GALLEGOS HOUSE ACTIVITIES
home made soap
cold well water
cooking iron cookware
palmetto mat, small
thread (not on spool)
sea salt, not fine
black-eye peas (dry)
kidney beans (dry)
firewood, small diameter
clothing to hang up
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April 14, 1982
GALLEGOS HOUSE PROVISIONS
white acre peas
heart of palm
hard brown sugar
bear fat (imit.)
Availability: Not all of these would have been available
year round. There should be attention to the seasons, with fresh
garden produce and fruits appearing only when they naturally would.
Otherwise, they must be used dried. Imported items should appear sporadically
and in limited quantities. Vinegar, olive oil, wheat and wine were the only
ones a Spaniard considered indispensable. The wheat flour would probably be
baked into pound loaves or hardtack elsewhere. Wine would be consumed by the
soldier-husband, probably in a tavern.
Storage: Dried herbs and vegetables may hang inside the house. No large amount
of import-trade food should be in evidence. The Indian-type wild roots were
used mainly during a famine, so they should not coincide with other foods.
Containers must be authentic. The alacena should not be used to store modern
containers. There should be no unauthentic supplies on the property.
Cooking: Use a small fire and a clay pot sitting on the coals. The dishes that
may be prepared are these:
(1) a cocido based on dried corn, peas and squashes, with other vegetables
added for flavoring. The cocido may contain fish or shellfish, or
a small amount of salted or dried meat.
(2) a salad of fresh or cooked vegetables, eaten with vinegar and oil.
M sweet corn in the inner husk, or sweet potatoes, baked in the ashes.
4corncakes, wrapped in cornhusks and baked in the ashes.
SPANISH DAYS ACTIVITIES
The following activities are appropriate to represent merry-
making in St. Augustine during the First Spanish Period. Any
one of them could be researched to provide detail.
Music and Dancing Popular dances of pre-1763 Spain can be
played on the guitar and mouth harp and danced. A barrel
organ (organistrum) was used for church music. Fifers and
drummers can present military airs. Madrigals can be sung by
a men's chorus. Ballads and villancicos can be sung by either
men or women, with accompaniment of lute or guitar.
Bullfight Was an amateur event in which the bull was probably
not killed, but was "run," like in Pamplona. Governor Montiano
imported five bulls from Georgia in 1747 for a corrida de toros.
Cockfighting Customary in Spain and probably in Florida,
though it has not been documented.
Theatre Popular plays written before 1763 could be presented
on a temporary outdoor stage. The audience, composed of both
Spanish and Indian men and women, bring their own chairs.
This was a very popular entertainment, using amateur actors.
Horsemanship Displays Not everyone could afford a horse and
its trappings. Those who did, and had riding skills, gave
demonstrations on the plaza while the ladies looked down from
the balconies, adorned in their finest.
Gambling This was the most popular diversion. Only the upper
classes could afford to play with cards, which were a state
Processions The religious brotherhoods participated in every
procession, and each one sponsored one festival with a procession
every year. The children of the grammar school walked through
the town daily reciting the rosary, in the late 1730s.
Parades The various military companies marched behind their
banners. Fifer and drummer were usually black slaves of the
captain. After the late 17th century there was a company of
black militia. The parade would be climaxed by ceremonial
salvoes and hurrahs of "Viva Castilla" and "Viva Florida."
Food and Drink Holiday foods were fritters, sugar syrup, hard
sugar, marzipan, torreon and other candies, almonds, sweet rolls,
figs and other dried fruits, honey, biscuits, and roast chicken.
Drinks were lime, lemon or sour orangeades, cassina tea, choco-
late, wine, rum, brandy, and a drink of soured corn gruel.
Indian Pelota This did not take place in St. Augustine, but
was a popular spectator sport for soldiers in the provinces.
The players were dressed in loincloths and painted red and black.
The ball was of deerhide stuffed with hair. There is a infor-
mation about how the game was played.
Baton Twirling Associated with the pelota game, Indian maidens
"made ceremony" with.the wands used in their own ball game.
This was probably the origin of baton twirling.
Honoring the Crown At the accession of a new monarch, a
portrait of him was placed on a dais and the companies marched
past, presenting arms. There were hurrahs, salutes, and the
ceremony was climaxed when the governor threw candies and
commemorative medals into the crowd.
Activities that the Spanish did not associate with holidays
but would be appropriate for our Spanish Days are:
Canoe Races The Indian or mixed blood oarsmen were paid in
trade goods: knives, red cloth, glass beads, etc.
Foot Races The Indians were great runners.
Swimming Competitions Indian men and women alike were good
Duels Illegal, but they happened. Use regulation sword.
Flower and Plant Show Restricted to those known to the Indians
and the Spanish in this area of Florida.
Costume Contest In four categories: Spanish upper class,
Spanish soldier class, foreign visitor, and Indian.
Market Indians sitting on woven mats to sell their baskets,
pots, soft leather skins, painted wooden trays, tobacco twists,
live chickens, sides of bacon, dried meat, etc.
Stalls for Subsistence Foods koonti, cassina, heart of palm
and palm berries, wild grapes, gopher, catfish, oysters and
clams, parched corn, corncakes, sweet corn, pumpkin rings, etc.
Pirate Assault Enough can be found out about several different
pirate assaults to reenact all or part of them.
Barbecue Game animals, fish, poultry or beef. In St. Augus-
tine they also ate raccoons, opossums, and other garden raiders.
The Joseph del Pozo Ride Pozo rode 200 miles in four days from
San Luis (Tallahassee) to St. Augustine to bring a message to
the governor's Council of War in 1704.
The clothes have been soaking overnight in
draws fresh water and washes them, using a
The clean clothes are hung on the fence or
a wooden trough. She
soft homemade soap.
bushes to dry.
Sra. Gallegos dries her surplus vegetables, fruits and herbs,
and strings them up inside her house, except for the ears of corn,
which are stored in a corncrib set up off the ground. She soaks
dried corn overnight with wood ash to make hominy. After draining
the corn, she cracks it in a wooden mortar and pestle, for hominy.
If she wants a corn meal, she pounds the corn further. The hominy
and the cornmeal are stored in clay pots for later use. If
the family has livestock, Sra. Gallegos may have a cow to milk
and cheeses to make. Or she may prepare sausage, hams and bacon.
Fish and game are preserved by smoking. Vinegar is made from
wine that has gone sour.
of Sra. Gallegos' time has been spent gathering firewood at
distance from town, bringing it in on her back. She also
out to collect nuts, berries and shellfish.
Sra. Gallegos goes to the Indian market, where she barters for
tobacco (she rolls the cigars for herself and her husband),
dried turkey, skins, pelts, cassina, and fresh game. She pays
with some cloth or beads or a knife obtained at the royal ware-
house against her husband's account, or earned from another
member of the garrison. Each family has some kind of secondary
trade, which may be running a tavern, cobbling shoes, weaving
nets, baking bread, or doing laundry. When her husband is away,
she carries on the trade alone.
Today Sr. Gallegos, a soldier, is on 24-hour guard duty at the
fort. If there is someone at home to watch the children, Sra.
Gallegos has gone to Mass at first light. Afterward she serves
the family a breakfast of leftover ashcakes and cassina tea,
heated on the carefully saved coals of yesterday's fire. On a
feast day the breakfast might be wheat bread and hot chocolate.
Sra. Gallegos rolls up the sleeping mats, airs the blankets,
and sweeps and dusts her house. She also sweeps the yard, raking
the dirt into patterns. The yard is the main living area in
Sra. Gallegos does her gardening before the heat of the day.
According to season, she plants, hoes, picks off insects
(Purple Martin homes made of gourds give her some help in insect
control), waters, or gathers produce. She keeps a noisemaking
rattle or clapper handy to scare off birds. Sometimes she has to
repair the fence around her garden to keep out the livestock.
GALLEGOS ACTIVITIES, cont.
cooking Sra. Gallegos makes a small fire of twigs, which she will share
with a neighbor. She cooks a stew of cracked hominy with beans
and squash, seasoned with peppers, garlic and onion. In it she
will put whatever protein she has--fish, shellfish, game, or
the salted fish or beef ration her husband receives. For bread
she makes ashcakes out of cornmeal softened with boiling water,
wrapped in shucks, and baked in the ashes of the fire. She sends
her husband's midday meal to him by one of the children, who will
wait to bring back the clay pot and wooden spoon. On Sundays
and feast days she tries to have something special for the family--
a bit of hard brown sugar, an omelet, or a chicken. When the
meal is finished she cleans up, scouring the pots inside with sand.
clothing Sra. Gallegos patches the family's clothes, or makes over the
adults' wornout garments into smaller versions for the children.
She seldom has a new piece of cloth to use, as cloth is an impor-
tant form of currency and is usually traded for something else.
She does have her own needle and scissors, however, which she
guards out of reach of the children.
seasonal When the ingredients are available, Sra. Gallegos makes soap or
candles, exchanging what the family does not need, for other
things. From time to time she makes whitewash and paints her
home inside and out. She knows how to make her own sleeping
mats, baskets and bags, but she generally buys her pottery, which
takes a lot of firewood to make. If Sr. Gallegos is out of town,
she may dig a new trash pit with a borrowed shovel.
evening The evening meal is a light one which may not involve building
a fire. The family will have fruit, with bread, cheese and wine
if they can get them. Except on special feast days, Sra. Gallegos
and the children go to bed soon after dark. Sr. Gallegos spends
the evening with friends at his favorite tavern.
Activities in 17th Century Florida
Agriculture and Ranches
fertilize fields with ground shells
1st, 2nd and 3rd cultivation cavaa) of corn
raise vegetables (beans, squash)
raise and break horses
raise and train oxen
round up, brand, and slaughter cattle
cook for ranchhands
Hunting, Fishing and Gathering
fish with net or line
gather oysters and shellfish
dig for roots in swamp
gather heart of palm and palm berries
gather nuts, fruits, berries
gather medicinal herbs
hunt for game and pelts
yearly fire drive (Indians)
beachcomb after a wreck
beachcomb for amber
salvage wreck sites
salt and smoke beef
parch and brew cassina
shell and grind corn
make and fire earthenware
cure and tan hides
carve wooden trenchers
carve buttons of bone
tL Ott L ?
plat mats and baskets
make household bags (costales de cas)
grind shells for fertilizer?
make pitch and tar
make saddles and bridles
make cordage and rigging
forge iron tools
burn lime for mortar
log and saw timber into planks
mix, form and pour tabby
lay stone (castillo and sea wall)
plant Spanish bayonet
build clay ovens
raise a palisade
build wattle and daub houses
build wooden houses and corncribs
make palmetto thatch
build dugout canoes
Transportation and Haulage
load and unload ships
make maps of routes (derroteros)
build and maintain roads
ferry cattle on a flatboat
haul produce in a dugout
haul quarried stone on a raft
haul charcoal, corn or trade goods in a back basket
backpack bedrolls and baggage
Trades and Services
run boarding house for soldiers
Trades and Services, cont.
mercenaries (for escort or to track fugitives)
be part of an entourage (carry parasol, bell, banner, staff, weapon)
tailor (with apprentice)
blacksmith (with assistants)
Government Positions, Permanent or Temporary
aide or secretary to governor
officer (sergeant major, captain, ensign)
cabin boy, page
treasury official (treasurer, accountant, factor-overseer)
counting office clerk
chief customs guard and other guards
defender of the Indians
foreman of construction
overseer of the slaves
Government Positions, cont.
laborer (repartimiento Indians, convict, royal slave, or free contract)
Recreation and Observances
attend public events and processions
participate in a confraternity
attend 9-day wakes
observe saints' days
observe holy days
go to morning mass daily
say prayers throughout the day
smoke cigars (both sexes, probably)
drink in the taverns
sing, play music
attend Indian celebrations
follow the priest with the Viaticum
dig refuse pits
care for the children, sick and aged
feed the pigs and chickens
herd the family cows
raise and fence in a garden
look after the fruit trees
Seldom Mentioned but Often Present
privateers and pirates
Indian contract laborers
blind and crippled soldiers
diseased and mentally defective
foreigners, either illegally trading or resident
April 28, 1982
TO: Administration and R & D Staff w
FROM: Amy Bushnell
SUBJECT: Authentic Sales Items
All these are items that would be authentic to Spanish St.
Augustine, and might not be what people could buy at English
Edibles and Do-It-Yourself Kits
6 Seville oranges, with an old recipe for marmalade
dried lavender, coriander, winter savory, fennel,
or rosemary, with 18th century Spanish recipes
dried pumpkin rings, with recipes for using pumpkin
in the Spanish cocido
dried red peppers
ship biscuit, with leaflet
cassina tea, with leaflet
dried corn on the cob, with inner husk still on,
with instructions for making hominy
smoked mullet roe
dried turkey meat
parched corn, with leaflet
cordage, mats, baskets, net bags
molded tallow candles
soap, with leaflet
iron hoes, nails, knives
San Marcos ware, with leaflet
brass medallions of various Our Ladies
reproductions of celebration coins the governors
threw into the crowd on great occasions
~-jii ~;-i-- ~uci~~s~~ u~r~u~~iiC~w~6Ull ~ I
J":: w l~i~~lPSPI~
Memo on Authentic Sales Items
Do-It-Yourself Kits for Manufactures
piece of ship's canvass, with a sailmaker's needle
and leather palm protector
patterns for 18th century clothing, man's or
woman's, with lace points
button drill, with a cow's rib bone
package of papel sellado, the Spanish notary's
legal stamped paper, with samples of
documents and of period handwriting
lead sinker mold, with a piece of lead
~~- _- -----'- '--- ;- ~--.1'"2:-c-l -"----~~ --"" ~~'~r~~;
April 28, 1982