Title: Soil fumigation can be inexpensive
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00090276/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil fumigation can be inexpensive
Physical Description: 4 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kelsheimer, E. G ( Eugene Gillespie ), 1902-
Walter, James M ( James Munday ), 1906-
Gulf Coast Experiment Station (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Vegetable Crops Laboratory, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Bradenton, Fla.
Publication Date: 19--?
Copyright Date: 1900
Subject: Soil fumigation -- Economic aspects -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Nematodes -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: E.G. Kelsheimer and J.M. Walter.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090276
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 262523975

Full Text


E. G. Kelsheimer and J. M. Walter
Vegetable Cros Laboratory
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
-Bradenton, Florida

Soil fumigation by means of chemical soil treatment procedures
is an outstanding development of modern agriculture The control
:of root-knot caused by nematodes is a major problem in southern
agriculture. Many interested growers have objected to the cost of
full-scale application of soil fumigants offered as custom service
. by the commercial agencies, In-the-row application allows a re-
duction in the amlountof chemical needed per acre to from one-sixth
to one-half, depending upon the between-the-row spacing of the crop
under consideration,
Definitely. encouraging experience has been obtained during the
.past four crop seasons by using in the-row application of a soil
fumigant in the production of crops required at the laboratory for
such purposes as the testing of insecticides and fungicides. Pepper,
cucumber, pole bean and tomato are the crops that have been grown
on old land badly infested with root-knot organisms (nematodes).
Tedious hand procedures in the applications of-soil fumigants
prompted the construction of a simple, inexpensive, effective, home-
made attachment for the bedding-cultivating tractor that has proven
useful on the experimental farm and is being used as a mddel by many
-farmers and some supply agencies of the district.
This rig (See Fig* 1) or 6no just as satisfactory for the
purpose, could be made. by any handy-man farmer for very little
,expenditure of time and money. Five dollars should cover the cost
of: everything. As shown by the photograph presented, its essential
features are:
(1) A 10 gallon steel drum (an old chemical: container)
mounted on the front axle of the tractor, the drum having,
near the bottom, a galvanized pipe outlet soldered to it$

(2) A 5/16" diameter copper txube extending from the outlet
in the drum to proper position to place the trickle of
fumigant in a line representing the approximate center
of the bed formed by the discs;

(3) A shut-off valve near the base of the drum and controllable
from the driver's seat; and

(4} A regulator valve in the line of copper tubing.
The regulator valve is. set for the desired gallonage per acre
by trial and error, as follows
(1) The tractor driver determines the position of all controls
when tractor is moving at normal, steady pace in the
preparation of beds


(2) By taking, the average of several readings, the number
of seconds required for the tractor to move 100 feet
at the steady working pace is determined*

(3) By calculation it is determined how many cubic centi-
meters of the soil fumigant are required to treat 100
feet of row at the desired dosage. Twelve ounces (or
3/4 pint) are required for a 10 gallon per acre treat-
ment on four-foot rows&

(4) The regulator valve is changed until it allows the
proper volume of the fumigant to flow into a graduated
container in the number of seconds required for the
tractor to move 100 feet. The tractor is standing still
for this calibration*
The above described apparatus allows for the adjustment and
control of application rate per acre with satisfactory accuracy
under our conditions, which include a first-class tractor driver,
The rig regularly does a good job of dispensing ethylene dibromide
dilutions at the rate of 10 gallons per acre with the b ds four
feet apart. It has nicely dispensed Soilfume 80-20,ghllons per
acre on the same row spacing. Dowfume W-40 and Soilfume 60-40 have
proven most convenient in our recent practice involving this rig.
With the regulator valve set to dispense 10 gallons per acre by the
plan a? outlined, the de"red dose of ethylene dibromide per acre
is obtained t using two measures of mineral spirits to one measure
of Dowfume W-40 or Soilfume 60-40.
Though the above described rig for soil fumigation is for use
with tractor, a similar rig satisfactory for use with mule-drawn
equipment can be easily constructed and handled. A discarded
cylindrical spray tank fixed up with tube and valves similar to the
tractor job can be attached to a Georgia stock and the mule farmer
can satisfactorily treat his fields. It would be important that
he mule walk at a steady pace*
Variations in soil types and cultural practices present
problems on which we have no information, but the' technique as out-
lined above is proving advantageous in our work with vegetables on
sandy soils. The tractor can be equipped to fumigate, fertilize,
bed, and "board-off" in a single operation. Fig. 2 is a view of
the rig doing those tasks,

The fumigant is applied in a single line at the original soil
level and a "bed" or ridge 6" 8" high is immediately thrown over
it* This bed or ridge should be compacted and the surface should
be sealed as soon as possible to prevent undue loss of the'fumigant
by evaporation. When the sandy soil is being bedded at an upper
level of water content, "boarding-off" appears to serve this purpose
h4wover, when the bedding is being done with the soil in dry con-
dition, it is judged desirable to draw a sprinkling cart behind the
tractor and sprinkle the surface sufficiently to soal it. It is
necessary to stir the treated soil, to the full depth at which the
fumigant was applied, before transplants are set or delicate seed
planted* This stirring can be done as soon as 48 hours after
application of the fumigant, and in the treated beds or ridges a
narrow bull tongue satisfactorily loosens the sandy soil to allow
aeration and dissipation of any excess chemical.

In case of frequent or heavy rains on the treated soil, two
stirring will usually be desirable. This stirring of the
treated soil must, of course, be accomplished without destroying
the bed, and it is considered desirable to avoid throwing non-
treated soil from the middles to the beds for as long as possible
If the crop is to be put on level surface, the fumigant should
be placed four inches under the surface. This is possible by rigging
the tube behind a bull tongue or .small shovel.

The scant information at hand indicates that it is desirable for
the fertilizer and fumigant to be applied together, i.e., in the
same band in the one operation. A.comparison was made between a
single line of fumigant and two lines one foot apart, the total
dosage per acre being the'same. The single line was applied in the
middle of the band of fertilizer, the double line .application could
not have missed the fertilizer band by much. Though no yield .
difference resulted, root-knot was less severe on ths'e plots '
receiving the materials in one line than on those rdoeiving the
fumigant in two. It is known that some growers of this region have
made their own rigs to apply two streams of fumigant for a single-
row bed. However, we have no information on the results in terms
of yields obtained by these growers. It would, of course, appear
entirely reasonable, on the basis of our experience, to apply two
lines of the fumigant to beds on-which two rows of vegetable crops
are to be grown, .
The rig described in the foregoing paragraphs is dependent
entirely upon gravity for the uniformity of flow of the fumigant,
There is no costly pump worked in this equipment

Theexperience of the writers to date is that in-the-row appli-
cation has given yield increases equal to those resulting from full-
scale application.
Data is presented in Table 1 to show the increase in bushels
of tomatoes per acre as affected by different dosages of soil
Table 1
Effects of Different Dosages o7 ol Fumigants Applied in-the-row
on Yield of Tomatoes.
Fumi ant Amt per acre Bu. Marketable Tomato per Acre
I100 IbS, "" -m3-
50 Ibs, 365
25 lbs.
Soilfume 80-20 13 gals, 348
65 gals. 373
3*25 gals.
No treatment 0 246
0 2
0 2v


The increases in field shownif6r the nomnal doses of D-D and
Soilfume 80-20 are of-interest to the few growers n6t already
The cost of an in-the-row treatment per acre based on rows four
feet apart varies from $7.93 to $8.92 (current prices) per acre com,
pared to $60.00 per acre for an overall field treatment from one to
five acres in extent*
If we apply 10 gallons per-acre of a solution'cntaining 35
gallons of 604o0 at '92,25 per &allon and 6.5 gallons of mineral
spirits at l6j per gallon the cost is $8.92.,
If we apply 6, gallons of an 80o20 to the Acre# made by adding
3.25 gallons of.6o040 to 3.25 gallons of mineral spirits, the cost
is reduced to $7e93.
The inexpensive apparatus for applying the fumigant and the low
cost of the material plus the increased yield is a combination that
should appeal to the grower.
The writers wish to state 'thrt the results herein reported apply
ely to our Manatee fine sandy loatt, 'eaavy phase, We do not know how
iftwill work on heavier soilO


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