packet Chinese Art from the
Seattle Art Museum."



The T7n Avatars of Vishnu

Visual Art Lesson Plan
The Ten Avatars of Vishnu

Students will gain an understanding of avatars.
Students will make drawings of their personal avatars.

Sunshine State Standards:
VA.A.1.2; VA.A.1.2.2; VA.A.1.2.3; VA.A.1.2.4;
VA.B.1.2.1 1; VA.B.1.2.2; VA.B.1.2.3 VA.B.1.2.4;
VA.C.1.2.1; VA.C.1.2.2

12 x 12" white drawing paper
Permanent, black, Sharpie markers
Oil pastels

Discussion Suggestions:
Determine level of awareness of topic of avatars
in an informal pretest (a show of hands).
Discuss The Ten Avatars of Vishnu with students.
Discuss the idea that everyone has strengths or

something they are good at.
*Have students think of four avatars or attributes they might have that are
their best strengths.

1. Pass out paper, pencils, markers and Sharpie markers.
2. Fold paper in half, then in half again creating four, square sections.
3. Draw folds separating the four sections with a permanent Sharpie
4. Ask students to use pencils to draw themselves demonstrating their
5. Have students trace their pencil drawing with Sharpie markers.
6. Have students fill in their drawings with oil pastel and watercolor.



Important Vocabulary:
Avatars, attributes, and Vishnu

Assessment Strategies:
Two thirds of the class can identify avatars (determined through group
discussion or by a show of hands).
Student work shows at least four personal attributes or avatars.

Display finished works.
Ask volunteers to share their avatars with the class.

FCAT Connection:
When evaluating student artwork, use rubrics that set standards for student work.
Share these rubrics with students prior to their activities. Have students evaluate
their own work using a similar format (See rubrics in Resources).

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Visual Arts Lesson Plan

Students will understand the Hindu myth of Ganesha.
Students will produce a drawing of a super hero in the
Hindu style atop a new vehicle.

Sunshine State Standards:
VA.A.1.2.1; VA.A.1.2.2; VA.A.1.2.3; VA.A.1.2.4;
VA.B.1.2.1 1; VA.B.1.2.2; VA.B.1.2.4; VA.C.1.2.2

Permanent, black, Sharpie marker
12 x 18" white drawing paper
Oil pastels
Watercolor sets
Water containers
Watercolor brushes

Ganesha is depicted as a richly adorned, many armed, deity atop his
companion and vehicle, the mouse, who is the cunning "finder of the way."
Think about a new vehicle for your hero that has a noteworthy attribute.
Your new vehicle can be an animal that you make up of the best parts of
more than one animal.

1. Show students other art examples that illustrate attributes (the Goddess
Durga Slaying the Buffalo Demon, the Ten Avatars of Vishnu, and the
Manuscript Cover).
2. Make a pencil drawing of a Hindu-style super hero atop his new vehicle on
12 x 18" paper.
3. Trace pencil lines with permanent, Sharpie marker.
4. Use oil pastels to color the Hindu-style super hero and his or her vehicle.
5. Finish the work by filling in remaining space with watercolor.

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Important Vocabulary:
Vehicle, attributes and Ganesha

Students can identify three characteristics of Hindu style.
Student work shows a new vehicle.

Discuss why Ganesha has four arms.
Have students draw themselves with multiple arms holding symbols of their
own attributes.
Have students draw themselves with multiple attributes atop their own

FCAT Connection:
Synthesis: Have students title their artwork and explain their reasoning.

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Stories from Indian Mythology
Asanas & Mudras
Map & Websites
Poems & Couplets
Selected Sunshine State Standards
Brushstroke Handouts A & B


Ancestor Veneration (ancestor worship)- The custom of honoring deceased ancestors who are
still considered a part of the family and whose spirits are believed to have the power to intervene
in the affairs of the living.

Attribute- a material object recognized as appropriate to a person, office or status.

Avatar- in Hinduism, the bodily form a deity or released soul takes upon descending to earth to
rid the world of evil.

Buddhism (Bood-ism)- A religion based on the teachings of Buddha (approx. 560-480 BC). The
basis of Buddhist teachings are "the four noble truths" that life is full of suffering (such as not
being satisfied, old age, disease and death), that the cause of suffering is desire and wanting
things only for oneself, that there is a cure for this suffering, and that this cure is the Eight-Fold
Path. The Eight-Fold Path is right attitude, motives, speech (not lying or gossiping), action (not
to kill or steal), effort, mindfulness and meditation.

Calligraphy- Literally means "good writing." Chinese calligraphy is an art form, and
calligraphers are highly respected. There are several styles of writing: seal, official or clerical,
regular, running or semi-cursive, and cursive. Each one has its own characteristics and purpose.
Lesson of calligraphy, tools= http:/tqjunior.thinkquest.org/3614/drawing.htm

Confucianism (kon-fyil-shun-ism)- A philosophy based on the teachings of Confucius (approx.
551-479 BC) and his followers, who stressed that everyone has a place in society with specific
duties and responsibilities. Great importance was placed on five relationships: ruler to subject,
parent to child, elder brother to younger brother, husband to wife, and friend to friend.

Consort ('kon-sort)- a royal companion or associate.



Devi (Deh'-vee) (the Protecting Mother)- sometimes known simply as the Goddess, Devi
appears in some form in every region of India. She is often identified as the creative energy of
the universe and is considered by her followers the equal of Vishnu and Shiva.

Divination- The practice that seeks to foretell the future by "reading" signs.

Dowry- Wealth a bride's family contributes to the marriage, usually consisting of clothing,
household furnishings and utensils.

Dynasty- A Chinese dynasty took its name from a sequence of rulers from the same patrilineal
(through the male line) family. For more than 2,000 years, China was ruled by a series of

Extended Family- A residential group consisting of two or more families of at least two

Ganesha (gdh-nesh)- The Hindu elephant-headed god of wisdom and success; the remover of

Hinduism- A complex Indian religion (nearly 4,000 years old) with elaborate mythology, 3,000
gods, ceremonies for purification, and steps one goes through in the life cycle.
Most Hindus believe in an immense unifying force that governs all existence and cannot be
completely known by humanity. Individual gods and goddesses are personifications of this
cosmic force. In practice, each Hindu worships those few deities that he or she believes directly
influence his or her life. By selecting one or more of these deities to worship and by conducting
the rituals designed to facilitate contact with them, a Hindu devotee is striving to experience his
or her unity with that cosmic force.

Lotus- a water lily of India with large pink flowers used symbolically in Hinduism and

Iconography- The reading of symbols in a painting or sculpture.

Islam- A religion based on the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad (approx. 570-632 CE) as
found in the sacred book, the Koran. The followers of Islam are called Muslims. Islam
originated in the Arabian Peninsula in the seventh century of the Common Era and came to exert
a profound influence across Asia, Europe, and Africa. Islam provided a monotheistic religious
worldview in contrast to the polytheistic system that preceded it in Arabia.

Naga (ni-ga)- A cobra representing fertility and strength often seen around the neck of Shiva.

Personification- The attribution of human qualities to objects or abstract notions as in painting
or sculpture.

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Puja ('poo-jah) A rite of worship; an offering. The act of showing reverence to a god, a spirit,
or another aspect of the divine through invocations, prayers, songs, and rituals. An essential part
of puja for the Hindu devotee is making a spiritual connection with the divine.

Shamanism ('shi-man-ism)- A belief system in which certain individuals are believed to be in
direct contact with the spirit world through trance and to be able to command spirits to do their

Shiva (Shee'-vuh) (the Creator and Destroyer)- destroys the old while creating the new. His
consorts include the loving Parvati and the ferocious Durga, who represent the feminine aspects
of his complex nature. He is often shown with a cobra, the Naga, symbol of fertility and
strength, wrapped around his neck. The god often has four arms, signifying his superhuman

Taoism- A philosophy formulated by Lao Tzu (either third or sixth century BC) in which the aim
of life is to conform to nature's way. Yin (female, wet, dark, cool) and Yang (male, dry, bright,
hot) and the five elements (fire, water, earth, wood, metal) interact to bring harmony.

Vehicle- a medium for thought, feeling or action. (Ganesha's vehicle is the mouse or rat, known
as the cunning "finder of the way" who can chew through any obstacle).

Vishnu (Vish'-noo) (the Preserver)- with his two most popular incarnations being Krishna and
Rama, represents stability and order. Vishnu is recognized by the four symbols he carries:
discus, conch, club and lotus. In paintings and prints, Vishnu is often shown with blue skin, a
device to accentuate his otherworldliness.

Yin & Yang- Yin is associated with everything dark, moist, receptive, earthy, and female,
whereas yang is bright, dry, active, heavenly, and male. Yin and yang were believed to combine
in various proportions to produce all the different objects in the universe. There is always an
element of yang within yin and an element of yin within yang. Together they are symbolized by
a circle divided into black and white sections, with a dot of white in the black portion and a dot
of black in the white portion.

Information sources: The American Museum of Natural History Website

The Oxford Modem English Dictionary Second Edition Oxford University Press 1996.

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Stories from Indian Mythology
As told by Premila Rao, Docent, Ham Museum ofArt

An avatar is the form a deity takes upon descending to earth to rid the world of
evil. Most Hindus have always believed that the god, Vishnu, is the heavenly
source of avatars.

Vishnu is associated with the sun and is seen as promoting growth and
preservation. He rides a sun-eagle and wears a sun-like jewel on his breast. He
usually carries a chakra (discus) in his right hand, a shanka (conch) in his left hand,
a gada (mace or club) in his third hand, and the fourth hand is open or sometimes
holds an orb or a lotus flower. The items in his hands are reversed in some

The objects surrounding Vishnu are used to identify him. The orb represents the
world. The chakra and shanka are used to fight evil. The chakra is sometimes
associated with the wheel of time. Vishnu is often depicted with two avatars near
his head, and two consorts named Lakshmi and Bhumidevi near his feet.

The lotus is given many functions. Sometimes it is simply an ornament. Other
times it represents the fragrance that is inseparable from the beautiful flower like
god's grace that surrounds all human beings. The lotus is called pankaja, which
means born of slush (muddy earth after a rain). The lotus lifts out of the slush of
muddy ponds, but the leaves and petals are never dirty; they are pure and fragrant.
We should all rise out of the mire and be good. Sometimes Vishnu's hands and feet
are compared to a lotus.

Vishnu is associated with good deeds on behalf of humanity. When Indra,
accompanied by a host of gods, drew near the mountain lair of the demon Vrtra,
the gods fled in terror, but Vishnu stood steadfast and helped release the waters
that flowed down in the seven beneficial rivers.

The number of the avatars has never been completely agreed upon. It is believed
to be anywhere between 7 and 22. Most Hindus have agreed in recognizing 10
avatars. They are Matsya, Kurma, Varaha, Narasimha, Vamana, Parasurama,
Krishna, Rama, Buddha and Kalki.

1. In his Matsya, or fish avatar, Vishnu warned Manu of a coming universal
deluge and pulled Manu's boat to safety.



2. Vishnu's second avatar, Kurma (the tortoise), stood on the ocean bottom
during the great churning of the ocean and provided a firm base for the
churn by letting its spindle revolve on his back. See story below:
The gods, who had not yet attained exemption from death, decided to
seek endless life by churning the Sea of Milk in order to extract from it
the nectar of immortality, called Amritha. The chum was rotated by
wrapping the long body of Vasuki, the king of serpents, around its
spindle. To provide a base for the spindle on the bottom of the sea,
Vishnu took the form of a tortoise. Just as the nectar started to emerge
from the sea, Vasuki grew sick and vomited venom from each of his
1,000 heads, and over the surface of the sea spread a blue-black mass of
deadly poison that could even kill the gods. When all the gods, including
Vishnu, were almost overcome by the poison, Shiva came to the rescue.
He picked up a large shell, skimmed off the dark liquid, and drank it to
the last drop. But even Shiva was not immune to the poison, which
lodged in his throat, turning it blue. Nila means blue and Kantha means
neck; hence, Shiva is sometimes called Nilakantha.

3. As Varaha (the Boar), Vishnu plunged into the sea and with his snout raised
up the drowning world that lay submerged on the bottom, where it had been
dumped by a demon.

4. Narasimha is the man-lion. Vishnu protected his devotee Prahlada from
persecution by a demon, which the avatar split open with his claws. The
demon king had received a gift from the gods that he could be killed neither
inside nor outside, neither by man nor beast. Narasimha killed him on the
5. Vamana recovered the world from the demons by his famous strategy of the
three steps as follows:
Vishnu went before Bali, the king of demons, in the guise of a
dwarfish beggar and asked as alms the gift of as much space as he
could mark out in three steps. When the demon granted him this
favor, Vishnu resumed his cosmic stature and paced off in his first
giant step the whole earth as an abode for the living persons. Then he
marked off the atmosphere, and in the third step, he established the
high heavenly world as a pleasant refuge for the deceased. Vishnu is
the one god who was known to care about the happiness of the dead.
6. Parasurama may, along with Krishna and Rama, have been an actual
person. He is said to have restored the supremacy of the Brahmans by
destroying the insubordinate ksatriyas with his ax (parasu).

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7. Krishna is the seventh avatar.
8. Rama is the hero of Ramayana.
9. Buddha is the founder of Buddhism and the one surely historical personality
of the list.
10.Kalki is yet to come. He is pictured as a swordsman on a white horse or as a
horse-headed figure. He is to appear at the end of the present evil age to
unseat the wicked barbarian rulers of the earth from their thrones and to
restore the righteous brahmanical order.

All the avatars are conceived of as benefactors of humanity. Their love gives
Hindus confidence in the supportive presence of the deity in the affairs of the

Currently, the worship of Matsya, Kurma, Varaha, Narasimha and Vamana avatars
is rare, and Parasurama and Buddha have not attracted many Hindu devotees.
Rama and Krishna are now the most popular of all Hindu divinities.

In the 19t to 20th centuries, some reform movements rejected the entire list of
avatars as superstitions. Other strands of modern Hindu thought moved in the
opposite direction, recognizing in avatars the extraordinary leaders of any religion,
Hindu or non-Hindu. A Bodhisattva is a being who is on the way to enlightenment,
who vows to use wisdom and compassion to liberate all beings.

Durga- Slaying the Buffalo Demon Mahishasura
Durga is known by many names such as Uma, Parvati and Kali. Her primary name
is Durga, because this is her name in the heroic tale that her worshippers love most.
It is as follows:
Mahishasura received a gift from the gods that no man could ever kill him.
This caused a lot of trouble for everyone. Things became so bad, that all the
gods complained to Vishnu, but even he could not do anything about it. So,
Shiva came down as a woman, Durga, and killed Mahishasura, ridding the
world of the demon.

Durga is worshipped all over India, most significantly in Gujarat, Rajasthan,
Bengal and Nepal. Every year in late September and October, the entire Hindu
population of Bengal celebrates Durga Puja, a festival during which Durga's
deliverance of the world from the attack of the buffalo demon Mahisha is
remembered. Durga is the female power of all gods combined. Mahisha lusts after
Durga but she rejects him. This is a human symbol of greed and lust.

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Asanas (positions) & Mudras (gestures)

Asanas ('i-sa-nas)

Dhyana Asana- This meditative pose consists of both legs crossed closely with the
soles of the feet showing. This position is also called padmasana, and all seated
Buddhas and Bodhisattvas are found in this pose (see Seated Buddha with Naga
Canopy transparency).

Lalita Asana- This position of ease has one leg pendant and often resting on a
lotus flower. The other leg is in the usual position of Buddha, as described above.

Mudras (mu-'dris)

SAbhaya Mudra- the gesture of protection- with the arm elevated
and slightly bent, the hand is lifted to shoulder level with the palm
turned outward and all the fingers are extended upward.

Bhumisparsa Mudra- the mudra of witness (earth-touching)- the
right arm is draped over the right knee, with the palm inward and
all the fingers extended downward with a finger touching the
lotus throne. The left hand is on the lap with palm upward. This
gesture signifies Buddha's victory over temptation by the demon

Dharmachakra Mudra- the gesture of Teaching- literally,
Dharma means 'Law' and Chakra means 'wheel'. It is usually
interpreted as 'turning the Wheel of Law'. In this gesture, both
hands are held against the chest, the left facing inward, covering
the right facing outward. The index and thumb of each hand
makes a circle.

Dhyana Mudra- the gesture of mediation- both hands are
placed on the lap, right hand on the left with fingers fully
stretched and the palms facing upwards. Often, a begging
bowl is placed in the lap.



Jnana Mudra- the gesture of teaching- in this gesture, the tips of
the index and the thumb are joined and held near the center of the
chest with the palm turned inward.

Namaskar Mudra- the gesture of prayer- in this gesture, the
hands are kept close to the chest in a devotional manner with the
palms and fingers joined

Tarjani Mudra- the gesture of warning- only the index finger
is raised while the other fingers are locked up in the fist. This
mudra is characteristic of the most wrathful deities.

Varada the gesture of charity or grace- the arm is extended all the
way down with the palm facing outwards, and the fingers extended

SVitarka Mudra- the gesture of argument- the tips of the thumb and
index finger touch to form a circle and all the other fingers face

Information Sources:
.\/i, t Description of Gods, Goddesses and Ritual Objects of Buddhism and Hinduism in Nepal,
Compiled by Jnan Bahadur Sakya, Handicraft Association of Nepal PO Box 784, Kathmandu,

The Dharmapala Thangka Centre: School of Thangka Painting



Map & Websites

Map of India & China


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The American Museum of Natural History


The Art of Buddhism; A Teacher's Guide, Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery,

Smithsonian Institution


Dharmapala Thangka Centre: School of Thangka Painting




PoetryTeachers. com


The WebMuseum, Paris


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The Brocaded l/qpper and other Vietnamese Tales. By Lynette Dyer Vuong.

The Chinese Mirror. Adapted from a Korean Folktale by Mirra Ginsburg.

The Emperor and the Kite. By Jane Yolen.

The Empty Pot. By Demi.

Everyone Knows What a Dragon Looks Like. Rewritten by Jay Williams.

A Family in China. By Nance Lui Fyson and Richard Greenhill.

Favorite Children's Stories from China and Tibet. By Lotta Carswell Hume.

The Fourth Question. A Chinese Tale retold by Rosalind C. Wang.

Heaven's Reward. Fairy Tales from China retold by Catherine Edwards Sadler.

Japanese Children's Favorite Stories. Edited by Florence Sakade.

The Korean Cinderella. By Shirley Climo.

Lang and the Magic Paintbrush. By Demi.

Legend of the Milky Way. Retold by Jeanne M. Lee.

Lon Po Po. A Red Riding Hood story from China by Ed Young.

The Luminous Pearl. A Chinese Folktale retold by Betty L. Torre.

The Magic Wings. A Tale from China by Diane Wolkstein.

The Man Who Tricked a Ghost. By Laurence Yep.

Sir Whong and the Golden Pig. By Oki S. Han.

Suho and the White Horse. Retold by Yuzo Otsuka.

Sweet and Sour Tales from China. Retold by Carol Kendall & Yao-wenLi.

Tales of a Chinese Grandmother. By Frances Carpenter.

The Weaving of a Dream. By Marilee Heyer.



Poems & Couplets

Ella the elephant is as strong as an ox
That's why she uses her trunk to move the big box
It's said that vegetables and fruit are good for your heart.
Just give me some chocolate right from the start.
*Burgers, prunes, and warm spaghetti;
To eat this stuff, I'm not ready.
*Pirate, bandit, thief, or crook;
At them, the judge should throw the book.

My Mom is Better than Your Mom
By Bruce Lansky

My mom is better than your mom.
The oatmeal she makes is so good for me I could bench-press 100 pounds
When I was five.
She says, "have a bright day," as I walk out the door and I'm ready to get
straight A's in school.
She makes spinach and Brussels sprouts so delicious I always ask for seconds.
People are always telling her, "You're so beautiful, you should be a model." But
She always responds, "It's not your outer beauty but your inner beauty that
Counts most."
She never nags me to do my homework. Instead, she asks, "How are you doing
with your homework? Need some help?" I never do. I want her to be proud of me.
And when she puts me to bed at night, she tucks me in, gives me a kiss, and I'm
Asleep-just like that.
My mom is nicer than your mom.

My Dad is Tougher than your Dad
By Bruce Lansky

My Dad is tougher than your dad.
He wrestles alligators every morning just to get his heart pumping.
Instead of eating toast and coffee for breakfast, he eats the toaster and the coffeemaker.
He doesn't drive to work, he runs to work ten miles a day.
When he gets home from work he relaxes in a hot bath of boiling water.
He prefers chewing nails to chewing gum.
And when he sees someone for the first time, he says, "Hello, nice to meet you,"
So loud and fearsome people run away and hide.
My dad is tougher than your dad.

*Written by Paul B. Janeczko from his book, How to Write Poetry.



Rubric for Evaluating Studio Art Projects

Student: Class:

a 5 Demonstrates exciting, original and complex ideas. Evidence of deliberate
experimentation and problem solving.
i 4 Use of new ideas and creative problem solving. Work is original.
i 3 Work is adequate but lacks originality. No new ideas.
i 2 Minimal creative thought or student originated ideas.
i 1 No evidence of creative thought.

a 5 Superbly planned and executed with careful attention to details and overall
i 4 Very good overall quality and use of details--careful work.
i 3 Acceptable quality of work with some sloppiness and minimal attention to
u 2 Low work quality, sloppy technique and not careful work.
i 1 Unacceptable work quality, lacks evidence of skill or attention.

a 5 Sophisticated comprehension of assignment concepts, connected to pre-
existing or multi-disciplinary knowledge and raises meaningful questions.
i 4 Full understanding and application of assignment concepts.
i 3 Responds to assignment concepts adequately.
i 2 Minimal attention to assignment concepts.
i 1 Does not address assignment concepts.

a 5 Effort beyond the expectations of the assignment.
i 4 Concentrated, consistent effort.
i 3 Adequate effort with some distraction or carelessness.
i 2 Minimal effort, work is barely complete.
i 1 No effort or work was never completed.

5 Excellent
4 Above Average
3 Average
2 Below Average
1 Needs Improvement

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Studio Art Rubric for Student Self-Evaluation

Name: Class:

5 Excellent
I understood the big ideas of this project and used these ideas in my artwork. I
thought carefully about my work and used original ideas, good skills and added a
lot of details. I worked very hard on this project and feel proud that it is my very
best work.

4 Above Average
My artwork is detailed and complete. I put good effort into my artwork and used
my skills. The artwork shows that I understood the ideas in the lesson. I feel good
about my art even though it isn't my best work.

3 Average
I put some effort into my artwork. I added a few details. I finished my artwork but
it does not show new ideas. I feel okay about my art but want to do better next time.

2 Below Average
My artwork looks sloppy. I did not put in good effort to show that I learned new
ideas. I did not work very hard and could do better than this.

1 Needs improvement
The artwork looks unfinished and very sloppy. I did not use a lot of skill or care. I
did not use any new ideas. I should do this project again.

My artwork fits bests in number

What I like best about my artwork:

What would I do differently next time?

Teacher Comment:

Parent Signature: Date:

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FCAT Writing Assessment Rubric

Student: Class:

i 6 The writing is focused on the topic, has a logical organizational pattern (including
a beginning, middle, conclusion and transitional devices), and has ample
development of the supporting ideas. The paper demonstrates a sense of
completeness or wholeness. The writing demonstrates a mature command of
language including precision in word choice. Subject/verb agreement and verb
and noun forms are generally correct. With few exceptions, the sentences are
complete, except when fragments are purposefully used. Various sentence
structures are used.

3 5 The writing is focused on the topic with adequate development of the supporting
ideas. There is an organizational pattern, although a few lapses may occur. The
paper demonstrates a sense of completeness or wholeness. Word choice is adequate
but may lack precision. Most sentences are complete, although a few fragments may
occur. There may be occasional errors in subject/verb agreement and in standard
forms of verbs and nouns but not enough to impede communication. The
conventions of punctuation, capitalization and spelling are generally followed.
Various sentence structures are used.

3 4 The writing is generally focused on the topic, although it may contain some
extraneous or loosely related information. An organizational pattern is evident,
although lapses may occur. The paper demonstrates a sense of completeness or
wholeness. In some areas of the response, the supporting ideas may contain
specifics and details, while in other areas the supporting ideas may not be
developed. Word choice is generally adequate. Knowledge of the conventions of
punctuation and capitalization is demonstrated, and commonly used words are
usually spelled correctly. There has been an attempt to use a variety of sentence
structures, although most are simple constructions.
a 3 The writing is generally focused on the topic, although it may contain some
extraneous or loosely related information. Although an organizational pattern
has been attempted and some transitional devices have been used, lapses may
occur. The paper may lack a sense of completeness or wholeness. Some of the
supporting ideas may not be developed with specifics and details. Word choice is
adequate but limited, predictable and occasionally vague. Knowledge of the
conventions of punctuation and capitalization is demonstrated, and commonly
used words are usually spelled correctly. There has been an attempt to use a
variety of sentence structures, although most are simple constructions.

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a 2 The writing may be slightly related to the topic or may offer little relevant
information and few supporting ideas or examples. The writing that is
relevant to the topic exhibits little evidence of an organizational pattern or use
of transitional devices. Development of the supporting ideas may be
inadequate or illogical. Word choice may be limited or immature. Frequent
errors may occur in basic punctuation and capitalization, and commonly used
words may frequently be misspelled. The sentence structure may be limited
to simple constructions.

a 1 The writing may only minimally address the topic because there is little, if any,
development of supporting ideas, and unrelated information may be included.
The writing that is relevant to the topic does not exhibit an organizational
pattern; few, if any, transitional devices are used to signal movement in the text.
Supporting ideas may be sparse, and they are usually provided through lists,
cliches, and limited or immature word choice. Frequent errors in spelling,
capitalization, punctuation and sentence structure may impede communication.
The sentence structure may be limited to simple constructions.

i Unscorable

The paper is unscorable because
the response is not related to what the prompt requested the student to do,
the response is simply a rewording of the prompt,
the responses is a copy of published work,
the student refused to write,
the response is written in a foreign language,
the response is illegible,
the response is incomprehensible (words arranged in such a way that no
meaning is conveyed),
the response contains insufficient amount of writing to determine if the
student was attempting to address the prompt, or
the writing folder is blank.

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Selected Sunshine State Standards

LA.A. 1.2.2 -student selects from a variety of simple strategies including the use of phonics, word
structure, context clues self-questioning, confirming simple predictions, retelling and using
visual cues to identify words and construct meaning from various texts, illustrations, graphics
and charts

LA.A. 1.2.3 -use simple strategies to determine meaning and increase vocabulary for reading,
including the use of prefixes, suffixes, root words, multiple meanings, antonyms, synonyms and
word relationships

LA.A. 1.2.4 -clarifies understanding by rereading, self-correction, summarizing, checking other
sources, and class or group discussion

LA.A. 2.2.1 -student reads text and determines the main idea or essential message, identifies
relevant supporting details and facts, and arranges events in chronological order

LA.A.2.2.5 -reads and organizes information for a variety of purposes

LA.A 2.2.7 -student recognizes the use of comparison and contrast in a text

LA.B.1.2.1 -prepares for writing by recording thoughts, focusing on a central idea, grouping
related ideas and identifying the purpose of writing

LA.B.1.2.2 -student drafts and revises writing in cursive

LA.B. 1.2.3 -student produces final copy that has been edited

LA.B.2.2.3 -student writes for a variety of occasions, audiences, and purpose

LA.B.2.2.5 -student creates narratives in which ideas, details, and events are in logical order and
are relevant to the story line

LA.B.2.2.6 -student creates expository responses in which ideas and details follow an
organizational pattern and are relevant to the purpose

LA.C. 3.2.1-student speaks clearly at an understandable rate and uses appropriate volume

LA.D.1.2.1-student understands that there are patterns and rules in the syntactic structure,
symbols, sounds, and meanings conveyed through the English language

LA.D. 2.2.1-student understands word choices can shape reactions, perceptions, and beliefs

LA.E. 1.2.1-identifies the distinguishing features among fiction, drama, poetry and identifies the
major characteristics of nonfiction



LA.E. 1.2.5-student identifies and uses literary terminology appropriate to the grade level,
including symbol, theme, simile, alliteration, and assonance

VA.A.1.2.1 -uses and organizes two-dimensional and three-dimensional media, techniques,
tools, and processes to produce works of art that are derived from personal experience,
observation, or imagination

VA.A. 1.2.2 -uses control in handling tools and materials in a safe, responsible manner

VA.A.1.2.3 -knows the effects and functions of using various organizational elements and
principles of design when creating works of art

VA.A.1.2.4 -uses good craftsmanship in a variety of two-dimensional and three-dimensional

VA.B.1.2.1 -understands that subject matter used to create unique works of art can come from
personal experience, observation, imagination, and themes

VA.B. 1.2.2 -understands what makes different art media, techniques, and processes effective or
ineffective in communicating various ideas

VA.B. 1.2.3 -knows how to identify the intentions of those creating works of art

VA.B.1.2.4 -uses the elements of art and the principles of design with sufficient manipulative
skills, confidence, and sensitivity when communicating ideas

VA.C. 1.2.1 -understands the similarities and differences in works of art from a variety of sources

VA.C.1.2.2 -understands how artists have used visual languages and symbol systems through
time and across cultures

VA.D.1.2.1 -develops and justifies criteria for the evaluation of visual works of art using
appropriate vocabulary
VA.D. 1.2.2 -uses different approaches to respond to and to judge various works of art

VA.E. 1.2.1 -understands the influence of artists on the quality of everyday life
VA.E.1.2.2 -knows the types of tasks performed by various artists and some of the required

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American Museum of Natural History

Bahadur Sakya, Jnan (Compiled by).
Short Description of Gods, Goddesses and Ritual Objects of Buddhism and Hinduism In Nepal.
Handicraft Association of Nepal PO Box 784, Kathmandu, Nepal

Janeczko, Paul B. How to Write Poetry. Scholastic, Inc. New York, 1999.

Loudon, Sarah M., Seattle Art Museum.
Out of the East Horizon Teacher Resource Packet: Chinese Art From the Seattle Art Museum.
Seattle Art Museum, Seattle, WA, 1988.

Mahy, Margaret. The Seven Chinese Brothers. Scholastic, Inc., New York, 1990.

Moen, Christine Boadman. Literature Circle Role Sheet.
Teaching and Learning Company, Carthage, Ill., 1998.

Santa, Carol, Havens, Lynn T. and Maycumber, Evelyn M.
Project CRISS (Creating Independence through Student-owned Strategies).
Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, Iowa, 1988.

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