Title: Partisan
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Title: Partisan
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Creator: Department of Political Science, University of Florida
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Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2002
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ForAlumni and Friends of the Department of Political Science, University of Florida
Spring, 2002

Perspectives on the New World Order

Why Do They Hate Us?

Responding to Non-State Violence in the
Middle East

Patricia Woods

One of the topics of debate that has risen to new promi-
nence since the terrorism of September 11 has been the
issue of "why do they hate us?" Americans wonder why
people claiming to be motivated by religion would be will-
ing to commit suicide and purposefully kill thousands of
innocent people in the process.

There have been a number of explanations for this phe-
nomenon. Like most things in social science, there is a lack
of data to prove any one of them and none of them will
satisfy everyone.

One theory is that widespread hate doesn't really exist.
That explanation attributes the perception of extensive and
virulent anti-Americanism to the imperfect eye of the me-
dia. In search of a story, journalists, especially from televi-
sion, focus on the small minority that create good footage
as they display their dislike ofAmerica. The silent majority
gets no airtime because they don't make any noise. Watch
Continued on Page 10

De)Ci".I Jett ik Dean o0" the Iiternta-
tioiitl Center aml i former atinhbaua-
hotr to Peru.

Dr. Patricia Ilood/s is lan .vviltanti
Pr/o'sstor o/ ( 'ompurtirve Politic.s and
Jewish VuSdie'v.

After the attacks on U.S. soil on September 11,2001,
the Bush administration declared its intent to "root out"
and put an end to "all terrorism." This goal begged
several questions, analytical and empirical, to be sorted
out for the general objective of building theory and
knowledge in political science as well as the aim of
building effective policy against non-state violence in
the Middle East. These questions include how we de-
fine terrorism; what sorts of groups in the Middle East
use violence; what policy goals direct their use of vio-
lence; and given these varying goals, what are the most
appropriate U.S. policies to respond to the uses to
which violence is put in the Middle East.

The first issue is the administration's definition of ter-
rorism, which seems to be a broad category under
which all non-state violence is subsumed. This con-
cept of terrorism seems to be deeply rooted in a
Weberian notion of the legitimate monopoly of vio-
lence as inhering exclusively to the (nation) state. In-
deed, it should be gratifying to political scientists that a
concept from social theory would have such salience
in popular formulations of contemporary issues. How-
ever, this particular way of understanding our world
does not help us understand the use of violence in the
Middle East, nor the most appropriate responses to it.

Continued on Page 9

Dennis Jett

The Chair's Corner

Like the country as a whole, the Department of Political Science at the University of Florida has gone
through some tough times over the last year. We were saddened and shaken by the events of September
11. We rightfully worried about a potentially escalating war on terrorism abroad and about our threatened
security and way of life at home. In turn, the economic repercussions of these events hit hard. The
"ripple effects of September 11" combined with a recession already in swing. The state of Florida reeled
from a budget shortfall of over $1 billion. As a result, the University of Florida was asked by the legislature
to find tens of millions of dollars to put back in the state coffers.

The Department ofPolitical Science did not escape its share of the fiscal pain, with significant cuts made to
its operating budget. Fortunately, we were able to shield our graduate program and maintain most of our
undergraduate offerings. But the economic prospects for next year remain unclear.

Much as this past year will be remembered for its hardship. Yet we all witnessed another "ripple effect" of
September 11 one that fostered hope. Awave of courage, resolve and compassion spread across the
country in the wake of the tragedy. Few were left untouched. Immediately after September 11, the world
witnessed the bravery and dedication of countless emergency workers who responded to the call. Across
the nation, citizens stepped forward to donate blood, to volunteer their services, and to make charitable
donations. Closer to home, faculty members in this department made themselves available to mentor
students who were grappling with the meaning of a strange new world, and to respond to countless media
requests for expert interviews. As political scientists and as teachers, we felt a special obligation to help our
students and the general public understand these events and their possible ramifications, nationally and

With tough budgetary issues facing the Department over the last year, our friends also stepped forward to
let us know that we could count on them. Recent example is Steven Sembler, one of our illustrious alumni,
who recently gave us a generous gift to stock the departmental library. The library is a beautiful room on the
3rd floor of the newly renovated Anderson Hall it will soon be replete with books andj journals. We are
thankful to Mr. Sembler, and to all our alumni and friends, who have helped us over the years to provide the
best education and training to our students.

-Leslie Paul Thiele

Congratulations to our new PhDs!

Ed Greaves
Michael Kenney
Elizabeth Oldmixon
Audley Reid
Adam L. Silverman

Faculty Notes

Leslie Anderson presented one single authored paper and one co-authored paper, with Larry Dodd, at the VII
International Congress of the Spanish Sociological Association at Salamanca, Spain in September, 2001. She pub-
lished a paper on fascism and right-wing populism in Europe and Latin America in Politicay Sociedadin Spain in
March 2002. Together with Larry Dodd she published an article "Comportamiento Electoral en Nicaragua, 1990-
2001" in America Latina Hoy in Spain, in April 2002. She travelled to Managua, Nicaragua, to observe the Nicara-
guan national elections in November, 2001 and made additional conference presentations at the Latin American Stud-
ies Association, Washington, D.C. September, 2001 and the Editors and Journalists Conference, Miami, April, 2002.

Michael Chege was invited to address a symposium at the Royal Institute of International Affairs, Chatham House,
London on April 30, 2002. The meeting discussed the New Partnership for Africa, a proposal on democratic reform
and economic development in Africa. His topic was entitled "Now the Hard Part: Monitoring and Enforcement of
Democratic Elections."

Richard Conley's book, The Presidency, Congress, and Divided Government: A Post-War Assessment will be
published in Fall 2002 (December) by Texas A&M University Press as part of the Hughes Series in the Presidency and
Leadership Studies. Dr. Conley is organizing a conference for February 7, 2003 entitled "The Presidency, Congress,
and the War on Terrorism." This conference will bring together nationally-distinguished scholars who specialize in the
study of American national institutions to reassess our theories of presidential politics and presidential-congressional
relations following the tragic events of September 11,2001. Conferees include George C. Edwards, Louis Fisher,
Michael Genovese, Martha Joynt Kumar, James P. Pfiffner, Barbara Sinclair, James Thurber, and Shirley Anne Warshaw.
The papers presented at the conference will be published as an edited collection. The conference is co-sponsored by
The Department of Political Science, the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, University of Florida International
Center, and Lawrence C. Dodd, Manning J. Dauer Chair, Department of Political Science. More information about
the upcoming conference is located at http://www.clas.ufl.edu/users/rconley/conferenceinfo.htm

Stephen Craig has written a report, based on two original surveys (one in Florida, the other nationwide), which
examines voter reaction to the 2000 presidential election controversy; copies can be obtained from the Graduate
Program in Political Campaigning. He also has co-authored, with Michael Martinez and JimKane, a paper on
citizen attitudes about abortion that will soon appear in thej oumal PoliticalPsychology.

Jeff Gill had numerous publications during this year. His book Bayesian Methods: A Social and Behavioral
Sciences Approach was published in May 2002 by Chapman and Hall/CRC. State Politics andPolicy Quarterly
published his article "Whose Variance is it Anyway? Interpreting Empirical Models with State-Level Data" in their
volume 1, no. 3,2001 issue. Dr. Gill also contributed four articles in edited volumes. In Congress and the Internet,
Dr. Gill and David Conklin wrote a chapter entitled "Electronic Democracy: Paving the Dirt Road to the Information
Superhighway." The book is edited by James A. Thurber and will be published by Prentice Hall in winter 2002. Dr.
Gill contributed "Bayesian Inference" and "Generalized Linear Models" in the Encyclopedia ofSocial Science Re-
search Methods. Michael Lewis-Beck (ed.), Sage. For the Encyclopedia ofSocialMeasurement (Kimberly Kempf-
Leonard (ed.), Academic Press), Dr. Gill wrote an entry on "Hierarchical Linear Models." He was also invited to
present the following talks: "Bayesian Computation: The Use of MCMC" at the American Sociological Association
Annual Meeting, Methods/ICPSR One Day Workshop, August 2002; "Bayesian Analysis: An Overview" Hubert M.
Blalock, Jr. Memorial Lecture Series, University of Michigan, July 2002; "Modeling and Analysis using Monte Carlo
Methods." with George Casella. University of Florida, Department of Statistics Week of Shortcourses, Orlando,
Spring 2002; "Bayesian Hierarchical Models with an Application to Education Policy Analysis," Michigan State Uni-
versity, November 2001.

Faculty Notes Continued...

DavidHedge published two articles recently:"Dancing with the One Who Brought You: The Allocation and
Impact of Party Giving to State Legislators," with David L. Schecter, Legislative Studies Quarterly (August,
2001) and "Political Institutions and the Art of Governing," American Review ofPolitics (Fall, 2001). Another
article, "Legislative Life in the 1990s: AComparison of Black and White State Legislators" with James Button,
originally published in Legislative Studies Quarterly (March, 1996) was reprinted with a postscript in Susan
MacManus, ed. Mapping Florida 's Political Landscape: The Art and Politics ofReapportionment and
Redistricting (Florida Institute of Government, 2002). Dr. Hedge was also reelected as secretary treasurer of
the Organized Section on Public Policy of the American Political Science Association. With more than 900
members, the section is the third or fourth largest section in the APSA. In addition, Dr. Hedge has been asked
toj oin the Joint Project on Term Limits. This is a collaborative proj ect of the National Conference of State
Legislators, the Council of State Governments, the State Legislative Leaders Foundation, and various legislative
scholars, funded by a $300,000 grant from the Smith-Richardson Foundation The proj ect will look at the impact
of term limits on state legislatures. His principal responsibility over the next three years will be to work with
analysts from the NCSL to gauge the impact of term limits on the Florida legislature. Florida isjust one of six
states that have targeted for in-depth analysis.

Goran Hyden was pleased to see three maj or projects being brought to closure in the first three months of
2002. An edited volume on Development and Democracy: What Have We Learnt and How?, co-edited
with Ole Elgstrom of Lund University, was published by Routledge in London and New York in February 2002.
Another edited volume that grew out of a workshop in South Africa Constitution-MakingandDemocratiza-
tion in Afica- was published in March by the Africa Institute of South Africa Press in Pretoria. Finally, the
report of a two-year long project to evaluate political science at Swedish universities to recommend ways for
improvement in which he participated as one of three international panelists, was published by the Swedish
Research Council in March 2002.

Ido Oren's article, "Is Culture Independent of National Security? HowAmerica National Security Concerns
Shaped 'Political Culture' Research" (European Journal oflnternationalRelations, December 2000), gener-
ated some controversy. Professors Gabriel Almond, Harald Mueller and Thomas Risse took issue with Oren's
attack on the political uses to which Internation Relations scholarship is put. The rejoinders, along with Oren's
response were published in the September 2001 issue of the journal. Professor Oren received a $3000 grant
from the International Studies Association to help fund our departmental conference on "Knowledge and Power
in the Discipline of International Relations."

This year Peggy Kohn has published essays in Polity, Political Theory, and The Good Society. She also won
an American Council of Learned Societies/Andrew Mellon Fellowship for the academic year 2002/2003. This
fellowship will support work on her new book project tentatively entitled Brave New Nation: A Critique of the
Privatization ofPublic Space. The book has been accepted for publication at Routledge.

Walter Rosenbaum will be designing the environmental impact assessment for the National Flood Insurance
Program as part of the Federal Emergency Management Agency's comprehensive review of that program.
During the summer of 2002, he will also conduct research for the David and Lucile Packard Foundation on
collaboration between environmental advocacy groups and private philanthropic foundations.

Faculty Notes Continued...

Beth Rosenson has had an article accepted for publication in thejoumal Public Integrity entitled "Legislative Voting on
Ethics Reform in Two States: The Influence of Economic Self-Interest, Ideology and Institutional Power." She also
chaired a panel at the Midwest Political Science Association Conference in April 2002 on interest groups. Dr. Rosenson
also presented a paper on another panel entitled "Why Senators Voted to Limit Honoraria, 1981-1983."

Leslie Thiele was invited to present "Sustainability and Academia: The Promise and Pitfalls of Environmental Educa-
tion" at the Center For Environmental Science, Policy and Ethics, Bucknell University, October 2001. He also presented
"Nietzsche, Irony and Democratic Politics" at the Conference on Nietzsche and European Thought, The European
University at St. Petersburg, St. Petersburg, Russia, June 2001.

Ken Waldand MichaelMartinez recently published two articles on cross-national effects of religion on public opinion.
Their article in PoliticalBehavior shows that Jewish religiosity in both Israel and the United States has a common
influence on most political issues, but it often has much sharper effects in one society than the other. The Political
Research Quarterly article coauthoredd with Dennis Hoover and Sam Reimer) shows that evangelicals in Canada and
the United States share a high degree of moral traditionalism, but that Canadian evangelicals are less conservative on
other issues. Interestingly, after these two coauthorships, Ken and Michael are still speaking to one another.

Philip Williams's book (co-edited with Anna Peterson and Manuel Vasquez), Christianity, Social Change, and
Globalization in the Americas, was published recently by Rutgers University Press. In addition, Williams and Manuel
Vasquez (Religion Department) just received a planning grant ($116,000) from the Ford Foundation for their Transnational
Florida Project, a collaborative research initiative to explore religion and transnational migration in Florida. The project
will identify different forms of religious transnationalism among Brazilian, Guatemalan, and Mexican immigrants in Florida,
examining the impact oftransnational religious linkages on the construction of collective identities among these migrant
groups. During the planning year, research partners in Latin America will map out religious congregations in selected sites
in Florida with the assistance of scholars at at the University of Florida and Florida Atlantic University. In subsequent
years, Florida-based scholars will go to Guatemala, Brazil, and Mexico, to follow back the networks uncovered by Latin
American scholars.

Alumni News

James Vedda (Ph.D., 1995) recently published a portion of this doctoral dissertation as a chapter in an edited volume on
Congressional implementation of space policy in the post-Apollo era. Jim is currently working in Washington DC for
ANSER, Inc., as a consultant on national space policy.

Krysta Jones (BA, 1999) is currently a Peace Corp Volunteer in Paraguay, South America, working with municipal
governments on projects related to civic education and democracy building.

Dr. Barbara Noreen Roth Memorial Award

The Department of Political Science was shocked and deeply saddened by the sudden death of Barbara Roth
on January 25, 2002. Barbara, a valued teaching associate and friend, received her Ph.D. from the depart-
ment in August 2001, and will be greatly missed. Among her many other contributions to the Department,
Barbara designed and produced this newsletter.

In honor of Barbara Roth, the Department of Political Science has established the Dr. Barbara Noreen Roth
Memorial Award for a political science graduate or undergraduate student major. The criteria for selection
preference given to graduate students
non-traditional student
commitment to social justice, in research or in community service
student in financial need
commitment to excellence and innovation in teaching.

A committee composed of faculty and the Graduate and Undergraduate Coordinators determines the awardees.
The award will be presented annually at the Department of Political Science Banquet. It involves a monetary
award as well as inscribing the student's name on a plaque to be displayed outside the department office. Ms.
Guillermina Seri was the first recipient of the award at our 2002 departmental banquet. Guillermina Seri is
conducting research that speaks directly to the question of social justice. Her work is widely relevant across
many societies in many areas of the world. She also has a history of involvement with human rights concerns
in Argentina before coming to Florida. In addition, she has shown a commitment to excellence and innovation
in teaching, and is a non-traditional student who is in significant financial need.

We are soliciting contributions for the award fund from students, faculty, friends, and family of Barbara Roth.
Donations may be sent to: Department of Political Science, P.O. Box 117325, Gainesville, FL 32611. Please
make checks payable to the UFF Fund #8909 and write "Barbara Roth Award" on the check.

Congratulations to these faculty members
who have won prestigious fellowships and grants!
Peggy Kohn, who received a fellowship from the American Council of Learned
Societies for her research on the privatization of the public sphere.

AmieKreppel, who wrote U.F.'s successful Title VIa Department of Education,
Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program (UISFLP) grant.
This grant will allow UF to establish an EU Studies Certificate Program and will greatly
benefit internationalization efforts in the college and department.

RichardScher, who received the Fulbright Program's John Marshall Distinguished
Chair in American Politics in Hungary for 2002-03.

Philip Williams, who received a Fulbright Award for research and teaching in Peru for

European Union Studies Center

The European Union Studies Center (EUSC) in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences at the University of Florida
(UF) is very happy to announce that it will now offer a multi-disciplinary European Union Studies Certificate. The
creation of the certificate program is possible thanks to a generous grant from the Department of Education's Under-
graduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program and significant matching funds from the Division of
Sponsored Research, the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, the International Center and the Department of Politi-
cal Science at UF.

The certificate program will include the creation of four wholly new core courses at UF on EU related subjects,
including EU Law for undergraduates, a course on film and the media in the EU and a course focused specifically on the
history of the EU. Six additional courses will be significantly enhanced to incorporate substantial EU content. Adding to
the foreign language component of the certificate program is the creation of eight new Foreign Language Across the
Curriculum (FLAC) one-units courses in German, French, Spanish, Portuguese and Italian to be affiliated with the
certificate's core courses.

The certificate program will also include two potential capstone experiences (open to all students at UF); a summer
abroad program in Brussels at Vesalius College in the Vrij e Universiteit Brussel (VUB) and an EU related Internship
Resource Center to be housed in the EU Studies Center. All students participating in the certificate program will have
to complete either the summer abroad program or an EU-related internship (in the USA or in Europe).

Additional information for all of the above programs can be found at the EU Studies Center's web-site http://
www.clas.ufl.edu/eustudies/. Specific information on the certificate program and its requirements can be found at: http:/
/www.clas.ufl.edu/eustudies /certificate.htm and additional information on the Brussels summer abroad program can
be found at: http://www.clas.ufl.edu/eustudies/summer.htm (which includes links to the Vesalius College and VUB. A
searchable web-page of internship opportunities related to the EU should be available by January 2003. Questions
about the EU Studies Center and its various programs should be sent to eu-studies-info@clas.ufl.edu or to the Direc-
tor of the Center, Amie Kreppel at kreppel@polisci.ufl.edu.

Undergraduate Enrichment Fund

With over 1100 undergraduate maj ors, Political Science is the second largest and fastest growing maj or in the College
of Liberal Arts and Science. Our students excel in the classroom and throughout the University and go on to successful
careers in government, business, education, and the law. We encourage our students to take advantage of various
opportunities to enhance their coursework- including internships in and near government, attending national and state
conferences, collaborating with faculty on their research, and participating in overseas studies programs.

The Department has created an Undergraduate Enrichment Fund to provide much needed support for students pursu-
ing these and other opportunities. The fund will allow the department to offer small grants of support for travel,
research, and internships to our most deserving undergraduates.

Donations should be made to the Department of Political Science Enrichment Fund c/o the Department of Political
Science, 218 Anderson Hall, PO Box 117325, Gainesville, FL 32611-7325.

International Relations News

The International Relations field has been appreciably strengthed this year by the hiring of Professor Aida Hozic. Aida
received her PhD from the University of Virginia and her dissertation has recently been published as a book by Cornell
University press under the title Hollyworld: Space, Power and Fantasy in the American Economy. She will be
teaching undergraduate and graduate courses primarily in the area of international security.

The International Relations Certificate program is surging in popularity. We have awarded 25 certificates in the 2000-
2001 academic year, and are well on track toward exceeding the number in 2001-2002. To be eligible for the
certificate, students must complete 18 credits ofINR coursework, distributed across the core, introductory and ad-
vanced levels. More information about the program's requirements is available at http://www.polisci.ufl.edu/ir-cert.htm

Past recipients of the INR Certificate program: we would like to hear from you and include news about your where-
abouts in future issues of The Partisan. What have you been up to lately? Please drop a line to your favorite INR
professor or to the current "Czar of R," Professor Sammy Barkin (barkin@polisci.ufl.edu).

Professor Paul Diehl, a leading scholar of international relations from the University of Illinois, paid us a visit on
November 8,2001. Diehl gave two talks, one on the subject of "enduring international rivalries," the other on interna-
tional peacekeeping operations. He also spoke to Ido Oren's Culture and WorldPolitics on the culture of peace-

A conference on "Knowledge and Power in the Discipline of International Relations" was hosted by the department on
March 22-23, 2002. Number of internationally renowned IR scholars participated in the conference, including,
among others, Friedrich Kratochwil of the University of Munich, David Campbell of the University of Newcastle
(UK), and Rob Walker of the University ofKeele (UK). The conference was supported by the department of political
science, UF International Center, the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, UF Graduate School, The Manning Dauer
Chair, and a workshop grant from the International Studies Association.

Dauer Distinguished Speaker Series

This year we had a total often scholars visit under the distinguished speakers program plus several others in conjunc-
tion with various centers and programs around campus. By all accounts it was a very successful year in terms of
quantity, quality, and variety. Our guests included: Paul Diehl (University of Illnois), George Edwards (Texas A& M),
Bill Jacoby (South Carolina/JOP), Jim Thurber (American University), Marc Howard Ross (Bryn Mawr College),
Robert Bellah (UC Berkeley), Keith Pool (University of Houston), Paul Teske (SUNY- Stonybrook), Michael McCann
(U. OfWashington), and of course our banquet speaker Tom Mann (Brookings). I should point out that virtually every
one of our guest speakers commented at length about two things: (1) the vibrancy and energy of the scholars in the
department, and (2) the incredible physical space we occupy in Anderson Hall. I am looking forward to another slate
of outstanding speakers next year under the direction of the new chair of the Speakers Committee: Rich Conley.

Although it is distinct from the Speakers Series, this is a good opportunity to mention the first UF/FSU Political Science
Department Research Colloquium. This event was by all possible measures a huge success as FSU traveled to
Gainesville (en masse!) and gave four very provocative and engaging paper presentations. Next year is our turn to
travel to Tallahassee to give the presentations and enjoy their hospitality. I hope next year we will have an equally
impressive turnout.
Jeff Gill

Woods Article Continued...

A conceptual link existed in the U. S., even before Sep-
tember 11, between "terrorism" and Islamists. This,
despite the fact that in 1999, 57% of terrorist attacks
against U.S. facilities or citizens occurred in Latin
America (only 6% in the Middle East); 72% of all
U.S. casualties from terrorist attacks were business
people. Much of the U.S. media, most recent admin-
istrations, and scholars as renowned as Samuel Hun-
tington have implied (if not assumed) that this link be-
tween Islamists and violence means that all Islamist
groups, or at least the vast majority, are violent as a
matter of course. Political scientists studying Islamist
groups in the Middle East have, not surprisingly, found
a more complicated picture. Indeed, the majority of
Islamist groups have been involved in grassroots so-
cial activities, such as building schools and working to
feed the poor. Most Islamist groups appear to be made
up ofintellectuals who seek to develop Islamic thought,
thinking about a good Islamic way of life in the modem
world, and pursuing ties with Islamists around the world
through intellectual conferences and meetings. Despite
the claims of Huntington and others of broad intera-
tional ties among violent Islamists, and even states, bent
on overthrowing the U.S. way of life, the majority of
international ties that do exist among Islamists appear
to be intellectual ties between moderate and distinctly
non-violent groups.

Furthermore, according to some studies, there is a di-
rect correlation between Middle Eastern regimes that
close the political system to broad political participa-
tion, on the one hand, and Islamist groups turning to
violence, on the other hand. Indeed, the overwhelming
majority of violence on the part of Islamist groups in
the Middle East has been directed at their local, state
context (Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Turkey, etc.). InAlge-
ria, for example, it has been argued that violence against
state and civilians has been targeted (not random) for
the explicit policy goal of punishing political leaders and
defectors considered to be part of an oppressive re-
gime. While groups like Hizbullah or Hamas cross in-
ternational borders to attack Israel, their complaint
against Israel is local and national rather than reflecting
a broad civilizational clash. Most Islamist groups that

use violence do so to undermine local governments due to a
real or perceived oppressive political system in which these
groups are not allowed to participate. These groups may
threaten regimes that are allied to the U. S. and we may dis-
approve of their activities; however, their policy uses of non-
state violence are radically different than those implied by a
"clash of civilizations" or by Bin Laden's act of war against
the U.S.

The implication is that, for most Islamist groups, if the U. S. is
to respond at all, it should be responding to what adds up to
abroad call for democratization. My "Politics of the Middle
East" class has been debating these issues based on read-
ings about the various types of Islamist groups in the Middle
East. In seeking to explain U.S. policy in the Middle East,
my students identified a maj or tension between the U.S.'s
stated goal of democratization around the world versus U. S.
security interests. These security interests have taken pre-
cedence in the setting of policy, the idea being that the enemy
that I know is better than the enemy that I do not know.
Democratization, while arguably leading to long-term stabil-
ity, in the short-term almost inevitably leads to instability; with
the participation of new groups in the political system, it is
impossible to know who will gain power and what their in-
terests will be.

Moreover, U.S. security interests have been conflated, in
U.S. policy in the Middle East, with economic interests. Thus,
the ideological content of a regime (supporting U. S. eco-
nomic interests) has been more important than democratiza-
tion. The equation my students came up with looks some-
thing like: democratization = ideological uncertainty = insta-
bility = support of U.S. interests unknown. Interestingly,
some in my class continue to advocate the precedence given
to security interests, while others continue to advocate de-
mocratization. Thoughtful people can, indeed, disagree on
the balance to be had between these issues.

Continued on Page 10

Jett Article Continued...

ing Palestinians on the West Bank and Gaza celebrate after
September 11, one could not tell if the celebration extended
beyond the range of the camera and whether its presence
helped spark the demonstrations. One recently televised sen-
timent that did appear real and widespread was thejoy of
those liberated from the oppressive rule of the Taliban.

Those who are convinced someone out there hates us offer
different explanations for why this is so including economic,
cultural, political, religious and foreign policy reasons. There
is also the school of thought that maintains we deserve to be

The economic motivation says that poverty is a cause for
terrorism and that this has been exacerbated by globaliza-
tion. People in poor countries are now more aware, and
therefore more resentful, of the wealth in rich countries. The
absence of terrorism in the vast majority of countries that are
poor does little to support this theory however.

There is also the theory thatAmerica's cultural dominance,
aided again by globalization, has motivated the fundamental-
ists who are trying to preserve their own culture by returning
to the fifteenth century. Perhaps like many American par-
ents, they hate the way Madonna and Britney sing and dress,
but they are willing to do something violent about it. Ameri-
can culture has a worldwide presence, however, and the vio-
lent reaction is confined to the few that are the most intoler-
ant of any culture other than their own.

Another thought is that American foreign policy, especially
with regard to Israel, has given additional motivation to the
terrorists. Arab leaders have drawn on the Palestinian issue
in the past to criticize Israel and its supporters. While they
may have used the issue they have done little to really help
the Palestinians except use their cause opportunistically.
Osama Bin Laden, for instance, never expressed much con-
cern about the plight of the Palestinians until he started to
throw it in as another reason to hate the United States. One
might question the sincerity of leaders who argue for the rights
of Palestinians while they deny them to their own. Education
and tolerance are not the only elements necessary to en

courage acts of terrorism. Another requirement is lead-
ers who are willing to maintain themselves in power by,
encouraging, exploiting and directing the hatred and fear
of their followers. In that regard, people like Bin Laden,
Robertson and Falwell have something in common.

Anderson Hall
Home of the Political Science Department

Woods Article Conclusion...

What is certain, from my perspective, is that engaging in
a "war" against "terrorism," as though all non-state vio-
lence is the same will not be an effective long-term strat-
egy to end non-state violence in the Middle East. In-
deed, we may be forced to re-consider several points:
the conflation ofU.S. security interests with economic
interests, of corporations or of the people as a whole;
the balance we choose between democratization and
this reconceptualization of security; and the aversion to
any short-term ideological uncertainty in a more open
regime. Supporting oppressive regimes, such as the
Wahhabi regime in Saudi Arabia, has not been a pro-
ductive policy in the long-term, despite the short-term
economic and political benefits to the U. S.



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Department of Political Science
234 Anderson Hall
P.O. Box 117325
Gainesville, FL 32611-7325

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| Donations are tax -deductable Hep CreateTh te irst
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