Group Title: Press bulletin
Title: Whitefly fungus in cold storage
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 Material Information
Title: Whitefly fungus in cold storage
Series Title: Press bulletin
Physical Description: 2 leaves : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Berger, E. W ( Edward William ), b. 1869
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1911
Subject: Fungi -- Storage -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Fungi as biological pest control agents -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus whitefly -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by E.W. Berger.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "January 14, 1911."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090300
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 77603456

Full Text





By E. W. Berger

It has been demonstrated that spores of the red and brown fungus para-
sites of the citrus whitefly can be kept alive in cold storage for about six
months. It is therefore recommended that those who expect to use fungus
next spring or early summer should place a plentiful supply in cold storage,
since it is frequently scarce at that time. The fungus-bearing leaves should
be dried in shade for a week or ten days, put into tin cans (coffee cans,
baking-powder cans, etc.) and placed in cold storage. For large quantities,
tin lard cans holding nearly a bushel would be suitable.
The best time to place the fungus in cold storage is in the late fall and
early winter, before the fungus begins to peel from the leaves. December
and January are indicated; February is also a good time.
Experiments with the yellow fungus have not been carried on, hence Its
keeping qualities In cold storage are not known. But since it is so nearly
like the red fungus in all respects except color, there is little doubt but that
it can be kept alive as well as the red. The cinnamon fungus and the
white-fringe fungus can probably also be kept alive in cold storage.
Experiments with Cold Storage
Hundreds of leaves well covered with red fungus were collected in
January and February, 1910, and allowed to dry for about a week on tables
in the laboratory. They were then placed in tin cans, and suspended in
burlap sacks from the ceiling in the cold storage room of the ice factory in
Gainesville. The sacks with the cans of fungus were suspended from the
ceiling in order that they would not be in the way of the workmen. The
location immediately below the frost-covered ammonia pipes proved satisfac-
tory. Some dried leaves which had been placed in paper sacks became wet
and rotten, hence the necessity for tin cans to protect from damp.

January 14, 1911

Resuita of the Experiments
The fungus was removed from cold storage on August 18, or nearly seven
months after it had been placed there, and found to be in good condition.
Two days later spores of this fungus were sprayed into some privet bushes,
a pomelo tree, and some small sour orange trees infested with whitefly. Some
privet bushes were also sprayed with spores of fresh fungus as a check.
The spraying on the privet hedges gave no satisfactory results, either with
the cold-storage fungus or with the fresh fungus. This was in part due to
the hedges shedding a large portion of their leaves soon after spraying.
But the fungus does not often make a good growth in privet hedges. The
infection of the whitefly larvae In the pomelo was sulicent to show that at
least enough of the fungus spores were alive to make it worth while to use
them for infection purposes. There were a few to a dozen growths of fungus
pustules on many leaves examined. More fungus developed on the small sour
orange trees, but none on some neighboring sour trees, which had not been
treated, and were used as a check.
Laboratory tests demonstrated that the spores from the fungus kept in
cold storage germinated as readily as spores from fresh fungus.
Experiments during the winter of 1909 showed that green, undried citrus
.leaves would mold and turn black when kept in cold storage. This re-
sulted in the death of the fungus. Leaves dried for a week or ten days
before placing them in cold storage kept better and the spores remained alive.
One lot of leaves kept in cold storage had some of the brown as well
as the red fungus of whitefly present. The brown fungus developed in the
trees treated with this lot, but none in the trees treated with the other lot
of fungus. This shows that the brown as well as the red fungus can be
kept alive in cold storage.

State papers please copy.

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