The Florida Forest Steward
A Quarterly Newsletter for Florida Landowners
and Resource Professionals
Volume 3, No. 2
In this issue:
Annual Florida Forest Stewardship Report
Streamlined Stewardship Plan Procedures
SIP Funding Update
Upcoming Training Opportunities
Paul Campbell Joins UF Forestry Extension
Herbicide Workshop Notice
Timber Mart-South Summary
We hope you have all been having a fine summer. "Good Lord willing' and the creek don't rise", we'll have
the newsletter back on schedule soon. We plan to have this year's issue number three ready by mid-
October. We have much good information that's been sent to us or that we've found in natural resources
journals, the general media, and our first-hand observations in the woods. We will continue to do our best
to make interesting and useful newsletters from the abundant raw material.
Annual Florida Forest Stewardship Report
During fiscal year '94-95, Forest Stewardship Management Plans (FSMPs) were completed and approved
for one hundred sixty-eight (168) private, non-industrial forest landowners. A total of 545 Florida
landowners with 241,000 acres of forested land now (as of July 1, 1995) have approved FSMPs. For each
of the next five years, Florida's goal is for 200 more landowners to receive approved FSMPs.
Florida now has 63 landowners, with forested holdings totalling 52,704 acres, who are nationally
recognized as "Forest Stewards". Nineteen of them, with 9,000 acres, achieved that status during the '94-
95 year. Florida's yearly goal through June, 2001 is for 25 landowners to gain national certification as
Congratulations, Barry Coulliette of Nassau County and John Folker, Five-Mile Farm, and the Bailey
Brothers of Levy County for achieving Stewardship Forest certification since the last newsletter!
Many of the roughly 350 landowners with approved FSMPs prior to this year were involved in the
implementation of their plans, often with the assistance of natural resource professionals. It is exciting to
see the multiple-use forestry concept make its way from thoughtful plans to reality in the woods.
Streamlined Stewardship Plan Procedures
From the beginning of the Stewardship Program, we have tried to provide each landowner with a
comprehensive, multiple resource management plan designed especially for their property and
management goals. Landowners have spoken favorably about the quality of the information in their plans,
but have also asked us to find ways to reduce the time it takes to complete a plan.
In response, we have reduced the number of resource specialists involved in preparing the plan and the
number of steps in the review process leading to a finalized plan. The DOF County Forester, GFC
Biologist, and private resource consultant (if the landowner wishes) will still contribute to each plan.
Other specialists, such as a fisheries biologist, soil conservationist, or range specialist, can also contribute,
if requested by the landowner.
"Now that my plan is finished, where do I go from here?" Now available from the county foresters is a
new pamphlet, "Your Forest Stewardship Management Plan", which may help landowners answer that
frequently-asked question. The pamphlet summarizes the plan preparation procedure and provides
guidance on how to begin implementing the recommended practices.
In a related matter, we are interested in your opinions about landowners being more directly involved in
the preparation of their stewardship management plans. Several states currently utilize this approach; they
provide workshops on management plan format and preparation and still include review of plans by
various agencies prior to approval. However, the landowner has primary responsibility for preparing the
SIP Funding Update
As of late July, SIP appropriations had been deleted from the initial House budget. FIP and ACP funding
are similarly on very rocky ground. Contact your Congressional representatives soon if you want to
express an opinion concerning the future of these programs.
Landowners who have 1,000 or more acres are now eligible for cost-sharing funds for having private
consultants prepare their Stewardship Plans. The maximum per landowner is $1975.
Upcoming Training Opportunities
The Florida Forestry Association (FF.A) has scheduled several continuing education seminars in the
next fe\\ weeks-
Date Topic Location
Sept 21 Time Forest Nlanageinent on Private Lands Austin Cary Forest
Sept 26 8 A Herbicides in Forestr Q1iiinc0
Sept 28 8.30 AI Herbicides in Forestry East Palatka
Sept 28-29 A I Advanced Negotiatinu Seminar Panama Cit\ Beach
Oct 2.4.6 Estate Planninu (Dr Harry Haine\ Tallahassee. Ocala. Jackson\ille
Oct 1"-19 M AM aster Logger Cantonment
No\ 2 Commiunication Conflicts Lake Cit\ COliunlity College
If \ott would d like to participate in an\ of these sessions please contact the FFA.
Florida Forestry Association. P.O. Box 1696. Tallahassee. Florida 32302. tel 1904) 222-5646
Paul Campbell Joins Forestry Extension at the UF
Paul Campbell has just taken over primary responsibility for the newsletter and the other Stewardship
work done by the University of Florida. Alan Long is back to a full schedule of teaching at UF but will
remain active in the Stewardship program.
Paul was trained in forestry at North Carolina State University. He got his feet wet in North American
forestry loading short pulpwood onto railroad cars, interning with a commercial forestry operation in
eastern North Carolina, doing a stint as a seasonal worker for the US Forest Service "out west", and being
taught a thing or two by a savvy North Carolina consulting forester. Mr. Campbell then spent seven years
working with agroforestry programs to assist small farmers in Haiti, a mountainous, impoverished
Caribbean nation, and Mali, in West Africa. He recently completed a graduate degree in forestry at UF.
Paul is looking forward to learning more about the wise management of Florida's woods, waters, and
wildlife from the world's foremost experts...you.
If Paul starts writing about the importance of seed pods of Faidherbia albida as livestock feed in the dry
season, or asks how much natural regeneration of Swietenia mahagoni is coming up on the steep, rocky
mountainside farm plots where you like to grow beans, please get in touch with him and remind him this
* Faidherbia albida is a valuable multipurpose, nitrogen-fixing farm tree of the semi-arid regions of West Africa.
* Swietenia mahagoni native to Haiti (also to south Florida) produces one of the world's most prized furniture woods.
Faidherbia albida over maize and sorghum with baskets of seed
pods in foreground
Conservation and stewardship issues sometimes require management and cooperation beyond the
boundaries of one landowner's property, or even of one country. Many avian visitors to private non-
industrial forest lands in the US spend part of the year in South or Central America or the Caribbean.
These birds' survival depends on wise management of forests and wetlands along their lengthy flight
If you'd like to know more about these marathon flyers and what you can do to provide habitat for them,
the Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center offers several informative publications at reasonable prices. A
publications list--including a list of free fact sheets--is available from the Smithsonian Migratory Bird
Center; c/o The National Zoo; Washington, DC 20008.
The term, "Forest Vegetation Management", refers to the control of some plants to encourage growth of
more desirable plants. It is done to help achieve the landowner's management objectives. Many private
forest landowners in the southeastern United States manage their woodlands primarily for timber
production. In most cases, pines are the main timber crop trees. However, if recent increases in hardwood
stumpage continue, we may see a trend toward less intensive control of hardwoods in pine stands; we may
even come to think of hardwoods more as crop trees than weeds.
Control of other plants growing in the pine stands can have several benefits:
better growth and survival of the crop trees, especially during the first few years
less risk of wildfire
easier timber sale preparation and logging
less expense to establish another stand of crop trees after harvest
Landowners who manage their forest lands for multiple uses may apply other vegetation management
measures, such as:
mowing, burning, or chemical control of vegetation along roadways, fire breaks, field margins, and
other open areas to enhance growth of wildlife food plants
suppression of noxious weeds in wetlands and open water
clearing and maintaining hiking trails in forested and open areas
control of tree spacing, species mix, and understory for aesthetic reasons
restoration of native flora and fauna, such as longleaf pine ecosystems
encouraging grasses and other herbaceous plants by controlling shrubby growth in grazing areas.
Remember, vegetation management can give the desired results only if it is properly coordinated with
other activities, such as planting, thinning, and timing of final harvest, as laid out in an overall
The main vegetation management tools are fire, herbicides, tracked or wheeled machinery, and hand
!Herbicide Workshop Notice
Are you looking for more detailed information on herbicide use?
"Herbicides in Forestry" workshops iill be held Tues, Sept 26
at FANIU in Quincy and Thurs, Sept 28 at the Putnain Co.
Agricultural Extension (enter. Topics w-ill include:
lfhl' I se Herbicides?
Economic Case Studies
If you have not already received an "invitation" in the mail and
you want to attend, please call Paul Campbell at (904) 846-0898
Fire is the least expensive. But, it requires careful consideration of weather conditions and the smoke
produced can be unwelcome in populated areas. Understory control in established pine stands is usually
best done using prescribed fire, although herbicides are sometimes used. Mechanical treatments do the
most thorough job of site preparation, but have some disadvantages.
For the following reasons, herbicides have become the preferred vegetation control tool on many kinds of
1. Costs are lower and control of competing vegetation lasts longer compared to intensive mechanical
2. Problems of site preparation using heavy machinery--soil compaction, erosion, removal of topsoil,
windows reducing useable land area--are avoided.
3. Less logging debris is left on most sites, compared to the past, and greater availability of v-blade
rigs or competent hand-planting crews has reduced the need for heavy machinery to prepare sites.
4. Choice of herbicide formulations and application equipment gives versatility to tailor treatments to
specific site conditions or to use in either site preparation or "release" operations. Selective
herbicides kill some kinds of plants without seriously damaging others.
Herbicides offer the advantages of low toxicity to humans and animals and minimum negative effects on
soil, air, and water IF THEY ARE USED ACCORDING TO INSTRUCTIONS. ALWAYS READ AND
FOLLOW HERBICIDE LABELS. Planning and supervision of chemical vegetation management should
be done by someone experienced in using herbicides on similar lands. These are highly useful tools but
considerable skill and knowledge is needed to safely, and at the lowest possible cost, achieve the desired
Stand establishment is usually the time of greatest investment in vegetation management. Some
landowners are reluctant to invest money in trees that will not produce income right away. But one of the
fundamentals of sound forest management is the need to invest a portion of timber sale income in
establishing new stands of crop trees. On most tracts, pre-planting measures to control competing
vegetation are a key part of this investment. "Release" treatments with herbicides during the first few
years after planting are sometimes also called for.
The landowner's objectives and resources, and the condition of the site to be treated, indicate which
vegetation management measures are most suitable. There are general vegetation management
prescriptions for each of the three major site types of commercial forest land in Florida: uplands,
flatwoods, and sandhills. These prescriptions can be modified to fit the particulars of a given tract.
If two landowners have similar cutover sites, one might opt for intensive vegetation control to achieve
very rapid crop tree growth and early harvest. The other might choose lower cost stand establishment
measures, including vegetation management, despite slower growth of the crop trees and a longer wait
until harvest. Either approach is right as long as the results meet that landowner's objectives at acceptable
Landowners and natural resource professionals have been requesting information regarding herbicide use.
A new Stewardship publication "Vegetation Management in Florida's Private Non-Industrial Forests", is
now available at County Extension offices or by calling the U.F. Forestry Extension office at (904) 846-
0849. It includes a general discussion of herbicide use in Florida forestry.
We're all part of nature and we depend on and participate in the cycling of energy and materials in earth's
natural systems. In trees (and other green plants), evaporation through the surface of the leaves helps to
"pull" water up from the ground through the plants' tiny tubes. Without evaporation the leaves would not
have water. Without water, the leaves could not carry out photosynthesis, the process by which plants
store the sun's energy in chemical compounds--sugars--that are the basic energy source (food) for most
living things. And, without evaporative cooling, the leaves would often be too hot to function. No
evaporation, no food, at least not from the land plants that are our main sources of it. Not to mention that
the shade of a tree is so inviting partly because evaporation cools the shade-casting leaves themselves.
Evaporation helps planet earth cool itself. As moisture evaporates from the earth's surface, it absorbs heat,
which is released higher in the atmosphere when water vapor condenses to form rain. From the higher
altitude the heat can more easily re-radiate into space. Evaporation is also key to heat transfer between
regions and moderation of extremes of heat and cold.
Water, other materials, and energy constantly circulate among seas, streams, wetlands, the air, and every
living thing. Pondering that, one might begin to see that it is not so easy to say where this organism ends
and that one begins, or to clearly distinguish between "living" and "non-living" things. One might see why
some have come to think of planet earth as one living organism, a single, giant, miraculous cell. The
natural processes that go on around us every day are amazing.
Enough, fellow philosophers, time to bring ourselves back to practical matters--like timber markets...
Timber Mart-South Summary
The information in the following table was extracted from the Timber Mart-south second quarter report,
released in early July. This information, compiled from many sources, is very useful for observing trends
over time, but may not necessarily reflect current conditions at a particular location. During the second
quarter, prices in almost all categories remained substantially higher than they were a year ago. Average
prices for chip-n-saw, power poles, and hardwood pulpwood increased over last quarter.
In addition to general market conditions, prices vary from sale to sale depending on tract size and access;
quality, quantity, and size of timber; distance to mills; and other market conditions. If you are considering
a timber sale, you would be wise to let a consulting forester help you obtain the best current prices.
The dark band in the panhandle
signifies an area where prices
are somewhere between those of
Region 1 and Region 2 while the
dark region in south Florida
represents an area where price
reports are scarce to nonexistent.
Stumpage Prices, 1995, 2 nd Quarter
(from Timber Mart-South)
Region Average Range
Northeast(l) $ 41
Northwest(2) $ 37 $
Average $ 39
Northeast(l) $ 79
Northwest(2) $ 70 59
Average $ 75
Northwest(2) $310 $
Northeast(l) $ 75
$ 61- 89
Northwest(2) $131 $1-
Northwest(2) $170 $ -
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A University of Florida Cooperative Extension Sevice and Florida Division of Forestry joint
Paul Campbell (editor), School of Forest Resources & Conservation, UF, P.O. Box 110420, Gainesville, FL 32611-
0420 Tel: (352)-846-0898
Alan Long (co-editor), School of Forest Resources & Conservation, UF
Charles Marcus (co-editor), Florida Division ofForestry, 3125 Conner Blvd, Tallahassee, FL 32699-1650
k UNIVERSITY OF
Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences