Group Title: Press bulletin
Title: Some poultry pests
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 Material Information
Title: Some poultry pests
Series Title: Press bulletin
Physical Description: 4 p. : ; 21 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Dawson, Charles F ( Charles Francis ), 1860-1928
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1902
Subject: Poultry -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by Charles F. Dawson.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "Jan. 1st & 15th, 1902."
General Note: At head of title: Department of Veterinary Science.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090443
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 233985224

Full Text

Press Bulletin Nos. 15 & 16.


Experiment Station.



Some Poultry Pests.
The poultry industry of the United States has reach-
ed tremendous proportions. The census of 1890 showed a
poultry population of nearly 800,000,000. Other indus-
tries are less uniform in their distribution, as nearly
everybody raises a few chickens. Some persons go into
poultry raising on a large scale realizing there is money
in it, and that to get the most out of it, they must pro-
vide proper food, large, clean and airy poultry' houses
and yards. Others go at it in a slip-shod way, providing
nothing and allowing the animals to raise themselves.
Although there are some good reasons why poultry can
exist and keel in good health, raised wild, the method is
certainly unbusiness-like and in the main unprofitable.
The fowls become wild, wander away from the premises,
become the prey of other animals, are stolen, and drop
their eggs in inaccessible places. From such poultry all
we get is a few to sell, or to put up and fatten for the
table. When we bring the poultry into a smaller com-
pass, thus depriving them of having to scratch for a liv-
ing, we undoubtedly produce a weaker strain, and tendto

Jan. I st & 15th, 1902.

introduce diseases from which they would be immune in
the wilder state. It is at this point, a knowledge of the
business is requisite. Anybody can raise chickens wild;
but that same careful attention and watchfulness is neces-
ssary in the poultry business as in any other, and it is,
therefore, not to be disposed.
Undoubtedly the greatest bug-bear to poultry-raising
is lice. There is a -;,yi-., when you cannot find out the.
trouble with poultry, clean up the houses, nests or coops
and treat the fowls for lice. There are a large number of
species of parasites affecting poultry, but space limits us
to a consideration of two or three of the more common
ones. First, and most generally important is the red
mite (Dermanyssus gallinae). It occurs oi poultry,
pigeons, and house-birds. It gnaws the flesh and sucks
blood. When fasting it is yellowish; it is red when filled
with blood. During the day, as a rule, it hides in cracks
and corners and at night swarms upon the fowls, sucking
their blood and causing them great annoyance and loss of
rest. The younger the im the an althe greater is the damage
and suffering. Other animals, such as horses afnd even
man are attacked. In horses it causes great irritation,
resulting in a mange-like disease of the skin with loss of
hair from the ;iii.t,-.,1 areas. This parasite is very per-
sistent and vigorous measures will be necessary to destroy
it. It can be eradicated by a thorough application of hot
carbolic acid solution (1 of acid to 20 parts of water) to
.all parts of the interior of the house, including the
floor, the removal and burning of nests, and by a thor-
ough white-washing.
There are five species of lice commonly found
upon fowls. They are different from lice found upon
hairy animals, and are not blood suckers. They subsist
upon the dandruff which collects upon the body and are
much alike in their habits although quite different in

shape and size. They are all quite small varying in size
from 1-100 to 1-6 of an inch in length. They multiply
with great rapidity, one individual producing over 100,000
in three months. Chicken lice may, not actually kill, but
by their great numbers so annoy the birds that loss of
rest and sleep causes ill-health, and general unproductive-
ness. They are especially annoying to young chickens.
They seem to prefer the dry scurfy skin of chickens
already in bad health to the moist skin of the healthy
ones. Chickens infested with lice are uneasy and rest-
less. They constantly peck at the body, and scratch,
shake and frequently dust themselves. Lice may be
found upon them by separating the feathers, especially
about the neck and head. The lice may also be found
about the i.ests, floors or any part of the hen house.
In treating for lice the fowl as well as the house must
receive vigorous attention. Lice upon fowls may be
killed in two ways. One is the application of some sub-
stance which will poison the lice; the other is the appli-
cation of a substance which will destroy the lice by suffo-
cating them. In the case of old fowls sulphur ointment
may be rubbed, in small quantity, upon the neck, head,
vent, and under the wings. Upon the thin skin of young
fowls only bland substances are permissible, such as olive
oil, cotton-seed oil, or lard. Every poultry yard should
have a large dust box, sunk in the ground and filled with
pulverized plaster and ashes to which sulphur or insect
powder is added. This alone, if properly managed would
keep the fowls clear of lice.
To rid the poultry house of lice it is necessary to
remove shelving, perches, nests, etc., and then to white-
wash the entire interior with a wash to which chloride of
lime (one pound to four gallons) had been added. Kero-
sene in emulsion, or free, makes an excellent insecticide
for this purp-ose, All shelving and perches should be

-ir :l ."d. washed with either of the above, or scalded.
The floor, if wooden, should he removed and similarly,
treated. If of dirt, it should he thoroughly scraped and
scalded or given a sprinkling with one of the above
insecticide solutions. The scraping should be similarly
treated or burned. A repetition of this- process two or
three times a year would keep the poult ry house free of
Another pest coninon in sub-tropical Florida is the
hen flea (Sarcopsylla gallanacea) first mentioned in the
United States by Judge L. C. Johnson, of Gainesville,
Florida. It's of about the size, color and form of a flea,
but unlike the latter, does not hopl. It frequents shady
places under old houses, earthen floors, and other dusty,
untidy places. It cannot live in sunlight or upon wet
ground. It infests young animals, chickens, turkeys,
kittens, puppies, calves, colts and children ; but may also
be found upon the larger adult animals. The female
buries itself in the skin of chickens, causing the forma-
tion of wart-like tumors which nmy spread over the eyes
or into the mouth, producing blinidess and starvation.
In very young animals death takes place early from the
immense numbers. With so many hosts to live upon
there is no wonder that this flea is so troublesome. From
what is known of its habits, however, it can be attacked
with some hope of success. The infested houses, includ-
ing floor, roosts and nests, should be given a good wetting
with whitewash, scalding hot, if possible. Dust the fowls
with insect powder and treat the tumors with carbolic
salve, or sulphur ointment. A solution of lysol, trikresol
or creolin of 5 per cent. strength should kill the insect,
and could be applied to the affected parts of the fowl.
Scald out small coops and turn upside. Treat simi-
larly all places where the flea is seen. Where possible
keep the premises wetted down by means of sprinkling
can or hose for several days, as the flea is killed by damp-
ness and by sunshine.
iWa ,s;., t, papers please copy.

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