Title: Florida forest steward
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00090040/00032
 Material Information
Title: Florida forest steward
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: Summer 2004
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090040
Volume ID: VID00032
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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The Florida Forest Steward

A Quarterly Newsletter for Florida Landowners and Resource Professionals

Volume 11, No. 1

Florida Forestry Best
Management Practices:
Spanning Twenty-Two Ye
By Roy Lima, Watershed Specia
Florida Division of
Forestry In this iss

In 2003, the Florida Flori
Department of two
Agriculture and Sudd
Consumer Services Happ
Division of .I
Forestry (DOF) \l
completed the 12th Timb
Statewide Survey Upcc
on Silviculture Best
Practices (BMPs).
The Silviculture BMP Implemen
Survey was initiated in 1981 and
since been conducted every two
The purpose of the Survey is to
determine the level of implemen
(compliance) with Florida's Silv
BMPs. The Survey is conducted
throughout the state, on a random
sample of recent forestry operati

Summer 2004

ars of


Both public and private forest lands that
meet the selection criteria have been
included in the Surveys.

The Division of Forestry has
demonstrated that when forestry BMPs

are implemented, water
sue: quality is protected. In
cooperation with the
day's BMPs Spanning Twenty- Florida Department of
Years of Success
en Oak Death What's Envir
ening? Protection, the Division
SRiihl-of-Wl\ s Woik foi Wildlife of Forestry measured
nmc \\istmei Disease im Deer the effectiveness of
lifi PLiin Fca.iuli Gophci Appkl Florida's forestry
cir Pince UpdatL BMPs by examining
nimuii Proc._s water quality and
aquatic organisms in
streams in selected
major ecoregions of the
station state. The stream bioassessment study
[has looked at all aspects of forestry
years. including timber harvesting, intensive
mechanical site preparation, and forest
station chemical application. The results
culture revealed that BMPs worked well to
protect nearby streams during and after
n such activities. The results of this
ons. research project were recently published



in an international journal.

The 2003 BMP Implementation Survey
evaluated 7,500 practices on 253
individual forestry operations (sites).
The range of compliance scores was
74% to 100%, and the statewide average
for overall BMP compliance was 97%.

The Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services Division of Forestry
has promulgated a state rule that adopts
the current BMP Manual by reference.
The purpose of the new rule is to provide
incentives for landowners to comply
with BMPs under Florida's "right to
farm" act, which prohibits local
governments from establishing rules,
ordinances, etc. that regulate silvicultural
activities that are in compliance with
existing BMPs. In addition, forest
landowners who submit a one-time
"notice of intent" to the Division of
Forestry and comply with adopted BMPs
have a presumption of compliance with
state water quality standards. This
includes important incentives under the
Total Maximum Daily Load program,
which has the potential to regulate land
use activities such as forestry in
watersheds where streams or lakes are
on the state's impaired waters list.

For more information about Florida's
BMP program, see www.fl-
dof com/Conservation/index. html or
contact Jeff Vowell, Forest Hydrologist
e-mail vowellj@doacs.state.fl.us.

Sudden Oak Death What's
By Ed L. Barnard, Forest Pathologist,
Florida Division of Forestry

Many by now have heard something of a
relatively new disease called "sudden

oak death" or S.O.D. This disease
showed up in the mid 1990's in several
coastal counties in northern California,
and it has been detected in one localized
area of southwest Oregon. The disease,
an apparent killer of tanoak (Lithocarpus
densiflorus), coastal live oaks and
California black oaks (Quercus agrifolia
and Q. Kelloggii) in that limited
geographic area, has been linked to the
activity of a newly described fungus,
Phytophthora ramorum. P. ramorum is
believed to have been introduced into
California, possibly on ornamental
nursery stock from Western Europe. Its
association with dying trees, habit of
being moved on a variety of
ornamentals, and its "exotic" or non-
native/introduced status makes P.
ramorum a potentially serious threat to
oaks in much of the country. Thus, for
years portions of California and one
county in southwest Oregon have been
subject to federal quarantine/regulatory

In recent weeks, it was learned that large
ornamental nurseries in southern
California (outside the federally
quarantined area) were infested with P.
ramorum and that ornamental plants
possibly infected or infested with the
pathogen had been shipped to many
parts of the country. This news has
created quite a stir. What is important to
understand is that state and federal
regulatory agencies are "all over this."
Working cooperatively, these agencies
are tracking shipments and sales of
possibly infected/infested plant
materials, and conducting appropriate
regulatory actions, eradication protocols,
etc. These actions will continue for
some time as potential threats are
evaluated and dealt with, and our
understanding of the situation improves.

While all of this represents a situation
deserving the attention it is now
receiving, there is a good deal of
miscommunication and misinformation
surrounding same. Sadly, many news
releases are stating things like "sudden
oak death found . ." or "scientists
battle sudden oak death .." For eastern
states, this is simply not true. What is
true for several eastern states is that P.
ramorum, the fungal pathogen that
causes "sudden oak death" (not always
sudden) on tanoaks and certain oaks in
parts of California and Oregon has been
confirmed on ornamental nursery stock
(mostly camellias, with largely non-
descript foliar lesions) received from
southern California.) The situation is of
concern, but we in the eastern U.S. are a
long way from having "sudden oak
death". For sudden oak death to occur
here, the pathogen (P. ramorum) must 1)
successfully escape from its current
spatial and possibly temporally limited
distribution, 2) successfully establish
itself in native environs, 3) successfully
colonize our oaks in either natural or
urban settings, and 4) succeed in killing
our oaks. None of this has yet happened.
Perhaps it will, perhaps it won't. In the
meantime, precise and accurate
communication will minimize
misunderstanding and unnecessary
panic. Stay in touch with your state and
federal regulatory officials (Ag.
Departments, Divisions of Plant
Industry, U.S.D.A. APHIS) and stay
informed. Helpful websites include
www. % I, ldelur ,,/k, kL, tih ,rg and
www. doacs. statefl. us/pi ''i' y thi 1i ,h )

Watch Out for Scams. The
Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services has received a report
that several pest control companies in

central Florida have offered to spray a
yard to prevent S.O.D. According to
Commissioner Charles Bronson, "There
is no cure for sudden oak death and no
approved treatment at this time. There is
also no reason for residents to have their
properties sprayed; to date we have no
evidence the pathogen has escaped the
nurseries in which it has been detected."
Be wary of scam artists tying to profit
from this situation and call the
Department's hotline if approached by
anyone offering to treat your property.
The hotline number is 888-397-1517.

Making Power Line Right-of-
Ways Work for Wildlife

Dr. Jeff Jackson, former extension
wildlife specialist at the University of
Georgia, wrote an interesting article
about this topic in the January/February
2004 issue of Tree Farmer magazine.
I've only visited a relative handful of
private forest properties in Florida but I
can recall at least 3 or 4 that had some
sort of utility right-of-way within their
boundaries, so this management
challenge may be one shared by many

Power line right-of-ways, if managed
properly, can yield wildlife benefits,
particularly for those species that require
early successional habitats like grass and
shrub lands. This habitat can be
enhanced by improving the part of the
puzzle you have control of the edge.

Edges and Ecotones
An edge is a place where different plant
communities or vegetative conditions
meet. The forest edge of a power line
right-of-way is usually an abrupt edge,
where a wall of trees meets a mowed or
herbicided zone of low vegetation. This

edge can be enhanced by making it less
abrupt. Introduce a zone of midsize
vines, shrubs, and trees between the
mowed area and the taller trees. You can
plant preferred trees or shrubs in this
zone, or you can leave it after harvesting
the trees some of the shrubs and vines
in the list below will naturally fill in.
This zone of midsize vegetation will
serve as an ecotone a transition zone
between 2 distinct vegetation
communities that will support wildlife
species not found in the clearing or

This edge improvement will require
cutting some of the trees from the edge
of the right-of-way to make room for the
new plantings. However it is
recommended that some large trees are
left along the line so the mowing crew
can see the boundary.

Fruiting Trees, Shrubs and Vines
To benefit wildlife year-round, introduce
a mix of vegetation that provides fruit at
different times of the year. Here's a
summary of suitable vegetation by
seasonal importance for wildlife (from
Sekarak and Tanner's extension
publication, "Making the Most of Your
Mast", http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/FR036).

Spring: wild plum, red maple,
blackberry, mulberry

Summer: hawthorn, saw palmetto,
blueberry, blackberry, grape vine, holly,
gallberry, greenbriar

Fall: dogwood, beech, grape vine, holly,
gallberry, greenbriar, legumes

Winter: beech, sumac, laurel cherry,
holly, gallberry, waxmyrtle, greenbriar

Rotational Mowing in the Right-of
Way? Get Permission First
Since the vegetation in this area must be
kept short anyway, the power company
may welcome your efforts here. You
may wish to replace a uniform mowing
of the entire area every few years with a
mowing rotation, where you mow a
different strip each year to create mosaic
pattern of 1-, 2- and 3-year-old growth.
Orienting these strips across the path of
the power line would create corridors for
different animals. Gainesville Regional
Utilities welcomes landowners' efforts
to maintain low vegetation on their right-
of-ways. Call your power company to
see if you can make these types of

Chronic Wasting Disease in Deer
By Erin Myers, Florida Fish and
Wildlife Conservation Commission

Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a fatal
brain disease found in deer and elk, has
spread over the past three years from the
original endemic area of Colorado and
Wyoming to seven new states including
Wisconsin and Illinois. As it spreads
closer to the southeastern United States,
state wildlife agencies in the region have
prepared protocols to monitor and
manage the disease.

CWD is believed to be caused by an
abnormal protein called a prion, which
has the ability to reproduce in an
infected animal, destroy nerve cells, and
ultimately cause death. It is found in
free-ranging and captive elk, mule deer,
and white-tailed deer in several western
and mid-western states and in Canada.
CWD's mode of transmission is thought
to be either direct from animal to animal
or indirect through contaminated

environment. Unlike the cattle and sheep
forms of the disease ("mad cow disease"
and scrapie, respectively), there are no
statistics that would link CWD to animal
feed contaminated by insufficiently
treated material from other animals.
Research is currently being conducted to
develop a live animal diagnostic test for
CWD. Currently, however, definitive
diagnosis is based only on necropsy
examination and testing of brain stem

CWD attacks the brain of affected deer
or elk, causing the animals to become
emaciated, display abnormal behavior,
lose bodily functions, and subsequently
die. Clinical signs include excessive
salivation and grinding of teeth,
increased drinking and urination,
dramatic loss of weight and body
condition, poor hair coat, staggering, and
finally death. Behavioral changes,
including decreased interaction with
other animals in the open, listlessness,
lowering of the head, blank facial
expression, and repetitive walking in set
patterns, also occur in the majority of

Over the past two hunting seasons, the
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation
Commission has implemented active and
passive surveillance programs to monitor
the disease within our state. The active
surveillance program involves collecting
and testing over 500 volunteered hunter-
harvested deer throughout the state
annually. The passive surveillance
program involves collecting and testing
any sick deer showing CWD-like signs

There is no evidence that CWD can be
transmitted to humans, and there are
several diseases that produce symptoms
in deer similar to those of CWD.

However, it is always prudent to avoid
handling or consuming any animal that
appears sick. If you should handle any
sick-looking deer, regardless of what
disease the deer may have, you should
take a few simple precautions: wear
rubber gloves, place the deer on a tarp to
transport, and, when finished, clean out
your truck bed with a 10% bleach
solution and rinse with water.

The FWC will continue testing white-
tailed deer as part of an annual
monitoring program. Results from the
2002-03 survey were negative (no
occurrence of CWD was found in
Florida) and although the majority of
samples collected during the 2003-04
hunting season are still being processed,
all those that have been tested have been

We would, however, like you to
continue keeping an eye on the deer in
your area when you are in the field this
hunting season. Remember: deer
affected with CWD may walk in circles,
stand with a wide stance, and have subtle
head tremors. Over time, they will lose
weight, increase their water intake and
urination, salivate and drool, and
ultimately die.

Wildlife Plant Feature: Gopher
apple (Licania michauxii)

Gopher apple, also called ground oak, is
a low-growing plant that regenerates
well after fire. It is commonly found in
upland areas where gopher tortoises
reside and is a substantial part of their
diet. Gopher apple is occasionally grown
as a ground cover plant for landscaping
purposes because of its attractive, shiny,
evergreen foliage. This plant's range is
generally limited to the southeastern

states from
Mississippi to
South Carolina
and south into

Form: an
evergreen ground-
cover shrub, 1' to
2' in height, often
grows in clumps
due to
Photo by Larry Korhnak
Leaves: simple,
alternate, and oblong to elliptical in
shape, with distinctive shiny, lime-green
color on the upper surface and a paler or
whitish underside that is often slightly
fuzzy. Leaves are 1" to 5" long, 1/2" to
11/2" wide and may have a tiny bristle at
the tip. Leaf margins are smooth. The
mid-stem leaves are often larger than the
upper or lower leaves. Stems are often

Flowers: small, terminal, white clusters,
bloom from late spring through summer.

Fruit and seeds: a small elliptical drupe
(seed with a fleshy covering) forms in
mid to late summer.

Wildlife value: This plant is an
important food for the gopher tortoise,
other wildlife, and the sweet, juicy pulp
of the fruit is also edible for humans.

University of Florida's 4-H Companion
Plant page at:
www.sfrc.ufl.edu/4h/Trees Plants/Plants

Timber Price Update

This information is useful
for observing trends over
time, but does not
necessarily reflect current
conditions at a particular
location. Landowners
considering a timber sale
would be wise to let a
consulting forester help
them obtain the best current
prices. Note that price per
ton for each product is
included in parentheses after the price
per cord.

Stumpage price ranges reported across
Florida in the 1st Quarter 2004 Timber
Mart-South (TMS) report were:

* Pine C-N-S: $57 $78/cord ($21 -
$29/ton), [ from 4th Quarter 2003

* Pine pulpwood: $13-$29/cord ($5-
$11 /ton), I

* Pine sawtimber: $90_-_$121/cord
($34_-_$45/ton), T

* Pine plylogs: $105_-_$127/cord ($39
-_$47/ton), t

* Hardwood pulpwood: $14_-_$30/cord
($6_-_$10/ton), $

A more complete summary of 1st Quarter
2004 stumpage prices is available at
your County Extension office. See
www.forest2market.com for weekly,
South-wide, per-ton price updates for the
major pine and hardwood timber

Average Pine Stumpage Prices for Florida
1st Qtr 2004

62 64 72 74 82 84 92 94 02 04 12 14 22 24 32 34
Year/Quarter (beginning second quarter 1996)
-- pulpwood -A-chip-n-saw --sawtimber

Trend Report

The graph above charts quarterly
average stumpage prices for three major
pine log classes in Florida since the
second quarter 1996. Numbers on the
horizontal axis indicate the year (first
digit) and quarter (second digit), so 62
indicates the second quarter of 1996.

Average southwide pine sawtimber
prices increased again this quarter but
there was very little change in most
product prices overall. Hardwood
pulpwood saw the largest decrease
(down 5.5% from last quarter southwide)
but its average price still holds above
that of pine pulpwood. Interest rates are
low (around 5.5%) and housing starts so
far this year have exceeded those of last
year up to this date, with Atlanta, GA
holding the number one spot in the top
50 U.S metropolitan areas for housing

Upcoming Programs and Events

Forest Stewardship Workshop:
Invasive Exotic Plants and Their
Control, 3 dates:

June 18, 2004; Liberty County
Extension Office in Bristol, note the
change in start time: sign in at 8:30 AM
ET, conclude at 3:00 PM; call the
Liberty County Extension Office at 850-
643-2229 to register. CFEs will be
available for foresters and there will be a
fee to cover lunch.

July 9, 2004; Alachua County
Extension Office in Gainesville, note
the change in start time: sign in at 8:30
AM ET, conclude at 3:00 PM; call Chris
Demers at 352-846-2375 to register.
CFEs will be available for foresters and
there will be a fee to cover lunch.

August 4, 2004; Lee County Extension
Office in Fort Myers, note the new date
and start time: sign in at 8:30 AM ET,
conclude at 3:00 PM being rescheduled;
call the Lee County Extension Office at
239-461-7500 to register. CFEs will be

available for foresters and there will be a
fee to cover lunch.

Southeastern Society of American
Foresters Annual Meeting: It's All
About Wildlife. November 7- 9 at the
Hilton Riverfront Hotel in Jacksonville,
FL. Landowners and natural resource
professionals are invited to participate in
this event, which will include
presentations on game management,
economics, recreation, and endangered
species. Participants will also have their
choice of wildlife-related field trips.
Arrangements are being made for trips to
D-Dot Ranch, Longleaf Timber
Company lands, and an urban forestry
walking tour. For more information
contact Charles Hall at 706-845-9085 or
chall@asginfo. net.

Send Us Your Updated Address

We're still looking for some updated
addresses. U.S. Post Offices in some
parts of the state are no longer delivering
to route-box addresses (example: RR 1
Box 234). They will only deliver to 911
addresses: a house number followed by a
road, street, drive, lane, circle, place, etc.
(example: 123 Hound Dog Rd). PO Box
addresses are good too. If you currently
have a route-box address and know your
911 address, please take a moment
to send your 911 address to Chris
Demers at University of Florida, PO Box
110410, Gainesville, FL 32611;
or by email to cdemers@ifas.ufl.edu. If
you don't know your 911 address, ask
your local post office. If your 911
address is not yet available, simply send
it to us when it is. Thanks very much in
advance for your help!

For more information about Florida's Forest Stewardship Program and forest management visit the
Florida Forestry Information Web site at www.sfrc.ufledu/Extension/ffws/ffwshome.htm

.\ lii cr'.it of Florida Coo'pcrali. Exli'nsion Sen ice and Florida Dih imion ol Forc%lt joint project:

( hris Deme)'rs (.. ii ,,i School of Foicsl ResOIirces & C'olnselh i .O ln liF P ) Bo\ 111 141 C G;:IIncs\ ille. FL
;2uil j-i I li 1 52 s4>-i,- r'5 01 .h I,,,i1' (i ,', Il i,,,i
.4/1111 L.o. .... I Schliool of FoIcsi ResoLrcc% \ Consc'el ,lion UF 352i X4,j-ii'l o ,1 oi Cu l : ..ii
Todd Groh (co-editor), Florida Division of Forestry, 3125 Conner Blvd, Tallahassee, FL 32699-1650, (850)
414-9907 or groht@doacs.state.fl.us
Chuck McKelvy (co-editor), Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 3125 Conner Blvd,
Tallahassee, FL 32699-1650, (850) 414-991 lor ,". k,. Ah,. .,. ti,,, f i

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