UF FLORIDA'i Production Times
Upcoming Educational Programs
For mow information and links to most programs and agendas go to:
http://cfextension.ifas.ufl.edu or the UF Extension Calendar at http-L
Expanding Your Plant Palette. Oct. 12, 2010. Leu Gardens, Or-
lando. Contact Maggie Jarrell (3 52) 343.4101. http://cfextension.ifas.ufl.edu/
Farm Safety Day. Oct. 29, 2010. Lake County Extension Office, Ta-
vares. Contact Maggie Jarrell (352) 343.4101.
_http ://cfextension.ifas.ufl. edu/documents/2010OFarmSafety .pdf
Green Industries BMP Certification (fertilizer license).
Nov. 18, 2010. Lake County Extension Office, Tavares.
Integrated Pest Management Update. Jan. 25, 2011. MREC,
Apopka. Contact Maggie Jarrell (352) 343.4101. No registration forms yet.
Nursery Production School. Feb. 3, 2011. Sumter County Exten-
sion Office, Bushnell. Contact Maggie Jarrell (352) 343.4101. No registra-
tion forms yet.
(Contmnued on page 2)
Syngonium liners with blackened
diseased roots (left) from Cerato-
cystis or healthy white roots
(right). Find out how you can
avoid this problem at the Water
Education Alliance for Horticul-
volum 1, umer 4
Lelan Parker, the Orange County Commercial Orna-
mental Horticulture Production Agent, will be leaving
us for a job with the USDA NRCS in Georgia and to
join her fiance. Liz Felter will return as the Orange
County Agent along with responsibilities for the Ex-
ploration Gardens at the Orange County Extension
office. Seminole County now has Matt Lollar as their
Commercial Ornamental Horticulture Production
Agent, also the multi county commercial vegetable
and sod production agent, so the three counties (Lake,
Seminole and Orange) now each have their own
agents. Future Production Times will be a collabora-
tion of the three agents. Welcome and welcome back.
Liz Felter, Orange
Matt Lollar, Seminole
Which biocontainer is right for
you? See page 2.
Deer repellents evaluated page 3.
Lelan Leaves, Liz Returns, Matt is New
Pesticide Applicator Training
Limited Certification Licenses Review and Exam. Oct. 28, 2010. Osceola County Extension Of-
fice, Kissimmee. Contact Jennifer Pelham (321) 697.3000.
CEU Day and WPS Training. Nov. 4, 2010. Orange County Extension Office, Orlando. Contact Celeste
White (407) 254.9200. http://cfextension.ifas.ufl.edu/documents/ve CEUDay Nov2010 OCExt.pdf
Private Applicato r/Ornamental and Turf. Dec. 9, 20 10. Orange County Extension Office, Orlando.
Contact Celeste White (407) 254.9200.
Need just a few CEUs? Go to http:.//growingproduce. com/floridagrower/ .We are planning on our own CEU
series at the efextension website. Keep watching for more information.
+ Production Times is brought to you by:
Juanita Popenoe, Ph.D.
Commercial Horticulture, Lake County Extension
1951 Woodlea Rd.
Tavares, FL 32778
This material Is provided as one of the many services relatmg to the educational programs offered
to you by this agency Our statewide network of specialists Is prepared to provide current mfor-
mation on agriculture, marketing, family and consumer sciences, 4-H, marme science, and related
fields We will be happy to help you with additional mformation upon request
Use of trade names m this newsletter does not reflect endorsement of the product by the Umlver-
sity of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, or the Florida Cooperative Extension
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Science (IFAS) Is an Equal Employment Opportumity
Institution authorized to provide research, educational mformation and other services only to
mdndivduals and mstitutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or
national origm US DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FLORIDA COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, IFAS, FLORIDA A & M
UNIVERSITY COOPERATIVE EXTENSION PROGRAM, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY
through the pots and collect as leachate.
Both pH and EC measurements were more consistent
when collecting 50 mL of leachate rather than 2.5% of
Researchers compared pots made of plastic, 80% cedar
fiber and 20% peat (Fertil), composted dairy manure
(Cowpot), peat, bioplastic, coconut fiber, rice hull, pa-
per, and rice straw.
1. Fertil, peat and Cowpot containers had wet
strengths low enough to make handling difficult
2. All biocontainers except rice hull and bioplastic
allowed water to evaporate through their walls and
had higher water usage than traditional plastic pots.
3. Differences in physical properties of biocontainers
compared with plastic were specific for each type
of biocontainer, growers wanting to use biocontin-
aers will need to decide which physical properties
are most important.
Silicon Increases Growth of Pha-
laenonsis Orchid Liners
Hybrid phalaenopsis orchid liners were drenched with
0.5%, 1.0% or 2.0% v/v potassium silicate or with wa-
Knowledge Gainzed: ...
1. Liners drenched with 1.0% increased dry weights
of roots, shoots and whole plant over the control by
27 to 118%.
2. Leaf number and size, root number and length
3. 2.0% reduced plant growth.
How Much Leachate to Collect for an
Using the pour through method to collect leachate to
measure electrical conductivity may be affected by the
volume of potting mix in the pot and the volume of
water poured through. Researchers tested #1, #3, #5
and #10 sized containers and used either 50 mL of wa-
ter (the standard) or 2.5% of media volume to pour
(Contmnuedfrom page 2)
Dracaena Tissue Culture
Dracaena are often propagated from imported cuttings
that often have problems with pathogens and pests. UF
researchers were able to reliably regenerate Dracaena
surculosa 'Florida Beauty' through indirect shoot or-
This technique will allow reliable regeneration, with-
out somaclonal variation, and could reduce importa-
tion of cuttings as well as provide raw materials for
future anti-cancer pharmaceutical compound extrac-
Software to Calculate Heating Costs
Temperature settings, heating systems, fuel types and
construction decisions influence overall heating costs.
Virtual Grower was created to help calculate heating
costs using a weather database from the National Re-
newable Energy Laboratory and allowing the user to
enter variables such as fuel type, greenhouse type and
heater type. The software is FREE from the U.S. De-
partment of Agriculture and will run on most com-
Effectiveness of Deer Repellents
Six commercial and two experimental deer repellents
were tested on Japanese Yews from February through
April in New York. Deer-Away Big Game Repellent
(BGR) mix, BGR spray, Deer-Off, Deer Stopper II,
Repelled, Tree Guard and two experimental repellents
were compared to untreated plants in the landscape.
BGR spray, BGR mix, Deer-Off and Deer Stoper II
provided the most consistent protection, while the oth-
ers were unreliable. The effective repellents are based
on putrescent egg solids and provide a suitable deter-
rent if reapplied every 4 or 5 weeks. Repellents cannot
be applied with freezing temperatures or if plants are
covered by snow or ice, making them much more use-
ful in Florida than New York.
Enhancing Drought Stress Tolerance
Drought stress is a major cause of post-production
loss. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates
drought responses by reducing transpirational water
loss. Six bedding plant species (impatiens, geranium,
petunia, marigold, salvia and pansy) were treated with
spray or drench applications of 0 or 500 mg/L of s-
ABA (ConTego "; Valent BioSciences Corp.) and
water was withheld to observe wilting symptoms.
Applications of s-ABA delayed wilting in all crops by
1.7 to 4.3 days, reducing water loss and extending
shelf life for all species treated although some leaf yel-
lowing was observed.
UJF researchers are evaluating noninvasive cultivars of
1. Nandina cultivars responded differently in south,
central and north Florida., some cultivars were vir-
tually fruitless (and thus no problem with invasive-
ness). 'Firepower', 'Gulf Stream' and 'Harbour
Dwarf' are safe to grow throughout Florida.
2. All species and varieties of Japanese silver-grass
(Miscanthus sinensis) and butterflybush (Buddleja
lindleyana and B. officinalis) are not invasive in
3. Some varieties of foutaingrass (Pennisetum spp.),
Mexican petunia (Ruellia tweediana) and porter-
weed (Stachytarpheta spp.) are noninvasive.
UJF/IFAS will be releasing these results in the near
Canopy Closure and Water Use
Transpiration of woody shrubs appears to increase
with decreases in plant density within production beds
as plants are randomly removed for sale.
1. When sweet viburnum plants had canopy closure
(leaves touching surrounding plants), water loss
was 40% less than plants that were spaced. Less
water is needed when plants are touching.
2. The upper 40% of a canopy loses 60% of daily
water loss in isolated trees or shrubs.
3. Transplanted landscape plants no longer having a
closed canopy, may have water needs increased
60% above that in production beds because of in-
Disinfection of Horticultural Tools
Adapted from Geoffrey C. Denny and Gary E. Vallad
Hopefully you are disinfecting horticultural tools to prevent the spread of diseases. Have you ever wondered
which of all the possible tool disinfectants to use? UF/IFAS researchers recently compiled a list of alternatives
with their pros and cons. Whichever product you choose, diligence is important. Ideally tools should be disin-
fected after each plant, but realistically as frequently as possible. http://edis.ifas.ufl .edu/ep3 80
Material Pros Cons Technique Sources
*Very effective Little residual activity
*Many commercial products
Quaternary Ammo- Stable (solution lasts Not as effective if mixed Follow the label direc-
are available from horticul-
nium Salts for longer period) with hard water or organic tions
Not corrosive matter
Effective on only a limited Many commercial products
More biodegradable Follow the label direc-
Hydrogen Dioxides number of pathogens are available from horticul-
*Some products recog- tons
*Life span of solution is ture-supply vendors
nized as "organic"
Fumes can be harmful
10% bleach solution (1
Short life span of bleach
part bleach : 9 parts wa-
solution (about V/2 effect is Grocery and hardware
Chlorine Bleach gone after 2 hours), requires stores and home-
Effective 30-minute soak
fresh batches immediately is ihwtratrimprovement centers
before disinfecting tools
*Not as effective against
(no soaking) Wipe or dip tool in 70 * Grocery stores and phar-
(Ethanol or Isopropyl Flammable
*Can be used as wipe 100% alcohol macies
*No need to rinse
*Many commercial products
are available at hardware
Trisodium Phos- 10% solution (1 part stores and home-
Inexpensive Very corrosive
phates (TSPs) TSP : 9 parts water) improvement centers (used
to clean surfaces for paint-
*Many commercial products
Pine Oil Products Not corrosive Not as effective*2%souin(pat ailbetgrcrad
pine oil : 3 parts water) hardware stores and at home
*Many commercial products
*Little research on effective- Full-strength spray or
Household Disinfec- Easy to find are available at grocery and
ness of products dip, depending on the
tants Usually not corrosive hardware stores and at home
*Relatively expensive product