Title: Production times
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00090492/00003
 Material Information
Title: Production times
Series Title: Production times
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: Summer 2007
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090492
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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TFAS Extension

This material is provided as one of the many
services relating to the educational programs
offered to you by this agency. Our statewide
network of specialists is prepared to provide
current information on agriculture, marketing,
family and consumer sciences, 4-H, marine
science, and related fields. We will be happy to
help you with additional information upon
Use of trade names in this newsletter does not
reflect endorsement of the product by the
University of Florida, Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, or the Florida Coopera-
tive Extension Service.

Everyone is talking about them, but
have you actually seen them?
Potential crop yield loss from the
Chilli thrips is projected to be $3
million, and that is not including
ornamentals. They are the latest
exotic insect to cause major havoc
to ornamentals since the pink
hibiscus mealybug (PHM). And,
like the PHM, if inspectors find one
in a nursery, it means quarantine. So
wouldn't it be better if you find
them first?

They are half the size of the
Western Flower Thrips, with the
same narrow body, but the adults
have a dark stripe down the back.
The immatures look like very small
golden colored thrips (about two
times the length of a two spotted
spider mite). They get in rose buds,
but are not usually found in the open
flowers where you find Western
Flower Thrips. Most of Chilli
Thrips damage is caused on the
young leaves that become
misshapen with purplish discoloring
where the thrips have rasped. They
can be found on the tops of the
leaves of some plants like cucumber
and strawberry, but are generally on

the undersides of leaves.

The worst thing is that they can kill
plants, and many rose growers are
getting very discouraged by the
continuous defoliation they cause.
Winter Park rose garden was
devastated by repeated defoliation
caused by Chilli Thrips. They also
like to eat ligustrum, pittosporum,
Indian hawthorn, viburnum,
plumbago, impatiens, lisianthus,
snapdragon, and zinnia to name a
few. The damage can look like
broadmite damage with stunted and
distorted new growth Dr. Osborne
has found them in just about every
big box store he has visited and they
quickly spread to all the plants

What can be done? Keep an eye out
for the damage. Use sticky cards or
tap the leaves over white paper and
look for small yellow thrips running
around on the paper. Bring them to
the plant clinic for identification.
The free plant clinic at MREC does
not report any findings to regulatory
agencies only to the grower.

(Continued on page 4)

Looking for a job? We need applicants for refilling Vera Gasparini's position-Orange County re-
gional extension agent for greenhouse and foliage production. If you or someone you know might be inter-
ested, please check out the application information at https://jobs.ufl.edu/applicants/jsp/shared/frameset/
Frameset.jsp?time= 1174491976588.
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Science (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and
institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin U S DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FLORIDA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY

Summer 2007
Volume 14, Number 2

Got Chilli Thrips?
By Juanita Popenoe

* Production Times is brought to
you by
Juanita Popenoe, Ph.D.
Lake County
Woody Omamentals/Multi-County


What is Happening to Loropetalum?
By Juanita Popenoe

Recently a large landscaping firm decided to no
longer use loropetalum. Why is this happening to a
great Florida Friendly plant? Many people growing
loropetalums are amazed to hear there are any prob-
lems. There are several possible reasons that
loropetalums seem to be having problems for some.
Two years ago the first problem found was supposed
to be eryiophyid mites. Microscopic mites were ap-
parently causing distorted, stunted new growth on
'Ruby' loropetalum, but not on other cultivars. Un-
fortunately, 'Ruby' was 80 percent of the loropeta-
lum plantings. Research on the mites indicated that
Sevin would control the mites, but then another ex-
periment turned up some very interesting results. Dr.
Gary Leibee and Dr. Amy Shober found that as long
as copper sprays were used on the plants, large popu-
lations of the microscopic mites could be found, but
there were no distorted, stunted leaf symptoms. It
seemed to be a simple problem of lack of a micronu-
trient that was actually causing the problem. Using
Kocide in a typical spray program overcame the cop-
per deficiency.

However, there are still some other unexplained
problems with loropetalum. Several growers have
claimed that loropetalum will not grow when re-
claimed water is used for irrigation. Loropetalums
are known to be salt intolerant, but the problem has
not been fully evaluated. Dr. Tom Yeager said in his

research there were no differences in growth of
loropetalum irrigated with reclaimed water or tap
water. Could differences in reclaimed water or the
tap water used in the research be the answer?

Dr. Al Ferrer at Seminole County Extension has re-
ported widespread plant defoliation caused by the
fungus Pseudocercospora, even during our current
drought. The symptoms, illustrated in the photos be-
low, vary from irregular brownish spots to irregular
red/yellow spots, possibly with cultivar. For color
photos, see the newsletter on line at cfexten-
sion.ifas.ufl.edu. Little is documented about this dis-
ease on loropetalum. Dr. Strandberg at the MREC
says that Pseudocercospora can survive in the mois-
ture from nightly dew and could require sprays every
4 days if it is anything like Pseudocercospora on cel-
ery. Chemical control recommendations can be
found at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/IG012.

Right now there are no complete answers, but some
recommendations: use cultivars other than 'Ruby,'
make sure to maintain proper copper levels, avoid
salty water, and try to select propagation material
from mother plants that do not show disease symp-
toms (and are hopefully more resistant to Pseudocer-
cospora). Check the salts in your irrigation water as
part of your Best Management Practices, or bring a
sample to the plant clinic for a free check.

Loropetalum leaves with red/yellow Loropetalum leaves with brown spotted
spotted Pseudocercospora. Pseudocercospora.

Loropetalum with probable copper de-

Planning Irrigation Upgrades and Need $s?
By Juanita Popenoe

If you are planning some irrigation upgrades for
increased water use efficiency or other Best
Management Practices (BMP) upgrades at your
nursery, you should apply for cost share money.
Currently the BMP implementation teams are
providing 80/20 cost share up to $15,000 per nursery
per year in the central Florida area. Steve Cox is the
head of the BMP implementation team. If you are
interested, contact him at (321) 231-4851 or Rance
Ellis at (321) 231-4853 and set up a BMP
assessment. The team will come and evaluate your
nursery with the BMP manual, and help you decide
what can be done for the cost share money. The
BMP assessment does not obligate you to do
anything, and it may be worth your while to have
them assess your nursery and practices to see how
you measure up. If you decide to go ahead with
some improvements, you must submit a proposal
with a signed notice of intent to follow BMPs. Your
proposal will then be evaluated by a committee to
determine how much money you will receive. After
the proposal is accepted, and the proposed changes
are made, just submit the invoices to Steve Cox and
the money is yours. It is a way to help more people
adopt Best Management Practices, and is a win win
program for everyone. Already several growers in
the Orange County area have benefited from the
$200,000 available, and more money is expected
with the next financial year starting July 1st.
Growers who have applied (and have already
received money) include Mercer Botanicals, Phoenix
Foliage, Blodgett Nursery, Anehiem Nursery,
Pecketts, Apopka Plant Outlet, Junior Nursery,
Korus Nursery, Brothers Foliage, Plow Boys, Wades
Greenhouse and Jacks Tropical Gardens. Talk to
them about how easy it is to follow Best
Management Practices and receive cost share

Eligible practices for the cost share include: heavy-
use area stabilization, plant rearrangement (to group
plants according to water use requirements),
chemigation infrastructure, storage, staging and
potting areas (construction of concrete floors and
roofs for these areas), vegetative buffers, roof top
management (gutters to divert water from rooftops to
storage or safe areas), low volume irrigation,
precision application equipment, grade stabilization,
on-site water detention/retention, irrigation emitter
uniformity, and alternative practices (other proven
water quantity and quality practices).

These eligible practices are the BMPs identified as
the most important to cleaning up water by reducing
fertilizer run off and reducing water waste. By
adopting as many of the BMPs as you can and
signing a notice of intent to continue to use these
BMPs, you will automatically have the water and
pesticide management plans that are required for
consumptive use permits, be able to apply for cost
share money and benefit from the presumption of
compliance with state water quality standards. This
will save you from any liability in the future about
water pollution. Best Management Practices are not
difficult and you may be surprised at how many you
are already doing. We are planning programs at
nurseries throughout the three county area to show
what is involved in a BMP assessment and how
mobile irrigation labs can help you increase the
efficiency of your irrigation system. In addition we
are building BMP toolkits to give away at these
programs that include all the equipment you need to
monitor your practices. Keep an eye out for the
flyers for the program in your area and check out a
BMP manual at http://hort.ifas.ufl.edu/bmp/

2 Our website is under construction!
Http://cfextension.ifas.ufl.edu is being changed to reflect the new Solutions For Your Life program from
the University of Florida. It will be changing daily as we include new features and information. The plant
clinic link will have a webpage with photos of all the submissions and diagnoses. The newsletters, plant fact
sheets and local programs can all be found there as well as links to much more information.

(Continued from page 1)
If you find you have them, they are not that difficult
to control. In greenhouses you can try insect
excluding screen, but it has not been proven
successful with insects this small. Remove
susceptible weeds, especially castor bean, from
outside the greenhouse. Destroy infested plant
material. The thrips lay their eggs in the leaves and
then pupate in soil. Leaving infested debris around
allows them to complete their life cycle. Chemicals
can prove effective. Abamectin, acephate and pylon
(only for greenhouses currently, but a special
license for outdoors is in the works), and spinosad
(Conserve) work. Neonicotinoids will knock them
down, and sprays are better than drenches, but you
have to get good coverage. Synthetic pyrethroids
are not so effective and not good on the biological
controls that work very well. Homeowners now

have access to spinosad and there is a concern that
resistance will occur with overuse. The best control
has been found with the predatory mite Amblyseius
swirskii. It aggressively eats white flies, broadmites
and Chilli Thrips. You can purchase them from
Kopperts or Biobest in little sachets that cost about
65 cents each (but there is a minimum order). These
have been so successful in the research greenhouse
that there is no need for chemicals. Dr. Osborne is
interested in studying their effectiveness in the
landscape, so if you are interested in trying them
out, Dr. Osborne is looking for cooperators.
Don't let Chilli Thrips destroy our nurseries and
landscapes. They are not difficult to control, only to
see! Check out Dr. Osborne's web site at
http://mrec.ifas.ufl.edu/lso for excellent
photographs and even videos of the pest so you can
identify them before the inspectors do.

2007 Planning Calendar
Links to most programs and agendas may be found at: http//cfextension.ifas.ufl.edu or the UF Extension Calendar at



24.......Review and Exam. Right of Way and Aquatic licenses. Contact Maggie Jarrell (352) 343-4101.


16.......Small Farm Program. MREC, Apopka. Contact Maggie Jarrell (352) 343-4101.

16-17... Floriculture Field Day. Gainesville. www.fngla.org

24.......Pest Management Update. MREC, Apopka. Contact Maggie Jarrell (352) 343-4101.

24.......Review and Exam. O&T and Private Applicator pesticide applicator licenses. Kissimmee. Contact

Jennifer Welshans (321) 697-3000.


6 .......CEU Day and WPS Train the Trainer. MREC, Apopka. Contact Richard Tyson (407) 665-5551

3-5......Florida State Horticulture Society Annual Meeting. Palm Beach Gardens. http://www.fshs.org/

9-12.... Trees Florida Conference and Trade Show. Palm Harbor. http://treesflorida.com


28 .......Review and Exam. Limited Certification Licenses. Tavares. Contact Maggie Jarrell (352) 343-4101.

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