Title: Friends of the Randell Research Center
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00090510/00020
 Material Information
Title: Friends of the Randell Research Center
Series Title: Friends of the Randell Research Center
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Randell Research Center, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida
Publisher: Randell Research Center, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Pineland, Fla.
Publication Date: December 2006
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090510
Volume ID: VID00020
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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Friends of the

2 /

Early Spanish Visits to

Southwest Florida

A Busy Decade after First Contact

by John Worth
The official discovery andnaming-. i ,iii ,,. ,I :1..
former Puerto Rican governor Juan Ponce de Le6n r i i I i I1I 1 1 I, ,n 11 1 .1.
of Spanish visitation to Southwest Florida, and inc . I II Ill I.,. i, I. l, .1
contact seems to have been a busy one. Although h. i. 1111 ... I 1I, I 111 1 I,
of Florida in September of 1514, news of Ponce de i., ,, I ..-. .,-- I ..
to have spurred additional visits by other Spaniard -
In 1517, the returning expedition ofFrancisco Her' i 1 1. I, I, ,I. i ,I I
the southern coastline of Florida in route to Cuba to tal , ii -i i.I, i l, I.1 .i
a disastrous battle in Yucatan where dozens of sol, I i I, I 1 ii IIi
expedition's leader mortally wounded. Led by Pon. I i,, ,i. -I ,I II Ii 1i
AntondeAlaminos, some 20 of the healthiest sailorn- li .I,, .... Iii, i,
in the vicinity of Ponce's earlier expedition, finding fi .I i i ii1 Il l I,, -
they dug on a broad beach. As recounted later by : I'. I1 i 'i II I, I III,-
almost immediately they were attacked by
Indians, "who came straight at the Spaniards,
shooting arrows at them, and with the surprise
they wounded six, but they responded so quickly
with the guns, crossbows, and swords that
[the Indians] left them and went to help those
who were in canoes who were attacking the
rowboat and fighting with the soldiers." Twenty-
two Indian attackers were killed, and three
wounded prisoners later died on the ships
in route to Havana. Hernandez de Cordoba:
himself died only days later in central Cuba.
-- .

A royal order issued in Spain during that
same month of July, 1517 provides additional
insight into thea i, i ,r 11 i I, I ,in .i I ii, .
because it reveals an ongoing lawsuit by Juan
Ponce de Le6n against Cuban governor Diego
Velazquez for the illegal capture of 300 Florida
Indian slaves for transport to Cuba. Ponce de
Le6n alleged that Velazquez had sponsored
or permitted a slave raid into Florida, which,
after 1514, should have been Ponce de Le6n's
exclusive slaving territory.
Slaving of this sort is known to have occurred
along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of greater

December 2006



I i

L 1 j t

.4L ..

Tomb of Juan Ponce de Leon in San Juan, Puerto
Rico (photo byJ. Worth)

/ \ 4 -- *4
( I) -II, ll I It( II h I 111.11) of 1514 1515,
s i.\\ IlL' I'Pii t ( It Ilii s Florida just north
t)l I11i.

'I II i I,.l.I. I .. I ii erafrom 1514and
I I'., .., 1i..i., I .l ....I i 1. I expeditions by Diego
' I', l. .. I n ... i I ii : I '. II izar. Hence it is entirely
I"'..- -1. ~il, 1 I ii lliii- II reevenmorepredis
I I i ., .11 I iI. i. .-I ,iginally the case during
i',niI . I, i I,.. I .I: ... ige. It is no surprise,
ilI., I i. i '.i ii... -ill advised 1521 attempt
iI,,- ,.i 1 11 I.. I, Il, i. ihe coast of Southwest
i lI 11 l I .l 1111. I I. ., 11..I. I i1 his own mortal wound
I I, II .I 11-..I,. I I l.I, I to his death in Havana
,.1 I ..I 11-' il l'ii I.i i ii '.3 Juan. The Calusa
I , il, I lii. ii'... 'I. iii sh shipwreck survivors
II, i I,, - i I i ,II Il ,iii,. the 16thcentury.
11 .,l.,. ,I 1 I, iI ., ,i ii 1 lI,, early Spanish contact
in the first years after Ponce de Le6n's discovery,
then it is no wonder that the Calusa were hostile
towards Europeans.

'Randell Research Center

Ask the Archaeologist

Were the Calusa Really Seven Feet Tall? IJ

by Bill Marquardt

A friend's daughter has told me some things
about the Calusa that I have not been able to
verify. One thing she said is that the Calusa
were very tall, and in fact she said that most
were about 7 feet tall. Do you know if that is
true? Also, my friend told me that the reason the
Calusa did not practice agriculture is because their
fierce nature and size intimidated other tribes into
doing many things for them, including their farmin,

ChristyR. Sackett

Dear Christy,
Neither assertion can be supported by the facts.
Calusa men were perhaps 5'6" to 5'8" tall, the womi ,
shorter. Asix-foot Calusa would have been exceptional I
The reason the Calusa had a reputation for being
tall is because the Spaniards described them as tall
people, especially the chief. But the average Spanisi
man was 5'2" at the time, so a 5'8" Native Florida man
would have towered over him.

The Calusa grew no corn, manioc, or other staple crops. They did have
some gardens, and raised chile peppers and squashes, probably papaya
too. The Calusa did not prosper because they terrified their neighbors into

Calusa chief Felipe and missionary Juan
Rogel discuss their differing spiritual
1 -lif k 1 78. (Artby Merald Clark.)
-'i ****************************************

I i 11,. ,l i them, but because they were
' I" 11 I i shing and shellfishing in the estuar.
. I I HI,, lived.
. -y It is true that distant people p ior I
A them tribute -a kind of taxation .1
goods and sometimes labor. But
the tributary system worked both
ys. Distant people provided food,
I Iii- I, les, and feathers to the Calusa as
I i I i i ,las a sign of respect, but in
'I ,1, 1 II y got protection from their own f
S1 111. ind a feeling of attachment to a
:I. I society whose leaders possessed
".i .' 1 '' ias well as political authority.
I IIn reputation the Calusa have for
Ii I, Ii ss comes from their resistance to
".I II I invasions by Ponce de Le6n in the
i .1 I )00s and their defiance of
S111i .n aries in the mid 1500s and late
I I ,'- They knew that the Spaniards had
I 11" I I nd enslaved other Indian people in
S Cuba and Florida, and they were
determined to resist the same fate (see '
John Worth's article on page 1). Also, their own belief system was
important to them, and they did not want to give it up.
Bill Marquardt

New and Renewing Friends of the RRC
through November 6, 2006
(Please let us know of any errors or omissions. Thank you for your support!)

Sustaining Members
($5,000 $19,999)
Charles B. Edwards
& Robert A. Wells, Jr.
Supporting Members
($1,000- $4,999)
John & Gretchen Coyle
Anina Hills Glaize
Jose Langone (in-kind gift)
Victoria & William Winterer
Sponsoring Members
($500- $999)
Anne & Bob Boomer
Mark Dean

Joyce C. Mutz
Tropic Star of Pine Island
Contributing Members
($100- $499)
Anne M. Allan
Sally & Peter Bergsten
Robin C. Brown
Ann Cordell
Gatewood Custom
The Hendry Law Firm
Darcie MacMahon
Jerald T. Milanich

Randy Mote
Dan & Linda O'Connell
John Paeno
Darbee & David Percival
Phillips Electronics
(matching gift)
Family Members
Pete & Phyllis Kolianos
Abraham & Cynthia Ofer
D. S. & Katharine Van Riper
Warm Mineral Springs/
Little Salt Spring
Archaeological Society

Individual Members
Beverly H. Brazill
John Berninger
Jenna Wallace Coplin
Donald Hall
Elise V. LeCompte
Bonnie McEwan
Michael E. Moseley
Regina Poppell
Ethan Rouse
Kathy VandeRee
J. P. Vann-Hexner
Randal L. Walker


L ~

In the Florida Museum Lab Analysis and Curation

Digging it up is only the beginning

by Bill Marquardt and Karen Walker

Discovering new knowledge ,.,,,, ...... ,
findings is always a thrill, for everyone from tl-, V ..i.i ii. i I nI I., a .Q
seasoned professional. As our Randell Resear( I I l,, Iii I I
however, finding something is only the first ste I'
First, there is careful documentation at the -, ", I II Ia 1. 11 _
sketches, and sometimes take photos. The findli- i. -l I
dry, and then catalogued and re bagged. We pil ..i. i ,h I.I. ,,i I I I I
each artifact, and package special samples for -, i , ,I I II lh ,i hi
analysis. Fragile materials receive extra care, iI E I I" I, I I.. k I
separately or stored under special environmerll Ii 1-

In the laboratory, we examine the materials iii . I I. l 1. I' I1 1 .
them based on previous studies that have beei i I i .1, .. 111111 111 ii1 1 il .
Sometimes we weigh or measure objects,
to help compare them with other such
materials found elsewhere. In addition to
pottery, stone, shell, and- .., ai iI Il, -
archaeologists also study animal bones,
shells, seeds, wood, and even samples of
the soil itself for clues to what people ate
and how their environment affected them.
Sometimes the bones, shells, seeds, wood,
and sediments can help us track environ
mental changes that occurred during the
lives of past people. Finally, when all the
studies are done, books and articles are
published and public talks are given, so
1i I , II r 1, I, I, I II II I ,IIII I I II, I, ,i._
But what happens to all those artifacts and samples, not to mention the
field notes and sketches, the photographs, and even the weights and
measurements recorded in the lab? Quite simply, we keep it all. We refer to
this accumulation of various materials as "collections" and collections are
kept by museums such as the Florida Museum of Natural History, the
parent organization of the RRC.
We keep all this stuff for a very simple reason in the future we might want
to look at it again. Or someone else might want to look at it. Our collections
are similar to a library's, except instead of book collections we keep archae
logical collections. Here again, the word "collections" may bring to mind
artifacts, such as pottery sherds, shell tools, and other objects. But there is
so much more. All kinds of samples (e.g., shells, bones, charcoal, sediments)
and specimens (e.g., seeds, wood) are also parts of collections. Another
large and very important component consists of a great variety of records
associated with the excavations. Even when a collection like Pineland's has
been intensively studied for years, it still has great potential for future
research and use in education and exhibits.
Sometimes we use the word curationn" to refer to the way we keep our
archaeological collections. "Curation" comes from a Latin word meaning
"to care for,," and that is what we do we care for the collections by making
sure they are safe from damage, and stored where they will not get lost or

l,. k io ll/ 'l llih l\o 'l
I)I I)II ~ l '" II ,lllll)I III lli '
l11 11.1 M(l NM1 111'.-111 11'.l
Ionh1.li lllilscinl ll

III llllll- h 11) 10 1 11 M II, I IdIII .l
;lI (h 'll h )l II L'l lll \ ll1('. l
I )il l l. Kl I l l s i l 11. l I
\lll. llll ll \\ ll lll ll.llll l l.(i
1 .1 1 l i\ ..... .
. ..........................

deteriorate. In October, we submitted a grant proposal for funding the final
curation of the major archaeological collection that resulted from excavations
at Pineland during the 1988 1995 time span. Our goal is to curate the
collection following national standards so that it can -. I i, managed
while at the same time be highly accessible for use. The curation project
will take place in Gainesville, where the collection will always be housed.
Because the Pineland collection is so vast, we began a pilot project last
fall (2005), curating a smaller collection, one produced in 1994 from Mound
Key. All but the computerization of the collection is complete. As a result,
this past summer, research began on this important and now accessible
collection. Archaeologist Ann Cordell is analyzing the pottery. Zooarchaeologist
Irv Quitmyer has prepared selected surf-clam shell specimens for microsampling,
with the goal of detecting an environmental signal for the Little Ice Age. UF
Anthropology senior Jack Stoetzel is sectioning and analyzing selected fish
otoliths from the collection for his University Scholars Project. UF student
interns recently assisted in sorting otoliths from the collection.
By now, you will have realized that archaeologists -especially those
connected with museums, as we are -are involved with collections for a long
time after that initial moment of discovery at the site. It's a lot of work, but we
think it's worth it. If we do our job as curators properly Pineland's collections
will ,i iii. to answer new questions for many years to come.

/...... =
n 3

FPAN Update

by Kara Bridgman Sweeney

Hi, everyone! This is my first update
since beginning my role as FPAN (Florida Public
Archaeology Network) archaeologist here at the
Randell Research Center. The last two months
have been quite busy. I have met many interest
ing folks at local museums and planning agencies,
and have been offering my assistance with what
ever they are doing or planning.
Also, I have started a program where I visit
classrooms and talk to local students about
archaeology and about some of the kinds of
artifacts that have been found here at the
Pineland site. This program is being done on a
pilot basis in coordination with the Lee County
Environmental Education department. Students
will see me once during a pre-visit, and then
again during their field trip to the Calusa
Heritage Trail.
Next, I plan to bring this program out to the
surrounding counties, so that students in each
county can get a good sense of the work that has
been done here, and they can also learn a bit
about archaeology. Especially when students
cannot plan to come here for a field trip, it is my
pleasure to share what I can about archaeology
in their local classrooms or media centers.
I have also arranged to give lectures at various
libraries throughout the region. Please watch this
space and also check for updates to the web site
(www.flmnh.ufl.edu/RRC) for archaeological
activities in the coming months.

Kara Bridgman Sweeney (left) discusses Calusa artifact replicas with members of the Sierra Club.
... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ..

William Marquardt
William Marquardt
Kara Bridgman Sweeney
Karen Walker
John Worth
GBS Productions

Send questions or comments to:
John Worth
Randell Research Center
Pineland FL 33945-0608 MUSEUM
Telephone (239) 283-2062
Fax (239) 283-2080
Email: randellcenter@comcast.net ,UNIVERSITY OF
Website: www.flmnh.ufl.edu/RRC/ ..FLORIDA

I PO Box 608
D PINELAND, FL 33945-0608

Forwarding Service Requested

Pineland, FL
Permit No. 26

/ -

Friends of the

Research Center

Pineland, Florida* December, 2006
Phone (239) 283-2062 E-mail: johneworth@comcast.net

Dear Friend,

You are cordially invited to join, or renew your :I i" I ii N ip in, the RRC's support society, Friends of the Randell
R. -. J,. I! Center. fCurrent members can find out when their memberships expire by looking at the address label on
their I I. I I I
-Ill Fi II- of- 11 RRl . ive a quart, i1. 11, i 1, I, r and free admission to the Calusa Heritage Tr. il i Pi i, 1ii, I
5'-l'I'" i ..it hichnr levels are entitled to discounts on our books an1 I1l i i i li.ii ., I..i! !. ili. I. I p i l.. I.I' I .ii I
special recognition. Your continuing support is vital to our ini' i, I !1 ih !II. .! .! I i I , I, i.,Il .i! I,., .I!. ii-
ued si. iiiih,, i. i. 11. l i..i the R. iiI II R. .. .1 i C enter. T l.,il .,,,.,

Jo ,li E \\,,,ii! P li l.i
i" i- ,-, i-l -. si !, II ii

Please check the membership le el you prefer, and send ltis bfrm. along with jour check
pay able to Friends of the Randell Research Center, to:
Membership Coordinator Randell Reseaclh Center PO Box 608 O Pineland, Florida 33945

1 Indi\ idual ($30) I Student ($15): quarterly Newsletter
,1,,I I. ,idim- *- I. i to Calusa Heritage Trail
l fami il ($50): !I !. .. I I 1 ,,ii. notice and 1'n "
,h .. .,, I 11 lI h I. I, I, ,1,.1.- J
i Contributor ($100-$-199): II. .iI.. . + annualhonor
Il lIli i- i i -li i -'1 1 discount on RRC
,, 1, 1h I ,11 .0I 111.l I I,, !, ,l,, h -,
j Sponsor ($500-$999): ! I1... I. invitation to annual

S lill,

I, h --

City / State / Zipcode

1 Supporter ($1,000-$4,999): The il.. .. + lill on
annual donor plaque at Pineland site
1 Sustaining Members ($5,000-$19,999), Benefactors
($20,000-$99,999), and Patrons ($100,000
and above) receive all of the above + complimentary
RRC publications and special briefings from the
1 Please use my gift to obtain matching funds from the
National Endowment for the Humanities.

Seasonal Address (so we can send you your newsletter while you are away)



City / State / Zipcode

Use my seasonal address from



The Randell Research Center is a program of the Florida Museum of Natural History, University ofFlorida.

So.oks, Videos and RRC Gear

The Calusa and Their Legacy: South Florida People ORDERED COST
and Their Environments $
by Darcie A. MacMahon and William H. Marquardt
U. Press of Florida, hardcover $39.95
Culture and Environment in the Domain of the Calusa $
Sli1, 1 by William H. Marquardt; Monograph 1, softcover $25.00
Sharks and Shark Products in Prehistoric South Florida $
by Laura Kozuch; Monograph 2, softcover $5.00
The Archaeology of Useppa Island $
edited by '.V ill.! i H. Marquardt; Monograph 3, hardcover $35.00, softcover $20.00
Ne\u Words, Old Songs: Understanding the Lives of
Ancient Peoples in Southwest Florida Through Archaeology $
by Charles Fi 1,1. ii, !i illustrated by Merald Clark; hardcover $19.95, softcover $9.95
Fishe rfolk of Charlotte Harbor, Florida $
L 1i',,1,,i 1. E. li 1.i l .I. $35.00
Dearest Dauglit and Popsy Wells: Two Artists Named Sawyer $
by' in, ,I, S. .11. 1 I.1. hardcover $20.00, softcover $8.00

The Domain of the Calusa: Archaeologi and
Adv entire in the Discovery of South Florida's Past $
i li .. 1I $19.95
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(Fi ori E\ploia ion to Exhibition; The Wild Heart of Florida; Wild Alachua)
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^. 'Total for items ordered: $
,' 'Friends of the RRC who give at the $100 level
or above may i. i, i 2'' Discount:
I, ,1. ,,II ., i ,I111 11 I. I,., Raindell ResearcllCenter III. I ,III 1 Fl.nridi rc- idcint I.,I -iles tax: +
I', II, I ', -, II I 1 I I I i I, i 1', : . ,,11,:-. 1 I' I I,.11 [ ::',i.i
-1- l '''!'- '-" I i I. I I 11 rst item ,
Sll1 i l lll h .ll l 1 1 1 ~. .1. ..l 1. I 1 1, | I I Il. I I .I lli 111 -l" lll ,l l I- r \ i +\
I 1\.111.11 Q.I1Isoll'- .Vs ZX.t JII,. 1 111.111 1.11111A1 141 ilt11...11 III TOTAL E VN( LOSE D $

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