Title: Production times
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00090492/00002
 Material Information
Title: Production times
Series Title: Production times
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: Spring 2007
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090492
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


This item has the following downloads:

ProductionTimesSpring2007 ( PDF )

Full Text


IFAS Extension

This material is provided as one of the many
services relating to the educational programs
offered to you by this agency. Our statewide
network of specialists is prepared to provide
current information on agriculture, marketing,
family and consumer sciences, 4-H, marine
science, and related fields. We will be happy to
help you with additional information upon
Use of trade names in this newsletter does not
reflect endorsement of the product by the
University of Florida, Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, or the Florida Coopera-
tive Extension Service.

Buffer zones, vegetative
boundaries, grassed waterways and
wetland retention areas are
suggested ways to control and clean
up runoff in the Nursery BMP
guide. These areas slow the runoff
water and allow nutrients and
sediment to be cleaned from the
water before it reaches ground or
surface waters. Perennial vegetation
using plants that will not make too
many seeds and cause a weed
problem is suggested, but what
plants should you use and is a
wetland right for you? Wight
Nurseries in Cairo, Georgia have
experience and research results on
how to deal with this problem.

They have a 9.31 acre wetland
remediation system for their 120
acre nursery with a two stage
design. The first stage has an
average depth of 30 inches and the
second a depth of 8 inches. The
nursery grows large container trees
and shrubs that are micro-irrigated
3-5 times daily for 3-5 minutes and
fertilized with incorporated
controlled-release fertilizer and

liquid fertilizer injection.

Production beds are drained into a
water retention pond and from
there the water is pumped into the
first stage wetlands. The first stage
wetlands gravity feed the second
stage wetlands. From the second
stage wetlands the water flows into
stilling ponds (for suspended
sediment finishing) before going
into a nearby stream. The wetlands
are covered with plants with very
little open water. The first stage
wetland plants are giant bulrush,
maidencane grass, pickerelweed,
common cattail, floating
pennywort, duckweed, water meal
and alligator weed. The second-
stage wetland plants are common
cattail, pickerelweed, water
pennywort, maidencane grass,
floating pennywort, common
duckweed and broadleaf

Researchers sampled water
throughout the wetland and at the
receiving stream over three years.
(Continued on page 4)

Red Palm Mite: Raoiella indica were detected in November 2006 in several areas in eastern Puerto Rico.
This is a pest of international quarantine significance and a potential threat to ornamental and coconut
palms as well as ginger, bananas and plantains in Florida. For more details about this pest go to http://
edis.ifas.ufl.edu/IN681, and be careful to inspect any material coming from Puerto Rico.

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Science (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and
institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin U S DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FLORIDA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY

Spring 2007
Volume 14, Number 1

Runoff Clean Up
By Juanita Popenoe

* Production Times is brought to
you by
Juanita Popenoe, Ph.D.
Lake County
Woody Omamentals/Multi-County
(352) 343-4101

Recycling Soil and Pots

Many growers ask if they can recycle/reuse their
pots and soil. The answer is difficult because it de-
pends on many factors. Reusing pots in a green-
house is a no-no unless you sterilize them in some
way with steam, bleach or other chemicals. Reusing
pots in field nurseries is a little more complicated.
Pots in the field are on the ground anyway, and may
be in contact with many good and bad microorgan-
isms there. Many growers will reuse field pots with-
out cleaning as long as they know there was not a
diseased plant in the pot. However, there is always
the chance that a soil-borne disease organism is
clinging on to a pot and just waiting for the right
conditions to infect the plant. If you decide to clean
pots for reuse, you can steam them or chemically
clean them. If you use chlorine bleach to clean the
pots, just remember that the chlorine, like other
chemicals, can become non-effective with time and
use. You can use a regular pool chlorine test kit to
check if active chlorine levels are still effective. As
for recycling pots, unfortunately our local plastic
recyclers cannot take pots. Unlike poly covers from
greenhouses, pots usually are too dirty to recycle
the plastic, so they do not accept them.

Reusing soil is likewise a tricky question. The pot-

ting mixes we use decompose with time. As the mix
decomposes, particles become smaller and the air
spaces smaller until the mix is really not good for
plants, but by that time the plants are sold or potted
on hopefully. There can also be a build up of disease
organisms or chemicals that make the soil unsuit-
able for new young plants. However, that old soil
can be reused if it is composted or pasteurized to
remove weed seeds and pathogens and then re-
mixed with other components to increase air spaces
and nutrients. Jon's Nursery is famous for their re-
used, composted soil that is left over from propaga-
tion. They have large piles of the used potting mix
that they carefully monitor for temperature to make
sure it reaches the 180 F that is needed to kill off
pests and pathogens. They carefully turn the soil
and mix it to ensure the high temperatures are
evenly distributed throughout the whole pile (no
easy task with piles that large), and then they mix it
with new aged bark and other ingredients for reuse.
This process can be done on a smaller scale, but at-
tention to the details required for good composting
is vital if you are going to have a safe product. For
more information on composting, visit:

M Biological Control Demonstration Update

The demonstration of biological control of whiteflies
and other insects on Basil, Mint and Poinsettia at the
MREC is going so well that Dr. Osborne has been
amazed. He purchased Swirskii, a predatory mite
from Koppert (www.koppert.nl), that is supposed to
work well on chilli thrips, broadmites, and whitefly.
This mite comes in little "tea bags" of grain, with
grain mites for food during shipping, that you hang
on plants in the greenhouse. They have worked ex-
tremely well, even with the explosive mice popula-
tion coming in and eating the grain.

The one-two punch is supplied by the parasite En-

carsia sophia that can be purchased from Debora
Taylor at the Seminole County Jail (407-655-1329) or
obtained from Dr. Osborne. This parasite is specific
to whiteflies and takes care of any eggs missed by
the predatory mite. Dr. Osborne feels that with
these kinds of beneficial working for you, you
could raise stock plants pest- and pesticide-free with
little trouble. A finishing treatment with Safari be-
fore plants leave your greenhouse would ensure a
pest-free product and no chance of resistance build-
up. If you would like to see the results, please stop
by the plant clinic on a Thursday and see for your-

m Metalized Mulches to Control Whiteflies?
Adapted from Robert Hochmuth

Growers should do EVERYTHING they can to
exclude whiteflies from getting into greenhouses,
including insect screening on vents or openings,
taking time to seal any unwanted openings, and
keeping weeds and vegetation controlled outside
the greenhouses. Concerns that high populations of
silverleaf whitefly this past fall in the field on
vegetable crops like tomato, peppers, and squashes
would move into the greenhouses and become very
difficult to control led to a trial of a new exclusion
technique at the North Florida REC. They used
reflective metalized plastic mulch outside the
greenhouse (on the ground and around the
perimeter) as a means of reducing populations from
entering inside the greenhouse (see photo). The
metalized mulches are commonly used in the field
as a row mulch to "confuse" or "disorient" the
insects because of the reflection of the sun on the
mulch. The mulch is effective at reducing whitefly
and thrips populations in the field so why not try it
around the greenhouse? Two trials were conducted,
one at NFREC and another at a commercial

Initial data collected at Cheney Farms show very
promising results of the metalized mulch as a means
of helping exclude silverleaf whitefly adults from
greenhouses in Suwannee Valley. The metalized
mulch was applied on Aug 20. Six yellow sticky
cards were monitored in each greenhouse and
counted on the dates listed. New cards, or cleaned
cards, were placed in the greenhouses after each
count. The first two dates represent situations where
the metalizedd mulch greenhouse" had a crop in it
but the "no mulch greenhouse" did not have a crop
yet. By the Aug 29th date, both
greenhouses had crops planted and had also been
effectively sprayed with endosulfan (Thiodan) on
Aug 26th. The decrease in overall populations from
Sept 5 to Sept 8 was due to the rainy days from Sept

Original article in NFREC News Vol. 8 Issue 22, Oct.

Table 1. Total number of silverleaf whitefly adults
on 6 yellow sticky cards.


With Metal-
ized Mulch

No Mulch

Aug 22 11 40

Aug 25 16 122

Aug 29 15 43

Sept 1 20 235

Sept 5 18 436

Sept 8 5 96

Sept 12 4 47

Sept 15 2 54

Sept 19 17 146

Vera Leaves Us
Vera Gasparini resigned from the University of Florida Extension on December 15, 2006. She has not left the industry
though, you will still see her around as the new lawn and landscape maintenance territory manager for Central Florida
for Harrell's Fertilizer Inc. Lakeland, FL. Orange County is preparing to advertise to replace her, but she will be
greatly missed and never truly replaced.

(Continued from page 1)
Nitrogen detected in the nursery runoff varied with
season and nursery production practices, but was
easily managed with the constructed wetlands.
Phosphorus was the difficult pollutant to remove
and not successfully cleaned by these plants. Other
plants are being tested for ability to better remove
phosphorus. Cannas have been shown to be very
good phosphorus removers, but more research is

Nurseries have several options for limiting
nutrients in runoff waters. With proper
management of soluble fertilizers, water-borne

disease organisms (the BMP guide suggests
chlorine, bromine or ozone), and nitrogen and
phosphorus levels, recapture and holding ponds
can be used to retain the runoff water for reuse. The
least expensive alternative is to reduce the use of N
and P to the minimum levels required to achieve
profitable plant growth rates and plant quality.
Constructed wetlands are moderately expensive to
build and plant at first, and require land. However,
they can be sited on low, unsuitable land and
require little maintenance after establishment. If
you would like more information about
constructed wetlands, visit your local extension
agent or soil conservation district office.

2007 Planning Calendar

Links to most programs and agendas may be found at: http//cfextension.ifas.ufl.edu or the UF Extension Calendar at



Jan 18-20.......Tropical Plant Industry Exhibition, Fort Lauderdale. Contact: FNGLA (407)295-7994,



7 .......Expanding Your Plant Palette. Harry P. Leu Gardens, Orlando. Contact Maggie Jarrell (352) 343-4101

21 .......Review and Exam Private Applicator and O&T Licenses. Contact Richard Tyson (407) 665-5551

20.......Central Florida Nursery Production School. Bushnell. Contact: Gary England (352) 793-2728

23.......Tree and Landscape Short Course. FL State Fairgrounds. Contact: 813-744-5519x 104


10 .......Review & Exam Limited Certification Licenses. Kissimmee. Contact: Jennifer Welshans (321) 697-3000


24 .......Review and Exam Right of Way & Aquatic Licenses. Tavares. Contact Maggie Jarrell (352) 343-4101


University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs