Title: Production times
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00090492/00012
 Material Information
Title: Production times
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publication Date: Winter 2009
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090492
Volume ID: VID00012
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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UF fNIVERSI Production Times

IFASExtension Nursery Edition

Winter 2009
Volume 16, Number 4

These are not normal cones on a
bald cypress, they are caused by
the cypress twig gall midge,
Taxodiomyia cupressiaananassa.
Find out more here.

These are the same insect: the
Oleander Caterpillar, Syntomeida
epilais, as an adult and a caterpil-
lar. It will defoliate your oleander
and more. Click here to find out

Upcoming Educational Programs
For more information and links to most programs and agendas go to:
http://cfextension.ifas.ufl.edu or under Central FL Events Page
Green Industries Best Management Practices. Sept. 19,
2009. Orange County Extension Office, Orlando. Beginning January 1,
2014, any person applying commercial fertilizer to an urban landscape
must be certified through this program. Contact Celeste White at (407) 254

Green Industries Best Management Practices. Sept. 22,
2009. Lake County Extension Office, Tavares. Beginning January 1, 2014,
any person applying commercial fertilizer to an urban landscape must be
certified through this program. The BMPs cover proper fertilization, pest
control, irrigation, and cultural practices for landscape and pest control pro-
fessionals. Contact Maggie Jarrell at (352) 343-4101 or go to

Expanding Your Plant Palette. Oct. 13, 2009. A plant materials
workshop at Leu Gardens, in Orlando Find out about drought tolerant
plants, native plants, site assessment, new and interesting choices for trees,
palms, antique roses, magnolias, camellias and plant trends. Contact Maggie
Jarrell (352) 343-4101 or go to

Financial Program for Nurseries & Greenhouse. October
14, 2009. Being held at the MREC in Apopka. Contact Lelan Parker for
more information at (407) 254-9200.

Limited Certification Pesticide Applicator Training and
Exams. Landscape Maintenance License. Oct. 15, 2009. Osceola County
Extension, Kissimmee. Contact Jennifer Welshans at (321) 697-3000.

Nursery Best Management Practices. Oct. 20, 2009 at Lake
County Extension, Tavares. Learn what is required to sign on to BMPs and
how to do leachate monitoring and irrigation uniformity in a hands-on work-
shop. Contact Maggie Jarrell at (352) 343-4101.

Farm Safety Day. Oct. 30, 2009. Lake County Extension Office, Ta-
(Continued on page 2)

(Continued from page 1)
vares. Contact Maggie Jarrell at (352) 343-4101.

CEU Day. Nov. 5, 2009. Osceola County Extension Office, Kissimmee. Contact Jennifer Welshans at
(321) 697-3000.

Georgia/Florida Green Industry Update Video Conference Nov. 17, 2009, MREC,
Apopka. Contact Maggie Jarrell at (352) 343-4101.

Private Applicator & Ornamental /Turf Pesticide License training & exam. Dec. 9,
2009. Orange County Extension Office, Orlando. Contact Celeste White at (407) 254-9200.

Nursery and Greenhouse IPM Scout Training. Dec. 9, 10 and 11 2009. MREC, Apopka.

Websites to Checkout

MREC Plant Clinic every Tuesday Afternoon
For all the Plant Clinic diagnoses:
http://cfextension.ifas.ufl.edu/agriculture/plant clinic/index.shtml

Redbay Ambrosia beetle/Laurel Wilt on avocado and related
trees in urban and rural landscapes. See size of ambrosia beetle in relation to
penny and the strings of sawdust pushed out of trunk bore on left.

http://miami-dade.ifas.ufl.edu/agriculture/tropical fruit.shtml
Under Fact Sheets the first article is on Laurel Wilt


Black thread scale, Ischnaspis longirostris. 4-page illus-
trated fact sheet describes one of the most serious armored scale pests worldwide,
attacking over 50 families of host plants its distribution, field characteristics,
life cycle, hosts, plant damage and economic importance, and management. Photo
of infestation to left.
http ://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/IN822

This material is provided as one of the many services relating to the educational programs offered
to you by this agency Our statewide network of specialists is prepared to provide current infor-
Production Times is brought to you by: mation on agriculture, marketing, family and consumer sciences, 4-H, marine science, and related
fields We will be happy to help you with additional information upon request
Use of trade names in this newsletter does not reflect endorsement of the product by the Univer-
sity of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, or the Florida Cooperative Extension
Juanita Popenoe, Ph.D. Service
Multi-County agent, Woody Ornamental Production
Agricultural Center The Institute of Food and Agricultural Science (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity
1951 Woodlea Rd. Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to
Tavares, FL 32778 individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or

1^^\. 1I l 1 U-L) Vl__, ,U1 V -L111 lr I IV IIr ll' I IV I I J 1V1

L Research Summaries
Summaries of research published in HortScience

Reducing Water Use:
Daily Water Use (DWU) is the amount of water lost
daily from the leaves of the plant and the soil of the
pot. It is calculated by weighing plants daily and
thought to be the amount of water a grower should
replace in the pot the next day to maintain growth.
Researchers in Michigan wanted to test to see if they
could supply less water and still get good growth.
They tested ten different container grown plants us-
ing overhead irrigation applied at a rate of 3/4 inch
per application (common practice), 100 % replace-
ment of Daily Water Use, 100% alternated with 75%
Daily Water Use and one irrigated on a pattern of
100% Daily Water Use followed by two 75% Daily
Water Use applications. Irrigations were at least 24
hours apart. The three treatments using DWU re-
duced total irrigation applied 6% to 75% compared
with the control depending on treatment and species.
Final growth measurements of all DWU treatments
was greater than or equal to the control for all plants
To calculate your plant's daily water use, measure
the weight of a plant 1 hour and 24 hours after irriga-
tion. The difference is the amount of water that plant
and the potting mix lost during the day.
Knowledge Gained:
1. Irrigating a set amount every time is probably
wasteful of water
2. You do not have to replace all the water lost
every day to maintain satisfactory growth

Parboiled Rice Hulls
Parboiled rice hulls are being used more and more as
a cheaper and more sustainable replacement for per-
lite. They provide drainage and air-filled pore space
necessary for good root growth. Kansas State Uni-
versity and the University of Illinois were concerned
that rice hulls might be more attractive to Fungus
Gnats, so they set out to test the attractiveness of pot-
ting media made with rice hulls to that of perlite.
They found that moisture content was more impor-
tant to the fungus gnats than rice hulls or perlite.
Knowledge Gained:
1. Parboiled rice hulls do not attract fungus gnats.

Hot Water vs Chemicals to Control
Azalea stem cuttings are often infested with Rhizoc-
tonia spp. before cutting, and die in propagation with
web blight. Researchers in Mississippi decided to
test disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen
dioxide, and quaternary ammonium chloride), fungi-
cides (chlorothalonil + thiophanate-methyl and fluto-
lanil) and hot water baths to kill off Rhizoctonia in
leafless stem sections of azalea 'Gumpo White'.
Stem sections were inoculated with Rhizoctonia,
treated and then tested for the presence of Rhizocto-
nia. Disinfectants and fungicides applied at, below
and above labeled rates did not eliminate Rhizocto-
nia from the cuttings. A water bath in 113F did not
eliminate Rhizoctonia, but 122F water did. Higher
temperatures hurt the azalea cuttings. Submerging
cuttings in 122F water for 21 minutes eliminated
Rhizoctonia without causing severe leaf damage.
Knowledge Gained:
1. Hot water can be used to control Rhizoctonia
in cuttings when disinfectants and fungicides
have been ineffective.

Organic Mulches and Weed Control
Common landscape mulches (cypress, recycled pal-
lets, hardwood fines and pine bark) were compared
for their effect on soil moisture, soil pH, weed con-
trol, and growth of landscape shrubs. In addition, no
mulch and no weed control and no mulch with weed
control were compared to the mulched plots. Growth
of eight different plants under these treatments was
measured by researchers at Michigan State. They
found all mulches increased soil moisture compared
with no mulch with weed control. All had similar
effects on soil pH and foliar nitrogen. All mulches
except cypress mulch increased plant growth of most
shrubs compared to no mulch without weed control.
Photosynthesis of the shrubs was reduced by cypress
mulch and no mulch.
Knowledge Gained:
1. Organic mulches tested (except cypress) are
equally effective in improving growth of land-
scape plants.

(Continued from page 3)
2. Cypress mulch reduced shrub growth and may
have some allelopathic chemicals that stunt
plant growth.

Irrigation Frequency Affects Plant
Many water management districts in Florida restrict
increased irrigation for establishment to the first 60
days after planting although many woody plants may
need 6 to 12 months to become established. Univer-
sity of Florida researchers tested Burford holly and
variegated pittosporum in north and central Florida at
8 planting dates over two years. Plants from #3 con-
tainers were watered every 2, 4, or 8 days with 3/4
gallon of water. Irrigation stopped when the roots
grew to the canopy edge (12-22 weeks after planting).

Plant growth was evaluated weekly until 104 weeks
after planting.
Knowledge Gained:
1. Irrigation frequency did not affect shrub sur-
vival or aesthetic quality at either location.
2. Irrigation every 2 days during establishment
resulted in greater plant growth in central
3. Both species tested survived and grew on natu-
ral rainfall alone provided they were irrigated
during establishment with 3/4 gallon every 4-8
days until roots reached the canopy edge
(about 22 weeks after planting). Extra irriga-
tion was only needed in the following 18
months when plants showed visible signs of
drought stress (occurred when no measurable
rainfall for 30 consecutive days).

Sustainable Practices? Why Not?
By Juanita Popenoe

Why don't more growers adopt
Nursery Best Management Prac-
tices (BMPs)? Florida has a lot of
imperiled (polluted) waters. Once
a water basin is deemed imperiled,
a Basin Management Plan
(BMAP) and Total Maximum
Daily Load (TMDL) are devel-
oped by the Dept. of Environ-
mental Protection. Based on these,
they are required to get a certain
percent of growers to adopt BMPs.
BMPs are still voluntary, but if not
enough growers volunteer, they
may become mandatory.
A recent study from Purdue Uni-
versity tried to determine why
more growers don't adopt sustain-
able practices. Although 65% of
respondents thought sustainability
was very important to the environ-
ment and 63% were using sustain-
able practices, concerns about im-
plementation and perceived risk
were keeping them from adopting
more sustainable practices. The
stringency of state regulations did

not affect the adoption of sustain-
able practices.
What can the extension service do
to help make BMPs easier to
adopt? If you are interested in
finding out more about Nursery
BMPs and what is required, come
to the hands-on Nursery BMP
workshop October 20 at the Lake
County Extension office in Ta-
vares. We will show you how:
1. To tell how much water your
potting mix can hold (so you
know how much
you can irrigate)
2. To measure the
soluble salts in the
potting media solu-
tion so you can
make sure you are
not fertilizing too
much or too little.
3. To tell if your irri-
gation system is
uniform and effi-
cient. If your nurs-
ery is in Lake Collecting
of applicat

County, this can be done annu-
ally for you by the Mobile Irri-
gation Lab.
Come and talk to a person who
does BMP assessments to find out
what is involved. Signing on to
BMPs will mean that you are as-
sumed compliant with all water
quality requirements.
Bring a plant in a pot and a pot
with just your potting media to
really get involved. Come pre-
pared to get wet and dirty!

irrigation water to determine uniformity

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