Title: Friends of the Randell Research Center
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00090510/00022
 Material Information
Title: Friends of the Randell Research Center
Series Title: Friends of the Randell Research Center
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Randell Research Center, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida
Publisher: Randell Research Center, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Pineland, Fla.
Publication Date: June 2007
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090510
Volume ID: VID00022
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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SRan dell Research Center

To Enslave or Not To
Enslave: The Colonial
Fate of South Florida's
Indian People
by John Worth

Beginning early in 15 6 6, Florida's founder Pedro
Menendez de Aviles embarked on a far-reaching strategy to bring the native
peoples of South Florida into his new colony. With the colony's hub at St.
Augustine (in the territory of the agricultural Timucuan people of northern
Florida), and its primary maritime connection to the rest of the Spanish
colonial empire in Havana, Cuba, South Florida's non-agricultural chiefdoms
were sandwiched in the middle, and represented a pivotal area for Menendez's
colonial plan. Within a year, Spanish garrisons had been placed at forts in
Calos (on Mound Key), Tocobaga (in Tampa Bay), and Tequesta (in Miami),
and perhaps 30,000 Indian people were nominally under Spanish control.
By January, 1568, the Tocobaga and Tequesta forts had been overrun and
abandoned, and by June, 1569, the last garrison had been withdrawn from
Calusa territory. Jesuit missionaries were relocated to Georgia and South
Carolina, and Spain relinquished control of South Florida to its natives. Only
a handful of European visits are documented for this region over the next
two centuries.
In January, 1573, just a year and a half before his death in Spain, Menendez
proposed a truly radical change in strategy for South Florida, one which
reflected his complete loss of hope for controlling its native peoples. He
lamented that "although all the Indians from the Mosquito River [Mosquito
Inlet] at the beginning of the Bahama Channel down to the Martyrs [Florida
Keys], and returning up to Tocobaga Bay [Tampa Bay], have been approached
in great friendship, and have been given many gifts and brought many times
to Havana and returned to their lands, and have rendered obedience to His
Majesty, they have many times ruptured the peace, killing many Christians,

13 Months To Go: Can We Do It?
Since 1996, the Randell Research Center has raised a little over $1.6
million toward its $2 million goal. Gifts to the endowment fund are
invested, and the annual income supports research, education, and site
maintenance. Between now and July 31, 2008, the National Endowment
for the Humanities will add $1 for every $4 donated to our endowment
fund. The State of Florida will match with $2. So, for another 13 months,
your donation of $100 is worth $175. Your $1000 will become $1750!
Because of this extraordinary matching opportunity, we need to raise not
$400,000, but only $247,000 to reach $2 million. Ourgoal is within reach.
Can you help with a special tax-deductible donation?

and they have been pardoned, and despite everything they have not taken
advantage of this... I have established peace with them three times, and they
have broken it." CE -, i,.ii,,1. i, I i- of these acts, Menendez proposed that
"from now on, in order to protect the service of God our lord, and of His Majesty,
it is suitable...that war be waged on them with all rigor, in blood and fire,
and that those who are taken alive can be sold as slaves, removing them
from the land and carrying them to the neighboring islands of Cuba, Santo
Domingo, and Puerto Rico, because in this manner...it will remain clean
continued on page 2

Our Goal: $2,000,000


RRC Endowment Gifts as of
May 15, 2007: $1,602,142

SFriends of the

June 2007


Vol. 6, No. 2

continued from page 1
and depopulated...and it will be a great example and fear for the friendly
Indians who maintain and fulfill our friendship."
Importantly, the Spanish crown denied Menendez's request to enslave
the South Florida Indians, and instead proposed that Spanish soldiers "go
into the interior and apprehend all those guilty for the murders and sacrifices
that have been committed against Christians under pretense of peace and
friendship" but that the rest "should be brought to the islands of Cuba,
Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico and turned over to the justices of those islands so
thatthey ,. i i- lii ii i I.1 ,iii .Ii the people that seem most suitable to instruct
them in government, and to become Christians, or to give them places to
make their villages with the government of people who will occupy them in
labor, and to have regulation and catechesis." In all cases, however, the
Spanish crown commanded "that neither one nor the other should be slaves."
Although this plan was never implemented, it demonstrates staunch legal
support for the prohibition of any Indian slavery in Spanish colonies after
the early sixteenth century.
Finally, it is a curious coincidence that after nearly a century and a half
of near-total isolation, between 1704 and 1760 several hundred South Florida
Indian refugees from English-sponsored enslavement were voluntarily
transported to Cuba and resettled at a location on Havana Bay just opposite
downtown Havana, where they established a community and were sent
missionaries, just as proposed in the official response to Menendez's 1573
proposal. The fierce independence and isolationism of South Florida's native
peoples may have delayed the process for many generations, but their ultimate
fate was indeed resettlement in Cuba, where their descendants may yet remain
to be discovered among modern populations.

Farewell to John

by Bill Marquardt

With this issue, we bid a
fond farewell to John Worth,
who will leave his position as
RRC assistant director in June
to take an academic position at
the University of West Florida
X ein Pensacola. John has served
as local coordinator of our
research programs and outreach
services since 2001, and has
made many friends in the
community. The past six years
Sr have been eventful ones for the
RRC, and John has been very
much a part of our successes. In his new job as Director of the Historical
Archaeology Program at UWF, John will be able to pursue his interests
in university teaching and the mentoring of students. Although John
will be elsewhere in Florida, he assures us that he will continue his
research interest in southwest Florida, even as he branches out in
new directions.

New and Renewing Friends of the RRC
February 13, May 15, 2007
(Please let us know of any errors or omissions. Thank you for your support!)

Sustaining Members
($5,000- $19,999)
John & Gretchen Coyle
David Nutting
Supporting Members
($1,000- $4,999)
Lawrence E. & Carol F. Aten
Sponsoring Members
($500- $999)
Lammot duPont
Anina Hills Glaize
Greater Pine Island Chamber
of Commerce
Tropic Star of Pine Island, Inc.
Contributing Members
($100- $499)
Sharon Albright
Patricia Blackwell
Dr. & Mrs. Bruce Bielfelt
Joseph P. Brinton III

Robin C. Brown
Caloosahatchee River Citizens
Edison Garden Club
Catherine House
Bernard Johnson
Peggy & Barney King
Robin C. Krivanek
Jerald T Milanich
Carolyn M. Murphey
John A. Paeno
Vernon & Edna Jane Peeples
Bill Pretsch
Graig & Kris Shaak
Paul & Shane Swigert
Manfred & Irmhilt Von
Judith A. Williams
Tim Wininger
Dick Workman

Family Members
Jan & Robin Brown
Frank Desguin
Gaea Guides
Art & Lynn Lee
Norman & Kimberly Liddell
Elaine McLaughlin
John B. & Myrtle Orzalli
Robert T. Page
The Pastor Family
Marie Rock
Kim & Kris Sears
Thunderbird Women's Club
D. S. & Katharine E. Van Riper
John & Sally Van Schaick
Individual Members
Elizabeth F. Abbott
Paul Andrews
Barbara Blank

Loretta Blessing
Mark Brenner
Louis Franks
Bill Godek
Carolyn Graham
Lee Harrison
Kissimmee Valley
Archaeological & Historical
Elaine Lindroth
Edith Marquardt
Jeffrey M. Mitchem
Phyllis A. Pirner
John Reedy
Barbara Swire
Edward T. Winn
Student Members
John Dietler

FPAN Update

by Kara Bridgman Sweeney

Since last I wrote in this space, I have continued presenting
programs about archaeology to numerous audiences, including public school
students as well as at libraries and other venues. Also, I have been part of
several events tied to Florida Archaeology Month (celebrated annually in March).
Details about upcoming events relating to my FPAN operations can be found
at our new FPAN website at < www.pinelandparc.com >.
About 450 people attended Calusa Heritage Day at the Randell Research
Center, where they enjoyed guided tours of the trail, lectures about various
archaeological topics (by John Worth, Alex Sweeney, and me), and demonstra
tions of atlatl use and fieldwork (by Michael Wylde and many volunteers, ably
directed by Diane Maher). Visitors also learned about environmental archaeology
near Surf Clam Ridge, thanks to Donna Ruhl and Karen Walker of the Florida
Museum of Natural History, and about Calusa myths and legends thanks to
storyteller John Paeno. Finally, people learned basic paddling techniques from
Gaea Guides and got information about the Great Calusa Blueway paddling
trail. The weather was beautiful for our event, and several people reported
being interested enough in what they learned that day to become involved as
volunteers, or to return for more visits in the future.
I also recently participated in several events held in Fort Myers, Naples,
Marco Island, Chokoloskee, and Everglades City, 11 1. 1I ,I 1. I 1 ... 1 1. ..I. 1 ._ .
and history. Some of these events were informal (such as an artifact identification
session held at Big House Coffee in Chokoloskee), while others were more
structured (as at festivals held at Collier Seminole State Park near Naples,
the Museum of the Everglades in Everglades City, and the Rookery Bay
National Estuarine Research Reserve in Naples). Working with many other
stewards of area heritage, I was able to relate much of what we know about
southwest Florida archaeology to numerous people at these events. One
particularly exciting event was the opening of the Otter Mound property to the
public. This is a small park and interpretive trail on Marco Island, containing
many intact shell mounds and other cultural features (including a historic
outhouse which seems rather out of place atop an obvious shell mound).
This unique site, complete with native plantings, can now be preserved in
perpetuity thanks to the efforts of Conservation Collier and many volunteers
with the Southwest Florida Archaeological Society, directed by Jack Thompson.
I have continued to present programs about archaeology to numerous student
groups in Alva, Bonita Springs, Cape Coral, Everglades City, Fort Myers, LaBelle,
Lehigh Acres, Matlacha, Naples, and North Fort Myers. Additionally, I have
assisted injudging numerous science and history projects throughout Collier
and Lee Counties. I also have arranged to present lectures and tours to numerous
groups in partnership with Lifetime Learning at Edison College in Punta Gorda.
Jennifer Jennings has helped a lot in keeping many schedules straight!
Obviously, our jobs involve interactions with all ages and levels of experience,
and this is one reason working with FPAN and the RRC is so enjoyable. However,
I must admit that some of the best rewards I have enjoyed thus far in myjob
have been due to the enthusiastic feedback from some of my youngest
audiences. Here are some excerpts from charming thank-you notes, courtesy
of area students who met me twice, for presentations and for guided site tours:
From nine-year old Hannah: "Our class enjoyed your recent visit and discussing
thejoys of archaeology. I especially found the information regarding Frank

The new Otter Mound Park on Marco Island. An enhanced wall
composed of lightning-whelk shells can be seen in the photograph.
(Photo by K. Bridgman Sweeney.)

Cushing interesting. It must have been so amazing to live among native
people [in the southwestern United States] over a century ago and to also
be the first scientist at Pineland. All of the artifacts you showed us were the
most interesting. I could almost imagine what it would be like to be a
Native American back then....
From ten-year old Austin: "Now I know archaeologists are studies [sic] of the
past, but they might study bones if they're related to humans from the past.
The pictures of the shell mounds were cool because they used their trash
for elevation. Also, the artifacts and replicas were best of all. That Marco
Cat was very cool; still I think the Calusa were thinking they might evolve
into cats. One thing still lingers in my mind; why didn't the shell hammers
break? I hope you can answer all my questions on the field trip....
And, my personal favorite note to date may be from eight-year old Thomas at
Caloosa Elementaryin Cape Coral, who wrote, "The field trip to the mounds
wasgreat! Itwasevenbetterthan eE iii-I,,ii. I, ii i n"' I' ;/100 better than
lunch. I wish I worked there so I could visit Calusa mounds every day." If
this child can sustain his eiil ,-i .,i i I ,I r I I, ,i I I. ...- is in good hands!!
While schools will be out for summer break before long, several groups of
campers and other young people are expected to visit the Pineland site beginning
in June. Specifically, they will be learning about typical Southwest Florida
artifacts, as they assist ii -11i i nI 1, ii l s salvaged during construction on
Brown's Complex Mound 4. This material has already produced many
interesting finds. For instance, two fragments of carved bone pins and two
chert projectile points I 1 211 II i,. l complete) were recently found by sharp
eyed RRC volunteers Pat and David Townsend.
Finally, as reported elsewhere in this newsletter, John Worth has taken a
new position at University of West Florida. We as a staff have begun a transition
period, preparing for the arrival of a new assistant director, as well as an outreach
assistant who will eventuallyjoin me in conducting the educational activities
of the center. John deserves thanks for all of his work in making the Calusa
Heritage Trail and the Randell Research Center so recognizable in southwest
Florida, and his many contributions to area research and to the center will
continue to be appreciated.


Rare Visitor Meets

Unlucky Fate

r. n

Turtle skeleton being excavated: left to right,
Karen Walker, Bill Marquardt, Gigi Mills.
(Photo by G. Amsler.)
*e *** ******* ******** *************** ****e**e****
O n M onday, April 10 2006 visiting
archaeologist John Dietler discovered a recently
killed Kemp's ridley sea turtle on the southern
end of Useppa Island's eastern beach. The
Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) is the
rarest of the world's seven sea-turtle species.
With permission from the Florida Fish and
Wildlife Conservation Commission, John buried
the turtle so that its skeleton could be recovered
. later for use in teaching and research. On March
27, 2007, Karen Walker and Bill Marquardt
2 excavated the remains with the assistance of Useppa
Islander Gigi Mills and
--- 1 .i-i. i1l help from
.' I ly Amslerand
-- I o terand Mary
-- 11 on. Karen and
-- -Ill Iransported
h. I I .i backto
SGainesville, where it will be cleaned and
prepared for use as a teaching specimen.

RRC Welcomes

Linda Heffner

by Bill Marquardt

We are pleased to
welcome Linda Heffner
to the RRC team in
Pineland. Linda works
half time in the RRC
office as fiscal assistant
for the Southwest
Regional Center of
the Florida Public
Archaeology Network.
Linda's first bookkeeping experience was back
in the early 1970s: "My husband and I owned
a gas station and I did the bookkeeping for the
business. I thought I might like it better than
learning to work on cars!" When her children
were in grade school, they became interested in
BMX racing, and Linda became the bookkeeper
for the race track in her home town. "It was also
a non-profit business and all the funds were put
back into the track by way of purchasing trophies,
maintaining the track, etc." Linda and her husband
Jim moved to San Jose, California in 1998, where
they spent six years. Linda worked in the real
estate field. They moved to Pine Island in 2004.

Editor: S
William Marquardt
William Marquardt
Kara Bridgman Sweeney
John Worth
GBS Productions

end questions or comments to:
Randell Research Center
PO Box 608
Pineland FL 33945-0608
Telephone (239) 283-2062
Fax (239) 283-2080
Email: randellcenter@comcast.net
Website: www.flmnh.ufl.edu/RRC/

i PO BOX 608
- --'---- PINELAND, FL 33945-0608



Forwarding Service Requested

Pineland, FL
Permit No. 26


!II I_ c

rTRandell Research Center

Pineland, Florida June, 2007
Phone (239) 283-2062 E-mail: randellcenter@comcast.net

Dear Friend,

You are cordially invited to join, or renew your membership in, the RRC's support society, Friends of the Randell
Research Center. All Friends of the RRC receive a quarterly newsletter and free admission to the Calusa Heritage Trail at
Pineland. Supporters at higher levels are entitled to discounts on our books and merchandise, advance notice of
programs, and special recognition. Your continuing support is vital to our mission. It means more research, more educa-
tion, and continued site improvements at the Randell Research Center. Thank you.


John E. Worth, Ph.D.
Assistant Director
Randell Research Center

Please check the membership level you prefer, and send this form, along with your check
payable to Friends of the Randell Research Center, to:
Membership Coordinator Randell Research Center PO Box 608 Pineland, Florida 33945

" Individual ($30) and Student ($15): quarterly Newsletter
and free admission to Calusa Heritage Trail
" Family ($50): The above + advance notice and 10%
discount on children's programs
1 Contributor ($100-$499): The above + annual honor
roll listing in newsletter + 20% discount on RRC
publications and merchandise
1 Sponsor ($500-$999): The above + invitation to annual
Director's tour and reception

Permanent Address



City / State / Zipcode

" Supporter ($1,000-$4,999): The above + listing on
annual donor plaque at Pineland site
Sustaining Members ($5,000-$19,999), Benefactors
($20,000-$99,999), and Patrons ($100,000
and above) receive all of the above + complimentary
RRC publications and special briefings from the
Please use my gift to obtain matching funds from the
National Endowment for the Humanities.

Seasonal Address (so we can send you your newsletter while you are away)



City / State / Zipcode

Use my seasonal address from



The Randell Research Center is a program of the Florida Museum of Natural History, University ofFlorida.

SFriends of the


books, Videos and RR

The Calusa and Their Legacy: South Florida People and Their Environments
by Darcie A. MacMahon and William H. Marquardt, U. Press of Florida, hardcover $39.95
Sharks and Shark Products in Prehistoric South Florida
by Laura Kozuch; Monograph 2, softcover $5.00
The Archaeology of Useppa Island
edited by William H. Marquardt; Monograph 3, hardcover $35.00, softcover $20.00
New Words, Old Songs: Understanding the Lives of Ancient Peoples
in Southwest Florida Through Archaeology
by Charles Blanchard, illustrated by Merald Clark; hardcover $19.95, softcover $9.95
Fisherfolk of Charlotte Harbor, Florida
by Robert F. Edic; hardcover $35.00
Dearest Daught and Popsy Wells: Two Artists Named Sawyer
by Marion S. Gilliland, hardcover $20.00, softcover $8.00
Florida's First People
by Robin Brown, Pineapple Press, hardcover, $29.95
Missions to the Calusa
by John H. Hann, U. Press of Florida, hardcover, $35.00
Indians of Central and South Florida, 1513-1763
by John H. Hann, U. Press of Florida, hardcover, $39.95
Florida's Indians
by Jerald T Milanich, U. Press of Florida, softcover, $19.95
Archaeology of Precolumbian Florida
by Jerald T Milanich, U. Press of Florida, softcover, $27.95
The Florida Journals of Frank Hamilton Cushing
edited by Phyllis E. Kolianos and Brent R. Weisman, U. Press of Florida, hardcover, $49.00
The Lost Florida Manuscripts of Frank Hamilton Cushing
edited by Phyllis E. Kolianos and Brent R. Weisman, U. Press of Florida, hardcover, $59.95
Indian Art of Ancient Florida
by Barbara Purdy, U. Press of Florida, hardcover, $35.00


The Domain of the Calusa: Archaeology and Adventure in the Discovery of South Florida's Past
VHS video $19.95
Expedition Florida: Three-program Set
(From Exploration to Exhibition; The Wild Heart of Florida; Wild Alachua)
DVD video, $24.95

RRC logo Hat
(specify color: bone, charcoal, or blue) $20.00
RRC logo short-sleeve cotton staff shirt
(specify size: S, M, L, XL) $35.00
RRC logo short-sleeve cotton T-shirt
(specify Adult size: S, M, L, XL) $15.00 ,
(specify Child size: XS, S, M) $12.00
RRC logo tote bag $10.00
RRC logo coffee mug $10.00

To place order, make check payable to: Randell Research Center and ma
Randell Research Center / PO Box 608 / Pineland FL 33945.
Check or money order only. Sorry, no credit cards.
Questions? 239 283 2157 / E-mail: randellcenter@comcast.net

Total for items ordered:
Friends of the RRC who give at the $100 level
or above may deduct 20% Discount:
il to: Florida residents add sales tax:
Shipping: Add $3.50 for first item,
$0.50 for each additional item:

- /'


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