Title: Florida forest steward
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00090040/00033
 Material Information
Title: Florida forest steward
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: Fall 2004
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090040
Volume ID: VID00033
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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The Florida Forest Steward

A Quarterly Newsletter for Florida Landowners and Resource Professionals

Volume 11, No. 2

Fall 2004

Congratulations to the Forest
Stewardship Landowners of
2003: Bob Reid and Betsy Clark

When you meet Bob Reid and Betsy Clark
ofNiceville, FL, it doesn't take long to
realize they share a
passion for nature In this issue:
that is matched by
few, and Little Creek Stewardship La
Woods, their forest Bob Reid and B
property in Walton Natural Regene
County, is a Right for you?
Timber Price U]
testament to
testament to Upcoming Prog
this. Although only
recently enrolled in
the Forest Stewardship Program, Bob and
Betsy have been involved with natural
resources for many years and are able to
do much of the work on the property
themselves. Bob's father was a forester,
and Bob has a degree in zoology with
special interest in herpetology. In addition,
he has considerable experience in wildland
firefighting and remote wilderness work
with the US Forest Service, mostly in
Montana and Idaho. He and Betsy have
both served for several years on the board
of the Florida Wildlife Federation.

Little Creek Woods consists of more than
850 acres, covering a diverse mix of
upland and bottomland forest habitats,
openings and a small pond. Restoring the
original longleaf/wiregrass ecosystem is
their main focus. They are also managing
a small longleaf pine agroforestry plot,
where scalped versus un-
scalped silvopasture
ners of 2003: planting can be
Clark compared. The long-
of Pines: Is it range goal at Little Creek
is to develop a multi-age
forest supporting a full
complement of wildlife,
while providing a
permanent source of
income for future generations. According
to Bob, the Forest Sterwardship program
has contributed much to this goal by
providing a guiding plan and facilitating
the assistance of experts in forest
management and wildlife biology. Perhaps
more important, the program has afforded
Bob and Betsy a way to network with
other landowners to share experiences and
help work toward common goals. In Bob's
words, "Few individual landowners can
hope to protect enough wild habitat to




etsy C


make a difference. Only through the
coordinated effort of many Forest
Stewardship participants will the future of
wild places in Florida be secure."

Tour Highlights

On May 18, 2004, 35 landowners and
natural resource professionals gathered
for a Forest Stewardship Tour of Little
Creek Woods. This tour was rescheduled
from an earlier date due to severe
weather but we still got a little wet on
the day of the tour. Thanks to Mike
Goodchild of the Walton County
Cooperative Extension Office, we had a
nice big tent to stand and talk under
while it poured during the first part of
the tour. The following is an account of
our visit and some of the things we
learned about the property.

Stop 1 Timber Management: Ken
Oser, a consulting forester out of Milton,
Florida, assists with timber management
on the property. Management of the
timber resource here is toward the
production of high quality forest
products while maintaining and
enhancing wildlife habitat. The intensity
of management varies based on the
dominant species. Slash pine stands are
being intensively managed and will
eventually be converted to longleaf
stands. Longleaf pine stands are actively
managed on long rotations utilizing
natural regeneration, see the next article
for more details on this method.

*Thinning: 35 acres were
mechanically thinned (every 5th row
removed) in April 2003 to provide
more growing space for the residual
stand. This stand will be grown for
another 6-8 years, clearcut and
planted with longleaf pine, which is

better adapted to the site and a better
fit for the landowner's wildlife

*Clearcut: 10 acres of slash pines
were clearcut and planted with
longleaf tubelings in June 2003.
Survival has been very good.

Stop 2 Agroforestry Demonstration
Plot: Six acres of bahiagrass pasture
were machine planted with longleaf pine
with wide spacing (8' X 6' X 40') in
January 2003 to serve as a
demonstration. This type of planting
arrangement has been shown to
maximize both timber and livestock
production. To compare different site
preparation outcomes, half the rows
were scalped and half were not. Mike
Goodchild, Walton County Natural
Resources Agent, is helping Bob with
this project.

Stop 3 Pond: A properly built and
managed pond can yield from 100 300
pounds of fish per acre per year. Ponds
also provide recreational opportunities
and habitat values for birds, reptiles,
amphibians and mammals. This pond is
stocked with bream and bass as we could
see when Bob threw some food in. Fish
ponds require the proper stocking of the
correct species and number of fish, a
balanced harvest of mature fish, good
water quality management, and proper
aquatic vegetation management. In
Florida, 100 bass and 500 bluegill
fingerlings (1- to 4-inch fish) per acre is
a recommended stocking. Dr. Charles
Cichra wrote a very useful publication
covering the guidelines to "Managing
Florida Ponds for Fishing". This
publication is online at:
edis.ifas. ufl.eduFA 001.

Stop 4 Planted longleaf pines,
prescribed burning and wildlife

Planted longleaf pines and prescribed
fire: These pines were planted in 1996.
Forty-four acres were planted on an old
field and 35 acres were planted on cut
over timberland. On the former crop
land, hardwood competition is non
existent, while turkey oak, bluejack oak,
post oak, persimmon and yaupon are
present on the cut over area. Some of
these have been retained for wildlife
food. This stand was burned last winter
and will be burned on a 2 to 4 year
rotation to keep hardwoods in check and
promote herbaceous plants for wildlife.

Wildlife management: Wildlife
management practices on the property
promote habitat diversity and quality.
Bob particularly enjoys bow hunting for
deer and watching the variety of game
and non-game birds that use the
property. Important habitat management
practices include retention of desirable
upland and bottomland hardwoods;
prescribed burning; installation and
management of a fireline network;
cavity box installation for bluebirds,
wood ducks, and bats; gradual
conversion of offsite slash pines to
longleaf pines and maintaining
permanent wildlife openings. Selective
thinning of pine to promote further
timber growth can also be of great
benefit to wildlife habitat. Wildlife
habitat can be enhanced by treatments
that promote early succession plants:
creating and maintaining openings by
mowing, burning and discing. Food plots
can supplement these practices but
cannot be considered stand-alone
wildlife habitat. When establishing food
plots it is very important to assure that

the appropriate pH and nutrients are
available to the variety of agronomic
crops you choose.

After the tour we gathered for a supper,
prepared by Bruce Ward, Walton County
Extension Director; and sponsored by
Farm Credit of Northwest Florida,
Florida Farm Bureau and Meeks Farms
and Nurseries. We appreciate all of their
continuing support for Florida's Forest
Stewardship Program events.

Thanks to everyone who made it out to
help with or participate in the tour.
Also, many thanks to the other
landowners who hosted a Forest
StewardshipTour this year: Bill Bennett,
Levy County and Doug Williams, Leon
County. We appreciate all your efforts
and hospitality.

Natural Regeneration of Pines:
Is it Right for You?
By Chris Demers and Dr. Alan Long

Natural stand regeneration uses the seed
crop of the mature trees left on the site to
regenerate the next stand. This practice
can only be used if the site has not been
fully harvested and the right number of
mature, vigorous trees is present to
provide the seed. As with all land
management practices, all decisions
should be based on your management
objectives and what you have to start
with. These are some important
questions to answer before deciding if
natural regeneration is the right option
for you:

-What are your objectives for the site?
Are you planting or regenerating trees
for aesthetic reasons, providing future
income, restoring a natural forest
community, or promoting wildlife?

Some of these objectives are compatible
with each other and natural regeneration
may be a way to reach them.

-Do you wish to avoid removing the
entire overstory at one time? If so,
natural regeneration methods will likely
be the way to go.

-How much control over stand stocking
or spacing do you desire or require?
Planting will give you the most control.

-Will you harvest pine straw? Natural
regeneration may not be compatible with
this practice. Planted rows, at least 10
feet apart, work best for straw

-How much will planting cost?

-How was the current stand regenerated?

-How many age classes are there?

-What are the soil conditions? This will
help determine if the trees on the site are
best suited or if the site will be difficult
to regenerate.

Natural Regeneration Guidelines -
The Shelterwood System

Landowners who have an even-aged
stand (1 age class) of pines and wish to
regenerate it naturally can take
advantage of a practical, inexpensive
natural regeneration method known as
the shelterwood system, a natural
seeding method well-suited to the
biological requirements of most pine
species. The shelterwood method
maximizes per-acre seed production and
yields sufficient needle litter to fuel fires
hot enough to inhibit hardwood
regeneration and to prepare the seed bed

for germination. Most of the mature
stand can be removed at the end of the
rotation, but a portion is left standing as
a seed source until regeneration is well
established. Success with this method
depends on: a good seed year with
adequate seed supply, a receptive
seedbed, minimal vegetative
competition, and ample soil moisture.

The shelterwood system requires 3 cuts
that serve 3 basic purposes:

1- prepare the stand for production of
abundant seed,
2- modify the environment in a way that
promotes germination and survival, and
3- release the naturally regenerated
seedlings from overstory shading.

Preparatory Cut
The preparatory cut is 10 or more years
before the planned final harvest date of
the stand and at least 5 years before the
seed cut. This cut is essentially a
thinning which reduces the basal area
(BA) of the stand to a maximum of 60-
70 square feet per acre of dominant and
codominant pines (about 100 120 10-
inch pines per acre). This cut promotes
crown development and cone
production. Most of the hardwoods not
controlled by fire should also be cut at
this time, but leave some fruit producing
hardwoods, like oaks and persimmon,
for wildlife if that is an objective.

Seed Cut
The seed cut is made 5 years prior to the
planned harvest date and leaves trees
with the most well-developed crowns
and evidence of past cone production.
Monitor the cone crop by taking spring
binocular counts of both flowers (next
year's cone crop) and 1 year-old conelets
(this year's cone crop) on some trees in

the regeneration area. Conelets resemble
small pink or light green cones and are
located near the ends of the branches;
cones are green and are located further
in on the branches. Both conelets and
cones are in the top 2/3 of the tree
crown. These counts will give an
estimate of the potential for the cone
crop to regenerate the stand so that the
seedbed can be prepared before the
cones open.

Cone production peaks in the range of
30 to 40 square feet BA per acre for
longleaf pine, but the lower end of this
range is preferred because logging-
related seedling losses increase when
more trees are removed in the final cut.
Fewer seed trees are required for
regenerating slash and loblolly due to
their more prolific cone production. The
table below provides the recommended
number of leave trees/acre based on
diameter for each species (from Duryea,

other management needs or for
improved market conditions. Seedlings
can survive 8 or more years under the
parent overstory with little adverse
effect. However, logging damage
becomes more serious once seedling
height growth begins. Leave a few
residual seed trees per acre to help offset
possible damage.

Naturally regenerated stands require the
same attention as planted stands with
respect to insects, diseases and
competing vegetation. When
regenerating longleaf pine naturally,
regular prescribed bums can be
scheduled throughout the rotation to
maintain a low understory, but young
stands should not be burned for 3 to 4
years after seedlings begin height growth
out of the grass stage or reach a height of
approximately 6 feet. Unless too
numerous, slash and loblolly pine stands
should not be burned until the tress are at
least 6 inches in diameter.

Species Number of s
After the per
seed cut, diary
and during Tree I
the year 10 12
before Slash 12 9
efoe Loblolly 12 9
seedfal a Longleaf 55 38
burn will remove accumulated litter and
expose sufficient mineral soil for
seedling establishment. A late-spring
burn is most effective in controlling
woody stems.

Removal Cut
Once an acceptable stand of seedlings is
established (700-900 seedlings per acre
is a comfortable range), the parent
overstory can be removed. This cut can
be delayed if necessary to take
advantage of additional seed crops, for

eed trees to leave Frequency of seed
Sacre by crop (years)
teter class
)iameter (inches)
14 16+
9 4 Every 3 years
9 4 Every 1-3 years
28 21 Every 5-10 vear

about this and
methods can

.I -.--. I - be found in
"Forest Regeneration Methods: Natural
Regeneration, Direct Seeding and
Planting", on-line at
edis.ifas. ufl. edu/FR024.

The Selection System Regenerating
an Uneven-Aged Stand

Uneven-aged management systems
create or maintain stands with at least
three distinct age classes. If the stand is a
balanced uneven-aged stand, the ground
area occupied by each age class is


approximately equal. This management
approach allows for more frequent
periodic harvests of mature trees while
maintaining a continuous forest cover,
which is desirable for many species of
wildlife and various recreational

Uneven-aged stands are regenerated (or
maintained) by a selection harvesting
system. Trees representing a range in
size are harvested at fixed intervals
(called the cutting cycle, which ranges
from 10 to 25 years) and regeneration
occurs naturally in the harvested
openings. Smaller, lower quality trees
are also removed to improve the overall
quality of the stand. More information
about this method is in Gagnon and
Jokela's Extension circular,
"Opportunities for Uneven-Aged
Management in Second Growth
Longleaf Pine Stands in Florida", on-line
at edis.ifas.ufl.edu/FR132.


So is natural regeneration right for you?
Here's a summary of the advantages and
disadvantages to help you decide:

Advantages of Natural Regeneration

-The initial costs of stand establishment may
be lower, especially if site preparation is not

-Less heavy equipment and labor is

-Group selection systems maintain a mosaic
of forest stages, which is best for many
wildlife species and some types of

-More aesthetically pleasing for landowners
who prefer to see a forest stand which varies

in height and diameter and is unevenly and
naturally spaced versus in rows.


-A seed crop must be available and seed
dispersal must be timed correctly with site
preparation so that a suitable seedbed is
available for seed germination.

-Soil moisture must be adequate for the
seeds to germinate; exceptionally dry years
or sites may result in poor germination or
seedling mortality.

-Insects and other small seed-eating animals
may consume most of the seed.

-Competing vegetation may be a problem
for survival and growth for a longer time
period than with planting because seedlings
are smaller or seed may not be disseminated
in the first year.

-If the seed is abundant and a dense stand
results, a pre-commercial thinning may be
necessary to decrease the number of trees
per acre. For example, if there are more than
2000 slash pine seedlings at age three,
growth may be inhibited and the site will
require pre-commercial thinning to 700 trees
per acre. This thinning may be accomplished
by hand-cutting or roller chopping rows of
seedlings and leaving the remaining rows
about 10-12 feet apart.

-Because the site is planted with seed versus
1-year-old seedlings, the rotation length
(time until harvest) may be increased by one
or more years.

-The seed coming from the seed trees is not
genetically improved as when the seed
comes from a seed orchard.

-Natural regeneration may be less expensive
initially but may be costly in the long run if
it is necessary to prepare the site or
precommercially thin.

-The landowner has very little control over
spacing between trees or stocking levels.


Demers. C and A. Long. 1999. LongleafPine
Regeneration. IFAS, University of Florida,
Cooperative Extension Service. SS-FOR-13. 5 p.

Duryea, M. 1992. Forest Regeneration Methods:
Natural Regeneration, Direct Seeding and
Planting. IFAS, University of Florida,
Cooperative Extension Service. Circular 759. 13

Gagnon, J. and E. Jokela. 2002. Opportunities
for Uneven-Aged Management in Second
Growth Longleaf Pine Stands in Florida. IFAS,
University of Florida, Cooperative Extension
Service. Circular 1404. 10 p.

Williston, H.L. and W.E. Balmer. 1974.
Managing for Natural Regeneration. USDA
Forest Service State and Private Forestry. Forest
Management Bulletin. 6 p.

Timber Price Update

This information is useful for observing
trends over time, but does not
necessarily reflect current conditions at a
particular location. Landowners
considering a timber sale would be wise
to let a consulting forester help them
obtain the best current prices. Note that
price per ton for each product is included
in parentheses after the price per cord.

Stumpage price ranges reported across
Florida in the 2nd Quarter 2004 Timber
Mart-South (TMS) report were:

* Pine pulpwood: $16-$30/cord ($6-
$1 /ton), 1 from 1st Quarter 2004
* Pine C-N-S: $54-$77/cord ($20 -
$29/ton), i
* Pine sawtimber: $79 $116/cord
($30 $43/ton), [
* Pine plylogs: $109 $130/cord ($38
$49/ton), [

* Hardwood pulpwood: $14 $27/cord
($5 $9/ton), [

A more complete summary of 2nd
Quarter 2004 stumpage prices is
available at your County Extension
office. Seeforest2market.com for
weekly, South-wide, per-ton price
updates for the major pine and hardwood
timber products.

Trend Report

Stumpage prices in Florida generally
reflect those across the South, most of
them averaging lower than last quarter.
Despite the heavy rains picking up in
some parts of the region, pulpwood is
still very plentiful and difficult to sell.
Some Timber Mart-South reporters are
blaming the price lull on the high
hauling costs due to high fuel prices.

Upcoming Events

Gulf Coastal Lowlands Tree ID Lab.
August 25, 2004, 1:00-4:00 PM, Garden
Club Center, 8th St, Port St Joe, FL. Free
and open to the public. Leon County
Extension Agent Will Sheftall will teach
diagnostic characteristics and ID tips for
correctly identifying 75 species of native
trees and shrubs.

Annual Tree ID Lab. August 26, 2004,
9:00 AM-12:30 PM, Leon Extension
Auditorium, 615 Paul Russell Rd,
Tallahassee, FL. Free and open to the
public. Take an indoor field trip with
UF/IFAS Extension Agents Stan Rosenthal
and Will Sheftall to see if you can correctly
identify 100 species of native trees and
shrubs, and learn ID tips and diagnostic
characteristics from the experts.

Florida Forestry Association Annual
Meeting: Staying in the Game! September
8-9, Villages of Baytowne Wharf in
Sundctlin, FL. This year's Annual Meeting

is designed to share winning strategies to
help the forestry team stay in the game both
economically and ecologically. The first day
of the meeting is Landowner Day and will
feature information on the new BMP Notice
of Intent rule, cogongrass and its impact on
pine plantation productivity, pine straw and
other alternative enterprises, and practical
ways to reduce fuel and cut brush. Other
topics to be covered during the meeting are
forestry's economic impact study results,
new market information for small diameter
pines, an up-close look at the proposed
Greenway Initiative for Northwest Florida,
and the proposed missile range for the Big
Bend. Call the Florida Forestry Association
at 850-222-5646 to register for the meeting.
A registration form is available on-line at
www.floridaforest. org/.

UF West Florida REC Wildlife Expo.
October 1, 2004; University of Florida
West Florida Research and Education
Center Jay Research Station. Topics will
include: deer breeding chronology, habitat
and basics of Quality Deer Management,
using herbicides for managing wildlife
habitat, food plots, antler development, legal
practices for doves, managing native
vegetation to enhance wildlife habitat. Pre-
registration: $35.00 (before September 26),
On-site registration: $45.00, Children 16 &
under: $20.00, Vendor registration: $250.00

(Contact Ms. Robin Vickers at 850-983-
5216 x 113). For more information about
the program contact Dr. Rick Williams at
850 983-5216 ext. 102 or
raw illiams@ifas. ufl. edu.

Stewardship Property Tour, Forest
October 8, 2004, Property of John
Wilkerson, Walton County. Call the
Walton County Cooperative Extension
Service Office at 850- 892-8172 to register.
Announcement to be mailed.

Southeastern Society of American
Foresters Annual Meeting: It's All About
Wildlife. November 7- 9 at the Hilton
Riverfront Hotel in Jacksonville, FL.
Landowners and natural resource
professionals are invited to participate in this
event, which will include presentations on
game management, economics, recreation,
and endangered species. Participants will
also have their choice of wildlife-related
field trips. Arrangements are being made for
trips to D-Dot Ranch, Longleaf Timber
Company lands, and an urban forestry
walking tour. For more information contact
Charles Hall at 706-845-9085 or
( !olie!^ ii\ s i i

For more information about Florida's Forest Stewardship Program and forest management visit the
Florida Forestry Information Web site at www.sfrc.ufLedulExtensionlffwslffwshome.htm

A University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service and Florida Division of Forestry joint project:

Chris Demers (editor), School of Forest Resources & Conservation, UF, P.O. Box 110410, Gainesville, FL
32611-0410, (352) 846-2375 or cdemers@i.ifas.ufl.edu
Alan Long (co-editor), School of Forest Resources & Conservation, UF, (352) 846-0891 or ajl20ufl.edu
Ruthie Cole (co-editor), Florida Division of Forestry, 3125 Conner Blvd, Tallahassee, FL 32699-1650, (850)
414-9912 or coler@doacs.state.fl.us
ChuckMcKelvy (co-editor), Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 3125 Conner Blvd,
Tallahassee, FL 32699-1650, (850) 414-9911or,,, ., ,. / f. u.. t ,,i, fl io,

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