Title: Production times
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00090492/00006
 Material Information
Title: Production times
Series Title: Production times
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: Summer 2008
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090492
Volume ID: VID00006
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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Production UF FLORIDA

STimes IFAS Extension

Summer 2008
Volume 15, Number 2

Turn Up The Heat!
By Lelan Parker

Production Times is brought to
you by:

Juanita Popenoe, Ph.D.
Lake County
Woody Omamentals/Multi-County
(352) 343-4101

Lelan Parker, M.S.
Orange County
Greenhouse/Foliage Multi-County
(407) 254-9220

This material is provided as one of the many
services relating to the educational programs
offered to you by this agency. Our statewide
network of specialists is prepared to provide
current information on agriculture, marketing,
family and consumer sciences, 4-H, marine
science, and related fields. We will be happy to
help you with additional information upon
Use of trade names in this newsletter does not
reflect endorsement of the product by the
University of Florida, Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, or the Florida Coopera-
tive Extension Service.

See the newsletter in color at:

Once a disease or pest problem is
identified, management may be dif-
ficult, expensive or even impossible.
Prevention is the key to keep these
dilemmas at a minimum. Manage-
ment practices such as sanitation,
proper cultivation, fertilization and
irrigation can help you avoid pest
problems before they even begin.
Pathogens can be destroyed from
soil or soil less media by heat from
steam, composting, solarization, or
by chemical fumigation.

For over 100 years steam has been
used to disinfest soil. Heat from
steam is very practical for soil ster-
ilization. Aerated steam can be
used to pasteurize soil and potting
mixtures to eliminate not only soil
borne pathogens but also weed
seeds and insects. Pathogens such
as Phytopthora ramorum (sudden
oak death) and Pythium irregular
(Pythium root rot) as well as many
other disease causing fungi and bac-
teria may be prevented by soil ster-

For proper soil sterilization, an ap-
plication of aerated steam should be
applied to maintain a uniform soil
temperature. The soil must be free
of clods, extreme moisture, and
large pieces of plant matter to en-
sure the penetration of steam. The
air-steam pasteurization temperature
should be held at a range of 140-
1580 F (60-70C) for 30 minutes.
Thirty minutes is a sufficient
amount of time to eliminate disease
causing organisms from the soil.
Longer times and higher tempera-
tures will kill beneficial organisms
in the soil. After the soil is steril-
ized it should be covered and stored
in an area where it will not come
into contact with untreated soil.

Recent studies have shown that aer-
ated steam treatments were efficient
in eliminating pathogens Cylindro-
cladium scoparium, Phytophthora
ramorum, Pythium irregulare and
Thielaviopsis basicola within pot-
ting mix without melting plastic
plug flats.
(Continued on Page 4)

New Pests of Ficus-Whitefly and Thrips. The fig whitefly (Singhiela simplex) and ficus
thrip (Gynaikothrips uzeli) have been found attacking ficus trees and hedges in Miami, FL. They
mainly cause damage to the weeping fig tree (Ficus benjamin) but also attack other species and
host plants. For more information go to: http://trec.ifas.ufl.edu/mannion/pdfs/PestsOfFicus-

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Science (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and
institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin U S DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FLORIDA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY

Workshop: Surviving Difficult Times in the

Green Industry

Are business profits shrinking and you are not
sure why? Do revenues fluctuate widely from
year-to-year? Has marketing become more of a
challenge? Has your business been impacted by
drought or freeze? Is reliable labor hard to come
by? Are labor costs a major burden? Have delin-
quencies on accounts receivable grown painfully
high? Are credit terms increasingly unfavorable
or difficult to acquire? Are operating costs spi-
raling out of control? If you have answered yes
to some of these questions, if you feel the busi-
ness climate continues to deteriorate, and if you
are worried about the future of your business,

we have a workshop for you. Come and learn
useful strategies to increase your firm's bottom
line on August 19, 2008 at the MREC. We will
have speakers on the following topics: Identify-
ing the Beasts Risks that gnaw at your profits -
and strategies to overcome them, Measure What
You Manage the financial management tool-
box you can't do without, Marketing is not Just
Selling The marketing strategies you need to
survive a maturing industry, and Crop Insur-
ance the most misunderstood and overlooked
secret weapon. See the enclosed flyer for more

Plant Clinic Problem of the Quarter -
Ceratocystis was a common problem for the months of January
and February. Certaocystis is a fungal pathogen that produces
volatile substances and gives off a fermented odor. Methods of '
transport for long distance movement is through water, soil,
gravel etc. Host plants affected in Florida are Syngonium, Alocasia
and Colocasia. Symptoms of Ceratocystis can be a black water
soaked area sometimes girdling the stem, leaf chlorosis and
death, and root rotting along with stunted growth. It may be con-
trolled with fungicides containing thiophanate methyl (Cleary's
3336 @) or trifloxystrobin (Compass TM). Check out the other
plant clinic samples and diagnoses at http://cfextension.ifas.ufl.edu/agriculture/plant_clinic/index.shtml.

Pythophthora Root and Crown Rots
By Juanita Popenoe

Phytophthora is a soil fungus that can cause
damping-off, seedling blights, aerial leaf spots
and stem, crown and root rots. It thrives under
wet conditions. There are several different spe-
cies of Phytophthora and some favor warm wet
conditions-P. cinnamomi, while others cool
moist conditions-P. cactorum. Some species in-
fect only certain species of plants, like P.
ramorum (of Sudden Oak Death fame), while

others are very general like P. cinnamomi.

Phytophthora can directly infect stems, roots and
the crown area, especially in woody plants. Un-
der wet conditions of overhead irrigated jammed
plants, it will also infect the branches and leaves.
Woody plants may show a vertical discoloring
stain or canker on infected trunks. Scrape the
bark off the affected area and you can find the


(Continuedfrompage 2)
discolored wood and a distinct margin with un-
affected healthy wood. Herbaceous plants are
more difficult to diagnose because decayed roots
are symptoms of many diseases and Phy-
tophthora does not produce any fruiting bodies
visible to the naked eye. There are relatively
simple test kits commercially available to con-
firm the diagnosis, or you can take the sample to
a laboratory or the plant clinic. It is best to avoid
this disease by using pathogen-free growing me-
dia, plants, water and equipment. Do not over-
water and provide good drainage.

Phytophthora bud rot on Washingtonia palm

Phytophthora root and crown rot in cineraria.

If you are using recirculated or surface water,
you may have problems with Phytophthora be-
ing spread by the water. Just a few infected
plants will provide enough pathogen
propagules to amplify small problems to green-

house- or nursery- wide problems. Under high
risk situations it is best to periodically test water
samples for the fungus. Treatments such as bro-
mination, chlorination, filtration, ozonation or
UV light may be required to clean the water.

For the latest chemical control measures, check
the Professional Disease Management Guide for
Ornamental Plants at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/

Phytophthora crown rot in Gerbera

Phytophthora root rot-notice brown roots

Phytophthora leaf spots on Indian Hawthorn

(Continued from Page 1)

For more detailed information on this study refer to Linderman, R.G. and E.A. Davis, 2008: Eradication of
Phytophthora ramorum and Other Pathogens from Potting Medium or Soil by Treatment with Aerated Steam
or Fumigation with Metam Sodium, HortTechnology 18(1): 106-110

SKeeping Your Cool
By Lelan Parker

Preventive and corrective maintenance are essential to
the effective operation of an evaporating cooling sys-
tem. Without proper care, a greenhouse evaporating
cooling system's efficiency may be greatly reduced.
Some factors that contribute to inefficiency are green-
house doors remaining open, inadequate water supply
to cooling pads, improper operation of fans, and com-
pacting of cooling pads.

Cooler indoor temperatures can improve the environ-
ment for plants as well as significantly improving
working conditions for employees. Major factors to
consider for a maintenance program for your evaporat-

ing cooling system are to 1) check air flow and fan
ratings; 2) check the rate of water supply to cooling
pads using water meters, rotameters, or bucket and
stopwatch; 3) use fungicide in the water supply to re-
duce the growth and build up of algae in the cooling
pads; 4) if using aspen pads replace with new pads
when the void area in the pads is 10% or greater of the
original total pad area; and 5) if replacing cooling pads
consider using newer pads such as concrete coated
cooling pads or corrugated cellulose pads.

More detailed information can be found at: http://

2008 Planning Calendar

Links to most programs and agendas may be found at: http//cfextension.ifas.ufl.edu or the UF Extension Calendar at http'/


3-Green Industries BMP Training. Collier County Extension. (239) 353-4244.

7,8-Palm Management in the Florida Landscape. Ft. Lauderdale Research and Education Center. (954) 577-


15--Florida Native Plant Society Annual Conference. Palmetto, FL. Manatee Convention Center. (407) 895-


23-Integrated Pest Management Update Workshop. Statewide. Mid-Florida Research and Education Center,

Contact Yamira Donato for registration. (407) 254-9200.


1-4-The Annual 121st Florida State Horticulture Society Meeting. Marriot N. Ft. Lauderdale. (352) 392-1928

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