Title: Friends of the Randell Research Center
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00090510/00027
 Material Information
Title: Friends of the Randell Research Center
Series Title: Friends of the Randell Research Center
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Randell Research Center, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida
Publisher: Randell Research Center, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Pineland, Fla.
Publication Date: September 2008
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090510
Volume ID: VID00027
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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Friends of the

Pr, i ii

1 it A

Vol. 7, No. 3

/Kanaeil Kesearcn center


Archaeological Salvage at Brown's Complex Mound 4

Surprise Destruction Leads to County Historical Designation of Pineland Site

by Bill Marquardt and Karen Walker

Destruction of Mound 4
On September 27, 2007, the sound of heavy
equipment punctuated the late-afternoon
ambience of Pineland, as a large backhoe
removed about 5,000 cubic feet of the mound
known as Brown's Complex Mound 4. The mound
is on private property owned by Chris and Gayle
Bundschu, who were .,i,,11 i. I ih )use there. The
Bundschus were following the requirements of the
county health department, which had mandated a
large excavation for the septic-tank drainfield,
based on the size of the house.
Concerned that unmarked human burials
might be disturbed, Lee County imposed a stop
work order pursuant to state statute. This was
based on published archaeological evidence of
Calusa Indians having buried their dead in
elevated midden-mounds during the
Caloosahatchee IIA period (A.D. 500-800). At
the request of the property owners, Lee County
planner Gloria Sajgo, and State Archaeologist
Ryan Wheeler, Bill Marquardt proposed an
investigation to determine whether or not
human remains were present and to document
the sedimentation layers for comparison with
previous systematic work at the Pineland Site
Complex. This plan was acceptable to all, and
the field investigations were undertaken by Bill
Marquardt and Karen Walker on October 16 19
and October 22-26, 2007. We were assisted by
two professional archaeologists working in the
area who volunteered their time -Tom
McIntosh and Eugene Chapman -and by
archaeologist and RRC employee Michael Wylde.
We are very grateful for their assistance.

S..-. . ..-- .. ,, ._.- r ... ,'.
... . a

. "' "
... .- -. .
Beginning work in the septic drainfield pit in Mound 4 of the Brown's Mound Complex,
October, 2007. Pictured in foreground are Bill Marquardt (left) and Eugene Chapman. (Photo
by K. Walker.)
....................... ...................... ..................e... ......................

We set in stakes at the corners of the
drainfield excavation, and measured the
elevation relative to the Pineland site's topo
graphic map. Using hand tools, working from
top to bottom, we cleared the vertical exposures
' ,i, ,fil. of the disturbed sediments, and pulled
loose dirt away from the profile bases in order to
reveal the maximum area for inspection. We
took photographs of each of the exposed profiles
to document the variously colored sediments.
When all the profiles had been cleaned and
photographed, Karen created a measured,

schematic drawing, noting general depositional
trends and evidence of such features as activity
surfaces, post molds, artifacts, and pits. We
noted any artifacts or unusual materials in place
in the profile diagram, then collected and
systematically numbered them.
If human remains had been encountered
during the profile documentation, these would
have been marked and left in place and the
provisions of state law followed. However,
although many fish, mammal, reptile, and bird
bones were observed and identified, we found no
continued on page 2

September 2008


Karen Walker (left) and Eugene Chapman straighten the sides of the drainfield pit. (Photo by W.
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .

human bones. When the field drawings had been
completed, we retrieved a series of representative
sediment and shell samples, and submitted
several samples for radiocarbon dating.
All artifacts discovered in the course of this
investigation belonged to the owners, but they
offered to donate d 1 I-.... ,, 1,i iI I i .I i Ii I
found in context to the Florida Museum of Natural
History. The Museum agreed to curate them in
perpetuity. The owners retained a representative
sample of artifacts for display in the foyer of their
new home.


A quick look at the drawing and photos of the
excavation shows several layers of variously colored
sediments (see pages 4-5). Generally, we think the
darker-colored layers represent activity surfaces
-that is, spaces where people lived, worked, and
played. Some of these dark layers may be the floors
of Calusa houses, while others may indicate common
areas situated in front of people's residences.
Extending down from some of these dark layers
are long, narrow, dark streaks that probably represent
the remains of long-rotted wooden posts. As the

posts rotted, sediments from the dark layers
filtered down into the voids left by the rotted posts;
archaeologist call such features "post molds,"
because they are literally molds of where posts
once were.
Alternating with the dark layers are deposits
of mollusk shells, animal bones, ashes, charcoal,
broken pottery, and spent tools and other objects
made of bones and shells. These lighter-colored
layers probably represent episodes of refuse
dumping, which archaeologists call "middens."
Archaeologists refer to the various layers as
"strata" (singular "stratum"), and they are
numbered from top to bottom. Stratum 1 is a
variable gray sandy deposit with fragments of
shell, rock, modern debris, roots, and other
disturbances. Stratum 2 is a dense shell deposit
with light gray sand, animal bone, charred wood
fragments, pottery sherds, and shell artifacts.
Based on field observations, the most abundant
shell is that of the lightning whelk, followed by
pearwhelk, true tulip, fighting conch, oyster, and
crown conch. Also present are banded tulip,
horse conch, quahog clam, bay scallop, ribbed
mussel, and surf clam.

The south profile (see diagram and photo)
reveals a series of four midden episodes
separated by four sandy activity-surface strata
(strata 3a, 3b, 3c). For this reason, we divided
Stratum 2 into 2a, 2b, 2c, and 2d with 2a being
the youngest )I ,,l 1 deposit and 2d the oldest
(deepest). The south profile clearly documents an
eastward progression of both midden and activity
surface deposits. Stratum 2a was radiocarbon
dated to about A.D. 1400 to 1460, the
Caloosahatchee IV time period.
Strata 3 and 4, sometimes indistinguishable
from each other, other times distinct, both
contrasted in form, color, and content with the
overlying shell of Stratum 2 and the underlying
shell of Stratum 5. Both strata 3 and 4 document
activity surfaces (associated with structures of
some kind), are darker in color, and contain more
sand and less shell than 2 and 5. Stratum 3 is a
medium dark gray sandy sediment with much
less shell, animal bone, charred wood, and
artifacts. Its radiocarbon date is about A.D. 1210
to 1270, the Caloosahatchee III period.
Stratum 4 is a light gray sand very similar to
Stratum 3. We think it represents an extensive
activity surface associated with one or more
structures of some kind. It may well have covered
the entire space of Mound 4 and more. A
radiocarbon date places Stratum 4 at A.D. 800
980, indicating a Caloosahatchee IIB period
occupation. Associated with both strata 3 and 4
are numerous postmolds. However, we can say
nothing about the position, size, or shape of the
multiple Calusa -.,, 11 i1, i- that once stood here
because the entire area between the profiles was
removed by heavy machinery.
Strata 5, 6, and 7 are quite different from 2, 3,
and 4. Strata 5, 6, and 7 represent an earlier
sequence of habitation that sloped toward the west,
toward Pine Island Sound. Stratum 5 is a very
dense deposit of shells with sparse light gray sand,
bone, charred wood, and artifacts. The shell
assemblage is less diverse than that of Stratum 2
and there is much less animal bone. The most
abundant shell types are lightning whelk, pear
whelk, and crown conch. A radiocarbon date
indicates that Stratum 5 was deposited about
A.D. 670 to 790, the Caloosahatchee IIA period.
Stratum 6 (with intermittent layers a, b, and
c), is a light gray sandy deposit with much less

shell, sparse animal bone, and few artifacts. No
visible post molds are associated with Stratum 6,
not surprising because in each case the strata slope
to the west. The strata nonetheless appear to be
activity surfaces. Stratum 7's shell density and
content are the same as that of the strata 5 series,
except that 7 contains many more animal bones,
primarily fish bones.
Stratum 8 (not visible on the south profile
diagram) is different in appearance from all the
others. It is a black sandy deposit with crushed
shell and abundant bone, primarily fish bone.
Shell types and their relative abundances are
similar to strata 5 through 7 except that ribbed
mussel is abundant and pen shell is present. We
were unable to investigate any deposits that lie
below Stratum 8. But if this area of Mound 4 is
comparable to the area near Mound 2 where our
1988 1992 excavations were located, as we suspect
it is, then the deposits beneath the septic drain
field extend downward at least another 1.7
meters (51/2 feet).
In sum, the information we were able to gather
was limited due to the lack of context and the nature
of the disturbance. We can say with confidence
that the area destroyed by the drainfield excava
tion was intensively occupied by Calusa Indians,
mostly in the Caloosahatchee IIA, IB, III, and IV
periods (A.D. 500 1500). No human bones or
burial pits were found during the investigation
of the septic drainfield pit.

Increased Protection for
the Pineland Site
The property we call the Pineland Site Complex
has been occupied almost continuously for 2,000
years. When the Spaniards arrived in the 1500s,
Pineland was the second largest of all the Calusa
towns. It has mounds almost three stories tall, a
canal that went all the way across Pine Island (2 /2
miles) to the other side, and some 20 centuries of
archaeological deposits from which we can learn,
not only about the native Indian people but also
about environmental changes through time. For
all these reasons, the site is listed in the National
Register of Historic Places, and has been so listed
since 1982. Many people are under the impression

continued on page 4

- Some interesting shell artifacts from Mound 4 -

I ;

U,: i

LEFT: Bivalve knife/scraper made from sun-ray venus
clam shell, 4 /2" long. (Drawing by S. E. Hunter.)
S CENTER: Single-grooved columella sinker, made from
Central column of a horse conch shell, 31/2" long. (Drawing
I., S. E. Hunter.)
RIGH r: Gastropod celt, made from lip of a queen conch shell,
31/2" inches long. (Drawing by S. E. Hunter.)

New and Renewing Friends of the RRC from
June 16 through September 1, 2008
(* indicates donation of materials or services. Please let us know of any errors
or omissions. Thank you for your support.)

Sustaining Members
($5,000- $19,999)
Maple Hill Foundation
Dwight & Susan Sipprelle
Supporting Members
($1,000- $4,999)
Rick Bonsey
Flex Bon Paints*
Wendell & Evelyn Kent
Sponsoring Members
($500 $999)
Donald Cyzewski
Mr. & Mrs. William

Contributing Members
($100- $499)
Ann Cordell
Darcie MacMahon
Joan McMahan
Patty Jo Watson
Rob & Jessica Wells
Family Members
Massoud & Elizabeth
Shirley House
Craig Sparks
Individual Members
Beverly H. Brazill

Boca Grande Historical
Harold Bruner
Louise F. Bryans
Lois E. Clarke
Judith D '-' .. !1.i
Jill Fontaine
Lee Harrison
Frances E. Hermann
Lona Meister
Gina Poppell
John Reedy
Mary Ann Scott
William G. Vernetson


-'ii 1
continued from page 3

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TOP: Composite photo of profile of
the septic excavation, looking south.
(Photos by W. Marquardt; stitched into a
single image by S. E. Hunter.)
BOTTOM: Interpretive drawing of the
same south profile, showing strata
discussed in this article. (Field drawing
by K. Walker; digitized by S. E. Hunter.)

that this means that the site is protected,
but this is not true.
When our neighbors dug out a drinfield
for their septic tank, destroying a large
part of Mound 4, they did not break the
law. In fact, they did exactly what the
County Health Department had told them
to do. Had we been able to consult about
this plan before the destruction began,
perhaps some alternatives could have
S11 11 -.! -, .1, 1 The Bundschus were
cooperative, allowing us to document the
layers in the destroyed part of the mound.
We appreciate this, but it would have
been better if we could have had a
conversation about it beforehand.
The destruction of Mound 4 came to
the attention of the Lee County Historic
Preservation Board, which proposed to
designate the Pineland site as a county
historical resource. This means that if a
major earth-moving project or construct
tion project is planned, whether on public
or private property, there will be an
opportunity to discuss the best way to go
about it and try to protect and preserve
the Pineland archaeological site as much
as possible. Public hearings were held in
late 2007, and in January, 2008, the Pineland
site- ,-,if ,ii ,i -1 i, ,i i I county
historical resource. This means that in the
future, when major excavations are
contemplated, such as for a swimming
pool or septic tank, there will be time to
plan for the best way to protect and
preserve the Pineland Site Complex.

II v

7 ~ ry

Friends of the

1 it A

\/ Ranaeii Kesearcn center

Pineland, Florida* September, 2008
Phone (239) 283-2062 E-mail: randellcenter@comcast.net

Dear Friend,

You are cordially invited to join, or renew your membership in, the RRC's support society, Friends of the Randell
Research Center. All Friends of the RRC receive a quarterly newsletter and free admission to the Calusa Heritage Trail at
Pineland. Supporters at higher levels are entitled to discounts on our books and merchandise, advance notice of
programs, and special recognition. Your continuing support is vital to our mission. It means more research, more educa-
tion, and continued site improvements at the Randell Research Center. Thank you.

William H. Marquardt
Randell Research Center

Please check the membership level you prefer, and send this form with credit card information
or check payable to Randell Research Center, to:
Membership Coordinator Randell Research Center PO Box 608 Pineland, Florida 33945

" Individual ($30) and Student ($15): quarterly Newsletter
and free admission to Calusa Heritage Trail
" Family ($50): The above + advance notice and 10%
discount on children's programs
1 Contributor ($100-$499): The above + annual honor
roll listing in newsletter + 20% discount on RRC
publications and merchandise
1 Sponsor ($500-$999): The above + invitation to annual
Director's tour and reception

Permanent Address



" Supporter ($1,000-$4,999): The above + listing on
annual donor plaque at Pineland site
" Sustaining Members ($5,000-$19,999), Benefactors
($20,000-$99,999), and Patrons ($100,000
and above) receive all of the above + complimentary
RRC publications and special briefings from the

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The Randell Research Center is a program of the Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida.

Books, Videos and RRC

The Calusa and Their Legacy: South Florida People and Their Environments
by Darcie A. MacMahon and William H. Marquardt, U. Press of Florida, hardcover $39.95
Sharks and Shark Products in Prehistoric South Florida
by Laura Kozuch; Monograph 2, softcover $5.00
The Archaeology of Useppa Island
edited by William H. Marquardt; Monograph 3, hardcover $35.00, softcover $20.00
New Words, Old Songs: Understanding the Lives of Ancient Peoples
in Southwest Florida Through Archaeology
by Charles Blanchard, illustrated by Merald Clark; hardcover $19.95, softcover $9.95
Fisherfolk of Charlotte Harbor, Florida
by Robert F. Edic; hardcover $35.00
Florida's First People
by Robin Brown, Pineapple Press, hardcover, $29.95
Missions to the Calusa
by John H. Hann, U. Press of Florida, hardcover, $35.00
Florida's Indians
by Jerald T Milanich, U. Press of Florida, softcover, $19.95
Archaeology of Precolumbian Florida
by Jerald T Milanich, U. Press of Florida, softcover, $27.95
The Lost Florida Manuscripts of Frank Hamilton Cushing
edited by Phyllis E. Kolianos and Brent R. Weisman, U. Press of Florida, hardcover, $59.95
Indian Art of Ancient Florida
by Barbara Purdy, U. Press of Florida, hardcover, $35.00
The Domain of the Calusa: Archaeology and Adventure in the Discovery of South Florida's Past
DVD video, $12.95
Expedition Florida: Three-program Set
(From Exploration to Exhibition; The Wild Heart of Florida; Wild Alachua)
DVD video, $24.95
RRC logo Hat $20.00
RRC logo short-sleeve cotton staff shirt -
(specify size: S, M, L, XL) $35.00
RRC logo short-sleeve cotton T-shirt /
(specify Adult size: S, M, L, XL) $15.00
(specify Child size: XS, S, M) $12.00
RRC logo tote bag $10.00
RRC logo coffee mug $10.00 /

To place order, make check payable to: Randell Research Center
or fill in credit card information and mail to:
Randell Research Center / PO Box 608 / Pineland FL 33945.
Questions? 239 283 2157 / E-mail: randellcenter@comcast.net

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Total for items ordered:
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r S



Ruby Gill House Preservation Planning Work Begins

Summer 2008 Work on Exterior Helps Protect the House

by Bill Marquardt

Stevenson Architects of Bradenton, Florida has
been hired to produce construction documents
and a long-term preservation plan for the historic
Ruby Gill House, our Randell Research Center
headquarters in Pineland. This work will be paid
for by Lee County, through grants from its Historic
Preservation Board.
We are pleased to be working with Linda
Stevenson, principal architect of this firm. She has
extensive experience in historical architecture and
has completed many projects in southwest Florida.
Structural engineering services will be provided
by Bob Rude Structures of Fort Myers. The work
will begin this month.
As long-time RRC friends know, the Gill House
was badly damaged by Hurricane Charley, which
is why our office has moved temporarily to Matlacha,
8 miles from Pineland. Our goal is to stabilize and
then repair the Gill House, including restoring the
historic wood floors, ceilings, and other interior
features. The master plan prepared by Linda will
include both a historical/conditions assessment
and a restoration plan with detailed drawings
and a rehabilitation budget. With detailed

Did Yo Knw

Al prviu Fred of the

construction drawings in hand, we
will then hire a contractor to do the
rehabilitation work, using the n
money raised during our recent
building-fund drive and grants from
the Lee County Tourist Develop
ment Council and the Southwest
Florida Community Foundation,
Arts and Attractions Fund.
When the construction is
finished, the historic Gill House will once again
serve as the RRC's offices and laboratories and
welcome visitors to Pineland. Part of the appeal
of the Pineland archaeological site as a destina
tion is that the public can witness or even
participate as a volunteer in actual archaeological
investigations. But until the Gill House is habitable
again, we have no adequate laboratory facilities
in which to process artifacts, analyze them, and
report the findings in a timely and responsible
fashion. If all goes as expected, we will move
back into the Gill House in spring, 2009.
Meanwhile, in August contractor Dale Schneider
completed the exterior stabilization work, including

William Marquardt
William Marquardt
Karen Walker
GBS Productions
Gift Shop & Tour Information:
(239) 283-2157

Gill House, viewed from Pineland Road, August
2008. Restored windows are back in upstairs
and the second-story exterior has been
painted. (Photo by W. Marquardt.)

replacing damaged siding, reinstalling the restored
historic double-hung windows, and priming and
painting the exterior of the building. This work
was made possible by a donation by Dale of
custom-milled heart-pine siding valued at
$5,000, a donation of $1,500 worth of premium
paint by Flex Bon Paints of Cape Coral, and funds
from the Friends of the Randell Research Center.
We thank you all for your generous support.

Send questions or comments to:
Randell Research Center
PO Box 608
Pineland FL 33945-0608 FLORIDA
Telephone (239) 283-2062 MUSEUM
Fax (239) 283-2080 OF NATURALHISTORYS
Email: randellcenter@comcast.net NIVERSITY
Website: www.flmnh.ufl.edu/RRC/ UFFLORIDA

PO Box 608
-i PINELAND, FL 33945-0608

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