Front Cover
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List acronyms
 Background information
 Workshop planning and preparat...
 Workshop content
 Session designs
 Resource documents
 Reference information

Group Title: trainer's manual
Title: A trainer's manual
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089943/00002
 Material Information
Title: A trainer's manual
Alternate Title: How to conduct a workshop to integrate gender considerations into development planning
Physical Description: 2 v. : forms ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rollins, Al
Hubbs, Virginia
Grosz, Ron
MayaTech Corporation
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office for Women in Development
Donor: Marianne Schmink ( endowment )
Publisher: The Corp.,
The Corp.
Place of Publication: Silver Spring MD
Subject: Technical assistance, U.S -- Women   ( ltcsh )
Development administration -- Women   ( ltcsh )
Status of women   ( ltcsh )
Women in development   ( lcsh )
Project design -- Women   ( ltcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: Al Rollins, Virginia Hubbs, Ron Grosz ; with the MayaTech Corporation ; prepared for Office of Women in Development, Bureau for Research and Development, U.S. Agency for International Development, Washington D.C.
General Note: "October, 1992."
General Note: "This document was prepared by the MayaTech Corporation under Contract Number PDC-0100-C-009021-00 with the U.S. Agency for International Development"--P. 3 of cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089943
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 29824136

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Half Title
        Half Title 1
        Half Title 2
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    List acronyms
        Page v
    Background information
        Page 1
        Page 1a
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Workshop planning and preparation
        Page 8
        Page 8a
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Workshop content
        Page 13
        Page 13a
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Session designs
        Page 23
        Page 23a
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
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        Page 45
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        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
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        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Resource documents
        Page 64
        Page 64a
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Reference information
        Page 69
        Page 69a
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
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Full Text
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MayaTech Corporation

Opportunities for Creative Solutions:
Integrating Gender Concerns into Development Projects

Al Rollins
Virginia Hubbs
Ron Grosz

The MayaTech Corporation
Silver Spring, MD

Prepared for:
Office of Women in Development
Bureau for Research and Development
U.S. Agency for International Development
Washington, D.C.

October, 1992


Opportunities for Creative Solutions:
Integrating Gender Concerns into Development Projects

This document was prepared by The MayaTech Corporation under Contract Number PDC-0100-C-
009021-00 with the U.S. Agency for International Development, Bureau for Program and Policy
Coordination, Office of Women in Development The views and interpretations in this publication
should not be attributed to the Agency for International Development or to any individual acting on its

Note: The United States Agency for International Development was reorganized in 1991. The Office of
Women in Development is now in the Bureau for Research and Development (R&D/WID), rather than
in the Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination.

------------------s~- ~ -- - --'

rr~-~ ~ C -r I,

Opportunities for Creative Solutions:
Integrating Gender Concerns into Development Projects

Al Rollins
Virginia Hubbs
Ron Grosz

The MayaTech Corporation
Silver Spring, MD

Prepared for:
Office of Women in Development
Bureau for Research and Development
U.S. Agency for International Development
Washington, DC

October, 1992

-- -------I -r- ~II II I~ II C--*-II~P I

------1- '-91 -1





List of Acronyms


Introduction, Purpose and Scope, Notes on Training Design
Sample Summary Schedule
Workshop Goal and Desired Outcomes


Pre-Workshop Needs Assessment, Orientation, and Readings
Local Workshop Coordinator
Training Staff Team
On-Site Preparation
Materials Required
Training Workshop Site
Setup of the Training Room
Registration and Greeting of Participant Arrivals
Dinner and Special Event


Session 1: Workshop Orientation

Session 2: Exploring the Issues

Session 3: Gender Analysis

Session 4: Data Gathering

Session 5: Strategies to Overcome Barriers to Women's Participation
in Development Activities

Session 6: Managing the Process

Session 7: Individual Application

Session 8: Gender Implications in the Policy Environment

I --





Session 9: Planning for Action

Session 10: Workshop Summary, Evaluation, and Closure


Session 1: Workshop Orientation

Session 2: Exploring the Issues

Session 3: Gender Analysis

Session 4: Data Gathering

Session 5: Strategies to Overcome Barriers to Women's Participation
in Development Activities

Session 6: Managing the Process

Session 7: Individual Application

Session 8: Gender Implications in the Policy Environment

Session 9: Planning for Action

Session 10: Workshop Summary, Evaluation, and Closure




A.l.D. was among the first donor agencies to recognize the central role of women in economic and social
development. Its legislation and policy guidance on women in development have served as models to others.
Because development implies change, implementing A.I.D. WID Policy and operationalizing Congressional
mandates involves managing a change process intended to result in sustainable economic and social growth. A
key aspect of this process has been the Office of Women in Development's training program.

The training program is dynamic and evolving; it seeks to increase men's and women's awareness of, knowledge
about and skills and motivation to address gender issues in all A.I.D. policies, programs, and projects. Early
emphasis was placed on the awareness aspect of the training goals, but, because we live in a dynamic world and
because early training efforts have, in a real sense, "succeeded", awareness building is less of an issue today. The
A.I.D. development professional now requires greater technical depth and skill-building.

Another change is taking place. While the primary training "client" group has been and continues to be the
A.I.D. development professional in both Washington, D.C. and in the field, there is a growing need to include
the private sector contractor and, especially, the Host Country Counterpart in training activities. The richness
derived from the inclusion of a mix of people in a training event is accompanied by an increased complexity
(training must be delivered in other languages, for example) and accompanying cost. But without such a change,
the training will be less relevant and, certainly, the results will not be sustainable in the long run.

This said, the trainers' manual presented here is the result of four years of intensive work. The manual falls
somewhere in the middle of a spectrum that begins with pure sensitization or awareness building, all the way
to technical training on incorporating gender considerations in a course for agronomists, soil scientists, and
private enterprise or credit specialists. It seeks to bring the participants into greater awareness about why gender
must be a key variable in their work, provides them with an opportunity to share and gain technical knowledge
about gender and women in development, and allows them to work on some initial skill practice in gender
analysis and strategy design.

The users of the manual are encouraged to cut, paste, toss and redesign to make the contents fit their own needs.
It is our hope that this publication can save some of the effort, time, money needed to design and deliver training
in Gender Considerations in Development; that users can profit from our struggles, learning and mistakes; and
that the manual be used, as appropriate, to further include people, women, men, boys and girls as necessary
participants in, contributors to, and beneficiaries of sustainable, effective economic and social development.

Ron Grosz
Office of Women in Development


This manual reflects the experiences and contributions of many people:

the staff of the Office of Women in Development, who have the mission and mandate to
institutionalize the importance of systematic and equitable inclusion of women in A.I.D.'s
development policies, goals, and processes. Special appreciation is due the PPC/WID staff,
especially Ms. Kay Davies, former Director of PPC/WID, and Mr. Ron Grosz, Project Officer,
who provided continual encouragement, support, and challenge in the development of these

the many A.I.D. staff persons, both in the Washington office and in the Missions outside the
United States, who gave generously of their time, insights, and suggestions.

Women in Development professionals from other agencies, private voluntary organizations
(PVOs), foundations, and independent consultants/trainers who were most helpful in sharing
their experience and vision as we were gathering data in the development of this training manual.

the more than 400 individuals from A.I.D. Regional Bureaus and missions and other
development agencies who participated in A.I.D.- sponsored WID workshops.

the women in developing countries who refuse to be invisible and underutilized in development
strategies and their implementation.

Staff of The MayaTech Corporation prepared this document, which updates a training manual initially developed
by Mr. Al Rollins and Ms. Virginia Hubbs, in collaboration with Mr. Ron Grosz (PPC/WID), under a separate
contract. Ms. Hubbs, Mr. Rollins, and Mr. Grosz provided the technical expertise for this document as well,
with additional assistance from Ms. Barbara Howald. Ms. Cheryle Buggs blended knowledge, styles, and
graphics. Ms. Kettly Paul and her word processing staff skillfully and willingly responded to requests for
additions and changes.

While we are thankful to all who contributed to this manual, responsibility for its accuracy and tenor rests with
The MayaTech Corporation.

Jean-Marie B. Mayas, Ph.D.
Project Director


A.I.D. Agency for International Development

AP Action Plan

CDIE Center for Development Information and Evaluation

CDSS Country Development Strategy Statement

CPSP Country Program Strategic Plan

FSN Foreign Service National

GENF.SYS Gender in Economic and Social Systems

GIF Gender Information Framework

IICN Host Country National

NGO Non-governmental Organization

NP Newsprint

PID Project Identification Document

PP Project Paper

PPC Program and Policy Coordination (Bureau for)

PVO Private and Voluntary Organization

RD Research and Development (Bureau for)

WID Women in Development

------------------------ -l l l 1

I I -


------- ----

Background Information



This manual provides information on the organization and implementation of a workshop to increase
incorporation of gender considerations into development programming. It is a product of the combined efforts
of many organizations and individuals, including:

the more than 400 individuals from A.I.D./Washington and field offices, host country
governments, and non-governmental organizations who have participated in the Women in
Development workshops that have formed the basis of this manual;

the development professionals who, with their knowledge, skills, and values, identified the needs,
provided the research, assisted in the interpretation of the data, and shaped the frameworks and
designs which led to this training manual; and

the Office of Women in Development, U.S. Agency for International Development (A.I.D.),
which planned and authorized its development.

Underneath all these efforts are the daily experiences and voices of millions of women throughout the world who
have resisted being "invisible" and underutilized in development strategies and their implementation.

Specifically, the manual derives from more than three years' experience by the Office of Women in Development
(PPC/WID) and its agents supporting development professionals in following A.I.D.'s Women in Development
(WID) policies and Congressional mandates, and in designing and implementing more effective development
programs and projects.


The purpose of the manual is to assist development professionals primarily in non-governmental organizations
to provide effective training in the incorporation of gender considerations into their development programs and
projects. (A companion manual, Volume I, is designed for training specialists working within or for A.I.D. who
need additional knowledge and/or frameworks in order to assist A.I.D. personnel to better integrate gender
considerations in development activities.)

The intended audiences for this training manual include:

1) training specialists with limited previous experience in the analytical frameworks and specific
knowledge related to gender issues in development;

2) development professionals with WID expertise but little previous training experience; and

Background Information

3) professionals who have both the training skills and extensive knowledge of gender issues who
might use this as a building block for next steps in this discipline and mission of institutionalizing
gender considerations in project and program design, implementation, monitoring, and


The training design in this manual calls for an optimal participant population of 20 and not more than 40
persons. The training group size enables:

1) the building of an actively involved, participatory learning community;
2) individual, small group, and total community exercises with adequate reporting time and
discussion; and
3) individual problem solving and action planning work with staff consultation.

Adjustments may be made in this number under special conditions with different goals and objectives and with
appropriate training staff adjustments. Examples of such adjustments and differing client groupings have been
included elsewhere in this Trainers' Manual (sec Table of Contents for specifics). This training was initially
designed for A.I.D. staff; increasingly, however, workshops have included representatives from nongovernmental
organizations, host country governments, and consultants. This experience has demonstrated that in every case,
careful needs assessments of the participants and the organization before the training are necessary for maximum

It should also be mentioned that, increasingly, training events include a significant number of participants for
whom English is a second language. This requires additional care and appropriate adjustments. When you are
training a group for whom English is a second language, or training others to conduct this training model, you
will need from one and a half to two times the amount of time suggested for each session.

The manual provides information for the development and implementation of a three-day workshop. It is
organized as follows:

Section I (this section) provides information on the manual content, structure, and underlying
premises; also included are a summary schedule and goals and desired workshop outcomes.

Section II focuses on workshop preparation and planning, and includes information on pre-
workshop needs assessment, selection and preparation of the training staff team, logistical
considerations, materials required, welcoming participants, and other aspects of successful
workshop preparation.

Section III provides workshop content in an abbreviated form and is for use in participants'
notebooks. It includes session titles, suggested times, objectives, and activities which have
become the most common pattern for the three-day workshop.

Background Information

Section IV provides more detailed session guidance, for use by trainers, and includes information
in Section III plus a session rationale and overview, specific activities, task descriptions,
handouts, and newsprint used in the workshop. An example of the session description format

Session Description Format

TITLE: Titles for each session summarize the content of that period of the training.

TIME: The length of time the session requires is indicated. You have some flexibility to shorten or
lengthen time according to the number of participants, any trainer options chosen, and the time limits of
the workshop. The consequences of these options are discussed briefly in each session where appropriate.
Starting and ending times are not given, since these will vary from workshop to workshop or from group
to group. Choices made about daily schedules, starting and ending times, the number of working sessions
each day, and length and timing of meals and breaks will determine the rest of the sessions' starting and
ending times.

OBJECTIVES: Each session will list its separate objectives) stating what the participants will
accomplish during that session. These objectives provide staff one continuing way to evaluate the
effectiveness of the training for participants.

RATIONALE AND OVERVIEW: Each session will have a description of the training theory or
experience undergirding the design for the session and the summary of the process and outcomes
anticipated. In some cases, this section will provide trainers with an introduction to the session for the
participants. In every case, this section will assist trainers to prepare for each session.

ACITVITIES: This will be your step-by-step description of the content and process to be followed, with
suggested times and specific instructions for presentation, visual aids, materials, handouts, etc.

Visual aids are essential tools for highlighting workshop and session goals and objectives, for underlining
major points in a presentation, for specifying training tasks, and for identifying group memberships. They
will be highlighted in the ACTIVITIES section and indicated thusly (NP-1.1)

VARIATIONS: At the end of each session, if appropriate, there are suggestions for possible variations
in the design and activities.

Background Information

Section V includes a list of resource documents and materials which have been identified by the
training staffs for use as pre-workshop reading materials, for informational reading during the
workshop to support the training sessions, and as additional reading for participants following
the workshops.

Section VI incorporates sample presentation materials for selected sessions of the workshop.

The workshop model presented here is an adaptation of workshops originally developed for A.I.D. personnel,
as well as the contractors, host country counterparts, and grantees who work with A.I.D. However, because the
workshop focuses on increasing awareness and knowledge about gender issues, it is relevant to a much wider

A common thread through the individual sessions is the Gender Information Framework (GIF), which was
designed as a tool for addressing gender issues in A.I.D.'s programming. The GIF includes guidelines for gender
analysis and incorporation of gender issues into four major A.I.D. documents: the Country Development Strategy
Statement (CDSS), the Action Plan (AP), the Project Identification Document (PID), and the Project Paper

Although A.I.D.-specific, these documents typically have parallel documents in other organizations. For example,
most non-governmental organizations will have a country strategy plan of some sort; they will begin the project
process with a concept paper that identifies the major issues; and they will develop a project paper for new
activities. Thus, the GIF concepts can be used as a framework for incorporating gender considerations into
programs and projects.

The GIF and training materials address two critical issues in the development world:

1. Projects and long-term goals are more likely to be achieved when there is a fit between the
program and/or project resources and the gender-based roles and responsibilities of the
participants and/or beneficiaries. Development planners are often unaware of this fact, or seem
to be when the planning documents are analyzed for evidence of these data.

2. Often the data necessary to incorporate gender variables into development programming appear
to be absent or inadequate. However, in many countries, considerable data exist but are not
known or readily available to planners. In such cases, data collection methodologies which are
practical and cost effective are available and will be addressed in the GIF materials and the

Sessions are presented in sequence and, in order to increase the probability of a successful workshop, each
session is to be delivered in the order presented. If you have little training or workshop delivery experience, you
are advised to follow the manual closely. If you have more experience or have delivered this program more than
once, you are encouraged to use your experience and creativity in making changes to fit particular participant
populations and situations.

Background Information

Assumptions and Values Undergirding This Training Manual

Assumptions and values always guide the provision of consulting and training. And the basic assumption in the
development of this manual and training is that we are engaged in a common learning situation, working
collaboratively with the client in a problem-solving and skill (capacity)-building process. It is not a prescriptive
process, but rather designed to assist participants to ask questions, to check their assumptions, and to come up
with their own answers.

Other.operative assumptions and values embodied in this training manual are:

Participants ultimately learn what they actively desire to learn; they do not learn what they do
not accept. The training is addressed to the identified needs of the organization and its staff in
terms of increased knowledge, awareness, and skills.

The adult learning model, sometimes referred to as the experiential learning model, which
provides learning by disciplined reflection on direct experience in training sessions, offers the
maximum opportunity for increased awareness, understanding, and skill building. In this model,
participants have an active role and share in the responsibility for their learning.

The most effective and transferable training is related as closely as possible to the actual work
situations of the clients/participants. Training will focus on identifying and working on actual
problems and issues defined by participants or by organizational policies and procedures.

Training which results in planned action, utilizing the knowledge and skills learned in the
workshop for specific tasks "back home', is most effective. This also results in increased
'ownership" of strategies for change and reduces the tendency toward passive or active resistance
of organizationally mandated policies and procedures.

I, I I

Background Information











8.30 A
11:00 A
12:30 P
200 P
5:00 P
6-30 P



8:30 A
10-00 A

11:30 A
12:30 P
2:00 P
5.-00 P




8:30 A
11:30 A
12:30 P
2.-00 P
3.00 P

4:30 P


Background Information



To increase awareness of, knowledge about, motivation, and skills for incorporating gender considerations into
every stage of the development process.


At the end of the workshop, participants will:

1. be able to relate factors in the gender analysis to specific programs/projects;

2. be able to use the GIF (or other gender analytical framework) as a resource document to incorporate
gender considerations into development programs/projects;

3. be able to identify and use information resources available within the host country and elsewhere for
effective design decisions incorporating gender;

4. be aware of and able to apply strategies incorporating gender considerations for programs/projects; and

5. be aware of types of linkages between gender considerations at the project and country programming

---- -- i



Planning and Preparation


In any training workshop, it is desirable to have clear information about the participants and their learning
needs. This is true even when the learning goals are set by the organizational system; perhaps especially so, in
order to lessen the negative conditions for effective learning deriving from a sense of forced attendance and
corresponding resistance.

Pre-Workshop Needs Assessment, Orientation, and Reading

Therefore, we strongly suggest careful attention to pre-workshop planning for this training model, which
minimally would include:
1) a basic needs assessment instrument for participants;
2) communication and orientation with senior staff;
3) readings and informational materials to participants well before the training event; and
4) materials, etc., they are to "fix" (Session 7 Individual Application).

A basic needs assessment instrument, or framework for interviews, would include at least the following:
1) name, title, and role(s) of the participant;
2) feelings as they anticipate the training;
3) what they want to learn in this training;
4) what concerns or problems they anticipate; and
5) any other comments or suggestions.

We also suggest that senior staff receive an orientation to the goals, structure, and format of the training,
preferably before participants have been identified or selected. This will assist in the identification of specific
training needs as viewed by the organization, aid the process of selection, secure commitment and support from
key staff and increase the rewards for attendance and full participation. Senior staff will be essential in
suggesting, and perhaps even in recruiting and authorizing, appropriate persons to serve as local training
workshop coordinators/administrators, and also local resource persons.

With the amount of technical material involved in this training, we think it is essential that participants have the
opportunity to read and internalize some of this substantive material before the training sessions. Minimally,
these readings will include some selected portions of the GIF, project evaluation summaries, and other relevant
reports or papers focusing on gender issues in development. We suggest that some active response to these pre-
workshop materials from participants be included in the needs assessment instrument and returned to the
training staff. These data will assist the staff to fine-tune the basic design to fit more closely with the expressed
needs of the participants of any particular workshop, and to begin to know the participants and their specific
development work contexts.

Planning and Preparation

Local Workshop Coordinator

Consult carefully with local senior staff for this selection!
This staff support role and function is an extremely important one, particularly if the training workshop is to be
held in a country or location other than that of the training staff persons. All administrative and logistical
matters affecting the workshop and participants are part of their responsibility; for example, the training site and
spacess, lodging, transportation, meals, material requirements of the participants and training staff, registration,
and ongoing logistical and administrative support during and following the training. Make sure that all of these
duties and functions are carefully and specifically negotiated very early in the workshop planning process. If the
persons) selected for this role and responsibilities is not very familiar with an experiential learning workshop
and its requirements, an explicit set of instructions, given and negotiated carefully and well in advance, will be
most helpful.


Training Staff Team

Following the learning needs of the participants, we strongly recommend:
one trainer for each eight to ten participants
a mix of gender, race, and age, if at all possible
a mix of individuals who are intimately familiar with various sector and sub-sector technical
individuals who have wide experience in the participatory, problem-solving, adult education
training model which undergirds this design and manual.

Our rationale for suggesting this kind of staff team is driven by the learning needs of participants, as well as by
the assumptions and values of the educational model Of necessity, in this kind of "hands on,' experiential
education, participants will often be working in small groups. It is most important that there be at least one
staff person present in each of these small groups for both task and group maintenance consultative support.
The desire for a mix of female and male training staff comes both from the desire to model the values we are
espousing in the development program and project processes, and also to provide the differing styles and
experiences of each.

Finally, this model requires:
a Lead Trainer for coordination and leadership in the staff planning and administration an
integral and ongoing process and,
staff team planning and preparation ideally that begins well in advance of the time of the
workshop, and will continue for some time after its completion

Planning and Preparation

A Materials Development Specialist to provide the materials required for specific regional and sectoral training
needs is also helpful.

On-Site Preparation

One of the most important steps in preparing for the workshop is staff team building. Since the staff may be
traveling to the training site, plan on arriving at least two days in advance of the workshop. An early meeting
with the local coordinator is a priority to check the training site and space, the conference materials needed, any
materials which were sent ahead, and any audio-visual equipment requested -- to make certain that they are
available and/or working properly. It is also important to determine whether all the administrative and logistic
details are clear and being managed.

The full team will need to go through the entire workshop design session-by-session, particularly if the training
is new to anyone. Specific assignments must be made for each session. Given adequate time, practice sessions
of lectures and task assignments with feedback from the staff are very valuable. If the time is more limited,
focus on the early sessions and the most difficult ones. The Lead Trainer has the responsibility for managing
the staff team-building process and the overall workshop implementation and evaluation.

Visuals should be prepared a day, or at least the evening before the presentations. Keep visuals simple, clear,
neat, colorful and print in large letters so that they can be seen clearly from the back of the training room. If
you are using overhead projections, check their visibility from the back of the room also.

Staff responsible for each session should ensure that all of the handouts, newsprint and other visuals, and
materials needed for their sessions are available in sufficient numbers.

Materials Required

The following general list of materials required for the training workshop should be shared with the local
coordinator/administrator well in advance of the workshop dates. If they are available locally at reasonable costs,
purchase there will facilitate staff travel and minimize excess baggage costs.

Newsprint (Flip Chart Paper) is needed for each session's objectives and schedule, lecture highlights, task
assignments, small group work reports, etc. In the U.S., newsprint sheets measure approximately 27 x 32 inches.

Easels: If easels are not readily available at the training site, they can be constructed quite easily with local
wood supplies following a simple pattern. However, if there is adequate black-board or wall space in the
training site, newsprint can be taped to those surfaces. It is quite important that there be adequate wall space
for posting newsprint around the room, for some sheets will be on display throughout the training workshop.
Instruct the local coordinator/administrator to check the local training site's capability for this requirement
carefully, for tape may harm wall finish, paint, or paper.

Planning and Preparation

Felt-tipped markers: Water color markers are the most effective type markers, though these are usually
unavailable or quite expensive in many countries outside the U.S. Three boxes of 12 variously colored markers
should be sufficient for most workshops and they can be purchased and carried by the staff.

Masking tape: Three rolls of 1/2 inch masking tape will suffice, and, if they are not available at the training site,
they can be purchased in the U.S. and transported easily by staff.

Notebooks: Participants' Notebooks will be provided to organize the materials and handouts. These materials
can be produced and collated in the U.S., boxed securely, and carried as excess baggage.

Paper punch: The paper punch must match the notebook ring spacing and is usually available locally. If most
of the paper resources for the notebooks are produced in the U.S. and are either shipped or carried with staff,
remember to match paper hole punch and notebooks.

Note paper and pencils for participants should be provided. Blank pages in the notebooks are often most helpful
for participants.

Training Workshop Site

The site for an event like this one is an important element in supporting an effective learning environment. The
facility should have sufficient lodging and meal capabilities in an informal setting, with adequate space for
plenary sessions for all participants and staff, and with enough rooms for small group meetings of no more than
eight persons each. It is helpful if the facility is away from the distractions of any local agency's office and the
pulls of normal business demands. It is also very desirable that there be recreational opportunities at the site
for participants' enjoyment during free times.

Setup of the Training Room

Before participants arrive, staff should instruct the local coordinator how to arrange the training room and the
reception area in preparation for arrivals. The tables and chairs should be arranged in a fan or sunrise
configuration pointing toward the space in the room for the easels or for newsprint visuals. Care should be
taken to make certain each person will be able to see any visuals in the front of the room. If there are no staff
of the conference facility to assist in setting this arrangement, then all training staff not engaged in other
preparations should pitch in to help the coordinator.

Registration and Greeting of Participant Arrivals

The local coordinator/administrator and available training staff should be on hand to register arrivals and assist
them to get settled-in easily. Some kind of welcoming refreshments and informal greetings from staff and other

Planning and Preparation

participants eases their entry into the workshop setting. A large, brightly colored sign of welcome on newsprint
can set a favorable tone for the opening session.

Dinner and Special Event

A working dinner during a three-day workshop in the field provides an opportunity for continued learning in a
relaxed atmosphere, while strengthening the connection between participants and the training staff. If funds
and planning time permit, this event is strongly recommended. It can be organized as follows:

pre-dinner refreshments

To date, the presentations have typically focused on "best practices" of the presenters in addressing gender issues.
Examples of presentations are:

presentations from 2-3 field office representatives (for regional workshops);

audio-visual presentation by a host country organization, such as a women's cooperative, on their
activities, problems, and best practices;

panel presentation by host country NGOs;

panel presentation by donor agencies; and

presentation by host country government minister.

The "work" of the evening can also be combined with a social event, such as a play by a local theatre group
during the refreshments.

The working dinner can be scheduled following the first full day of the workshop. Careful and specific
preparation with the presenters well in advance of the event is essential. Identification of the guest speakers
should be done by the sponsoring organization. The program should run for about one hour following dinner.

The content of the presentation optimally would include a description of the problem or problems addressed by
the project or program, the project/program concept and design, and some strengths and areas for improvement
in implementation. If barriers or constraints have been reduced or removed, what strategies were employed;
what was the result of the activity, and what next steps are planned?

At the end of an intense day of training and a banquet meal, it is important that the presentation be as engaging
and even entertaining as possible.




Workshop Content



2 2 1/2 Hours (depending on group size)


At the conclusion of this session, participants will:

1. have been officially welcomed to the training workshop by representatives of the sponsors;

2. have been introduced to the training staff and the logistics and administrative support team;

3. have reviewed policies and procedures for incorporating gender considerations in programs and
projects relevant to their own work;

4. know the names and work locations of at least three persons they did not know before (if this is
a multi-organization or regional event);

5. be aware of why the workshop is being conducted and what we intend to accomplish together;

6. know which of their expectations we can and cannot address; and

7. be aware that their active participation is critical to the success of the learning experience.


1. Official Welcome by Workshop Sponsors

2. Participant Introductions

3. Clarification of Expectations

4. Workshop Overview: Goal, Objectives, Schedule, and Norms

5. Summary and Closure of Session

Workshop Content



1 Hour, 30 Minutes


At the conclusion of this session, participants will:

1. have identified some implications for their own work related to women in development;

2. be able to describe how consideration of gender issues can affect project/program success and
failure; and

3. recognize how failure to give consideration to gender differentiation can impede project success
and/or the process of development.


1. Presentation of Session Overview, Issues, and Discussion

2. Small Group Task to Identify Concerns

3. Small Group Reports to Total Community

4. Summary Reflections, Discussion, and Bridge to Next Session

r I

Workshop Content


TIME: 2 Hours, 30 Minutes


At the-conclusion of this session, participants will:

1. be able to list and use key gender factors in gender analysis;

2. have practiced gender analysis with a case example; and

3. have been introduced to the Gender Information Framework.


1. Presentation of Session Overview

2. Gender Analysis Presentation

Presentation Followed by Questions and Answers

3. Small Group Practice in Gender Analysis

Reading and Discussion of Case Example and Background Paper in Small Groups

4. Small Group Reports Analyzing a Document Using the Gender Factors

5. Presentation of the Gender Information Framework

6. Summary Reflections and Session Closure


Workshop Content



1 Hour, 30 minutes


By the end of this session, participants will:

1. have reviewed the reasons for and problems in gathering sex-disaggregated data; and

2. be able to list some methods and sources for rapid, low-cost collection of sex-disaggregated data
needed for project design.


1. Presentation of Session Objectives and Overview

2. Review of Some Problems in Data Gathering Plenary Discussion

3. Five Rapid, Low-Cost Methods for Data Collection Lecturette and Discussion

4. Networking for Information Resources

Individual Reflection
Sharing Information with Other Participants

5. Summary Reflection and Session Closure


Workshop Content


TIME: I Hour, 15 Minutes


At the conclusion of this session, participants will:

1. be able to identify at least three project features that are frequent barriers to women's
appropriate participation in development activities; and

2. be able to select strategies for adapting mainstream projects so that key elements of the project
incorporate gender considerations and, therefore, do not inadvertently discriminate against, or
pose barriers to, the appropriate participation of women.


1. Introduction to Session, Review of Session Objectives and Activities

2. Plenary Session Review of Common Barriers to Women's Participation

3. Small Group Practice to Develop New Strategies for Incorporating Gender into Organizational

4. Small Group Reports

5. Summary Reflections and Closure of Session

Workshop Content



1 Hour


At the conclusion of this session, participants will:

1. have identified where gender issues should be included within their organization's program
development process (e.g., project staff recruitment, scopes of work);

2. have identified assumptions about how gender issues will be considered in the programming
process; and

3. have briefly discussed for one stage in the programming process alternative strategies for
incorporating gender considerations.


1. Session Opening, Review of Objectives and Activities

2. Plenary Discussion of the Development Programming Process

3. Summary and Closure of Session

Workshop Content



2 Hours, 30 Minutes


At the conclusion of this session, participants will:

1. have analyzed, individually and in consultation groups, the development materials they brought
to the workshop for gender issues, additional baseline information needed, and strategies for

2. have gained additional skills in identifying project activities and outputs which should reflect
gender considerations previously identified;

3. be able to select strategies for designing/adapting mainstream projects so that key elements of the
project incorporate gender considerations; and

4. have begun to develop basic criteria for distinguishing projects and programs which have
adequately considered gender from those which have not.


1. Plenary Session Presentation and Discussion

2. Individual and Consultation Groups Work on Development Materials Brought to the Workshop

3. Reports of Consultation Groups and Individual Applications

4. Summary and Closure of Session

Workshop Content


TIME: 3 Hours


At the conclusion of this session, participants will:

1. have examined gender-differentiated implications for project design of higher level objectives
found in organizational mission statements;

2. have used factors of labor, resources, income, and expenditures in program/project analysis to
discover where gender is a significant variable in the documentation process; and

3. have worked through an analysis of constraints and opportunities afforded by gender differences
in roles and responsibilities to improve the documentation process.


1. Lecturette and Group Discussion: Gender Implications in the Policy Environment

2. Large Group Practice on Gender Considerations Among Levels of Programming

3. Small Group Exercise

4. Small Group Reports

5. Summary Reflections and Closure of Session


Workshop Content



2 Hours


At the conclusion of this session, participants will:

1. have developed an action plan for incorporating gender considerations into a component of their
work; and

2. have identified the data needed for implementing their action plan, and sources or methods for
obtaining those data.


1. Introductory Presentation, Discussion, and Task Instructions

2. Individual Action Planning Work (with Consultation Groups if Desired)

3. Reports of Individual Action Plans, with Discussion

4. Summary and Closure of Session


Workshop Content



1 Hour, 30 Minutes


At tle conclusion of this session, participants will:

1. have reviewed the training workshop content and process and discussed ways of incorporating the
training in their work situations;

2. have provided written evaluations of the workshop sessions; and

3. have expressed whatever closing comments necessary to each other and the training staff, and
prepared for their return to home and work.


1. Workshop Summary

2. Workshop Evaluation

3. Closing Activities



Session 1



2 2 1/2 Hours (depending on group size)



At the conclusion of this session, participants will:

1. have been officially welcomed to the training workshop by representatives of the sponsors;

2. have been introduced to the training staff and the logistics and administrative support team;

3. have reviewed policies and procedures for incorporating gender considerations in programs and
projects relevant to their own work;

4. know the names and work locations of at least three persons they did not know before (if this is
a multi-organization or regional event);

5. be aware of why the workshop is being conducted and what we intend to accomplish together;,

6. know which of their expectations we can and cannot address; and

7. be aware that their active participation is critical to the success of the learning experience.


The workshop begins with an official welcome and opening remarks by a senior staff member from the host
organization. Strong and enthusiastic support from key leadership assists greatly in setting a positive tone for
the training to follow. The opening speaker also introduces the training staff representative, who reviews the
workshop goals and objectives.

As quickly as possible in this opening session, participants are provided the opportunity to introduce themselves
to the training team (and to each other if that is necessary). This reinforces the participatory norm, getting
everyone on his/her feet speaking and also listening carefully to one another.

It is also important that the participants' expectations or learning goals for the workshop be identified quickly
and checked against those goals and objectives developed by the training staff. This is especially important when
attendance in the workshop may be involuntary and the participants are unfamiliar with the training
methodology. Expectations among participants may vary considerably. Further, confused or conflicting
expectations which are not clarified early in the training can block or hinder learning.

I I -I

Session 1


1. Welcome (25 Minutes)

Senior officers of the host agency begin the workshop with opening remarks of welcome. To set the tone of the
workshop, it is important that they both note the importance of the training and also review their agency's policy
related to gender issues. If a senior officer is well-versed in gender issues, he/she can use this opportunity to
initiate the process of redefining "women in development" from its historical association as an equity issue to
the more recent concept of gender as an important factor for project success. This begins the clarification of
some of the language and terms which the participants will be hearing and using in the workshop during the next
three days. If the senior official is not able to discuss these concepts easily, the training team can introduce them
in this session and develop them more fully in the next session.

A very brief introduction of the lead trainer should be made at the end of these welcoming remarks.

2. Introductions (1/2 1 Hour)

The lead trainer acknowledges the opening remarks and introductions, may make additional brief greetings, and
adds some adaptation of the rationale above. The trainer briefly reviews the Session Objectives (NP-1.1),
presented above and in the participants' notebooks.

The trainer then requests that participants introduce themselves to the total community, giving them the
following task:


Trainers should introduce themselves by answering the same questions. They may either begin the introductions
or wait until some participants have presented themselves. It will be important to keep these introductions
moving along smoothly and also to gently but firmly monitor the time for each person. Keep the atmosphere
easy and informal. The lead trainer may feel free to interact with participants and comment on their answers.
This will also model an informal and interactive style for other participants and help set an effective learning

Introduce yourself to us by answering the following:

a. Your name

b. Your work (job title)

Where you work (division or office,
other institution, country, etc.)

Session I

3. Expectations (30 minutes)

Each participant will have an opportunity to identify, and to discuss with several other participants, what they
want from this workshop. The trainer introduces this activity by saying something like, "We have designed this
training workshop from information we gathered from a number of your fellow professionals and from policies
and procedures of your organization in order to assist you in your work. We now want to learn from you what
you want to get from this training. We also want to check the goals of this workshop against your expectations
to determine together which ones are most likely to be realized, and which are not."

Participants form groups of five persons, preferably with other participants they know least well and would like
to know better, with the following task.


The trainer will need to keep time for the groups, warning them when they have 3 minutes left to finish their
summary. Call time in 15 minutes, and with the groups remaining in place, ask for two answers only from each
group in turn. One of the training staff records each group's answers on a sheet of newsprint in the front of the
room, reducing the answers to short statements which capture the essentials of their statement accurately. Keep
the reporting as brief as possible, asking participants to omit any expectations given in previous reports. When
you have received two expectations from each of the groups, ask if there are any additional ones which have not
been noted.

Normally, most of the participants' expectations will be met, especially if the invitations and advance notices have
been clear. The trainer should make notes during the reporting of any expectations which may not be met within
the workshop and note these during the next presentation.

You have 15 minutes to:

* Introduce yourselves

* Take 2-3 minutes each to write your answer to:

What are the two most important things I
want to get out of this workshop?

* Share and discuss your responses

* Select one member to be the recorder/reporter,
make a group list of five expectations from
your discussion.

Session I

Tell the groups that you will return to their listing of expectations after a review of the Workshop Goals,
Objectives, and methodology. Keep their list clearly visible so that participants can refer to it during the
presentation of the workshop overview.

4. Workshop Overview: Goals. Schedule, Methodology, and Norms (20 minutes)

This is primarily a presentation by the trainers with visuals and handouts. Post the Workshop Goals (NP-1.4)
Schedule (NP-15), and Norms (NP-1.6~ and go over them with the participants. Questions are encouraged
during this presentation for it is important that this information is clearly understood by the participants.
Questions also allow the trainers to expand on the brief statements on the visuals, and to check them against
participants' expectations. This is also the time to identify any expectations which you think will not be met in
this workshop. Participants usually accept the reality that some expectations will not be met when they are clear
about it in the beginning. Sometimes those expectations can be met outside the normal workshop structure and
schedule during meals, breaks, or specially scheduled consultations with staff or other participants. Participants
should be encouraged to initiate these contacts.

Briefly go over the overall workshop schedule, noting where the goals will be met, and the training activities to
be utilized. Explain briefly the methodologies to be employed (e.g., lectures and discussions in plenary sessions,
questions and answers, individual and small group work, action planning, case studies) and that this will be a
participatory experience, with the emphasis on learning by doing and reflecting on their experience.

Norms are ways of working and learning together most effectively and describe ways of behaving that we can
expect of both staff and participants. Present the following prepared list (or one which your team chooses) of
workshop norms and add any which the participants might suggest.


Attendance at all sessions
Starting and ending all sessions on time
Active participation
Each person responsible for own learning
One person speaks at a time
Active listening to one another
Cooperation/Competition both essential
Mutual respect, especially with differing ideas
Open and trusting environment for questions
Have fun while working and learning


Session I

The design, the learning activities, and the methodologies and training behaviors need to reinforce the norms
and assist in setting an effective learning environment.

The trainer should briefly describe the trainer/facilitator role as: one who is responsible for designing and
managing the process for the training activities to meet learners' needs, an occasional expert and resource
person, one who guides the learning process and sees learning as learner-centered rather than teacher-centered.

The role of the local coordinator/administrator should also be briefly described at this point. That person is
responsible for all workshop logistics, including liaison with management of the facility housing the participants
and staff. All complaints or suggestions regarding housing, meals, refreshments during breaks, supplies, etc.,
should be directed to that support person for action. This would be an appropriate time to have the local
coordinator/administrator go over the necessary logistics with the participants and answer any questions or
concerns they might have.

Finally, return to their list of expectations as promised at the beginning of this presentation and check with the
participants to determine if there are any expectations which they, or the trainers, do not think can be met in
this workshop as described in the Overview.

The trainer should then summarize the opening session's activities and rationale, referring briefly to the next
session's agenda, and thanking participants for their part in getting this workshop started with energy and active
participation. A break follows.

5. Summary, Closure, and Bridge to Next Session


1. Some participants have expressed reluctance to spend this amount of time on orientation. Others have
strongly affirmed the time spent in this session, particularly if the participants do not know one another well,
and especially if the group includes both American and international participants or representatives of various
field offices. In many cases, opportunities are limited for diverse groups to work together on development issues;
therefore, this level of orientation begins the process of discussion and collaboration.

2. Some participants will request to be present as "attendees" or "observers," therefore free to come and
go as their interest and schedule allow. This practice is disruptive to the participant community and the
workshop norms for learning. Therefore, participants are urged strongly to come only as full participants,
committed to the entire workshop design and schedule.

3. Some common questions that have been raised in this session are:

What is gender, and how do you consider gender?

Why do you use "gender considerations' rather than "women in development?'

Session I

Why do we need to stress the participation of women in the total process of development
planning and implementation?

How can I convince others (bosses, colleagues, host country ministers, contractors, etc.) that
gender considerations are important?


Session 2


TIME: 1 Hour, 30 Minutes


At the conclusion of this session, participants will:

1. have identified some implications of gender issues for their own work or the country/sector
development activities in which they are involved;

2. be able to describe how consideration of gender issues can affect project/program success and
failure; and

3. recognize how failure to give consideration to gender differentiation can impede project success
and/or the process of development.


Participants have heard senior officials from their organization discuss what they are expecting in terms of
women in development. These policies may have been around for some years with little effect on actual work.
In the pre-workshop materials, and, ideally in the opening session, they will have read and/or heard that project
evaluations indicate that integration of gender considerations into projects and programs has not been
accomplished very well. Further, those evaluations strongly indicate that this failure has significantly affected
program/project economic and social effectiveness, and sustainable development. Hopefully, it is becoming clear
to them that the integration of gender considerations in every aspect of their development activities has become
both a serious institutional priority of their organization and also one way of increasing development
effectiveness and sustainability.

In this session, participants are encouraged to explore the implications of organizational policies related to
gender for their work, the relationships to other issues, some potential effects of failure to give adequate
consideration to gender, and how adequate consideration of gender in policy and project design can increase
success potential.

Session 2


1. Plenary Session Overview of the Issues and Questions and Answers (30 Minutes)

The trainer introduces this session by stating the Objectives and the Rationale set out above. This is an
opportunity to more fully develop the concept of "gender considerations" (as an expansion of the earlier concept,
"women in development"), if this discussion did not take place in the first session. Here the trainer can discuss
project evaluations and research findings from a variety of sources which indicate that failure to consider gender
can adversely affect project success. For example, the Center for Development Information and Evaluation
(CDIE) at A.I.D. found in its evaluation of A.I.D. experience with women in development, that:

mainstream projects that ensure women's participation in proportion to their roles and responsibilities
within the project's baseline situation are more likely to achieve their immediate purposes and their
broader socioeconomic goals than are projects that do not.

"Mainstream projects" is used in contrast to "women's projects"; that is, regular development projects are more
likely to succeed if they pay attention to gender-based roles and responsibilities.

Many other organizations have come to the same conclusion. Examples can be found in the resource documents
listed in Section V. Examples can also be drawn from the host institution's development activities. Discuss with
the group the implications for their own work of these findings as they relate to the following.





Encourage questions from the participants about their experience incorporating gender in their work, difficulties
they have encountered, and "successful" activities and/or results. It is important in this session to affirm any
positive experiences of participants' "successful" integration of gender concerns in their development activities
and, if possible, briefly elicit some verbal descriptions of key factors in those 'successes."

2. Small Group Task to Identify Concerns (25 Minutes)

Form small groups of from 5 to 6 persons each, preferably a maximum mix of persons who know each other
least well and want to know each other better, and then present the following task.

Session 2









3. Small Group Reports (30 Minutes)

For these reports, encourage brief responses consisting of a summary of the group's discussion and findings.
The process of the groups' explorations and their hearing others' responses to these questions is the important
element of the session.

4. Summary Reflections. Discussion, and Bridge to the Next Session on Gender Analysis (5 Minutes)


1. In the earliest stages of this training, the assumption was that some participants would be very positive
about the focus on women's economic roles, which have been essentially overlooked in the development process,
while another significant proportion would be curious and interested in what women in development issues and

Session 2

related organizational policies are. The remainder would have been told to come to this WID training, and were
at best ignorant about gender differential impacts in their work or, worse, negative about the issue overall.
This assumption was essentially accurate in the early stages of training. However, at the present writing, both
the awareness of the need to consider gender issues and more positive expectations for the training have
increased noticeably. Therefore, this session is one which may be shortened or dropped if necessary to fit a
reduced time allowance.

2. If the training needs assessment indicates limited awareness of gender issues and/or active resistance
to compliance with organizational WID policies, this session becomes more essential. It can provide, in this
situation, an opportunity for both awareness-building and also the expression of any negative feelings about the
training content and process to surface. This process would assist in modeling the participatory, collaborative,
problem-solving climate that is important in this training design and its anticipated outcomes. In fact, this
session might well have to be redesigned to allow such a process to surface more specifically.


This session lends itself to a variety of approaches, which can be selected according to the participants'
experience and interests, as well as organizational policies. A few alternatives follow.

1. In the early training workshops, we used a half-hour slide presentation, "Invisible Women," developed
by Susan Poats, in this session. It focuses on women's roles in agriculture around the world. It was followed
by an opportunity for the participants to process their thoughts and feelings from the audio-visual experience.
An edited and professionally narrated video presentation is now available. The plenary or small group work
following can focus on specific factors (e.g., labor, income, access to/control of resources) in the slide video, or
on participant experience with the issues and concerns discussed in the video.

The slide video is available from A.I.D.'s Office of Women in Development.

2. For workshops in the field, a panel of host country resource persons describing significant gender issues
has been a very effective way to initiate discussion about gender as a cross-cutting development issue. These
resource persons can be identified by local field staff, by training staff in their planning visit, and by other
development professionals with specific experience and contacts in the host country. The criteria for their
selection are that they be knowledgeable about development issues in their country and specifically the role of
women related to those issues, willing to work with the host organization on these issues in the future, and
willing to work with the training staff team in advance of the event. This latter criterion is essential in
integrating their presentation with the goals and objectives of the training, and in assisting in the development
of a supportive staff team. It is important that these resource persons be approved and invited by the senior staff
of the host organization in order to encourage full ownership of their presentation, to further the process of their
participation in the organization's development planning and implementation, and to avoid any political or
protocol errors.

Session 3


TIME: 2 hours, 30 minutes


By the conclusion of the session, participants will:

S1. be able to list and use the key factors in gender analysis;

2. have practiced gender analysis with a case example; and

3. have been introduced to the Gender Information Framework as a resource for programming.


This session is an important initial presentation of gender analysis, as described in the Gender Information
Framework (GIF). The GIF, developed for use in A.I.D. development programs, describes a process for
integrating gender issues into development programs.

In the GIF, the Gender Analysis Map is used to identify gender-based differences in a project situation. This
is followed by guidelines on how to use the results of the analysis in A.I.D. documents. Although designed for
A.I.D., the GIF is adaptable to other organizations. Alternatively, other gender analysis frameworks, cited in
Section V, may be substituted for the GIF in this session. Whichever framework is used for gender analysis, the
session is strengthened by illustrations from the trainer and/or participants (depending on the participants and
the trainer's style.) A sample presentation is also provided in Section VI.

The content of the GIF is available in Sections 1-3 of "The Gender Information Framework: Guidelines for
Incorporating Gender into A.I.D. Programming," which is available from A.I.D.'s Office of Women in
Development. Key elements (minus the supporting rationale) can be found in the GIF Executive Summary or
the GIF Pocket Guide, also available from A.I.D.

The gender analysis presentation is one of the few lectures suggested in this manual, and substantive information
will be communicated both orally and with visuals. It is important, however, to keep the lecture presentation
as concise and light as possible.

Participant involvement and learning opportunities are structured with small group work on a case study
following the gender analysis presentation. The case study should describe a development project of the host
institution. It can be an edited project paper or project concept paper with a focus on a particular sector. We
would recommend the case study be no more than 2-3 pages in length and that it be supplemented with a very
brief background piece on men's and women's roles in the country where the project takes place. If an
agricultural project is chosen, we would select a project paper with a focus on only one crop and only one

Session 3

animal. Carefully edit the project paper to make it realistic, yet feasible, for this important initial exercise in
gender analysis.

The session ends with a presentation of the rest of the GIF. Trainers may want to present an alternative model
for addressing gender issues that more closely fit the situation of the sponsoring organization.


1. Session Overview

2 Gender Analysis Presentation (30 minutes)

The trainer opens this presentation with a few comments from the previous session, the Objectives for this
Session (NP-3.1). and material from the Rationale above.

Put the 4 Exploratory Factors and Conclusion-Drawing Factors from the Gender Analysis Map on newsprint
(NP-3.2 A HANDOUT of the Gender Analysis Map should be available for the participants' use, in case they
did not bring their pre-workshop materials with them to this session.

I -

Session 3


Exploratory Factors

1. Allocation of labor

household production
agricultural production

2. Sources of income

enterprise, wage labor

3. Expenditures

4. Resources: Access to and control of

Conclusion-Drawing Factors

1. Constraints to participation and
project benefits

2. Opportunities

The trainer should review each of these factors, how they influence development programs, and why they should
be considered in'analysis of the project's baseline situation. The trainer can use material provided in Section
VI to flesh out this presentation, his/her own examples, or examples provided by participants.

Check carefully for clarity, understanding, and acceptance following this presentation, for these variables are the
foundation for all that follows. Take time to ask questions and encourage discussion by the participants,
answering all questions as thoroughly as possible within the time limit.

3. Small Group Exercise in Gender Analysis (45 minutes, depending on the number of participants and

For this exercise, we suggest that the trainers form small groups of no more than 7 persons each. We also
suggest that the criteria for forming the groups be a maximum mix -- by gender, by work location, by age, by
sector, etc.

Session 3

Make these groupings from the pre-workshop and registration information before this session, and list the names
for each group, with their work space assignment, on a sheet of newsprint

Also provide each group with a newsprinted list of the key factors in gender analysis (Exploratory Factors:
labor, income, expenditures, resources: and Conclusion-Drawing Factors: constraints and opportunities).



1. When you have gathered in your assigned work space, take the time to introduce yourselves
to one another. Then quickly select one person to serve as group leader, and one to serve
as recorder/reporter.

2. Read the project description carefully. Determine what sex-disaggregated data are
missing from this project description for the key gender factors. Note, therefore,
what additional data need to be obtained. DO NOT SPEND A LOT OF TIME

3. Do the gender analysis for this document for all six factors; chart the key elements
of your analysis on the newsprint provided.

4. What are some of the implications based on your group's gender analysis?

5. What project adaptations would you suggest based on your group's analysis?

6. Record your group's answers to questions 2, 4, and 5 on newsprint also for reporting to the
total community.

4. Small Group Reports (45 Minutes)

For this reporting, it is important to hear from each group, though repetition of the same reports from each of
the six groups in order will be inappropriate, and perhaps even boring. Therefore, we suggest that the trainer
managing this reporting ask for one group's answer to No. 2 in the task assigned (information missing). Check
that answer with the other groups to hear if they might have different answers. If so, discuss the reasons for
these differences in the total community.

Next the trainer asks for answers to No. 3, and calls on each of the groups in turn for one of the six factors in
the Gender Analysis Map. After each of these group reports, check with the other groups to determine if they
found something different and discuss why.

Session 3

Repeat this process for Nos. 4 and 5.

5. Presentation of the GIF (15 minutes)

The GIF has three main components. The first is the "Gender Analysis Map," just used, which guides the user
through the analysis of men's and women's roles and responsibilities that affect/will be affected by a
development project.

A second component is called "Gender Considerations," which provides information for preparation of A.I.D.'s
country strategies, country Action Plans, Project Identification Documents, and Project Papers. The GIF reflects
the fact that gender issues need to be considered throughout project documents. While historically, a WID
paragraph has been incorporated into social analyses in programming documents, it is now recognized that
gender issues need to be reflected in project objectives, implementation plan descriptions, budgets, input and
output descriptions, and other parts of the main body of the document.

The final section in the GIF is a "Summary of Guidelines for Document Review," which suggests, in general
terms, where to incorporate gender considerations.

A sample presentation of the GIF can be found in Section VI.

6. Summary Reflections. Bridge to the Next Session, and Closure (15 minutes)

Close this session by asking the total community some questions which will assist in their reflections, for
example: What are some things you discovered in this exercise in gender analysis? What was most helpful in
this process? What was least helpful? Recall with them that the Gender Analysis Map (or alternative
framework for analysis) is the basic tool for incorporating gender considerations in the development process,
and that gender information should be included at every stage and in every document.

Bridge to the agenda and schedule of the next session and close.


At the close of this session, the trainer might wish to ask the total community to identify the key factors in
project design, after covering the newsprint from the presentation. Praise the results of this "Pop Quiz,"
reminding participants that they have mastered the essential elements of gender analysis.

An oral evaluation would be appropriate at the close of this session. Trainer could ask for feelings about the
training so far; content of the GIF (or alternative framework); the pace and schedule; what has been most
helpful; and suggestions to improve the workshop. One of the training staff should be assigned to take notes
of the evaluative comments for staff planning.

Session 4


TIME: 1 Hour, 30 Minutes


By the end of this session, participants will:

1. have reviewed the reasons for and some problems in gathering sex-disaggregated data; and

2. be able to list some methods and sources for rapid, low-cost collection of sex-disaggregated data
needed for project design.


The primary resources, in addition to the experience and skills of the trainer presenting this material and the
participants themselves, will be the prepared newsprint visuals from Rapid, Low-Cost Data Collection Methods
for A.I.D., A.I.D. Program Design and Evaluation Methodology Report No. 10, by Krishna Kumar, CDIE/AID,
December, 1987.

This information is presented in response to the concern expressed by many development professionals that the
data required to supply sex-disaggregated data in every stage of the development process were not readily
available, and that the collection and analyses required was too time consuming and expensive. We intend to
offer some support tools to ease these concerns, and also an opportunity to identify other data sources within
the host institution and/or host country. As a short overview of data gathering methods, this session works best
for participants with minimal data analysis/research experience.

Often significant sex-disaggregated data resources exist in the host country, and sometimes within the host
organization itself. If in-country planning and needs assessment visits are possible, such data may be located
and identified for use in the training.


1. Session Overview and Presentation of Session Objectives (5 Minutes)

2. Review of Problems in Gathering Data (30 Minutes)

The trainer should touch on some of the remarks made about data gathering in the previous presentation. The
emphasis here will be on gathering data at an appropriate level of detail and cost for the stage in the process

Session 4

on which one is working: we will be discussing "quick and dirty" or rapid, low-cost data collection methods.
Emphasize that just because the data gathering process is a rapid one in some cases, it does not mean
automatically that it is less useful or reliable.

However, it should be noted at this point that collecting sex-disaggregated data on every program and project
where gender differentiation may have an impact will definitely require additional creativity, energy, time, and
money. Note also, that there is a growing body of information that this will increase effectiveness of
development assistance, improve the economic condition of the host countries, and improve the quality of life
and economic well-being of the poorest persons, groups, and communities.

The trainer begins by eliciting from the group some of the problems commonly experienced in data collection.
This acknowledges the frustrations often felt by field staff about requirements from headquarters for more
information. Below is a listing of some of the commonly identified problems. This can be presented as an
audio-visual to supplement participant responses.


3. Presentation and Discussion: Five Rapid. Low-Cost Methods for Data Collection

The trainer moves into the presentation by noting that the methods to be reviewed below can assist directly with
two of these problems: "Expense" and "Lack of Adequate Time." They will also suggest ways to avoid some of
the other problems, such as "Talking to the Wrong People" and "Cultural Norms/Mores."



I I _

Session 4




Begin by reviewing each of the data collection methods above, noting where they are particularly useful and
where inappropriate. The trainer can use the data needs identified in the previous day's gender analysis case
example to illustrate how these methods might provide the needed data. Participants can add their own
experiences with these kinds of methods. A brief description of each method is below, with a more detailed
sample presentation provided in Section VI.

Key Informant Interviews

These interviews involve in-depth discussions on a specific topic with knowledgeable persons in order to obtain
data, opinions, and perspectives on a topic. Key informants need to represent various points of view -- including
both those of men and women, low/upper incomes, occupational groups, and organizations, etc. An interview
guide listing the main topics and issues to be covered is sometimes used to focus this discussion, although
specific questions are formulated during the interview.

Information from key informant interviews is usually supplemented by information from other sources.

Focus Group Interviews

In focus group interviews, participants discuss ideas, issues, and information among themselves under the general
supervision of a moderator. The underlying premise is that group interaction has synergistic effects on
participants, producing better information and insights than do individual interviews. The number of participants
is limited to facilitate discussion.

Community Interviews

Community interviews take the form of community/village meetings open to all members. Interviews are usually
conducted by a team of two or more investigators, who follow an interview guide. Community interviews can
also be used to obtain community-level statistical data.


Session 4

Direct Observation

This method involves intensive and systematic observation of a phenomenon or process in its natural setting.
It is not, however, as elaborate a method as participant observation, which is used in ethnographic studies. In
the study of social and economic phenomena, direct observation usually requires the interviewing of key
informants as well.

Informal Surveys

Informal surveys differ from sample surveys in four respects: they 1) focus on only a few variables; 2) use a
small sample size; 3) use non-probability sampling; and 4) permit more flexibility to the interviewers in the field.
Informal surveys generate data that can be statistically analyzed.

Summarize these data collection methods, checking with participants to ensure understanding of these methods.
It is helpful to have a copy of the reference work for this presentation available on the Resource Table for

Close this review by asking participants to share a few creative and effective methods from their experience for
gathering sex-disaggregated data.

4. Networking for Information Sources: Participant Exercise

Often significant sex-disaggregated data sets exist in the host country. Other non-governmental organizations,
universities, donors, and government ministries usually collect information that can be used for new project
design or adaptation. However, the existence of such data sets is often not widely known, and new projects carry
out large new baseline surveys.

The exercise that follows will help participants identify specific data sources in their country/organization while
illustrating the point that data sets often exist unbeknownst to others who are looking for information.

Prior to the session, designate and label areas of the room for specific sectors (e.g., agriculture, health, private
sector). As the exercise begins, present participants with the following task:

Session 4


S Spend 15 minutes thinking about data sources that you are aware of
and that are accessible, and how they might be useful to others.

Write down, according to the following format, by sector, the kind of
information available, the form of the data, when it was collected, where to find
the data, a contact name and number.


Agricultural credit, survey of loan recipients 1990, National
Cooperative Union; contact: John Smith, tel: 456-7890.

(Write legibly since others will read it during this exercise.)

Move to the area of the room where your sector is; pass around your listings of
information sources; ask questions. When you are finished, move on to other sectors.
If not enough time, make plans to meet later! (You have 30 minutes for

This works best when the mix of participants includes many from outside of the host organization. For a
regional workshop, participants can begin by seeking information sources for/from their own country.

When participants have finished, or when no more time is available, re-form the plenary session. Ask
participants how this worked for them. Ask for a few participants who have identified data sets that might have
application to several sectors, to present them.

5. Summary, Reflection, and Closure of Session (5 Minutes)

Review the main points of the session. Some additional points can be added about when to collect data.

For new projects, where data are not available for gender analysis, data can be obtained in
baseline studies. If obtained as part of the project start-up process (and after project design),
decision points should be built into the project so that changes can be made to incorporate the
new data.

All new projects should include collection of sex-disaggregated data in monitoring and evaluation


Session 4

For existing projects, evaluations should also collect sex-disaggregated data. While this will not
affect the project being completed, it can provide valuable information to guide future work.

Bridge to the next session and close.


1. An alternate or additional small group exercise is to have participants return to their small groups from
the previous day. They review the list of data needs identified for that project, then select 1-2 and discuss how
they would obtain the needed data. Specifically, they should discuss what data collection methods would be most
cost effective, what kind of financial and human resources would be needed, what problems could be anticipated
in data collection, and what strategies could be used to overcome them. The small group work would be
followed by a brief report back to the total community.

2. Convening a panel of local resource persons to talk about their experiences and data sources is another
effective way to address this issue. The suggestions provided in Session 2 for organizing a donor panel would
be appropriate for this session as well.

3. Identify experts within the organization or the country on one particular data collection method. The
expert presents a "How To" session on that method. The trainer should work with the guest lecturer to prepare
him/her for the presentation. The presentation could be followed with an adaptation of the small group work
used above.

- I II I I I ill

Session 5


TIME: 1 Hour, 15 Minutes


At the conclusion of this session, participants will:

1. be able to identify at least three project features that are frequent barriers to women's
participation in development projects; and

2. be able to select strategies for adapting mainstream projects so that key elements of the project
incorporate gender considerations and, therefore, do not inadvertently discriminate against, or
pose barriers to, the appropriate participation of women.


This session is based heavily on sections from the A.I.D. Program Evaluation Report, No. 18, Women in
Development: A.I.D.'s Experience, 1973 1985, Vol. 1 Synthesis Paper, April 1987, by Alice Stewart Carloni.
In particular, the synthesis is used as both a Handout following the session and a visual aid P-53) during the
opening presentation and discussion.

In the Carloni evaluation, it was suggested that gender analysis alone has "little effect on project outcomes unless
institutional and other barriers to participation are identified and overcome." The objective of this session,
therefore, is to provide practice in the identification of barriers and development of strategies to overcome them.
Alternatives for overcoming barriers to women's access to, full participation in, and access to/control of benefits
in development programs are presented and discussed briefly in the introductory presentation.

Traditionally, three mechanisms have been used to address gender considerations in projects: development of
women-only projects; addition of women's component to larger (therefore "men's") projects; and integration of
women into conventional or mainstream projects. According to the A.I.D. Program Evaluation cited above,
"gender sensitive (gender analysis with adaptation) mainstream projects appear to be the most effective way of
promoting and utilizing women's contribution to socio-economic development."

Thus, this session is designed to look at ways to integrate women into mainstream projects.

Session 5


1. Introduction to Session

The trainer introduces the session, bridging from the previous session on Information Resources, reviewing the
Objectives (NP-) for the session and the Activities. The introduction would also include some information
from the rationale and overview.

2. Plenary Discussion (40 minutes)

The trainer begins by describing how the need to identify women-specific strategies (within a mainstream
project) can arise:

S IN NEW PROJECTS: gender analysis of the baseline situation may indicate that women will be
affected by a project, should be included in project activities/benefits, and face gender-related

S IN EXISTING PROJECTS: a project may be having difficulty and gender may be a factor, or
monitoring or mid-project evaluations indicate gender issues may have been overlooked and are
affecting project implementation.

This session will suggest how to approach these situations and will identify strategies others have used
successfully. Note that, in this session, the focus is directly on women vs. gender it is a session on how to
incorporate women once a gender analysis has been carried out. Since the emphasis until this session has been
on gender considerations, this point may need to be stated explicitly.

A way of approaching the question of appropriate inclusion of women in new or adapted project design is to
address the issues below, which should be put on newsprint as follows:






Session 5

Briefly explain or describe each of these by providing examples, or eliciting examples from participants. It is
helpful to follow up examples by asking the question, "How might these issues affect project outcomes?" It can
be noted that lack of direct access to intended benefits, for example, can be a disincentive to participation in
project activities. Benefits obtained through a male household head (which is often how women are expected
to receive benefits) may be insufficient to encourage participation. Where voluntary labor is needed, as with
tree planting, lack of women's participation could impede project success.

Specific project features to consider to ensure women are appropriately incorporated into the project are
presented below.




Review these project features, which may be barriers to women's participation, with the participants.
(Additional information on each is provided in Section VI.) Because not all may need lengthy explanation, select
a few to emphasize. Provide examples as necessary from the "real world.' Invite participants to share their
experiences about how these project features have affected project effectiveness, as well as strategies they have
used to overcome the constraints these project features may pose. Participants usually have many examples they
like to share with the group. The trainer can also use the gender analysis case example from Session 3 as a
source of examples. This discussion models the small group task in the next exercise.

3. Small Group Task (20 Minutes)

The trainer can present the following task on flipchart paper and answer any questions needed for clarification.
Groups may use any project or activity from their experience one they brought with them, one used in earlier
exercises, etc.

Session 5









4. Small Group Reports (15 Minutes)

With the limited time for reports, the trainer will urge brief summaries of the groups' work, and will highlight
the barriers and the proposed strategies. Note that this is a first try at identifying barriers and strategies. On
the following day, all participants will have an opportunity to explore their own problems of incorporating gender
into an ongoing activity.

5. Reflection. Summar, Close of this Session, and Bridge to Session 6

At the close of this session, distribute Handout Project Design and Implementation Alternatives:
(Microenterprise, Housing, Vocational Training, and Agriculture).

Session 6


TIME: 1 Hour


At the conclusion of this session, participants will:

1. have identified where gender issues should be included within their organization's program
development process (e.g., project staff recruitment, scopes of work, etc.);

2. have identified assumptions about how gender issues will be considered in the programming
process; and

3. have briefly discussed for one stage in the programming process alternative strategies for
incorporating gender considerations.


This session is a brief review of how gender considerations can be integrated into the organization processes of
program design and implementation (as distinct from development issues related to gender). Many development
practitioners would like to be involved with gender-sensitive programs, but they do not know where gender fits
in documentation and programming procedures. This session is designed to help participants identify where
gender issues should be integrated into organizations' systems and procedures.

The core piece of this session is the programming process of the sponsoring institution; information about that
process should be obtained during the pre-workshop planning period and a diagram of the process prepared.
A flipchart of the organizational process is used to assist participants to visualize the process under discussion.
If the workshop is multi-organizational, a standard project design process (e.g., country needs assessment and
plan, project concept paper, project design, funding, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation) can be used
as a starting point.

Often participants are unaware of the various places into which gender considerations should be factored, and
this session often produces some "aha's."


Session 6


1. Session Opening. Review of Objectives NP-6.1) and Activities (5 Minutes)

2. Plenary Discussion of the Development Programming Process (50 Minutes)

Using information provided by the host organization, the trainer begins this session with a review of the
development programming process. This may be old information for some participants, but it is important that
it be presented so that everyone has the same understanding of the process under discussion.

As the review begins, points in the process where gender should be considered will be revealed. For example,
in developing country plans, background data should be disaggregated by sex; it should include both men's and
women's participation in agriculture or small-scale enterprises. Participants can be asked how to ensure that
the analysis does incorporate women as well as men. Responses might include 1) an organizational policy that
all data be disaggregated by sex; or 2) consultant scopes of work that explicitly address gender issues.

After a few examples from the trainer, participants usually begin to provide their own, and this often becomes
a learning experience for the trainer as well!

Continue this review, focusing on a few areas and developing strategies in detail. Keep the discussion light and
lively. It is important that many people participate, because it provides an opportunity for ideas of individuals
to accrue some legitimacy because of their discussion in this forum.

3. Summary. Closure, and Bridge to the Next Session (5 Minutes)

The trainer can use the flipchart to briefly summarize the points identified in this session where gender can be
introduced into the programming process. Note that this may have provided ideas for the next session, in which
they will work individually and in groups to develop specific strategies for incorporating gender issues into
projects, programs, or other activities back home.


Session 7


TIME: 2 Hours. 30 Minutes


At the conclusion of this session, participants will:

1. have analyzed, individually and in consultation groups, the development materials they brought
to the workshop for gender issues, additional baseline information needed, and strategies for

2. have gained additional skills in identifying project activities and outputs which should reflect
gender considerations previously identified;

3. be able to select strategies for designing/adapting mainstream projects so that key elements of the
project incorporate gender considerations; and

4. have begun to develop basic criteria for distinguishing projects and programs which have
adequately considered gender from those which have not.


This session provides an opportunity for individual participants to work on development materials, projects,
ideas, activities, etc., which they have brought to the workshop to analyze, adapt, if necessary, and integrate
gender considerations more effectively. This session also offers an opportunity to work in consultation groups
with peers as they do this work, and it has proven to be one of the most popular for participants in previous

Ideally, the consultation groups will be trios. This number provides both the most effective consultation pattern
for the usual participant in terms of time for both significant interaction and individual work. The groups may
be formed by self-selection, or be designated by the trainers according to the focus of the content or sector

Session 7


1. Plenary Session Introductory Presentation and Discussion (15 Minutes)

The primary responsibilities of the trainers in this session are to provide clear task instructions to the individual
participants and the consultation trios, to assist the trios to manage their time carefully, and to provide
consultation in gender considerations or other technical expertise when, or if, requested.
Open the session with a review of session objectives (NP-7.1) and a quick overview of the session. Move quickly
to the task assignment.

2. Individual/Group Work on Development Materials











Session 7

3. Reports of Consultation Groups and Individual Applications (1 Hour)

Though one hour has been allowed for this reporting time and discussion, it more commonly is reduced by
demands for additional time in the consultation trios. It is impossible, given the time limitations, to hear from
every individual and to process the consultative interactions, and it is often a very rich experience to hear from
as many participants, who have found this time to be valuable to them in their actual work context, as possible.
These reports often provide the opportunity for some rich interaction and discussion in the total community.

4. Summary, Bridging to Session 8: (Gender Implications in the Policy Environment) and Close of this

Session 8


TIME: 3 Hours


At the conclusion of this session, participants will:

1. have examined gender-differentiated implications for project design of higher level objectives
found in organizational mission statements;

2. have used factors of labor, resources, income, and expenditures in program/project analysis to
discover where gender is a significant variable in the documentation process; and

3. have worked through an analysis of constraints and opportunities afforded by gender differences
in roles and responsibilities to improve the documentation process.


The relevance of gender as a significant issue in the achievement of project goals and purposes may not be
automatically clear. This is most often true in projects and programs that do not work directly with people, as
in institutional development programs or the development of major grain storage facilities. However, when the
larger development objectives of the organization are considered, the reason for taking gender issues into
account becomes apparent.

This session uses the host organization's overall mission statement as a vehicle for considering how gender cuts
across the various levels of development programming. The session borrows from the structure of A.I.D.'s
Logical Framework (logframe), which is A.I.D.-specific, but can be easily adapted to the project/program design
process of other organizations.


1. Introduction (5 minutes)

The trainer bridges from preceding sessions by noting that for many people it is relatively easier to identify
gender issues at the PROJECT level than at the POLICY or PROGRAM level. The Exploratory and
Conclusion-Drawing Factors seem at first glance to be more appropriate for baseline documentation at the
household level. Check for participant experience in this regard. Explain that in this session, the policy level
gets its share of scrutiny for gender issues. Although wider level organization documents may have limited

Session 8

people-level content, planning in the absence of understanding what people do--including gender roles and
rcsponsibilities--w-ll constrain the effectiveness of development programs. The trainer should present the
objectives and review the activities for this session.

2. Lecturette and Group Discussion: Gender Implications of the Policy Environment (30 minutes)

The trainer presents objectives (NP-&I) and schedule of activities for this session. Building on the earlier
session, 'Managing the Process," the trainer reviews the host organization's programming cycle. Next, read (and
put bn newsprint) all or part of the organization's overall mission statement. Note that it is (typically) very
broad in scope. This sets the context then for describing the organizational hierarchy of objectives. That is.
objectives are very specific at the project level and become more global as they address the development needs
of a wider and wider audience. So, at the base, there is a project with specific purposes to be achieved (e.g.,
increased grain production). The project addresses a larger country development goal, to be achieved over a
longer period of time, which contributes to achievement of the organization's mission.
This is illustrated in NP-82 below.


(long-term goals)

GOAL: (medium-and long-term goals)

(short- and medium-term goals; short-term objectives)

Goals and purposes at the various levels of programming are complementary, with each project contributing to
achievement of goals at the larger country and world-wide levels. Further, this process is continually evolving
with backwards and forwards "linkages" between the various levels. Thus, as projects and programs achieve their
objectives, larger goals at the country organizational mission levels are revised. And while sometimes
organizational mission statements modify with social, economic, and political changes in the United States,
overall, the mission of helping low-income people usually remains.

With this background, read again the organization's mission statement. In nearly all cases, the trainer can note
that the mission statement does not indicate that efforts to improve the quality of life should be restricted to one
sex. However, one sex may represent the group requiring the most assistance: women are disproportionately
represented among the poor, the uneducated or undereducated, and malnourished.

- I I

Session 8

The trainer can add statistics here from the country hosting the workshop (e.g., number of female-headed
households, per capital income, education levels, etc.) to illustrate the proportion of males and females in the
categories above.

Next. present 1-2 goals from the organization's country strategy or similar document. Reviewing the country
goal statement and its connection to the organization's overall mission statement, invite participants to identify
ways that gender considerations might be important in this connection.

Finally, make the connection between the overall mission, country missions, and project goals. Review a few
kinds of projects to illustrate how they operationalize larger goal statements. Ask for examples from participants
or provide your own. Health, agriculture, and natural resource management projects that have clear people level
impact would be appropriate as the first example. The second example should draw from projects that work at
the intermediate level, such as institutional development or research projects. In this case, the gender issues
might not be immediately obvious. Illustrative project activities in educational institution development projects
include ensuring course content addresses technology/information needs for women's entrepreneurial or
agricultural activities, or identifying barriers to women's access to institutional resources such as education or
jobs. Connect these back to the country and overall mission goals.

While the gender issues may appear obscure, there is almost invariably a connection. Some examples follow:
given the disproportionate numbers of women among food producers, including information about women's crops
in agricultural colleges makes sense, as does increasing the number of women in agriculture technology transfer
in cultures that constrain interaction between unrelated males and females. Given the growing number of
female-headed households, increasing credit opportunities for them can be an effective development strategy.

In terms of opportunities provided by gender differences, men and women frequently grow different crops;
targeting specific projects to their crops makes sense. Being aware of information networks among both men
and women could speed transfer of information related to health and family planning.

3. Large Group Practice on Gender Considerations Among Lveis of Programming (25 minutes)

To illustrate these linkages between country goals, policies, programs, and projects, take one example and follow
it from the overall mission statement to project objectives, as in the following illustration.

- I

Session 8


OVERALL MISSION: To improve the well-being of rural families

COUNTRY GOAL: To increase food security

SUPPORTING POLICY REFORM: Develop options to eliminate consumer subsidies on food
and other cheap food policies. Often governments will pay farmers less than market
value for foods to maintain an artificially low price for urban consumers. This
does not encourage increased production.

SUPPORTING PROGRAM: Stimulate grain production and marketing; or improve the
capacity to conduct research on higher yielding varieties.

POSSIBLE PROJECTS. a) training to strengthen agricultural extension services or the
agricultural colleges; b) technical assistance to town/regional/district planning units
to strengthen local markets; c) loan guarantees to agricultural credit institutions so
they can broaden their lending to include low-income men and women and ancillary businesses
such as transportation network ventures.

After presenting this scenario, ask participants to list some gender issues that dissect these levels of development
programming. There is not a "right" answer, only consideration of how gender might cut through development
programming. Some sample questions follow.

e~- I

Session 8


COUNTRY GOAL: Is the food security issue the same for both males and females?
What are gender-based differences in food production, purchase, storage, transport, sale, etc.,
from the household to the national levels? Is financial responsibility for purchase and
ability to buy the same for males and females?

POLICY: Who buys grain in rural and urban areas? What are the gender differences in
income from grain production and marketing? How will changes in subsidies affect men
and women producers and consumers differently? Who has been selling to the government
agents? Groups, individuals? Who belongs to the groups? How do individual men and
women relate to these groups? (This may differ by region, class, ethnicity, etc., as well
as by gender, of course). Who has benefitted from current policies?

PROGRAM: If males and females both produce and sell grains, how will the decision to
implement the policy by stimulating grain production and marketing affect them
differentially? How will this decision lead to increased food availability? Is the
measure helpful to both male and female producers? Arc effective incentives to
increase production the same for women and men?

POSSIBLE PROJECTS: Credit: if women are producers, will credit programs enable individuals
or groups of women to obtain funding to purchase seeds, fertilizers, and transport so they
can market their own crops? Institutional development: is research and extension
currently reaching women's crops? How are women's agricultural needs conveyed to
cten.sionists and researchers?

Close this portion of the session by reviewing the main points of the presentation; then lead into small group

(We would recommend a coffee break here prior to starting the exercise.)

4. Small Gronp Exercise (60 minutes)

Hand out a synopsis of a typical country strategy plan for the host organization; this should include a one
paragraph each (maximum) description of one mission goal, along with at least one project and one program
summary. Include also a 1-1 1/2 page background description of the country that provides sex-disaggregated data
on educational, formal and informal sector employment, roles in agriculture, health, migration female-headed
households, etc. Review these with the participants.

Session 8



** Review the country goal Identify at least 3 possible gender considerations related
to achievement of that goal The four exploratory factors in gender analysis and the
Background information provided for the case example in Session 3 are resources for this

** Using the 3 gender considerations at the goal level, identify at least one way each
bow those gender considerations might affect the selection, design, and implementation of
projects and programs.

** Identify data needed to complete this assessment

5. Small Group Reports (35 minutes)

It is not necessary to get a complete report from each group for this task. Many similarities are likely to occur.
The trainer should go over the questions in the task one by one, comparing selected responses from each of the
groups for similarities and differences. Again, it is important to stress that there are no core answers in this
exercise. More important is the discussion of how gender fits in the vertical linkage between specific projects
through programs and policies at the national level to the organization's world-wide mission.

6. Summary Reflections and Session Closur (5 minutes)


Participants have often expressed much support for this session because it reviews for them the organization's
world-wide goal, which many have forgotten if they ever knew, and because it fosters a discussion of development
issues which many people are too busy to ever engage during their normal work.

Session 9


TIME: 2 Hours


At the conclusion of this session, participants will:

1. have developed an action plan for incorporating gender considerations into a component of their
work; and

2. have identified resources needed for implementing their action plan.


This session builds on the previous ones and provides an opportunity for participants to plan a strategy to
incorporate gender considerations into some aspect of their work back home. Working individually, or in teams
from the same sector or office, they will use simplified versions of an action planning model to develop action
steps within an appropriate time frame. If additional data are needed, they will plan the how, where, and at what
level, to gather the needed sex-disaggregated information.

This session was designed to provide that transitional experience from the training, as well as one additional way
to assist participants to apply and integrate some of the awareness and basic skills in gender analysis in practical


1. Plenary Session Introductory Presentation. Discussion, and Task Instruction (15 Minutes)

The primary task of the trainers is to clarify the objectives (NP-9.1) of the session, to provide the appropriate
data analysis and action planning models, and to clarify the task assignment. Trainers may certainly serve as
process and technical consultants in gender considerations and the action planning process with the participants
while they are working on the assignment. Additional clarifications and support may also be appropriate, though
we have discovered that this is an opportunity for participants to utilize their peers in this process with even
more future benefits.

A handout of the Action Planning Model is included in this manual in Section VI. The trainer may want to
select an alternate model. These models may also be reproduced on flipchart paper to be used in the

Session 9

introductory presentation. Individuals may do part of their work on flipchart paper, or may use the handout

2. Individual Action Planning Work (1 Hour. 45 Minutes)

The content for individual work depends on which of the "problems" of incorporating gender considerations the
participants have brought with them. Projects, from the concept paper to evaluation, have been the primary
content for this exercise. Other possibilities have been developing a strategy for assisting personnel to
institutionalize gender considerations in every stage of the development process, developing a Scope of Work
for consultants to incorporate gender considerations and sex-disaggregated data, etc.

Perhaps the most difficult part of this exercise is to assist the participants to identify "solvable problems" in order
to increase the usefulness and practical benefits of the task. At this initial individual work stage of the task.
participants may want, and benefit from, consultation with peers or training staff, and this opportunity can be
stated during the task assignment.

The practice with these Individual Action Plans has been to provide materials for making an original and one
copy of the Plan developed in this exercise. Participants have kept one copy for their reference. The second
copy has been handed in with their Final Evaluation in a sealed envelope with their mailing address. This copy
was designed only for the individual's own accountability, and has been mailed back to the participant in six
months from the close of the training along with other follow-up communications.

fP 9-2)


Option One

1. Discss and list the problem or challenge facing you in incorporating

2. List the goal or objectives you need to set in order to correct the
problem or meet the challenge; and

3. List the action steps needed, along with who, when, and the resources

Option Two

Using a planning model of your own choosing develop an Action Plan to
increase the incorporation of gender considerations in your work or in a
specific tasL

Session 9

3. Reports of Individual Action Plans. Discussion, and Summary (30 Minutes)

It will not be possible, nor would it be effective, or even desired, to hear from all participants regarding their
action plans. Reports on the process of planning itself are as valuable as the specifics of the action plan.
However, reports by willing, even enthusiastic, volunteers may be very valuable synergistic learning for the total
community, and may lead to valuable discussion.

4. Close of this Session and Bridge to the Workshop Summary and Evaluation


Session 10


TIME 1 Hour. 30 Minutes


At the conclusion of this session, participants will:

1. have reviewed the training workshop content and process and discussed ways of incorporating the
training in their work situations;

2. have provided written evaluations of the workshop sessions; and

3. have expressed whatever closing comments necessary to each other and the training staff, and
prepared for their return to home and work.


The close of a training workshop is as important as its beginning. Participants and trainers have been together
for three days of intensive work and interaction. Many have created new friendships and relationships, even with
colleagues with whom they work every day, and it is important to acknowledge and celebrate this fact.

The summary provides a reflective overview of the new content awareness and process for gender consideration
and reinforces the process of the training. Experience with this training model and feedback from participants
indicate that both a summary and an informal oral evaluation at the cose of each day are appreciated and result
in more accurate feedback and learning. (See Section VI for sample written evaluation forms that have been


1. Workshop Summary (15 Minutes)

The trainer opens this session with a review of the activities and schedule for this session, some adaptation of
the Rationale and Overview above, and then ve briefly reviews the Training Workshop Objectives and
Summary Schedule, using the Flipcharts prepared for the Opening Session as a visual aid for the workshop
process and content, and touching or difficult, exciting, and humorous moments in the training event

I -

Session 10

2. Workshop Evaluation (45 Minutes)

This portion of the closing session may take less time than has been allocated here. The trainer emphasizes the
value and use of the written evaluation and encourages the participants to be as candid and specific as possible
in their feedback. Inform them how much time they will have to complete the form, where to turn them in, and
what will follow.

3. Closing Activities (30 Minutes)

This is a time for expressions of appreciation from the training staff for the good work by the participants and
gratitude to the local coordinators) and host(s). Participants should be invited to express any appreciations they
desire also.

If local authorities are present, especially those who opened the workshop with welcoming and/or introductory
remarks, this is the time for them to make some brief closing remarks.

The last structured exercise of the workshop should be an opportunity for persons to say whatever they wish to
one another. This may be done in the total community by the trainer managing this session asking something
like -- "Does anyone have anything they would like to say before we leave this setting?'. Or the staff may design
some activity appropriate for the specific participant and staff population as a way of closure.


I -

Resource Documents


Office of Women in Development Resources & Definitions

A.I.D. Program for Women in Development A User's Guide to the Office of Women in Development.
FY 1990.

A.I.D. Policy Paper Women In Development: U.S. Agency for International Development. October 1982.

Concepts, Terms, and Definitions, PPC/WID, 1989 (mimeo).

What Happens When Gender Is Considered/When Gender Is Not Considered in Economic Development
Activities A Few Positive and Negative Examples.

What WID Is/Is Not Some Myths and Facts About Women in Development.



Private Enterprise Development: Gender Considerations, Arthur Young, for the Bureau for Private
Enterprise, 1988.

Improving Women's Access to Credit in the Third World: Policy and Project Recommendations
(Margaret A. Lycette, International Center for Research on Women).

Women and Export Manufacturing: A Review of the Issues and AID Policy (Susan Joekes
with Roxana Moayedi).

Women in Rural-Urban Exchange: Implications for Research and Intervention Identification-
Executive Summary (Jeanne Downing & Jennifer Santer, February 3, 1989).

Women's Changing Participation in the Labor Force A World Perspective, T. Paul Schultz.

Women's Non-Access to Credit: Problems and Policies (Dr. Krishna Ahooja-Patel).

Small and Micro-Enterprise Development

Cornell/International Agricultural Economics Study Assisting Informal Sector Microenterprises in
Developing Countries (Katherine E. Stears).


Resource Documents

Issues in Small-Scale Enterprse, Maria Otero for Office of Women in Development, 1987, Gender
Manual Series.

Micro-Level Strategies for Supporting Livelihoods. Employment. and Income Generation of Poor Women
in the Third World The Challenge of Significance (Kathenne McKee).

Project Design and Implementation Alternatives: Microenterprise. (Excerpt from "Gender Issues in Latin
America and the Caribbean,' International Center for Research on Women).


Conducting Group Interviews in Developing Countries, A.I.D. Program Design and Evaluation
Methodolgy Report No. 8. by Krishna Kumar, Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination. 1987.

Current Practice and Immediate Needs for Collection and Presentation of Performance & Impact Data,
April 1988.

In-Country Sources of Data, Office of Women in Development (mimeo, 1988).

Indicators of Household Income for Use in the Evaluation of Agricultural and Rural Development
Projects (Beatrice Rogers, June 1988).

Indicators for Assessing Integration of Gender Considerations into AID Activities, Office of Women in
Development (mimeo).

Indicators to Monitor and Track Progress of Women In Development Policy Implementation.

Rapid, Low-Cost Data Collection Methods for AI.D., AI.D. Program Design and Evaluation
Methodology Report No. 10, by Krishna Kumar (Center for Development Information and Evaluation),


Gender Issues in Basic Education and Vocational Training, by Dr. Mary B. Anderson; The Gender
Manual Series, 1986.


Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and Extension: A Survey of Current Projects Executive
Summary (S. Poats, J. Gearing, and S. Russo).

Resource Documents

Women and Aernbusiness: A Review of AID Projects (Nadine R. Horestein).

Gender Issues in Agriculture and Natural Resource Management. for the Office of Women in
Development. Summary of Development Experience Encouraging Female Participation in Irrigation


Gender Issues in Latin America and the Caribbean, Karen White, Maria Otero, Margaret Lycette and
Mayra Buvinic, International Center for Research on Women, Prepared for the Bureau for Latin
America and the Caribbean, 1986.


Integrating WTD or Restructuring Development Executive Summary (Mary Anderson & Marty A. Chen).

Making the Case for the Gender Variable: Women and the Wealth and Well-Being of Nations
(Condensed and excerpted by Ron Grosz).

Making the Case for the Gender Variable: Women and the Wealth and Well-Being of Nations
(Rae Lesser Blumberg, University of California San Diego Jan. 1989).

Women in Development: A.I.D.'s Experience, 1973-1985. Volume 1, Synthesis Paper.

Women in Development: A.I.D.'s Experience, 1973-1985, Vol II: Ten Field Studies, A.I.D. Working
Paper No. 131. Paula O. Goddard, Editor. (Center for Development Information and
Evaluation, A.I.D.).


Making Adjustment Work: A Gender Perspective International Center for Research on Women
(Lisa McGowan, Oct. 27, 1988).

Development Assistance: Shifting to Sectoral Cash Transfers in Latin America (Philip Boyle,
Nov. 11, 1988).

Gender Aspects of Labour Allocation during Structural Adjustment, Paul Collier.

The Socio-Economic Effects of Structural Adjustment on Women (Philip Boyle, October 5, 1988).

Resource Documents

Women. Structural Adjustment and Transformation: Some Lessons and Questions from the African
Expenence. L'ma Lele.

Women and Structural Adjustment, Paul Collier, Unit for the Study of African Economies, Oxford
University. February. 1989.

Women and Structural Adjustment by Ron Hood, September, 1989.

Women and Structural Adjustment in Zaire. Brooke Schoepf and Walu Engundu with Claude Schoepf
and Diane Russell.

Women and Structural Adjustment Part I: A Summary of the Issues (Susan Jockes, Margaret Lycette,
Lisa McGowan and Karen Searle).

Women and Structural Adjustment Part II: Technical Document (Susan Joekes, Margaret Lycette,
Lisa McGowan and Karen Searle, April 18, 1988).

Women Traders in Ghana and the Structural Adjustment Programme. Gracia Clark and Takyiwaa

Fertilizer Subsidy Removal Programs and Their Potential Impacts on Women Farmers in Malawi and
Cameroon, Christina Gladwin.


Time Costs and Time Savings to Women of the Child Survival Revolution, Joanne Leslie.

Weathering Economic Crises: The Crucial Role of Women in Health (Joanne Leslie, Margaret Lycette,
and Mayra Buvinic, International Center for Research on Women, May 22, 1986).

Women's Time: A Factor in the Use of Child Survival Technologies? (International Center for Research
on Women).


Agency for International Development, Office of Women in Development, The Gender Manual Series:

Gender Issues in Small Scale Enterprise, by Maria Otero, edited by Laurene Semenza and Paola
Lang, Robert R. Nathan Associates, Inc., 1987.

Gender Issues in Basic Education and Vocational Training, by Mary B. Anderson, 1986.


Resource Documents

Gender Issues in Latin America and the Caribbean, by Karen White, Maria Otero, Margaret
Lycette and Mavra Buvinic, International Center for Research on Women, 1986.

Gender Issues in Agriculture and Natural Resource Management: Guidelines for Project Design,
by Sandra Russo. Jennifer Bremer-Fox. and Laurene Graig, Robert R. Nathan Associates. Inc..

Agency for International Development, Center for Development Information and Evaluation. Women in
Development: A.I.D.'s Experience. 1973-1985. Volume 1. Synthesis Paper, by Alice Carloni, 1987.

Agency for International Development, Office of Women in Development, The Gender Information
Framework, by Virginia Cave and Alfred Rollins, 1988.

Agency for International Development. Bureau for Private Enterprise, Private Enterprise Development:
Gender Considerations, by Sydney Lewis, Arthur Young, Inc., 1988.

Agency for International Development, Office of Women in Development, Gender and Adiustment (draft),
Ron Hood. Mary Altomare, Lawrence Haddad, and Martha Starr-McCluer, The MayaTech
Corporation, 1991, selected pages.

Feldstein, Hilary Sims and Susan V. Poats, editors, The Population Council Gender and Agriculture
Project, Gender Analysis in Agriculture, Vol. I and Vol. II, West Hartford, Conn., Kumarian Press,

Jiggins, Janice, Gender-Related Impacts and the Work of the International Agricultural Research Centers,
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research Study Paper Number 17, The World Bank,

Overholt, Catherine, Mary B. Anderson, Kathleen Cloud, and James E. Austin, Gender in Development
Projects West Hartford, Conn., Kumarian Press, 1985.

Pastizzi-Ferencic, Dunja, Jeannie Ash de Pou, and Christine Lemoine, "Classifying Women's Activities,
Three Case Studies: Kenya, Mexico, Nepal', United Nations International Research and Training
Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW), Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 1989.

Randriamanmonjy, Marie, Anita Spring, Susan Poats, Veronica Priddy, Rita Wilmering, and Linda Spink,
"Gender Analysis: Incorporating and Implementing Gender Analysis in the FAO Plan of Action,"
prepared for FAO National Project Directors Briefing, Rome, Italy, 1989 (mimeo).

Rockefeller Foundation and International Service for National Agricultural Research, Women and
Agriculture Technology: Relevance for Research. Volume 1 Analyses and Conclusions. Report from
the CGIAR Inter-Center Seminar on Women and Agricultural Technology, Bellagio, Italy, 1985, p. 56.



m rIn 'I

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Reference Information



Gender analysis is used to identify the roles and responsibilities of men and women which could
affect the design and implementation of development programs. It is important at all levels of
programming: from people-level projects to overall country strategy development. The process
of gender analysis involves looking at four exploratory factors in the baseline situation (the
situation the project wants to affect). Analysis of these factors leads to conclusions about
gender-differentiated constraints to participation in. contribution to, and benefits from intended
development activities. It also identifies opportunities that gender-based roles and
responsibilities provide for improving project/program design. Important factors to consider in
gender analysis are listed in the box below.

FACTORS IN GENDER ANALYSIS These factors are not mutually
exclusive; on occasion they will overlap,
y F s and not all will be important for all
Exploratory Factors
Labor programming. In fact, some will be
I e significant for specific kinds of projects.
> Income
Exs However, it is important that each be
assessed for its relevance to the project
Resources (access to and .
control of) under consideration.
control of)

Conclusion-Drawing Factors
O Opportunities

Reference Informarion

It should also be noted that although gender analysis should be carried out for all levels of
programming, most of the examples used in the following factor descriptions will focus on
household level projects, where gender issues are often most easily identified.

The level of detail in gender analysis depends upon the project purpose. Development resources
are increasingly scarce; therefore, collection of data that are interesting but do not contribute
significantly to an understanding of what factors will affect project success is unwarranted.

GENDER ANALYSIS: EXPLORATORY FACTORS In this section, the first four factors -
the Exploratory Factors are covered in more detail. Key issues to consider about each factor
will be presented, along with some of the research and evaluation results that illustrate why
and/or how this factor is important in project design/adaptation. The trainer should use the
following discussion of each exploratory factor, along with any of the examples provided for each.
A summary table of the four Exploratory Factors and their key issues appears below.


LABOR Who does what in
Household activities
Agricultural production
Family enterprise activity
Income-earning activities
How does the division of labor change throughout the year

INCOME What are the primary sources of income?
Do the income sources vary during the year?
What inputs (credit, technical assistance, etc.) are used to earn

EXPENDITURES Do men and women have individual financial responsibilities?
Who pays what?

RESOURCES Who has access to and who controls resources such as labor,
income, education, training, credit, etc.?


Reference Information

KEY ISSUE: Who does what in household activities; agricultural production, family enterprise
activity, extra income-earning activities?
This will often be the starting point of gender analysis: being aware of who does what in the
situation the project will affect. This information is often the first step in identifying the target
audience for a project; it is important to ensure that resources are targeted to the right
persons) to achieve project objectives.

For agricultural and natural resource management projects, planners will want to know the
division of labor among and within specific crops or natural resources: who is responsible for
rice, maize, vegetable production? Within crops, who plows, plants, weeds, fertilizes, stores, etc.?
Who uses the crops and for what purpose? This information will be followed through the
analysis to assess who controls the use of the crop, clarifying the relationship between
responsibility and benefits.

For enterprise development activities, is family labor included in enterprise accounts? Who is
responsible for bookkeeping; for cleaning and repairs; for product finishing and packaging; for
product sales?

For projects that affect day-to-day activities, who is responsible for household activities? Women
usually have household and family responsibilities including fuel and water collection, food
preparation, child care responsibility, etc. This information needs to be considered, because new
activities for women in the form of "projects' often increase an often already overburdened work

CASE EXAMPLE: Northet Thailand Rainfed Agricultural Devopment
The objective of this project was to increase rice production by the introduction
of power tillers and the use of a nitrogen-fixing crop. Individual farms were
to carry out their own trials of new technologies. Men were assumed to be
principal farmers and were trained to carry out crop trials. However, men had
outside income sources and were frequently away from the farm. Women were
not informed about the research even those whose husbands were present
The project experienced problems: power tillers were not used and the
nitrogen-fixing crop was not planted. Also, some women, whose work would
increase because of the new trials, pressured their husbands to drop out

Reference Information

KEY ISSUE: How does the division of labor change throughout the year (seasonality)?
Where male and female labor contributions for their own or community benefit are incorporated
into project design, knowledge of seasonal labor patterns by gender can be critical. This
information will be especially important for agricultural and natural resource management

CASE EXAMPLE: Agri-Business in Bolivia In a project to develop a citrus
canning factory in Latin America, planners discovered too late that women -
on whose labor they were counting for factory jobs worked in citrus groves
harvesting at the same time their labor was needed for processing. They were
unable to work in the canning factory, and the factory was unable to start on
time because of a labor shortage.

CASE EXAMPLE: Soil Conservation in Kenya This project to build soil
terraces to prevent soil erosion relied on women's voluntary labor for terrace
construction. Original project scheduling did not take into account women's
seasonal agricultural labor requirements; it scheduled soil terrace construction
for the traditional harvest time. The resulting labor bottleneck prevented
utilization of women's labor. The project came to a standstill until it was
redesigned to take into account labor availability. Women's labor contribution
to the project after the redesign was valued at over $2 million.

KEY ISSUE: What are the primary soares of income?
In most parts of the world, women have traditionally made significant contributions to family
income, either through cash earned, cash savings or self-provisioning, which represents family
income. Women's economic contributions to the household have been underacknowledged for
several reasons. Often coming in small amounts, women's income has sometimes been invisible.
In Peru, for example, early national census surveys identified 25-30% of women as economically
active. More recent surveys showed a sharp decline down to 6% which seemed unlikely in
the face of Peru's recession, inflation, and the need for more cash income.

On reflection, researchers reviewed the census questionnaires. In earlier surveys, women had
been asked the question, "What did you do last week, last month, six months ago?" to identify
their occupation. In more recent census surveys, women were asked the question, "What is your
occupation?' Because of cultural norms which give higher status to households where women
do not work outside the home, women listed their occupation as "housewife," despite employment
in food processing, crafts, or other sectors.

Reference Information

Another reason cited for not taking women's income into account is that women are constrained,
often by culture, in their ability to respond to economic incentives. It is sometimes suggested that
efforts to increase men's income can be more cost effective. However, even women with very
strict cultural constraints may provide income to the family.

As well, women are said to be less productive than men, though few studies have examined the
relative productivity rates of men and women. The most frequently cited study in this area was
carried out by Moock in Kenya. He noted that when men's educational, technological, credit,
informational and other advantages were factored out, women farm managers were at least as
productive as men and perhaps more so, having yields as high or higher than men with similar
levels of education and access/use of inputs. Results of a more recent study follow.

CASE EXAMPLE: Marketing by Nigerian Women in Seclusion It is
commonly assumed that Muslim Hausa women in Nigeria, many of whom live
in total seclusion, do not earn income. In fact, many women manage grain
distribution and sales networks from their homes using children and male
relatives. It is they who plan sales, design and manage marketing strategies,
keep records, etc.

CASE EXAMPLE: Road Coastruction and Marketing in Cameroo In
Southern Cameroon, a road was built that connected a rural village to a larger
one with a bigger market where higher prices for fruits and vegetables could
be obtained. When road usage was evaluated, it was discovered that both men
and women had increased usage (and increased vegetable production).
However, more women already working 60 hours per week than men added
another several hours to their workweek, to carry their vegetables to the more
distant market to get higher prices offered there.

Reference Information

Because of the growing number of female-headed households, the rapid monetization of national
economies that require more cash for survival, and the increasing dependence on women's
income to survive economic adjustment programs, women's income is increasingly acknowledged.

Therefore projects/programs/policies designed to raise incomes need to assess gender differences
in ability to participate in project/program activities and to receive benefits; awareness of gender
considerations in such activities is also needed to avoid adverse impacts on female-headed
households. Consideration of this factor is especially important in private sector development
projects, as well as in agricultural projects.

KEY ISSUE: Do income sources vary during the year?
Women's and men's incomes are not only derived from different sources, but in many cultures,
women's is more diverse and is earned throughout the year. Women typically obtain income
from handicrafts, processed food, sale of surplus vegetables/grains, seasonal wage labor the
production of which takes place at different times of the year.

Women's earnings are often the only available income during the "hungry" season before harvest,
and because this income is not tied to one source (one cash crop or a full-time job), it often
saves the family in times of drought or recession. Men's income, in contrast, is typically derived
from wage labor, employment, export crop agriculture, livestock, and/or other more formal
sector sources.

More and more women are entering the formal labor market, especially in export processing
zones where they work in fruit and vegetable packing/processing plants, textile factories, and
pharmaceutical firms. However, this kind of employment is still considerably less frequent for
women than men.

Knowledge of men's and women's income sources and how such income is obtained over
seasons is important for planning both macro and micro level strategies to increase incomes;
such knowledge is also important to avoid unintended adverse effects on a family member's

KEY ISSUE: What inputs are used to car income?
Input in this sense is not restricted to agricultural inputs such as fertilizer and pesticides; it also
includes credit, technical assistance, and other contributions to earned income.

Women and men generally have different levels of input usage, with women using far less. For
example, women and men generally have different levels of credit (women's credit is typically
in small amounts and obtained through informal networks). In agriculture, women typically use

Reference Information

few purchased fertilizers, etc. In all economic endeavors, women usually have less access to
technical assistance. Because of this, in part, women's productivity appears to be less than men's.

Agricultural subsidies can have significantly different effects by gender. Subsidies, which are
often provided to promote export crop production, can lead to a decline in food crop production.
Women represent a high proportion of food crop producers. Surpluses are sold, providing a
significant source of income for them and their family -- albeit in small doses throughout the

Policies that promote export crops such as cotton and coffee by providing subsidies on fertilizers
or seeds, extension assistance or other incentives, may result in male household heads taking
away the wife's food producing fields for use in export crop production. This can increase her
labor requirements on his fields while decreasing her production. Ultimately, the woman's
income derived from surplus sales of her crops is decreased. Subsidies, then, need to be planned
with an understanding of potential impact on all family members' income both cash and in the
form of food for consumption. Agricultural research has similar gender considerations.

CASE EXAMPLE: Rice Research: More Rice, Lss Income for Women A
rice research project in the Philippines resulted in new varieties that were fast
growing and early producers. Plant breeders did not explore other uses of the
rice plant. The husbands were given the proceeds from the rice crop.
Previously, women had made placemats and other crafts from the rice husks
and stalk. With the new varieties, this residue disregarded by the researchers
was no longer useful for crafts, resulting in less off-season income for the
women in the family. While the family may have had more rice and the
husbands (or other male household head) may have had more income, net
family income was not necessarily greater.

KEY ISSUE: Do men and woman ha individual financial responsibilities? Who pays what?
Women and men have different expenditure patterns and financial responsibilities. In some
parts of the world, men and women have very separate purses, with each responsible for specific
household expenses. This factor is important in the design of projects that will affect family
income. It provides a broader perspective for the decision on a project or program's target

Reference Information

Knowledge of family expenditure patterns will be very helpful in checking assumptions that
increasing one family member's income (sometimes at the expense of another member) will
benefit the family overall.

A common division of financial responsibilities is that men are responsible for house
building/repairs, livestock, land purchases, while women provide food (home grown or
purchased), pay school and medical fees: most of the day-to-day expenses. HOWEVER, this
varies widely among and within different cultures.

Research indicates that around the world women contribute a larger proportion of their income
to household expenses than do men. Women typically contribute 90-95% of their income to
family expenses, while men's contribution ranges from 45 to 75% of their income.

CASE EXAMPLE: Contributions to Household Income in South India In a
study of very poor agriculture households in South India, wives earned a
median income that was 55% of their mates'; they contributed an average of
93% of their mates' income to family expenses. This meant that their
contribution equaled 84% of their husbands'.

Increases in women's income have been closely correlated with increases in family well-being,
as measured by nutritional and educational status of children in some countries.

CASE EXAMPLE: Womca's Garden and Child Nutriton in India Another
study in South India found that mothers with gardens or income had better
nourished children than those who did not The single largest contributor to
the child's nutrition was the presence of a home garden and produce distributed
by the mother. There was no positive increase in child nutrition as paternal
income rose, but increasing maternal income did benefit child nutrition. Data
indicated that resources under the mother's control was the most important
factor in level of child nutrition.

- -- _ - -U

Reference Information

CASE EXAMPLE: Male/Female Wage Increases and Child Nutrition in the
Philippines A longitudinal study of 800 rural Filipino households discovered
that as the wife's estimated wage rate rose, both she and her children did
relatively better in terms of intrahousehold allocation of calories; the male
household head typically had the largest allocation of calories in the household.
An inverse relationship was found between increases in the estimated wage of
a male household head and child nutrition.

An important aspect in gender differences is savings patterns, another form of expenditures.
Women as a rule do not deposit their savings in formal sector institutions, for reasons ranging
from lack of literacy, to deposit and withdrawal conditions, to minimum deposit requirements.
Instead, women tend to rely on savings associations such as tontines, burial societies, and other
forms of savings clubs, the objectives of which are very specific. Projects and programs which
look to mobilize savings (described as considerable) of either rural or urban people need to look
at the savings motivation and mechanism of the men and women savers before making
investment potential projections.

KEY ISSUE: Who has access to and who controls resources needed to improve economic well-
"Resources' include land, labor, capital, information, education, technical assistance, and other
elements that lead to enhanced economic and social well-being.

"Access to' and "Control of" resources have very different meanings and implications; access
refers to being able to use something but not establishing parameters for its use -- it can always
be taken away. The difference is in the decision-making power over usage.

Women and men often have different access to resources. This differential access affects their
ability to participate in and benefit from projects in a way that reflects their roles and
responsibilities. In many parts of the world, women do not control their own labor or income;
they are often unable to obtain credit without their husband's or another male family member's
signature. In some countries, women are required to have their husband's permission to obtain
contraception. Lack of access to information, credit, and other resources has limited women's
contribution to economic development on a broad scale and has affected project success.


Reference Information

CASE EXAMPLE: Access to and Control of Project Resources in Guatemala
In Guatemala, three villages were involved in a vegetable contract growing
scheme. In two villages, women were expected to take time away from their
own income- generating and family activities to work on crops their husbands
had contracted to produce. In one village the cooperative coordinating the
project paid "household heads" for all family labor. Women received little of
the proceeds of their work, and yields were much lower than where women
were paid directly.

Women often have less access to education and one of the results is they are less likely to know
the national European languages or other languages spoken in the country. Therefore, extension
agents, credit program promotions, and other development-related activities are less accessible
to women. Men and women often have different channels for receiving information. Family
planning programs increasingly use commercial marketing techniques to match the contraceptive
information and distribution system with gender-based cultural values and channels for receiving

As noted earlier, access to land is often controlled by male household heads. Despite their
responsibility for providing food to the family, women may be allocated fields that are far away
and less fertile.

CASE EXAMPLE: Farming Systems Project in Rwanda In a Farming
Systems project in Rwanda, an agronomist working with farmers was
encouraged to tag soil samples to identify male and female fields. The
agronomist thought this was unnecessary, but finally agreed to do so. The
agronomist was surprised to discover that the women's fields were less fertile,
requiring different fertilizer recommendations from those for their male


Reference Information

basis for conclusions about constraints to and opportunities for programming that result from
gender differences.

KEY ISSUE: How are the constraints to participation in and/or benefits from a particular
project or program different for women than for men?
Based on the analysis of the male;female differences in gender analysis, programmers can draw
conclusions about gender-specific constraints relevant to a specific project or program.
Information from the baseline situation is synthesized and then used in formulating
recommendations for program or project design and adaptation. This process is carried on in
the context of project/program goals and purposes.

For example, in some efforts to provide credit for small businesses, it has been determined from
the assessment of sources of income that both males and females are involved in small-scale
manufacturing or trading. Project designers should, in these cases, review gender-specific
constraints to starting small businesses, such as collateral requirements or lending procedures.

In an attempt to increase food production by increasing land under cultivation, planners would
first identify the target audience for a program by identifying who does what in the situation. If
the primary food producers are female, project designers would then identify constraints specific
to women such as land ownership, access and control of labor, etc. This would enable planners
to design strategies to address those specific constraints.

KEY ISSUE: What opportunities for enhancing development programs are provided by gender-
specific roles and responsibilities?
Gender analysis can reveal information that increases opportunities for more effective project
planning. For example, knowledge of differences in men's and women's savings strategies can
indicate new ways to mobilize savings and thus establish stronger credit programs. Awareness
of how men and women receive information (e.g.,through newspapers, radio, at the health clinic)
can assist in designing effective information dissemination systems for family planning programs.
Knowing differences in constraints to mobility between and within towns can assist in designing
primary school programs that increase both male and female enrollment. Knowledge of intra-
household responsibility for seed selection for next year's planting provides an opportunity for
agricultural researchers to gain greater understanding of the drought-resistant, early maturing,
and disease-resistant characteristics of a particular plant variety.

SUMMARY OF PRESENTATION The trainer should finish the presentation with a brief
summary. The essential points to be stressed in the summary are:

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The four "Exploratory Factors" (labor, income, expenditures, resources) represent a
method for identifying at a general level gender-based roles and responsibilities. The
analysis is then used in project design and adaptation to draw conclusions about gender-
based constraints and opportunities in programming.

Since no generic process can adequately address all situations, it may be necessary to add
a fifth factor, 'Other," to this analytical framework.


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The trainer presents A.I.D.'s major tool used in gender analysis and programming: the Gender
Information Framework (GIF). While the GIF is available in three forms (as a book-size
document; in Executive Summary form; and in brochure form the 'Pocket GIF'), participants
receive only the Executive Summary and the Pocket GIF. The first should be included in
participant notebooks, and the Pocket GIF should be distributed at the end of this session.

GIF STRUCTURE The GIF was developed specifically for A.I.D. as a tool for facilitating the
incorporation of gender issues into programming. The underlying premise, as indicated by the
previous exercise, is that gender is important. Sex-disaggregated data and awareness of gender
considerations in a project/program baseline situation are important for appropriate matching
of project resources to the situation to be affected.

The process outlined in the GIF has three steps the first two have just been practiced in the
case example:

P Analyzing gender roles and responsibilities using the four exploratory factors;

Drawing conclusions about gender issues in the baseline situation. Both this and the
above element are found in the "Gender Analysis Map" of the GIF.

Incorporating information from the gender analysis into programs/projects. Guidelines
for how to use this information in programming are presented in the form of "Gender
Considerations' for four of A.I.D.'s programming documents: the Project Identification
Document (PID), Project Paper (PP), Country Development Strategy Statement (CDSS),
and Action Plan (AP).

The GIF also contains a "Summary of Guidelines for Document Review," which lists general
guidelines for incorporating gender in program documents.

presentation of the GIF, moving to the section called "Gender Considerations.'

The case example work just completed provided practice on the gender analysis process
described in the Gender Analysis Map. The Gender Considerations section provides information
specific to the process for preparation of A.I.D.'s major documents in the course of a project's
existence. This section was developed to follow A.I.D.'s handbook guidance for preparation of
the Project Identification Document (PID), Project Paper (PP), Country Development Strategy
Statement (CDSS), and Action Plan (AP). The trainer should make it very clear that this was

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not designed as a checklist or as a set of requirements; rather that it is a tool designed to
stimulate thinking on gender issues at all stages of a project's life.

It should be noted that A.I.D. handbooks are revised regularly, so the GIF may not follow them
exactly. However, the Gender Considerations section does follow the general layout and issues
covered in programming documents.

The GIF reflects that fact that gender issues need to be considered throughout project
documents. While, historically, a WID paragraph has been incorporated into social analyses in
programming documents, legislation now requires each document to describe how women will
be included as participants, impediments to women's participation, and what steps will be taken
to deal with these impediments.

Finally, note that Therefore, gender is now to be included in the main body of the document
(inputs, outputs, budget, objectives, as appropriate, indicators, etc.), as well as in analytical

WHEN TO USE THE GIF The trainer should go through the GIF with the participants,
highlighting the following suggestions for each of the processes listed below:

The gender analysis process using the four exploratory and two conclusion-drawing factors should
be incorporated into country level planning, although at a much more general level. For
example, a country strategy should present a sex-disaggregated analysis of the labor force,
including the informal economy, agriculture sector assessments should review both male and
female roles as farm owners and laborers and other important issues for agricultural planning.

Assessments of opportunities for private sector development should supplement macro-economic
information with information on male and female enterprises (source of income) to provide a
more realistic picture of the development situation to be affected.

In terms of expenditures, an assessment of the numbers of female-headed households will deepen
understanding of the economic situation among low-income families.

Country assessments should include information on gender differences in access to and control
of resources such as education, training, or credit programs that A.I.D. assistance affects.

Gender analysis will be more specific at the project design level. Where data are not available,
data collection can be incorporated into pre-design studies or in collection of baseline data.

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Monitorng and evaluation systems should be set up to collect sex-disaggregated data that will
enable identification of existing potential areas of gender differences in project participation.
benefits, and unanticipated consequences.


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Guidelines for Incorporating Gender Considerations

into A.LD. Development Activities


June, 1991

Prepared for:
Office of Women in Development
Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination
U.S. Agency for International Development

The MayaTech Corporation

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The Gender Information Framework (GIF) is a set of guidelines for incorporating gender considerations into
the development programming cycle of the Agency for International Development (A.I.D.). Commissioned by
A.I.D.'s Office of Women in Development (PPCIWID), the GIF is a step-by-step process for addressing gender
issues in both project/program design and document review activities. It also provides information on other
analytic tools and resources for considering gender in development.

A.I.D. evaluation findings provide strong evidence that gender is an important variable in the development
process; that is, projects matching resources to the roles and responsibilities of men and women are more
effective than are projects that do not. Therefore, to ensure more positive project and program outcomes,
planners need to identify key differences in male/female roles and responsibilities, analyze the implications of
these differences for programming, and incorporate that information into development activities.

The GIF provides a three-step framework for this process. Its core elements are:

S Gender Analysis Map: As its name implies, the "map" guides the user through a process, suggesting
where to look. In Step One it helps the user to identify important gender factors in the baseline
situation: the differences in men's and women's roles and responsibilities. In Step Two, it helps the
user to take a look at the gender-specific constraints and opportunities identified in the baseline
situation. These first two steps described in the Gender Analysis Map are not specific to A.I.D. and
may be applicable to other development organizations.

S Gender Considerations Guide Findings gleaned from the gender analysis undertaken in Steps One
and Two can be incorporated into programs and projects with guidance found in Step Three, Gender
Considerations Guide. The "Gender Considerations" sections have been designed primarily for A.I.D.
use, presenting guidelines for key A.I.D. documents including the Country Development Strategy
Statement (CDSS), Action Plan (AP), Project Identification Document (PID), and Project Paper (PP).
Even though these documents are specific to A.I.D., they parallel documents used in the overall
programming cycles of other development agencies, thus making the GIF adaptable for wider

The GIF also includes a Summary of Guidelines for Documents Review, which briefly summarizes how and
where to include gender considerations in A.I.D.'s documentation processing, including planning, administrative,
and evaluation documents.

This Executive Summary is drawn from a larger work, "The Gender Information Framework: Gender
Considerations in Development," which is available in its entirety on request from the Office of Women in

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