Title: Florida forest steward
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00090040/00047
 Material Information
Title: Florida forest steward
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: Spring 2008
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090040
Volume ID: VID00047
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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The Florida Forest Steward

A Quarterly Newsletter for Florida Landowners and Resource Professionals

Volume 14, No. 4 Spring 2008

In this issue: Florida Forest Stewardship
and Tree Farm Programs
Forest Stewardship and Tree Farm Team Up Team Up in 2008
Welcome New Steward Co-editors By Chris Demers, UF Forest
What is the Tree Farm Program? Stewardship Coordinator
Timber Tax Tips for the 2007 Tax Year
Wilson's Snipe
Cogongrass: Make it a Priority to Control For Tree Farmers receiving this
Tour Announcement newsletter for the first time, welcome
Timber Price Update to a growing network of forestland
Events Calendar owners and natural resource
professionals working toward
sustaining Florida's private forests for
future generations. This is the
inaugural issue of a partnership
between Florida's Forest Stewardship
and Tree Farm Programs to reach a
) greater number of private forestland
owners with information and resources
S to assist you in your land management
planning and practice. This was made
Possible through a grant from the
Sustainable Forestry Initiative and
facilitated by Florida's Tree Farm
SCommittee, the Sustainable Forestry
Initiative Implementation Committee
and the Florida Forestry Association.
We thank everyone who helped to
make this expansion possible.

IFAS '$'


What is the Forest Stewardship

The Forest Stewardship Program was
founded in 1990 by Congress to encourage
and help private forestland owners, with at
least 20 acres, to actively manage their
forest resources for multiple benefits
including wood products, habitat for fish
and wildlife, clean air and water,
recreational opportunities, and aesthetic
beauty. A difference between Forest
Stewardship and Tree Farm is the
Stewardship Program's emphasis on
management for multiple benefits.
Stewardship landowners choose a primary
objective and at least one other secondary
objective. Many landowners in the
Program manage for some combination of
timber and wildlife.

Another function of the program is to
recognize landowners who practice good
land stewardship through certification with
a sign and plaque. The Florida Division of
Forestry administers Florida's Forest
Stewardship Program and provides
technical assistance with forest
management. Technical assistance for
wildlife management is provided by the
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation
Commission and educational services are
provided by the University of Florida
IFAS. There are over 2,780 landowners
enrolled in Florida's Forest Stewardship
program, collectively owning over
780,785 acres across the state.

In addition to receiving this newsletter,
Florida Tree Farmers are invited to
participate in the educational programs
provided through the Stewardship
Program. Each year we offer workshops,
tours and other events across the state,
which cover a wide variety of topics
related to private forestland management.
An event announcement is in this issue

and a calendar of upcoming events is
on the back page. We hope to see you
at one or more programs.

Welcome Tony Grossman, Jon
Gould and Chris Wynn, Co-editors
of the Steward

Tony Grossman was recently hired as the
Conservation Programs Manager for the
Florida Division of Forestry. Tony received
his Bachelor of Science in Forest
Management at Purdue University, West
Lafayette, Indiana in 1984. He worked for
the Indiana Division of Forestry for seven
years as a District Forester, followed by 14
years operating a natural resources
consulting business in Indiana, Ohio &
Kentucky. Tony has served as a Tree Farm
Inspector, Project Learning Tree Facilitator,
on the Board of Directors of the Indiana
Woodland Steward, and Society of
American Foresters Indiana Chapter
Chairman. In 2005, he moved to Reno,
Nevada and worked for the Nevada
Department of Wildlife, providing technical
guidance and supervision for fire
rehabilitation and federal projects impacting

Taking the lead in reaching Tree Farmers
with this publication is Jon Gould, Tree
Farmer and Florida Tree Farm Committee
Vice-Chair. Jon will provide articles in each
issue that will be informative to Tree
Farmers and Forest Stewards alike. His
article below describes the Tree Farm
program for Forest Stewards who may not
be familiar with that program.

After 30 years of service in FWC's
Habitat and Species Conservation, Chuck
McKelvy is now FWC's Small Game
Program Coordinator. Chris Wynn is
now filling his shoes as the statewide
Landowner Assistance Program
Coordinator. Chris earned his Bachelor

of Science in Wildlife Biology from Grand
Valley State University in Michigan and
started his career with FWC in 2002
estimating bear populations. He then worked
as a private lands biologist in the FWC's
Landowner Assistance Program for 3 years,
then as the Landowner Assistance Program
coordinator for the northeast region. He is
very passionate about helping private
landowners, enjoys all aspects of the
outdoors and finds it difficult to live a carbon
neutral life being a Florida resident who
loves to snowboard.

What is the Tree Farm Program?
By Jon H. Gould, Co-editor

The American Tree Farm System is a
program of the American Forest Foundation
and was founded in 1941 to promote the
sustainable management of forests through
education and outreach to family forest
landowners. Nearly 26 million acres of
privately owned forestland and 80,000 family
forest landowners in 46 states are enrolled in
this program and committed to excellence in
forest stewardship. About half of all Tree
Farms are located in the South.

How the Program Works

The American Forest Foundation sets the
standards for the program and runs the
national office in Washington, D.C. State
Tree Farm Committees operate and
administer the program at the local level.
Qualified inspecting foresters provide
assistance to Tree Farmers and conduct initial
and periodic inspections to obtain and
maintain certification under the program.
Tree Farmers, once certified, manage their
forestland under the program guidelines. A
minimum of 10 acres of forestland is required
to participate.

Florida Tree Farm Program

The Tree Farm program began in Florida in
1946 and is administered by the Florida
Forestry Association through the Tree Farm
Committee which includes private, industry,
and government foresters and private forest
landowners, as well as a staff member of the
Florida Forestry Association. Presently,
Florida has 757 certified Tree Farmers with
1.6 million acres of forestland in the

Tree Farmers

Tree Farmers are good stewards of their
forestland committed to protecting
watersheds and wildlife habitat and
conserving soil. They manage their
forestland for various reasons, including
timber production, wildlife, recreation,
aesthetics, and education/outreach. Tree
Farmers receive many benefits, including
the following:
-Representation on local, state, and federal
issues affecting forestland owners.
-Exposure to a network of forestry
professionals and landowners committed to
sustainable forestry.
-Access to seminars, field days, and
workshops to help manage their Tree Farm.
-Certification that meets international
standards of sustainable forest management.
-Participation in local, state, regional, and
national Outstanding Tree Farmer of the
Year awards and recognition.

Contact Information

If you would like more information about or to
possibly join either the Florida Tree Farm program
or the Florida Forestry Association, please contact
Mr. Phil Gomicki by phone at
(850) 222-5646 or by e-mail at phili@forestfla.org.

The following is the USDA Forest Service's R8-MB
130, Tax Tipsfor Forest Landowners for the 2007
Tax Year:

1720 Peachtree Road NW, Atlanta, GA 30309

U.S. Department of Agriculture
Forest Service
Southern Region

Tax Tips for Forest Landowners for the 2007 Tax Year
by Linda Wang, Forest Taxation Specialist
and John L. Greene, Research Forester, Sonlierni Research Station

This guide is designed to assist owners of forest land with tim-
ber tax information. It is current as of October 1, 2007, and
supercedes Management Bulletin R8-MB 128. It is strictly for
educational purposes; consult your legal and tax professionals
for advice on a specific tax situation.

Purpose for Owning Timber

Forest owners must classify their timber management activities
into one of three categories for tax purposes:

Trade or business
Income-producing (or "investment")
Personal use

The distinction is important in terms of how income, ex-
penses and losses are treated and reported for tax purposes.
For example, owners who are active participants in a timber
business can fully deduct ordinary and necessary management
expenses on Schedule C or F of Form 1040. In contrast, own-
ers who hold timber for investment purposes must report these
expenses as miscellaneous itemized deductions on Form 1040,
Schedule A, where they are subject to income limitations.
There is no tax advantage to holding timber for personal use.

Tax Basis of Timber

Basis is a tax concept of the cost of your forest land and tim-
ber. If properly documented, timber basis can lower your taxes
by reducing the taxable proceeds from timber sales, enabling
reforestation cost recovery or allowing timber loss deductions.
Setting up your basis helps avoid missing deductions. The tax
law specifies how to determine the basis of property acquired
by purchase, inheritance, gift, tax-deferred exchange, replace-
ment in an involuntary conversion or through reforestation.
The records necessary typically include:

Purchase price
Survey, legal and accounting fees solely for acquisition
Separate value of land, timber and other capital assets such
as bridges or roads (i.e., their individual fair market value)
on the date of acquisition, by purchase or inheritance
Timber volume and value (or the per-acre value of pre-
merchantable timber)
For timber received as a gift, the basis in the hands of the
person making the gift, plus any gift taxes paid
Costs of planting, such as site preparation, seedlings, hired
labor, fertilization and depreciation on equipment used.
Gathering these data in a timely manner (preferably when the

property is acquired) can prevent problems down the road. Set-
ting up timber basis retroactively is acceptable, but typically
needs the help of a professional forester. An excellent way to
keep track of timber basis is to use IRS Form T (Timber) "Forest
Activities Schedule," Part II (see "Form T," below).

Timber Management Expenses

Generally when there is a profit motive, ordinary and necessary
expenses incurred for managing forest land as a business or an
investment are deductible even if there is no current income from
the property. Property tax and interest are currently deductible,
but you may elect to capitalize them if doing so provides a tax
benefit. For example, owners who hold timber as an investment
and take the standard deduction may elect to capitalize property
tax and interest since they are itemized deductions.

Ordinary and necessary expenses associated with timber manage-
ment generally include the costs of post-establishment timber
cruises, fees paid consulting foresters and brush control, the cost
of protection from fire, insects and disease, precommercial thin-
ning, timber stand improvement, tools of short useful life, travel
directly related to timber activities, and the cost of hired labor
and mid-rotation fertilization (Revenue Ruling 2004-62). Costs
associated with a timber sale, including a pre-sale timber cruise,
should be deducted from the sale proceeds. Costs associated
with establishing a timber stand, including supervision by a con-
sulting forester and brush control, are part of the timber basis and
can be deducted and amortized accordingly (see "Timber Plant-
ing Costs," below).

Timber Planting Costs

Under IRC section 194 a taxpayer may elect to deduct outright
up to $10,000 per year of qualifying timber establishment costs,
and amortize any additional amount over 84 months (8 tax
years, due to the half-year convention), rather than capitalizing
and recovering them at the time of a timber sale.

Example 1: Mrs. Smith plants 40 acres of timber in 2007 at a
cost of $6,000. She can elect to deduct all $6,000 of the cost on
her 2007 income tax return because it is less than $10,000.

Example 2: If Mrs. Smith's planting cost was $14,000, her total
deduction for 2007 would be the $10,000 limit on deductions,
plus 1/14 of the amount over $10,000, or $287 ($4,000 + 14, due
to the half-year convention). She can deduct $571 ($4,000 7)
on her returns for 2008 through 2013, and the final $287 on her
return for 2014. Note: Once Mrs. Smith has filed her income tax
return for 2014, the contribution to her timber basis from the

October 2007 Management Bulletin R8-MB 130

October 2007

Management Bulletin R8-MB 130

planting will be $0. Elect to use this provision on Form 4562
(Part VI) on a timely filed return (including extensions).

If your timber property is located in a special hurricane zone (i.e.,
Gulf Opportunity Zone or the Rita or Wilma GO Zone) and you
own no more than 500 acres of forest land altogether, the $10,000
deduction is increased to a maximum of $20,000 per tax year for
planting costs incurred through the end of 2007 (IRC section
1400N(i)(1)). The hurricane zone provisions are not available to
publicly traded corporations or real estate investment trusts.

Cost-share Payments

Cost-share payments generally must be included in income unless
a section 126 election is in effect. Under this election, cost-share
payments from qualified government programs may be wholly or
partially excluded from income. Federal cost-share programs that
qualify for exclusion include the Conservation Reserve Program
(CRP), Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP), Forest
Land Enhancement Program (FLEP), Wildlife Habitat Incentives
Program (WHIP) and Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP). Vari-
ous state programs also qualify.

The process of calculating the maximum excludable amount of a
qualifying cost-share payment is shown here by example:

Example: Mr. Drew, a Texas landowner, sells $21,000 worth of
timber in 2007 and reforests his 30-acre tract at a cost of $6,000,
including a $2,000 cost-share. He uses the 6.08% interest rate un-
der Farm Credit System for the Texas region in 2007 to calculate
how much of the cost share he can exclude.

Answer: The maximum excludable amount of the cost-share pay-
ment is the present value of $2.50 per acre or 10% of the average
annual income from the tract over the last 3 years, whichever is
larger: $2.50 x 30 = $75; 10% x ($21,000 + 3) = $700; the present
value of $700, the larger of the two amounts, is $700 + 6.08%, or
$11,513; Mr. Drew can exclude the entire cost-share payment.

Without the harvest, the maximum excludable amount of the cost-
share would be only $1,234 ($75 + 6.08%). Mr. Drew would have
to include the remaining $766 ($2,000 $1,234) in his income,
but he could then deduct it using the reforestation deduction and
amortization provisions.

Timber Income

In almost every situation, it benefits you to have your timber sale
income qualify as a long-term capital gain. Among the reasons
are that long-term capital gains are taxed at lower rates than ordi-
nary income, and are not subject to self-employment taxes.

To qualify for long-term capital gain treatment, you must hold
your timber for more than 12 months. Timber held as an invest-
ment qualifies under IRC section 1221. Report a sale on Form
1040, Schedule D, Part II. Timber held as part of a trade or busi-
ness qualifies under IRC section 631(b). Report a sale on Form
4797, Part I, whether it was outright (lump-sum) or pay-as-cut.

If you as the owner cut standing timber yourself and sell cut
products to a mill, all the proceeds are ordinary income unless you
elect on Form T, Part II, to treat it as an IRC section 631(a)
transaction. If you have a section 631(a) election in effect, the
income from holding the standing timber is a capital gain and only
the additional amount from converting the timber and transporting
it to the mill is ordinary income.

When you sell or dispose of timber you can take a timber deple-
tion deduction against the proceeds. The deduction allows you to
recover a part of your adjusted timber basis that is proportional to
the volume of timber harvested.

Timber Losses

In general, loss deductions are permitted to property held for
business or investment purposes. It is important to note that your
deduction for a loss is limited to your adjusted basis in the asset
lost, minus any insurance or other compensation received.

A casualty loss is caused by natural or outside forces that are
sudden, unexpected, and unusual e.g., by fire, ice storm or hur-
ricane. A loss that is unexpected and unusual but occurs over
time e.g., by disease or insect attack is a non-casualty loss.
Other kinds of loss, timber theft and condemnation, result from
human activity. A timber theft loss is deductible in the year you
discover it.

To calculate a loss deduction, start with the adjusted basis in the
account you use to keep track of the "block" that includes the
damaged area. If you keep track of all your timber in one ac-
count, use the adjusted basis in that account. Next, determine the
difference in the fair market value of the property in the block
immediately before and immediately after the loss. Court cases
have established that a salvage sale is a separate event from a
loss, so the "after" figure should include the value of any salvage-
able timber in the block. Your loss deduction is the lesser of your
basis in the block or the decrease in value. Keep in mind that
basis verification and reasonableness of valuation are two of the
main audit areas by the IRS.

Form T

You are required to file a Form T (Timber) "Forest Activities
Schedule" if you claim a timber depletion deduction, make a Sec-
tion 631(a) election or sell timber outright under section 631(b).
Owners with occasional sales may be excepted from this require-
ment, but it is considered prudent to file. Even if you are not re-
quired to file Form T in a given year, it is an excellent way to
keep your timber tax records. An electronic version of the form
can be found at: http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-pdf/ft.pdf.


Haney, H. L., Jr.; Hoover, W. L.; Siegel, W. C.; and Greene, J. L.
2001. Forest Landowners Guide to the Federal Income Tax.
Agric. Handb. 718. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agri-
culture. This book may be downloaded free:
hf liii' iii'l,'.'.....I /publications/aghandbook/aghandbook.asp.

National Timber Tax Website: www.timbertax.org

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in
all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin,
age, disability, and where applicable, sex, marital status, familial status,
parental status, religion, sexual orientation, genetic information, political
beliefs, reprisal, or because all or a part of an individual's income is
derived from any public assistance program. (Not all prohibited bases
apply to allprograms.) Persons with disabilities who require alternative
means for communication of program information (Braille, large print,
audiotape, etc.) should contact USDA's TARGET Center at (202) 720-
2600 (voice and TDD). To file a complaint of discrimination write to
USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights, 1400 Independence Avenue,
S.W., Washington, D.C. 20250-9410 or call (800) 795-3272 (voice) or
(202) 720-6382 (TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity provider and

Wilson's Snipe, Mythical Creature
or Unique Native Game Bird?
By Wayne Harris, Wildlife Biologist,
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation

Have you ever been snipe hunting? No, I
don't mean holding a burlap sack at night, in
a swamp, in the cold, without a coat, while
your friends take the one and only flashlight
to "go flush 'em". I'm talking about the
Wilson's snipe or common snipe, as it is
often called.

The Wilson's snipe is a migratory shorebird
that can be found at some time of the year in
most of North and Central America.
Wilson's snipe measure about 10.5 inches in
total length with short, stocky legs and a
long bill that may measure close to 3 inches.
Two distinctive dark stripes crossing the
head from the base of the bill to the top of
the neck, a dark stripe running through the
eye, and a dusky cheek spot are some
distinguishing characteristics of this game

Wilson's snipe generally breed in grassy or
shrubby wetlands of forested areas from
Colorado to Massachusetts and northward
through Alaska and the Canadian provinces.
The winter range is also quite large,
consisting of the Pacific coast from Alaska
to southern California, the southern half of
the lower 48 states, and much of Mexico and
Central America. Florida generally has
some of the highest densities of wintering
snipe of all states, particularly on the

Although recent drought conditions in our
state have resulted in hard times for many
freshwater fish and other species dependent
on deep water in our lake and ponds, snipe
are living the high life. Wilson's snipe prefer
feeding on mud flats and in shallow water
areas with scattered clumps of maidencane,

smartweed, and other native vegetation.
During normal weather, these preferred
conditions are found primarily in narrow
strips along the margins of lakes and
ponds. When the water level drops, many
water bodies actually provide much more
snipe habitat.

If you want to see a Wilson's snipe, you can
spot them just about anywhere in Florida in
the winter time, where suitable habitat
exists. They can be found in wet pastures,
shallow waterfowl impoundments, lake and
pond margins, roadside ditches, and any
other areas that are open and wet. Wilson's
snipe are well camouflaged with their
surroundings so look closely to spot them.
Often, when startled but prior to flushing,
snipe will squat on the mud, looking almost
exactly like a large, closed pine cone.

If you like hunting birds, snipe hunting is
some serious entertainment. The average
snipe hunter will shoot at least 6 to 8
times per bird bagged, beginners may
need a box, while seasoned veterans will
need at 2 to 3 shots per bird. Snipe
hunting involves walking/flushing or
using a pointing/flushing dog. The main
thing to remember is when the bird gets
up and makes that nasal "snipe sound,
you had better be shooting. If you don't
get a shot, watch the bird and mark where
it lands. You can sometimes go after the
same bird time and time again. Another
unusual characteristic of Wilson's snipe
is that they often fly far ahead of you
when flushed and then circle around
eventually landing just behind you. You
can enjoy both jump shooting and pass

shooting on the same bird. I consider it
similar to hunting bobwhite quail and
mourning dove at the same time. Although
#7 12 or #8 lead shot is legal to hunt snipe on
most areas, non-toxic shot is recommended
due to the usual proximity to waterfowl
areas. An effective non-toxic, affordable
alternative to lead is #6 steel shot. If you are
fortunate enough to bag a few for supper,
marinated snipe breasts are excellent on the

The Wilson's snipe season in Florida runs
from November 1 February 15. Shooting
hours are from one half hour before sunrise
until sunset. There is an 8 bird daily bag
limit and a 16 bird possession limit.
Additional information on Wilson's snipe
and other Florida wildlife viewing and
hunting opportunities can be found on the
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation
Commission's website at http://myfwc.org.

Got Cogongrass? Make it a High
Priority to Control
By Dr. Richard Williams, UF-IFAS West
Florida Research and Education Center

Invasive non-native species are considered by
the World Conservation Union to be one of
the main threats to global biodiversity. Non-
native species spread at a rate of 1.7 million
acres per year in the US and the economic
cost to control these species in natural,
agricultural and garden areas exceeds $35
billion per year. One of the worst of these
invasive exotic plant species is cogongrass.

Cogongrass is known as one of the ten worst
weeds in the world and was introduced in the
United States at an Alabama port around
1911 being used as packing material.
Throughout the 1930s and 1940s, some
individuals actually planted cogongrass in a
bid to make it a forage crop for cattle while
others tried it as a soil stabilizer. It performed
poorly at both.

Even though the plant is no longer planted
and encouraged, cogongrass keeps
spreading. Estimates are that between
500,000 acres and 1 million acres are
infected with cogongrass in Florida,
Alabama, and Mississippi alone. It's also
found in pockets from South Carolina to
Texas and it continues its march throughout
the south. The weed's ability to take over
the landscape was recognized too late. In
fact, people do a lot of the spreading
unknowingly because of soil being moved
that contains roots. This happens commonly
in road work when soil is hauled in to fill
holes or other operations such as grading
unpaved roads.

Cogongrass spreads primarily from
rhizomes (horizontal underground stems)
and rhizome fragments. Even a small
rhizome fragment can develop into a fully
functional plant. Cogongrass is highly
flammable when mature and actually burns
hotter than native grasses, but the roots and
rhizomes are remarkably resistant to fire.
Cogongrass also spreads by seed, produced
in the spring and carried by wind,
equipment and even wildlife.

Taking over

As with other invasive species, the big
problem with cogongrass is its speed of
growth and habit of crowding out native
plants. The roots and rhizomes of
cogongrass are capable of crowding out
native plants by reducing available
nutrients and water to the less aggressive
native plants. Cogongrass can affect the
landscape, environmental balance, tree
seedling survival and growth and
ultimately wildlife habitat by reducing
native plants. Mature stands of
cogongrass have very little native
vegetation growing in them. This means
food supplies dwindle and wildlife
species that depend upon these food

sources falter. This is not a minor concern as
the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service estimates
that 42 percent of endangered species are in
decline because of invasive plants. That's a
huge impact.

Able to reach a height of 5 feet,
cogongrass is an aggressive, colony-
forming perennial grass. Cogongrass can
be easily identified by the offset mid-vein
in the leaves and rough edges of the
leaves. The blooms in spring are silvery
white and are showy. If you need help in
identifying cogongrass, contact your
county agent or county forester especially
if you think that this plant is on your
property. These plants must be controlled
and the best time to kill cogongrass is
when it first appears on your property.
The new cogongrass patches are generally
small in size and easier to control than
mature dense stands.

The challenge of controlling cogongrass

The problem with cogongrass is most of
the plant material is underground and very
difficult to reach with chemicals. Some
studies show there can be up to 18 tons per
acre of below-ground root mass from this
plant. The roots from native plant just
can't compete. And if native plants are
already there, the cogongrass intertwines
with them and chokes out other plants.

There's also a barb on cogongrass roots. If
pressed, it will actually dig itself through
the roots of trees. It's like driving a spike.
Dig some cogongrass roots up and you can
feel those "spikes."

Finding solutions

Several years ago, we began studying how
best to tackle cogongrass. One of the things
we are looking at is product enhancers.
Product enhancers are chemicals that make

the herbicides more effective. Cogon-X
is one product that we tried in a mixture
with a glyphosate herbicide. Cogon-X
helps to move the herbicide
belowground and improves the plant's
uptake of the mix. This mixture gave us
good results and reduced the cogongrass
to a workable level. A few sprigs may
survive but the mix knocks cogongrass
back significantly. On sites treated with
this mixture below ground root mass was
reduced by 90%. Battling cogongrass
will be an ongoing process but, so far,
we're seeing good results with
glyphosate and Cogon-X. The same is
true for the imazapyr products.

Imazapyr products Chopper, Arsenal -
although expensive, are some of the best
products for controlling cogongrass. The
plant "takes them up" with the most
enthusiasm, but the cost is more than twice
the glyphosate mixture. Rather than
shoulder the cost of an imazapyr treatment,
landowners often leave the problem for
another day. That can mean the cogongrass
is just left to take over. That's the worst
thing that can happen. A small patch of
cogongrass can quickly become a major
problem. A glyphosate/Cogon-X mix costs
around $35 to $38 per acre. With imazapyr
products, you're looking at about $100 to
$110 per acre.

For imazapyr treatments apply a 1% solution
with a surfactant in 15 to 20 gallons of water
per acre. Chopper herbicide already has a
surfactant so adding a surfactant is not
necessary. Glyphosate should be applied at
a 2% solution with metholated seed oil
(MSO) or some other surfactant in 15 to 20
gallons of water per acre. The glyphosate
formulation should be the stout formulation
- 41 percent active ingredient, not the stuff
you pick up at local discount stores. The
glyphosate/Cogon-X mixture is mixed at a
quart per acre of each in 15 to 20 gallons of

Cogongrass article continued after
tour announcement >

Tree Farm Tour





A Service of:

Funding for Flo

Gould Tree Farm
Tree Farm Property of Jon and Carol Gould
Washington County, FL

Thursday, April 3, 2008; meet at the property at 9 AM CT

The Goulds, 2006 Florida Tree Farmers of the Year, manage their 582 acre Tree Farm,
with periodic assistance from consulting foresters, and do most of the work themselves.
The Tree Farm is managed for sustainable forestry, wildlife, recreation, and aesthetics,
and includes a highly diverse collection of natural vegetation and wildlife, including
several threatened species and species of concern. A total of over 60 species of trees
have been identified. A wide variety of woodlands is represented on this 167 acre
forestland tract owned by the Goulds since 1965. Six species of pines (loblolly, longleaf,
slash, Choctawhatchee sand, spruce, and shortleaf) and the pyramid magnolia, one of
Florida's rare and endangered plant species, are visible from one location. Forest habitats
include mature natural mixed hardwood and pine, mature natural wetlands hardwoods,
and mature and immature planted loblolly, slash, and longleaf pine plantations. Native
azaleas are found along the Choctawhatchee River bank, as well as in other natural areas.
An old river ferry crossing known as Lassiter's Landing is located on the river bank. It
was part of the old Tallahassee-to-Pensacola stage coach route during the 1830's. This
crossing, along with a portion of the original stage coach trail, is still visible on the
property today. Most of the tour will involve riding on open trailers with several
discussion stops and a couple of stops requiring short walks. Please wear appropriate
clothing and boots and bring rain gear if possible rain is forecast.

A sponsored lunch will be served on-site after the tour, sponsors TBA. This
program is free but you must preregister. Call the Washington County Extension
Office at (850) 638-6180 to register. Attendance will be limited so please
register soon! We'll meet at 9:00 AM CT at the property and the tour will begin
promptly at 9:30 AM. Directions are on the back of this announcement. Please
share with others who may be interested.

Florida Division of Forestry, Forest Stewardship Program
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission
University of Florida, IFAS, School of Forest Resources and Conservation
University of Florida, IFAS, Washington County Cooperative Extension Service
Gould Tree Farm
Florida Tree Farm Program

rida's Forest Stewardship Program is provided by the USDA Forest Service through the
lorida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Division of Forestry
and a grant from the Sustainable Forestry Initiative


-Take either I-10 or Hwy. 20 to Hwy. 79 (from I-10, it's the Bonifay exit; from Hwy. 20,
it's at Ebro).

-Go to New Hope (south of I-10; north of Hwy. 20) and turn west on to Hwy. 284
(Millers Ferry Road).

-Go west on Millers Ferry Road for 3.6 miles to first paved road on the left on sharp
curve, which is Shell Landing Road.

-Go 1.5 miles to Gould Tree Farm gate, which will be on your right. The address is 4132
Shell Landing Road, which is displayed on a small sign on one of the gate posts, along
with a small American flag.

-Go through the gate and 0.6 mile on dirt road to the house on the right.

-If you get lost call Jon Gould's cell phone at 205-296-4923.

Meet at the property at 9:00 AM CT
APRIL 3, 2008

http://wwwsfrcufledu/Extenion/foidy ii

IFAS Extension


water. Good results have also been observed
using 3% glyphosate and 1.5% Cogon-X.
Instead of killing 65 percent of the cogongrass
rhizomes with glyphosate alone, the mixture
with Cogon-X killed 85 to 90 percent of the
below ground rhizomes. That's a big shift.

Imazapyr products can be mixed with
glyphosate products as another alternative
for controlling cogongrass. These
products are available for purchase by
landowners. Check with extension agents,
extension specialists, county foresters or
the Stewardship Program coordinators for
companies that sell these products. MSO
should be available at the local coops.

Some very important items to be sure of when
spraying cogongrass:
* Ensure good coverage on the entire plant
* Be sure the plants are actively growing and not
stressed as in a drought
* Remember that the glyphosate/Cogon-X
mixture isn't a release for small seedling size
trees either pine or hardwood. You can spray
under larger trees without any problems but do
not spray on young seedlings.
* Imazapyr herbicides should not be sprayed if
you have desirable hardwoods that you want to
keep, use the glyphosate mixtures. There are
label rates of imazapyr that can be sprayed
around pine seedlings. Read the label!
* Don't spray glyphosate after a frost has
occurred as it will not be effective. However,
imazapyr products can be sprayed later in the
fall. In fact, imazapyr recommendations call
for fall treatments (September through
* Check the treated site the following year to
determine if any cogongrass is present. May
and June are the best times to check. Re-treat if
green leaves are present the following year.
* Check your property to see if additional
cogongrass patches have entered your property.
After the hurricanes in the panhandle in 2004
and 2005, cogongrass was spread by wind to
disturbed sites and then by equipment.
* Be safe and follow safety precautions on the label
when applying herbicides.

For additional information call your county
extension agent, county forester or the
Stewardship Program coordinator. A great
resource on the Web for identifying and
controlling this grass is

Timber Price Update

The timber pricing information below is useful
for observing trends over time, but does not
necessarily reflect current conditions at a
particular location. Landowners considering a
timber sale are advised to solicit the services of a
consulting forester to obtain current local market

Stumpage price ranges reported across
Florida in the 4th Quarter 2007 Timber
Mart-South (TMS) report were:

* Pine pulpwood: $15 $26/cord
($6 $10/ton), T slightly (from average
3rd Quarter 2007 prices)
* Pine C-N-S: $43 $60/cord
($16 $22/ton), [
* Pine sawtimber: $88 $106/cord
($33 $40/ton), 1 slightly
* Pine plylogs: $85 $109/cord
($32 $41/ton), I slightly
* Pine power poles: $106 $169/cord
($40 $63/ton), [
* Hardwood pulpwood: $9 $24/cord
($3 $8/ton), [

Trend Report

Average South-wide timber product prices
changed only slightly in 4th Quarter 2007, with
pine pulpwood prices continuing their slow rise,
hitting their highest average price since 2000.
Chip-n-saw prices are down more than 7 percent
from a year ago and seem to be taking a harder
hit from the slow construction market than
sawtimber. Hardwood pulpwood prices were
down this quarter but the regional average
remains up 14 percent over what they were a
year ago.

University of Florida
School of Forest Resources and Conservation
PO Box 110410
Gainesville, FL 32611-0410

Non Profit Org.
US Postage
Permit No. 94

Date Event, Location, Contacts
Carbon Credit Conference, 9 11 am ET at the UF-IFAS Suwannee County Extension Conference
March 4, 2008 Room, Live Oak, FL. Call Brian Cobble at (386) 364-5314 to register.

Tree Farm Tour at Gould Tree Farm, property ofJon and Carol Gould, Washington County, FL, 9
Apri am 12:30pm CT. Call the Washington County Extension Office at (850) 638-6180 to register.

Forest Stewardship Workshop: Marketing Your Forest Products, 9:00 am 2:30pm CT,
April 10 Washington County Extension Office, Chipley, FL. Call the Washington County Extension Office at
(850) 638-6180 to register.

Aril 15-17 39th Annual SAF/SFRC Spring Symposium, "Sustaining Private Forests", Paramount Hotel,
SGainesville, FL. More information to be posted at http://www.sfrc.ufl.edu/events.html.
Forest Stewardship Workshop: Marketing Your Forest Products, 9:00 am 2:30pm ET, Columbia
April 22 County Extension Office, Lake City, FL. Call the Columbia County Extension Office at (386) 752-
5384 to register.
Forest Stewardship Workshop: Tree / Plant Identification for Forestland Owners, 9 am 2 PM ET,
May 13 4ustin Cary Memorial Forest, near Gainesville, FL. Contact Chris Demers at cdemersi@ufl.edu or
(352) 846-2375 to register.

The Florida Forest Steward is a University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Division of Forestry and
Florida Tree Farm joint project:

Chris Demers (editor), School of Forest Resources & Conservation, UF, P.O. Box 110410, Gainesville, FL 32611-0410,
(352) 846-2375 or cdemers(iiufl.edu
Dr. Alan Long (co-editor), School of Forest Resources & Conservation, UF, (352) 846-0891 or ail2(Aufl.edu
Tony Grossman (co-editor), Florida Division of Forestry, 3125 Conner Blvd, Room R2, Tallahassee, FL 32699-1650,
(850) 414-9907, grossma(iidoacs.state.fl.us
Chris Wynn (co-editor), Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 620 South Meridian Street, Farris Bryant Building,
Tallahassee, FL 32399-1600, (850) 488-383 or Chris. Wvnna(MvFWC.com
Jon Gould (co-editor), Florida Tree Farm Committee, 4923 Windwood Circle, Birmingham, AL 35242, (205) 991-9435 or
gouldh@iibellsouth. net

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