Front Cover
 Charge from the President and Faculty...
 Task force membership
 Table of Contents
 Executive summary
 The case for a sustainable...
 Back Cover

Title: Final report submitted to the President and Faculty Senate
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089916/00001
 Material Information
Title: Final report submitted to the President and Faculty Senate Sustainability Task Force, University of Florida
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Sustainability Task Force, University of Florida
Publisher: Sustainability Task Force, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: July 2002
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Bibliographic ID: UF00089916
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Charge from the President and Faculty Senate
        Page ii
    Task force membership
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Executive summary
        Page 2
    The case for a sustainable university
        Page 3
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    Back Cover
        Page 71
Full Text

of Florida
Task Force



Submitted To The
President And
Faculty Senate
July, 2002

* Charles Kibert, Ph.D.
* Leslie Thiele, Ph.D.
* Elmira Warren

Charge from the President and Faculty Senate, March 2001

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force

Mission: 1) To review UF's assets and deficits relative to advancing sustainability in the areas of
research, education, campus operations, and community outreach; 2) facilitate communication of
UF's sustainability initiatives and their benefits to the campus and community; 3) to survey global
institutional trends towards sustainability and identify UF's best niche(s) or role(s) in that
movement, and; 4) to make recommendations to the President and the Faculty detailing specific
actions and resources required to make the University of Florida a global leader in the field of

Membership: Twelve or less members appointed jointly by the President and the Faculty Senate.
Half of the members selected by the President, half of the members elected by the Faculty
Senate. The President will include one Administrative staff member; the Faculty Senate will
include one student.

Term: The Task Force shall submit its final report in one year. The Task Force shall remain
empaneled for at least a year thereafter in order to monitor and report on the development of
policy and practices implementing Task Force recommendations.

Staff: The Office of Sustainability shall cooperate with other campus personnel to assist in

Outreach: The Task Force shall conduct all meetings in advertised public forums with citizens
encouraged to attend. At least two advertised public meetings shall be held off campus.

Procedure: The Task Force shall elect a Chair(s) from among its ranks. All decision-making
meetings shall be conducted according to Robert's Rules of Order. A simple majority of filled
member-appointments shall constitute a quorum. All final recommendations must be approved by
a 2/3 majority of the total membership.

Reporting: Minutes and recordings of all meetings shall be kept and posted on the Task Force's
web site. The report shall be circulated for comment among campus and community members at
least one month prior to final approval by the Task Force.

University of Florida
Sustainabi sk Force


Janaki Alavapalati, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor, School of Forest Resources and Conservation

Jean Andino, Ph.D.
Professor, Environmental Engineering Sciences

Gail Baker, Ph.D.
Vice President for Public Relations

Mark Brown, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor, Environmental Engineering Sciences

Fred Cantrell
Associate Vice President for Finance and Administration

Brian Dassler

Alyson Flournoy, Ph.D.
Professor, College of Law

Joe Glover, Ph.D.
Associate Provost

Charles J. Kibert, Ph.D., P.E. (Co-chair)
Chair, School of Building Construction

Nicole Kibert

Les Thiele, Ph.D. (Co-chair)
Chair, Department of Political Sciences

Elmira Warren (Co-chair)
Director, Alachua County Department of Community Support Services

Executive Staff
Dave Newport
Director, UF Office of Sustainability

University of Florida
Sustainability Task Force


Section Title Page

1.0 Executive Summary 2

2.0 The Case For A Sustainable University 3

3.0 Findings: 5
3.1 Research 5
3.2 Education 6
3.3 Campus Operations: 7
3.31 Land Management & Biodiversity 7
3.32 Buildings 8
3.33 Energy and Resource Use 9
3.34 Transportation 10
3.35 Waste Management 11
3.36 Procurement 12
3.37 Investments 13
3.4 Community Outreach and Integration 14
3.5 Campus Community: 15
3.51 Personnel 15
3.6 Organizational Policies and Practices 16

4.0 Implementation 17

Appendix A

University of Florida
Sustainabilitv Task Force

Final Report

1.0 Executive Summary

This report recommends principles and practices that would "make the
University of Florida a global leader in sustainability." The President
and Faculty Senate gave that goal to the 12-member UF Sustainability
Task Force as they jointly empowered the group's research and report.

Accordingly, the group analyzed UF's position in a global
sustainability context and offers recommendations that:
Ensure UF is meeting identifiable minimum sustainability
standards, and
Enable UF to implement practices that would lead to its
recognition as a global leader.

The recommendations are comprehensive and include:
Initiatives that can elevate UF's standing and funding for
sustainability-related research
Practices relating to increased campus sustainability and its
integration with educational and research programs,
Increased attention to campus climate and campus-community
Associated changes in UF's mission and organizational

The report also offers an analysis of why UF should pursue an
advanced sustainability agenda and a review of UF's leadership
sustainability context.

means providing
for the needs of
the present
compromising the
ability of future
generations to
provide for
Decision-making at
a sustainable
integrates the
pursuit of
social and
economic welfare
across campus and
within the broader

potential in a global

The Appendix offers baseline, benchmark, and best management practices information relating
to each of the specific subject areas in the report. To the extent possible, baseline data report
UF's current sustainability status. Benchmarking data indicate what other colleges and
universities are doing to implement sustainability. Best management practices provide examples
of leading edge practices.

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Report July 2002 Page 2

2.0 The Case for a Sustainable UF

Many world-class academic institutions shifted towards sustainable
principles and practices in the 1990s. This shift parallels a more
pronounced redirection among the world's leading corporations and
governments. Accordingly, a comprehensive approach towards
sustainability at the University of Florida is needed not only to remain
a competitive research-extensive institution, but as an integral tool for
achieving world-class prominence.

Benefits of establishing the University of Florida as a global leader in
sustainability include: reduced operational costs through innovative
sustainable practices, cutting edge educational and research programs
with consequent increases in external funding, and improved quality of
campus and community life.

The short-term rewards of a strong sustainability agenda are
significant as well. For example, a consortium between the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, The Swiss Federal Institute of
Technology, and the University of Tokyo launched in the late 90s is
already winning significant sustainability-related funded-research
awards. The World Business Council on Sustainable Development
that includes over 200 of the world's most respected corporations has
formed a partnership with the MIT-led consortium to advance
sustainability-related research.

A comprehensive
sustainability at
the University of
Florida is needed
not only to
remain a
institution, but
as an integral
tool for achieving

Similarly, institutions like UC-Berkley, Georgia Tech, Brown, Dartmouth, and the University of
Michigan have increasingly emphasized their position as sustainability leaders as a marketing
tool for both research and student recruitment campaigns. The Chronicle of Higher Education
recently highlighted 11 American universities' sustainability initiatives; among them are Brown,
Princeton, Emory, Dartmouth, UC Davis and Santa Cruz, Tulane, and Michigan.

The corporate and financial world has been leading a global shift towards sustainability that
many academic institutions have followed. The Dow Jones Sustainability Index launched two
years ago is noteworthy as an affirmation of sustainability's arrival in financial sectors-and
because it has outperformed the S&P 500 through recent market downturns. Similar Socially
Responsible Investment (SRI) funds are also emerging as the fastest growing sector of
investment. Notably, one such fund now manages over $185 million in assets for over 65 major
American universities including the University of California system, Stanford, Columbia, the
University of Texas system, and Michigan.

Other indicators are equally promising. Sustainable development is a common theme for many
noteworthy major corporations. Sustainability is becoming corporate mainstream.

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Report July 2002 Page 3

Many corporations have championed a disclosure and transparency standard, the Global
Reporting Initiative (GRI), that allows consumers and stakeholders to fully evaluate the social
and environmental legitimacy of corporate practices. This effort now boasts over 100 of the most
respected corporations of the world.

Fortunately, the University of Florida has positioned itself well to emerge as a global player by
being the first university to publish its own GRI-compliant report. That move has placed UF
among the world leaders in sustainability reporting, along with Penn State, the University of
Victoria, Lund, UCLA, and Princeton.

For all these reasons-and because it is the right thing to do-the UF Sustainability Task Force
offers the following pathway towards the goal of global sustainability leadership.

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Report July 2002 Page 4

3.0 Findings:

3.1 Research

The University of Florida should stimulate and coordinate its extensive research efforts and
promote its achievements to become a global leader in sustainability-related research.

Through its operations and physical plant, UF should become a model laboratory for
sustainability by integrating to the extent practicable UF's operations and academic
Assist departments in developing plans to conduct research in conformance with
sustainable principles.
Encourage colleges to incorporate sustainability as part of their mission and identity.

Develop UF's "branding" of sustainability research and coordinate and promote such

Create partnerships with sustainability-oriented business and research associations and
groups in an effort to elevate UF's standing as a "go-to" source for sustainability-related

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Report July 2002 Page 5

3.2 Education

The University of Florida should build bridges among existing sustainability-related courses and
programs, strengthen key resources, and stimulate the creation of curricula focusing on

Identify and publicize sustainability-related courses and programs.
Encourage colleges to incorporate sustainability into their core curricula.
Explore options for a sustainability-related course as a General Education
Promote community service and service learning as an integral feature of education at
the University of Florida.

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Report July 2002 Page 6

3.3 Findings: Campus Operations

3.31 Land Management and Biodiversity:

The University of Florida should manage its lands in a sustainable manner to further research,
education, and recreation.

Manage lands so that there is no net loss of biodiversity.
Promote indigenous species and appropriately limit the use of inorganic pesticides,
herbicides, and fertilizers.
Develop educational interpretations to promote biodiversity.
Set up a land management committee to review and guide sustainable management of UF
Conserve areas by designing the University's built environment into a denser urbanized

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Report July 2002 Page 7

3.32 Buildings

The built environment of the University of Florida should be constructed to very high standards
of energy, water, and materials efficiency and its impacts on local ecosystems should be
minimized. During the renovation and remodeling of existing building stock, building systems
should be upgraded to these same high standards.

Adopt the U.S. Green Building Council LEED Standard for New Construction, latest
version, as one of the construction documents that must be followed for new
Adopt the U.S. Green Building Council LEED Standard for Existing Buildings, latest
version, for renovation and remodeling of existing campus buildings.
Require state-of-the-art energy and daylighting simulations prior to all new construction
and building renovations.
Develop an alternative, yet compatible architectural form for the University that reflects
its location and climate.

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Report July 2002 Page 8

3.33 Energy and Resource Use

The University of Florida should analyze energy and resource consumption patterns, eliminate
waste, and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

Map all UF-related GHG emissions and develop a strategy for carbon neutrality with an
ambitious, yet realistic timeline.
Accelerate the retrofit of lighting fixtures and lighting control systems in existing
university buildings.
Promote efficient, low emission vehicle purchase and develop a green fleet policy.

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Report July 2002 Page 9

3.34 Transportation

The University should provide and increase incentives for walking, bicycles, buses, and ridesharing,
and link transportation planning to land-use planning.

In collaboration with the City of Gainesville, increase the Regional Transit System (RTS)
system to accommodate more locations and service times to move faculty and staff to and
from the UF campus.
Increase the number and quality of bikeways around the campus and improve the
bicycling infrastructure, to include bicycle parking and building facilities for bicyclists.
In cooperation with the City of Gainesville, increase the area of car-free and pedestrian
friendly zones on campus and near campus.

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Report July 2002 Page 10

3.35 Waste Management

The campus waste stream, especially paper products and plastics from offices, dormitories, and
food operations should be drastically reduced. The long-range goal should be to promote closed-
cycle materials practices.

Implement the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Waste Wise program in all
University offices.
Insure future food service contracts significantly decrease disposable food service
In all future construction and renovation contracts, require significant construction and
demolition waste reduction, the deconstruction of buildings, and the stockpiling and reuse
of aggregates, brick, masonry, tile, and other suitable materials for reuse as subbase for
roads, parking lots, sidewalks and as engineered fill for building construction.
Excess food from University operations should be redirected to feed the hungry. Food
waste should be combined with other organic materials such as wood waste and

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Report July 2002 Page 11

3.36 Procurement

The University of Florida should assess the environmental and social impacts of procurement
policies and contracting policies and revise them to reflect a concern for sustainability.

Appoint a task force to organize a pilot project in sustainable purchasing. The pilot
project should develop and establish procurement and contracting practices that consider
the full life-cycle costs of products and services.
Assist departments in developing plans and policies for purchasing and contracting in
conformance with sustainable principles.

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Report July 2002 Page 12

3.37 Investments

The University of Florida should explore options to engage in socially and environmentally
responsible investing.

Appoint a committee to make recommendations for adapting UF's investment policies to
incorporate sustainability.
UF should consider offering additional Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) options in
its Optional Retirement Plan.
The UF Foundation should adhere to Global Reporting Initiative transparency standards
for investment disclosure.

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Report July 2002 Page 13

3.4 Community Outreach and Integration

The University of Florida should be a local leader in sustainability by coordinating with
community members and local governments to make its expertise and resources accessible while
addressing local concerns. UF should more fully engage its faculty, staff and students in the
community through service learning, traditional community service, community-based research
projects and local economic support.

Create a community section on the UF web site and a community resource center to
facilitate increased communication with the community.
Provide community benefits through service learning, educational opportunities, and
access to facilities.
Provide faculty incentives to work with the community in their areas of expertise.
Enhance cooperation with Alachua County, the City of Gainesville and surrounding rural
counties for joint planning, and provision of UF expertise on community boards.
Better disseminate information about how to become a vendor or potential employee.

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Report July 2002 Page 14

3.5 Campus Community

3.51 Personnel

The University of Florida should set aggressive hiring and retention goals to ensure the
university reflects society's racial, ethnic and gender diversity. The University should also strive
to ensure that all personnel are rewarded with at least a living wage with benefits appropriate to a
world-class institution.

Require all academic and administrative units to develop student recruitment, and faculty
and staff hiring and retention policies that will bring the University of Florida to a
position where its students, faculty and staff reflect the State of Florida's racial, ethnic
and gender diversity.
Increase the levels of gender and equity training of all personnel working at or hired by
the University of Florida.
Ensure that a minimum of a living wage with good benefits is paid to all University
Engage University faculty and staff in decision-making and formalize this process.
Increase the level of investment in the training of University employees.
Take steps to improve campus climate by increasing the campus' exposure to diverse

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Report July 2002 Page 15

3.6 Organizational Policies and Practices

The University of Florida organizational structure should be adjusted to support actions that
enhance the attainment of sustainability-related goals.

Create an office that would coordinate programs related to sustainability in administrative
and academic units.
Provide incentives for all academic and administrative units to increase participation in
sustainability measures.
Implement a university-wide environmental management system such as the International
Standards Organization (ISO) 14001 protocol.
Revise the University's mission statement to include specific reference to sustainability
concerns, including an institutional commitment to diversity.

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Report July 2002 Page 16

4.0 Implementation

These goals and recommendations chart a course that will make the
University of Florida a global leader in sustainability and help to secure
its position as a world-class institution.

To achieve these goals, a consistent message should be created and
presented to students, faculty, staff, and the broader community.
Accordingly, the recommendations cover the breadth of university
life. Taken together, they form the necessary fabric from which a
successful sustainability program can take shape.

For the university and the broader community to embrace and
achieve these goals, a detailed implementation plan should be
created. Academic affairs, administrative units, auxiliary units, and
the community should develop this plan collaboratively.

The University of Florida Sustainability Task Force will remain
impaneled for another year in order to help craft the implementation
plan. The Task Force stands ready to offer the expertise and
information acquired in the past year to:
Identify key stakeholders and assist them with developing
specific proposals
Ensure an integrated systems approach to implementation
Compare stakeholder proposals with known benchmarks and
best management practices

The Task Force appreciates the opportunity to assist the University of
Florida become a global leader in sustainability.

These goals and
chart a course that
will make the
University of
Florida a global
leader in
sustainability and
help to secure its
position as a

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Report July 2002 Page 17

University of Florida

Sustainability Task Force


Section Title Page
5.0 Vision ofa Sustainable UF
6.0 Research iii
Baseline iii
Benchmarks v
Best Management Practices vi
7.0 Education vii
Baseline vii
Benchmarks ix
Best Management Practices x
8.0 Campus Operations xii
8.01 Land Management & Biodiversity xii
Baseline xii
Benchmarks xiii
Best Management Practices xiii
8.02 Buildings xv
Baseline xv
Benchmarks xv
Best Management Practices xv
8.03 Energy & Resource Use xvii
Baseline xvii
Benchmarks xix
Best Management Practices xix
8.04 Transportation xxi
Baseline xxi
Benchmarks xxii
Best Management Practices xxii
8.05 Waste Management xxiv
Baseline xxiv
Benchmarks xxv
Best Management Practices xxvi
8.06 Procurement xxviii
Baseline xxviii
Benchmarks xxviii
Best Management Practices xxviii
8.07 Investments xxxi
Baseline xxxi
Benchmarks xxxi
Best Management Practices xxxii
8.1 Community Outreach and Integration xxxiii
Baseline xxxiii
Benchmarks xxxiv
Best Management Practices xxxvii
8.2 Campus Community xxxix
8.21 Faculty & Students xxxix
Baseline-Faculty xxxix
Baseline-Students xl
Benchmarks xli
Best Management Practices xliii
8.22 Personnel xlv
Baseline xlv
Benchmarks xlvi
Best Management Practices xlvi
8.3 Organizational Policies & Practices xlvii
Baseline xlvii
Benchmarks xlvii
Best Management Practices xlvii
9.0 Supplemental Reference Material xlviii
9.01 Listing of Sustainability-related Courses xlviii
9.02 Additional Resources, References and Acknowledgements li

UF Sustainability Task Force
Final Report

5.0 Vision: A Sustainable University of Florida


In March 2001, President Charles Young and the UF Faculty Senate issued a charge to "make
the University of Florida a global leader in sustainability." Accordingly, the University of
Florida Sustainability Task Force was appointed and given one year to provide recommendations
in order to achieve this goal.

The charge given to the Task Force was consistent with a growing international trend towards
sustainability among many of the world's leading organizations. In the US, growth of
investments in the most sustainable corporations grew by 82 percent between 1997-1999. The
new Dow Jones Sustainability Index was launched to evaluate this significant corporate shift
towards sustainability. The shift toward sustainability among academic institutions has been
slower. However, there is a vanguard of colleges and universities that are setting the global
standards. The University of Florida is well poised to join their ranks.

President Young has challenged the Task Force to find ways for UF to blaze a trail in
sustainability practices and become a pioneering institution with worldwide scope and impact.
Such global leadership will require creativity, courage, commitment and some measured risk.

We believe the vision and recommendations detailed in this report can help UF lead institutes of
higher education into developing practices that enhance environmental, social, and economic
resources while equipping students, faculty and staff to live and work sustainably. We believe
that these objectives are clearly consistent with UF's mission. Sustainability is an idea whose
time has come at the University of Florida.

The Mission

The mission of a sustainable university is to provide for the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to provide for themselves. Decision-making that
leads to sustainability integrates the pursuit of environmental, social and economic welfare
across campus and within the broader community. The three objectives of social equity,
economic development, and environmental protection are demonstrated to be complementary
goals that are relevant to most if not all university activities and policies.

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix i

5.0 Vision: A Sustainable University of Florida

Presenting a consistent message about the challenge of integrating social, economic, and
environmental concerns to students within the classroom, and setting a corresponding example
for students, faculty and staff on campus and in the community, ensures that all stakeholders gain
the knowledge, skills and values requisite to maintaining a sustainable society. Indeed,
stakeholder engagement becomes intrinsic to the goal of building a sustainable community. As it
moves toward this goal, UF would develop clear indicators to gauge its progress. Ambitious
targets would be established for attainment within realistic timelines.

We foresee, for example, UF implementing practices that will lead to its neutral impact on global
climate change. Becoming climate neutral will set the agenda for energy use, transportation,
construction, procurement and related environmental initiatives on campus, as well as the
management of UF lands off campus to maximize carbon sequestration. Students, faculty and
staff would work in classrooms, labs and offices located in "green" buildings that conserve
energy and promote occupant health; they would see a UF fleet comprised of ultra-low pollution
vehicles. They would observe wide spread implementation of a conservation ethic through such
practices as packaging waste minimization, water conservation, and 100% recycle of recyclable

Global citizenship

A sustainable UF would graduate students whose collegiate experience inspires them to fulfill
their global citizenship responsibilities while succeeding within their chosen careers. All
graduates would understand the interdependence of economic, social equity, and environmental
processes and that fostering this interdependence facilitates sustainability. All graduates would
have the opportunity to participate in public service activities-either at home or abroad. In this
way, students would be initiated into a lifelong commitment to community service and

In turn, a significant portion of faculty and graduate student research would set the standards for
globally informed, sustainability-oriented scholarship. This would ensure that UF is well
positioned to take full advantage of the growing opportunities for funded research in
sustainability-oriented enterprises, product development, and basic research.

Organizational change

The aforementioned opportunities and developments would be best served by the creation of an
office that would coordinate programs related to sustainability in administrative and academic
units. This office would be charged with involving all stakeholders in the implementation of the
university's sustainability agenda, thus ensuring UF's leadership position and global impact.

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix ii

Baseline: Research

6.0 Research

Baseline: Research

Sustainability Related Awards
The University of Florida currently does not have a system to track sustainability related
research. However, an estimate of sustainability related research was made by searching for
specific keywords in a database of research compiled by the University of Florida. The
keywords were: sustainable, sustainability, affordable housing, brownfields, biodiversity,
climate change, conservation, and solar. Figure 6.1 details the results of this search.

Estimated Sustainable Research Awards in Sustainability Research as Percent of Total
Dollars by Year Research

2,500,000 1
2,000,000 0.8
1,500,000 0.6
1,000,000 a. 0.4
500,000 0.2
0 0
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

Figure 6.1: Sustainability Research Award Amounts and Percentage of Total Awards.

It is important to note that the trends observed, particularly the peaks in 1996 and 1997, may be
in part due to the number and nature of requests for proposals that were issued by various
funding agencies, rather than to the true level of commitment to sustainable research on the
University of Florida's campus. A more comprehensive survey system is needed to assess the
true level of sustainable research on campus, including data on the sustainability research
focused directly on the social equity and economic components of sustainability.

A review of the current list of centers and programs at the University reveals a large number of
centers and institutes that address one or more of the dimensions of sustainability directly, often
as the core of their mission. Examples of some of the centers that address issues of
environmental, economic and social sustainability include the following:

African Studies Applied P'il,. .. ..'ii and Ethics in the Professions
Aquatic and Invasive Plants Archie Carr Center for Sea Turtle Research
Architectural Preservation Research and Education Center for B;. 1......, / Conservation
Brechner Center for Freedom of Information Centerfor ,,lit. Iii.: Better Communities
Center for Children and the Law Construction and Environment
Center for Environmental Policy E\. I, .-1,. /. Research and Education
Fla Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Geofacilities Pl, ,ini,;, and Information (GEOPLAN)

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix iii

Baseline: Research

Florida Sea Grant Institute of Black Culture
Center for Governmental Responsibility Institute for Hispanic-Latino Cultures
Institute of Child Health Policy Jewish Studies
International Trade Marine Research Center
Latin American Studies Ordway Preserve
Center for Natural Resources Preservation Institute: Nantucket
Preservation Institute: Caribbean Center for the Study of Race and Race Relations
Program for Studies in Tropical Conservation The Shin,. i Centerfor Affordable H .;...
Rural Health and Aging T,,; ii,.'. Research & Ed for Env Occupations
Tropical and Subtropical Architecture Center for Wetlands
Center for Women's Studies and Gender Research

This rich diversity of Centers, Institutes and Programs exemplifies the interests of many
academic units and individuals in research, service, and outreach related to the various
dimensions of sustainability. Several examples of specific UF Centers that have strong track
records in sustainability related research include the Center for Environmental Policy, the Center
for Governmental Responsibility, and the Center for Wetlands

The Center for Environmental Policy
A part of the Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, the Center was created in
1991, as an outgrowth of nearly 20 years of work in developing methods of planning, designing,
and quantitatively measuring sustainable patterns of human and ecological systems. The Center
conducts research, sponsors conferences, and aids in teaching through short course taught
throughout the world on principles of energy systems, systems ecology, ecological economics,
and ecological engineering that are the basis for sustainable environmental policy. A main
contribution of the Center's scientists are new concepts for energy-based evaluation of human
and environmental systems, called Emergy Evaluation (spelled with an "m"), that can form a
quantitative basis for public policy decision making. Examples of research conducted by
scientists at the Center that is related to sustainability issues include:
some of the first research on net energy contributions of alternative energy sources that
resulted in a bill introduced in the US Senate to include net energy calculations in all new
energy proposals.
evaluation of Florida energy policies including recommendations for sustainable energy
systems in the future.
analysis of the sustainability of shrimp mariculture in Ecuador.
analysis of sustainable development and public policy options for Papua New Guinea.
evaluation of the environmental impacts and costs and benefits of the Exxon Valdez oil
spill in Alaska.
analysis of sustainability and public policy options leading to guidelines for development
of the coastal zone of Nayarit, Mexico.

The Center for Governmental Responsibility (CGR)
Housed at the Levin College of Law, CGR is staffed by 10 research faculty who conduct
research on issues related to environmental law and policy, democracy and governance,
international trade, health policy, and social policy. Their research, substantially supported by
grants and contracts, sheds light on important issues affecting the environment, economic
development, and social equity. CGR's work ranges from the local to the global. Examples of
recent projects by CGR researchers include:

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix iv

Benchmarks: Research

development of a manual on the reformed welfare system for use by local agencies,
community support groups and individual welfare recipients.
a comparative study of public policy relating to the Pantanal in Brazil and the Everglades
in Florida, funded through the U.S. Department of State.
research on reserved water rights in the Everglades held by the Department of the
a project supported by the MacArthur Foundation to work with local government officials
on policy development relating to sustainable communities.
an assessment of "The Economic Impacts of Historic Preservation in Florida" with a
grant from the Florida Department of State.
research on the impacts of recent decisions by the World Trade Organization and the
NAFTA CEC on the efficacy of U.S. environmental regulation.

The Center for Wetlands
Founded in 1973, the Center has a 29-year history of research and education in all facets of
sustainability related to environment. The mission of the Wetlands Center has been to foster
research, education, and service related to wise use, management, and conservation of resources.
Often focusing on wetlands research and policy issues, scientists of the Center have also
conducted research in many other areas toward a sustainable environmental policy. The Center
has had well over 70 research projects directly related to facets of sustainability, and the
following are a few examples:
research into causes and prevention of changes in water quality in Florida's springs.
research into methods for ecological restoration of drastically altered lands.
development of the first wetlands protection ordinances in the State of Florida.
basic applied research in wetlands ecology and ecological engineering of wetlands
research and development of biological indicators of ecosystem health in wetlands.
development of models leading to design and evaluation of ecologically engineered
stormwater management systems.

Benchmarks: Research

Little evidence was discovered regarding efforts by peer institutions to foster improved interest
in research relevant to sustainable practices or goals or sustainable curriculum development.
However, many institutions have centers and institutes that are focused on environmental issues.
A summary of campuses with sustainability-oriented research is given below, based on results of
the annual Campus Ecology survey by the National Wildlife Foundation (NWF). Similar
benchmarks are used throughout this report and are based on this survey unless otherwise noted.

The NWF survey indicated that 23% of campuses house research institutes that study
environmental issues, while 71% do not have such institutes. Additionally, only 4% of campuses
have faculty support programs for professional development related to environmental topics, and
96% of campus do not have such programs.

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix v

Best Management Practices: Research

Best Management Practices: Research

Ball State University
A Green for Green grant competition has been created. These seed grants are paid to faculty
upon the actual submission of a grant proposal related to sustainability. Funding is also
available for 1/1 matches of external sustainability grants for research and teaching. (Greening
the Campus conference, Ball State University, 2001).

Carnegie Mellon University

The University's Environmental Institute organizes lectures, workshops, and other activities that
bring together faculty with environmental interests to exchange information and stimulate
collaborative research. These activities range from seminar programs within a department to
international scientific meetings involving hundreds of faculty.

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix vi

Baseline: Education

7.0 Education

Baseline: Education

Academic Courses
To determine the extent of environmental, social, and economic sustainability related courses
taught at the University of Florida, the staff of the Sustainability Task Force performed a
catalogue survey of courses. This survey was based on currently published course descriptions,
department-specific recommended sustainability electives, and course instructors' web-based
material. While this is not necessarily a comprehensive method of obtaining the distribution of
courses that address sustainability, this technique does provide an idea of the level of
sustainability that is projected in course descriptions. Figures 7.1 through 7.3 detail the
departments and the number of courses that address environmental, social, and economic
sustainability. Complete course listings for each category of sustainability are available in
Section 9.01 of this report. A more thorough survey is clearly needed to fully assess the true
level of sustainability in all University of Florida courses.

Courses with Environmental Sustainability Content
1 14
8 10
0 8
.$ 6
z 2
m -m mmmm

Figure 7.1: Number of courses with environmental sustainability content. Departments not listed are perceived to
have no courses with environmental sustainability content.

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix vii

Baseline: Education

Courses with Social Sustainability Content

Figure 7.2: Number of courses with social sustainability content. Departments not listed are perceived to have no
courses with social sustainability content.

Courses with Economic Sustainability Content
I 3

o 2
z 0
I -Z----------------__

0 s '

Figure 7.3: Number of courses with economic sustainability content. Departments not listed are perceived to have
no courses with economic sustainability content.

Existing Service Learning Opportunities
Service learning is "a method under which students learn and develop through active
participation in...thoughtfully organized service experiences that meet actual community needs,
that are integrated in the students' curriculum or provide structured time or reflection and that
enhance what is taught in school by extending student learning beyond the classroom and into
the community" (Corporation for National Service, 1990). Service-learning has been defined as
"both a program type and a philosophy of education...." (The Research Agenda for Combining
Service and Learning in the 1990s) (Resource Guide to Service Learning, University of Florida
Office of Community Service). Service learning opportunities not only prepare students to

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix viii

p0 ,\
900 "?

\ q


Benchmarks: Education

address issues of social equity, environmental protection, and economic development in the
future, but also engage them in a real-world setting in which they observe and work to address
some mix of these issues.

A program to support service learning at UF already exists within the Office of Community
Service (OCS), which helps introduce students to the value of community service and service
learning opportunities, provides information to students on existing opportunities, and supports
faculty in developing new service learning courses by connecting them to community contacts
and current faculty teaching such courses. OCS maintains a database of current service learning
courses and syllabi, consults on logistical, risk management, and troubleshooting issues as
needed, and provides classroom presentations and sessions on reflective learning as requested.

A complete list is not yet available of all service learning courses on campus due to resource

Available Majors
Another measure of sustainability education is the range of majors available to students that
incorporate a focus on sustainability. Due to the variance within academic program majors, this
is difficult to assess with precision. Again, based on an informal survey of available majors, it
appears that Florida has strength in sustainability education, as measured by the array of
academic programs that focus on sustainability. These include Botany, Building Construction,
Environmental Engineering Sciences, Environmental Science, Food and Resource Economics,
Forest Resources and Conservation, Landscape Architecture, Natural Resource Conservation,
Recreation, Parks and Tourism, Soil and Water Science, Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, and
Zoology. In addition, the creation of the College of Natural Resources and the Environment
(CNRE), and the degree programs CNRE has developed and successfully implemented reflect a
commitment by the faculty and administration to the type of interdisciplinary study that is
essential to in-depth education on sustainability.

Benchmarks: Education

Courses, Programs and Majors
Clearly, the most significant progress toward incorporating sustainability into higher education at
most institutions has been achieved in the area of education. Many institutions have academic
programs in the environment and/or require students to take at least one course that has
environmental content. Yet there are obvious gaps in educational programs in the fundamental
understanding of basic functions of the earth's natural systems or human relationships to
environmental sustainability. Moreover, data collected as part of sustainability initiatives to date
has generally overlooked courses related to social equity.

According to the NWF Campus Ecology survey, 35% of campuses offer undergraduate majors in
environmental or sustainability studies, and 32% of campuses offer undergraduate minors in
environmental or sustainability studies

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix ix

Best Management Practices: Education

As might be expected, a greater percentage of the departmental units in the "sciences" offer
courses in environmental issues compared to "professional degree programs" and humanities.
These percentages are detailed below, for departments that offer environmental issues courses.
68% Biology 33% Political Science/Sociology
25% Business or Economics 22% Philosophy or Religion
19% Literature 15% Anthropology
14% History 12% Computer science or engineering
11% Education 9% Law
6% Communications or Journalism

Additional data from the NWF survey indicate that 34% of campuses report that some or all
students have a requirement to fulfill some type of environmental issues course. Likewise, 40%
of all campuses had less that 30% of students that would graduate having taken at least one
course in the basic functions of the earth's natural systems, while only 28% of campuses reported
more than 70% of the students would take such a course before graduating. Similar results
indicate that 59% of campuses had less than 30% of students that, upon graduation, had taken an
academic course that explores the correlation between human activity and environmental
sustainability. Only 16% of campuses had greater than 70% of students taking such a course.
The survey also determined the percent of students graduating with at least one course in
practices that support a sustainable lifestyle. Of the campuses, only 62% had less than 30% of
students taking such a course, while only 14% of campuses had greater than 70% of students
taking such a course. Additionally, 70% of campuses had less than 30% of students that took at
least one course in policy strategies that support environmental strategies, but 9% of campuses
had greater than 70% of students taking such a course

Best Management Practices: Education

University of British Columbia

The school developed the UBC SEEDS (Social, Ecological, Economic, Development Studies)
Program in 1994. Over the next 4 years, students participated in over 50 projects related to
campus sustainability. Students earn credit by completing projects that integrate sustainability
theory, applied research, and internship opportunities. Projects integrate students, faculty, and
staff in interdisciplinary research based-inquiry and problem solving projects. (Brenda Sawada
and Laura Madera, "Sustainability Step by Step" in Greening the Campus 4: Moving to the
Mainstream (Ball State University, 2001; http://www.sustain.ubc.ca/2ourinitiatives/seeds.html).
Students can also apply for Campus Ecology Fellowships ($1200, National Wildlife Federation)
to carry out such projects.

The University of Minnesota (Twin Cities)

Undergraduates are required to take at least one general education course in each of four areas,
two of which are "Environment" and "Citizenship and Public Ethics." The university catalog
reads: "The designated themes of liberal education offer a dimension to liberal learning that
complements the diversified core curriculum. Each of the themes focuses on an issue of

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix x

Best Management Practices: Education

compelling importance to the nation and the world, the understanding of which is informed by
many disciplines and interdisciplinary fields of knowledge." Requirement: A minimum of one
course of at least 3 credits in each of the following: environment, cultural diversity, international
perspectives, citizenship and public ethics.

Carnegie Mellon

Through "Environment Across the Curriculum" (EAC), students learn about environmental
issues as part of their regular coursework; virtually every undergraduate at the university benefits
from this effort. The EAC was originally funded by the National Science Foundation and by
grants from several industries. The participation of industries in funding and planning the EAC
facilitates student exposure to real-world environmental problems. Key environmental issues of
national importance are identified through contacts in industry and government. The issues are
incorporated into selected classes through lectures, homework assignments, group projects,
demonstrations, laboratory and field work, and other course activities.

Ball State University

A training program has been established, sending faculty and staff to Natural Step, sustainability
conferences, and a Summer Workshop program that to date has involved 129 faculty in efforts to
integrate environmental literacy into the curriculum.
(http://www.ulsf.org/programs talloires ballstate.html)

Brown University

As part of its "Brown is Green" initiative, two environmental courses have been developed,
"Environmental Studies" and "The Efficient Use of Natural Resources." In these courses,
students research a particular sustainability issue on campus and work with staff, administrators,
and faculty to produce a final report detailing practical solutions.
(http://www.ulsf.org/pub_declaration_opsvol 11.html)

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xi

Baseline: Land Management and Biodiversity

8.0 Campus Operations

8.01 Land Management and Biodiversity

Baseline: Land Management and Biodiversity

Changes in land use by the University of Florida since 1995 are listed in Table 8.01.1. As one
might expect, academic land use (for teaching and research) is the single major category of land
use. However, the University has also devoted a substantial portion of its land to recreation and
conservation uses.

Table 8.01.1: Changes in Land Use by Acreage

Land Use 1995 Master 1995 Plan as 2000 Master
Plan amended through Plan

Academic 585 581 575
Support 135 125 109
Housing 129 106 127
Utility 21 21 21
Cultural 15 13 15
Parking 158 165 158
Active Recreation 268 270 292
Passive Recreation 180 202 195
Conservation 342 345 346
Total 1,831 1,827 1,827

The University of Florida recognizes the importance of managing the land in an environmentally
sensitive manner. Ground management policies and procedures have been developed after
consultation with the grounds staff, ecologists, and other members of the University. The policy
and procedures will be reviewed and updated through consultation on an annual basis.

Optimizing UF's Hydrologic Cycle
UF has done an outstanding job of creating a reclaimed water system that processes campus
wastewater into secondary water that is useful for landscape irrigation. This is important because
landscape irrigation consumes about 50% of domestic potable water in Florida. This significant
and successful effort should be considered the first step of several that would address the entire
built-environment hydrologic cycle at UF.

Other efforts that might be used to reduce potable water consumption and increase water
recycling include specifying rainwater harvesting systems for new buildings; using reclaimed
water for flushing fixtures and fire protection; installing ultra low flow fixtures in new and
retrofitted facilities; adding no-flush urinals in new and retrofitted buildings; and increasing the

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xii

Best Management Practices: Land Management and Biodiversity

use of wetland stormwater treatment systems on campus. In addition to reducing potable water
consumption, the optimization of UF's hydrologic cycle will minimize the energy required for
water, wastewater, and stormwater transport and treatment.

Water is the critical resource in Florida and may be the key factor in limiting development. The
University of Florida stands to gain enormously by addressing this issue in a comprehensive and
integrated fashion.

The Wetlands Club, hosted by the Center for Wetlands and whose student members
are drawn from several departments across the university designed a stormwater
wetland system on the campus near the Performing Arts Complex. The club was
instrumental in generating financial contributions and overseeing construction of the
wetland system. Now in its 6th year, the wetlands system has become an integral part
of the storm-water management system of the entire performing arts parking and
grounds area. The Stormwater Ecological Enhancement Project (SEEP) is a part of
the Natural Areas Teaching Laboratory (NATL), one of the last remaining matrices
of natural ecological communities on the campus. Several departments use the
SEEP and NATL for research and education in sustainable land management and
environmental design.

Benchmarks: Land Management and Biodiversity

Campus landscaping and grounds often require extensive amounts of resources for their
maintenance, produce pollutant runoff, and lack ecological functions. Developing sustainable
systems of landscaping and grounds could lead to significant benefits. According to the NWF
Campus Ecology survey, 36% of campuses have restored or rehabilitated some ecosystems
within the campus, but 51% have not restored any ecosystems. Additionally, 29% of campuses
use native landscaping programs to improve the sustainability of land management, but 61% do
not use such programs. To improve wildlife utilization, 37% of all campuses have put in place
wildlife enhancement programs, while 52% have not adopted such programs.

Best Management Practices: Land Management and Biodiversity

Edgewood College, Madison, Wisconsin

"Rain gardens" have been developed to manage stormwater and to provide bioretention and
ecological restoration services. They help to reduce the pollutants that enter area lakes, to
increase native vegetation and wildlife habitat in the local watershed, and to promote awareness
among students and the larger community of local water quality problems and potential
solutions. (http://natsci.edgewood.edu/wingra/management/raingardens/)

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xiii

Best Management Practices: Land Management and Biodiversity

Goshen College, Indiana

A manual, developed by students, lists native plants and trees suitable for the area. The manual
gives details about required care, costs of seed, and suitability of species to the college's campus.
It is organized into three sections, Native Plants by Common Name, Native Plants by Scientific
Name, and Native Plants by Landscape Site Conditions. Through contacts with other colleges
and universities, Goshen College hopes to gather information on native landscaping, land care
without the use of herbicides and insecticides, and how to make these transitions in a financially
viable manner. (http://www.goshen.edu/gogreen/)

Seattle University

The campus has been designated a wildlife sanctuary by the Washington State Department of
Wildlife. A wildlife garden is being designed to attract hummingbirds, butterflies, beneficial
insects, and other wildlife. The garden is pesticide-free and uses integrated pest management to
control undesirable plants and diseases. Implementation includes a created marsh, layers of trees
for safe harbor, and food plants. In essence, the garden provides basic wildlife necessities: food,
water, cover, and a place to raise young. (http://www.nwf.org/campusecology/pdfs/seattle.pdf)

Florida International University, Miami

There is a volunteer system on campus by which students in the Biology and Environmental
Studies Department can earn extra credit if they help restore ponds on campus. Restoration
consists of halting herbicide treatment of the ponds and planting of native vegetation. These
restored ponds provide habitat for herons, and great egrets.

Tulane University

The University's Office of Environmental Affairs has a comprehensive environmental plan. The
landscaping portion of this plan includes issues ranging from the use of native plant materials,
preserving campus green spaces, use of permeable paving and landscaping materials wherever
possible, preserving local water quality by installing filtration and treatment systems for runoff
from parking lots and roadways, educating employees about environmental and health hazards
caused by overuse of chemicals, to proper maintenance of irrigation systems to save water and
money. (http://www.tulane.edu/-eaffairs/ecological%20design.pdf)

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xiv

Best Management Practices: Buildings

8.02 Buildings

Baseline: Buildings

The University of Florida campus contains 1,225 buildings that comprise approximately
17,214,337 square feet of building space.

The University is in the process of constructing its first high performance or "green" building,
Rinker Hall, and is using the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) standard
to guide its design and construction.

Campus Planning has agreed in principle to make the LEED standard a construction standard for
all future University of Florida new construction. A LEED standard for existing buildings
(LEED-EB) is under consideration for application to renovations of the University's extensive
building stock.

Benchmarks: Buildings

The University of Florida is the only university that has made a commitment to use the LEED
standard for its buildings. There are no other universities that can serve as benchmarks for this

Best Management Practices: Buildings

Several universities in the U.S. are creating green campuses. Among them are Oberlin College,
Emory University, University of Texas-Houston, Tufts University, and Harvard University
School of Public Health.

Harvard University

The University's School of Public Health (HSPH) will be renovating 45,000 square feet on the
4th floor of Landmark Center, Boston, for office space. The building, a former Sears, Roebuck
distribution center (Circa 1929) has undergone major renovation and is once again the focus of
many accolades in the "Fenway" section of Boston.

Northland College

The world's most advanced environmental residence hall was opened at Northland in the fall of
1998. The structure provides a unique living and learning opportunity emphasizing resource
efficiency and renewable energy. The building's $4.1 million cost represents an investment in
Northland's commitment to apply in practice what it teaches about developing a sustainable
future. The new residence hall was designed with hundreds of environmental considerations in

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xv

Best Management Practices: Buildings

Emory University

Emory is currently seeking Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) certification
from the U.S. Green Building Council for three buildings presently under construction. They are
also working with the Council to develop and pilot the implementation of national guidelines for
green building operations.

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xvi

Baseline: Energy and Resource Use

8.03 Enerav and Resource Use

Baseline: Energy and Resource Use

The distribution of energy use by type at the University since 1995 is displayed in Figure 8.03.1.
(Additional details on energy use such as energy per square foot of building space or per capital,
can be found in the report University of Florida Sustainability Indicators August 2001
[www.sustainable.ufl.edu/indicators.pdf]). The sharp decrease in energy consumption in 1998
can be attributed to three factors: building lighting retrofits, changes in HVAC operating
schedules, and the installation of energy efficient motors and chillers. Lighting retrofits were
conducted in 1997 by Johnson Controls Inc. and in 1998 by A&K Electric. On average, the total
cost of utilities is $26 million, with the Physical Plant Division accounting for approximately $15
million of this total.

Chilled Water Use (in GigaJoules)

Steam Use (in GigaJoules)


95-96 96-97 97-98 98-99 99-00

Electricity Use (in GigaJoules)

95-96 96-97 97-98 98-99 99-00

Natural Gas Use (in GigaJoules)






95-96 96-97 97-98 98-99 99-00

95-96 96-97 97-98 98-99 99-00

Figure 8.03.1: Energy use by type from 1995 to 2000.

The University of Florida Cogeneration power plant, also referred to as Gator Power (named for
the university mascot), represents an innovative approach to power production and energy
conservation. It provides both steam for the university and electricity for Florida Power
customers. An on-site classroom provides unique learning opportunities for University of
Florida engineering students. The steam generated by the power plant is used throughout the
campus, resulting in significant energy savings to the University since it is a by-product of the
electricity generation facility.

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xvii



Baseline: Energy and Resource Use

Approximately ninety seven percent of the irrigation systems around campus use reclaimed
water. Trends in water use at the University appear in Figure 8.03.2.
Water Use (in Billions of Gallons)

I m im


!- 1 --1 ------ 0
95-96 96-97 97-98 98-99 99-00
$557K $519K $822K $482K $511K

Figure 8.03.2: Water consumption (in liters). Dollar amounts spent on water are given below the corresponding
fiscal year.

There is no completed, direct tracking system for the use of hazardous chemicals and materials.
However, an estimate can be made through a back calculation based on the amount of hazardous
waste collected and disposed. The assumption was made that 75% of the hazardous materials
were collected as hazardous waste.

Estimated Hazardous Chemical and Material Use per Capita (in
Kg / capital)

1997 1998 1999

Actual Hazardous Waste Disposed (in thousands Kg)

1997 1998 1999

Figure 8.03.4: Hazardous Waste Use and Disposal.

-- 17-

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xviii

Best Management Practices: Energy and Resource Use

Benchmarks: Energy and Resource Use

Improving the use and appropriateness of direct energy sources in campus infrastructure and
vehicles is an obvious area where sustainable progress can be achieved. According to the NWF
Campus Ecology survey, between 72-81% of campuses have implemented some form of
efficiency upgrades (water, lighting or HVAC), while 5-12% have not implemented any program
to increase efficiency. Additionally, 52% of campuses have put in place efficiency design codes
for new or existing buildings, but 29% of all campuses surveyed have not implemented these

Best Management Practices: Energy and Resource Use

SUNY Buffalo

An aggressive approach to conservation has been taken, resulting in the initiation of 300 projects
that have reduced energy bills from 22.5 million to 20 million dollars per year. Savings are
expected to increase by another 2 million dollars in coming years.

Rochester University

Conservation strategies have been employed including, occupancy sensors, fluorescent lights,
electronic ballasts, insulated heating, ventilating, and air conditioning policies. In addition,
conservation minded computer and office equipment habits have been encouraged.

Colorado State University

The University has a computerized energy management system that allows the building's energy
use to automatically be reduced when they are not occupied. In addition retrofits to lighting in
many parts of campus and mandated energy efficient lighting in new buildings have saved
substantial quantities of energy. The combined effects of all energy projects have reduced
emission by over 848 million pounds of C02, 5 million pounds of SO2, and almost 3 million
pounds of NOx, the equivalent of removing nearly 85,000 automobiles from our roadways.

UC-Santa Barbara

Campus residence halls have light sensors that automatically turn off unused lights. Housing and
Residential Services also maintains the largest hot water solar system among U.S. universities.
They heat 75% of the hot water used in the halls, saving $460,000 per year.

University of Vermont

A 9 x 58 feet solar panel array has been installed that can generate five kilowatts of electricity. It
is the largest solar installation to date in Vermont. The project cost $43,000 for the panels,
$4,000 for website and display development, and donated staff time of about $3,000. The

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xix

Best Management Practices: Energy and Resource Use

Department of Energy gave a $5,000 solar energy grant, and the remainder of the funding was
split between energy conservation funds and university special project funds.

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xx

Baseline: Transportation

8.04 Transportation

Baseline: Transportation

The University fleet currently consists of 841 vehicles. Faculty, staff, and students use four
primary modes of transport: car, city bus, bicycle, and walking. Use of automobiles is somewhat
limited by the available parking space on campus. The total number of available parking spaces
(20,724 in the 1999/2000 academic year) limits the total number of vehicles on campus on a
given day.

Figure 8.04.1: Existing parking structures around the University campus.

City buses are a common mode of transportation. The average number of passenger trips on the
Regional Transit System (RTS) increased substantially in 1999 after RTS and the University
contracted for prepaid transit by all students and employees of the University (paid by increased
student activity fees). Figure 8.04.2 shows the trend in the number of passenger trips since 1991.

RTS Passenger Trips (in thousands)


1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

Figure 8.04.2: Number of passenger trips on the Regional Transit System (RTS) since 1991.

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xxi

Best Management Practices: Transportation

Benchmarks: Transportation

Because campuses often do not house significant numbers of staff and students, commuting can
represent significant energy expenditure. Institutions can have a significant impact on reducing
transportation energy use by implementing alternatives to the automobile. Based on responses to
the NWF campus ecology survey, 23% of campuses incentivize automobile alternatives by offering
free or discounted bus passes to students (similar to UF's program), while 46% do not offer such
programs. Alternative fuels also have been touted as a partial solution to transportation problems
where the total elimination of vehicles is not probable. Although 52% of vehicles on all campuses
do not use any alternative fuels according to NWF, 10% of campuses have 20% or less of their
vehicles using alternative fuels.

Best Management Practices: Transportation

The University of Michigan

The U-M has the largest active, alternative-fuel vehicle fleet in the state and one of the largest in the
nation, with more than 400 vehicles operating on bio-diesel fuel, ethanol, or electricity. There are
also programs in place for the reuse and recycling of used coolants, engine oils, solvents, oil filters,
and tires. The University of Michigan has more than 300 vehicles operating on E-85 ethanol. The
goal is to use public transport or bikes for all new needs of staff, faculty, and students. UM has
partnered with the City of Ann Arbor as members of the Cities for Climate Protection and both are
actively transitioning to green fleet vehicles for most applications.

Cambridge University

The Travel for Work Scheme and the Cycle Friendly Employers project have encouraged
conscious organized planning of car sharing, tele-working, public transport incentives, cycling,
and bus systems. There are bike information services, including low-cost maintenance and
safety courses. For business travel, there is a set reimbursement fee, which rewards fuel-efficient
cars. The University endorses the use of public transport for business travel.

University of Vermont

Campus buses use biodiesel, which is made from virgin or recycled vegetable oil and requires no
engine modifications to use in normal diesel vehicles. Purchase costs are 15% more than normal
diesel fuel and lowers emissions and pollution by 20%.

The University of Oregon

The school has a bicycle plan that includes policies, circulation routes, parking facilities,
educational information, and enforcement guidelines to encourage bicycle use. They have a
Tandem Taxi service that provides free transportation in the evenings (2 and 3 person bicycles
are used to transport people on campus.) There is also a program at the child-care centers to give
children experience in riding bicycles. An incentive program is being developed to give faculty
and staff credits towards discounts on products and services for walking or biking to campus.

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xxii

Best Management Practices: Transportation

University of North Carolina, Willmington

There are restrictions for on-campus vehicular use by students living within a 1-mile radius of
campus. A shuttle services these locations. They also replaced 50% of their fleet of large pickup
trucks (physical plant) with smaller, more efficient trucks. They have an electric powered truck
for facilities.

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xxiii

Baseline: Waste Management

8.05 Waste Management

Baseline: Waste Management

Solid waste generated by the University is disposed of according to the nature of the materials.
Class I Waste (also called Municipal Solid Waste, General Solid Waste, or garbage) is disposed
in a lined landfill. Until 1999, Class I Waste went to a local in-county landfill near Archer,
Florida. Currently the garbage goes through a county transfer station to a regional landfill near
Raiford, Florida. Biomedical waste is incinerated in an approved regional waste-to-energy
facility operated by Ogden Corporation in Okahumpka, Florida. Incineration, neutralization,
recycling, reprocessing, and long-term containment measures are employed as appropriate. The
total material disposed to land is classified in Figure 8.05.1.

Total Waste Disposed to Land by Material Type (in short tons)

6,000 r
95-96 96-97 97-98 98-99 99-00

Figure 8.05.1: Waste Disposed by Type.

Figure 8.05.2 shows the quantity of effluent injected to the ground water into the Lake Alice
Well from the University of Florida Water Reclamation Facility. The recent decrease in
discharge is due to using reclaimed water in campus irrigation and use in the Co-generation

Effluent Discharged to Lake Alice Well
(in millions of units)

8 2
6 1.5
4 1 o0
2 0.5 "
0- 0
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

Figure 8.05.2: Quantity of effluent discharged into the Lake Alice well.

During fiscal year 00-01, the University recycled 6,530 tons of material recovered from its waste
stream. This amounts to an average of about 125.6 tons per week or 25 tons per weekday. The

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xxiv

Benchmarks: Waste Management

University already benefits from the economic advantages of recycling as a sustainable practice.
On average, UF's cost for disposing of materials through recycling is about half the cost of
disposing of the same material as waste. The University tracks the costs associated with
recycling as well. It will spend over $300,000 this year on the recycling program. About
$62,000 in revenue is expected from the recovered material. Physical plant incorporates the
costs of recycling into the rates it charges campus clients for refuse disposal and provides
recycling services without costs to campus clients as an incentive to recycling.

The University recycles and maintains records on seven different categories of solid waste:
paper, cans, glass, scrap metal, masonry, yard waste, and sludge. Over 30% of all solid waste
generated by the University is recovered on campus and recycled through various local or
regional brokers and processing firms. Weights are determined primarily from actual scale
tickets, although the weights of some components (i.e. yard waste) are based on projections from
sampled loads. The amount of waste (such as furnishings and equipment) reused internally, sold
or donated to other agencies cannot be readily assessed.

Percent Solid Waste Recycled
(all categories included)

95-96 96-97 97-98 98-99 99-00

Figure 8.05.3: Percent of all solid waste recycled at the University of Florida from 1995 to 2000. The data include
recycled amounts of paper, cans, glass, scrap metal, masonry, yard waste, and sludge.

The University has initiated the Chem Swap program (http://swap.ehs.ufl.edu) to encourage the
exchange and recycling of chemicals between laboratories on campus. In the future, this should
help lead to a reduction in the amount of hazardous waste that is disposed.

Benchmarks: Waste Management

Through actual recycling programs, universities can contribute recycled products to recycle
markets as a relatively "concentrated" source, representing potential collection cost savings when
compared to citywide recycle programs. Based on results from the NWF Campus Ecology
survey, campuses follow a variety of recycling programs for different materials to reduce waste
generation on campus. A summary of these results is shown below.
84% collect paper for recycle
80% collect cardboard for recycle

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xxv

Best Management Practices: Waste Management

85% collect aluminum for recycle
50% collect glass for recycle
46% collect plastic for recycle
48% collect food and landscaping for composting
47% collect construction materials for recycle

In addition, recycle of equipment and furniture on campus can represent a significant savings in
material and energy supplies. Of campuses surveyed by the NWF, 55% had an exchange
program for used equipment and furniture, while 42% of campuses did not have such a program.

Best Management Practices: Waste Management

Stanford University

They have put into place a campus-wide composting system for dining halls and house kitchens.

Appalachian State University

Employs a food waste composting system that diverts over 40 tons of waste each year.

Rutgers University

Solid and liquid food waste is given to local farmers for cattle, goat, and pig feed. This is a
common practice among several universities.

Brown University
Dorm rooms, offices, labs, libraries and copy centers have a single recycling container for
newspaper, white paper, mixed office paper, corrugated cardboard, glass bottles, and limited
types of plastic bottles, with individual buckets at centralized locations. Each building has a
volunteer recycling coordinator, and student interns monitor the program in coordination with
the plant operations custodial staff. Additionally, food waste is collected in 55-gallon drums and
used by a local pig farmer. Cereal boxes have also been replaced with bulk bins of cereal.

Colorado State

The school recycles 54% of their waste, including mixed office paper, newspapers, phonebooks,
magazines, toner cartridges, scrap metal, books, commingled containers, pallets, fluorescent
lights, cardboard and Styrofoam peanuts. Tree prunings are recycled into mulch chips at a rate
of about 2,000 cubic yards of mulch per year.

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xxvi

Best Management Practices: Waste Management

Brandeis University, Massachusetts

A comprehensive paper reduction and purchasing program has been instituted on campus.
Reduction of paper use is encouraged and training sessions are given. At the same time, they
are working to get 100% post-consumer, waste processed, chlorine-free paper.

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xxvii

Best Management Practices: Procurement

8.06 Procurement

Baseline: Procurement

Universities represent a considerable force in local, regional and national markets. Not only do
their procurement and consumption practices have direct environmental and economic effects,
but also through the physical operations of universities, theories of sustainable development can
be explored. Many universities have taken steps to actualize their interests in developing
sustainable systems and reducing energy and material flows through purchasing policies. These
universities benefit from sustainable procurement by cost savings and environmental protection.

No baseline information is available at this time. Procurement practices at UF are relatively
decentralized. While individual departments and units engage in various levels of sustainability-
oriented procurement, there is no system-wide facilitation of these efforts.

Benchmarks: Procurement

Nationally, about half (49%) of the universities surveyed by the National Wildlife Federation
have instituted a campus-wide policy encouraging environmentally sound purchasing. These
policies vary considerably in terms of product orientation and the extent of compliance. Of note,
81% of campuses routinely purchase efficient lighting; 29% buy paper with a minimum 25%
post-consumer content, with 8% buying chlorine-free paper; 25% acquire some of their energy
from renewable resources; and 12% purchase alternative fuels to power part of their fleets.

Best Management Practices: Procurement

Rutgers University

The Procurement & Contracting Division determined that quality recycled content products and
environmentally sensitive contract specifications could be utilized without compromising on the
business of procurement. It subsequently initiated environmental advancements, researching and
identifying quality recycled content products, writing environmentally sensitive specifications
and finding vendors with environmental and sustainable commitments. To date, all objectives
have been achieved, and purchasing is looking for further advancements. Examples of
contracting initiatives at Rutgers include the use of environmentally sensitive contract language
in contract specifications; a Public Awareness Clause for environmental sensitivity included in
construction debris, garbage, recycling, sewage and hazardous waste contracts; development of
the first "closed-loop" bond/xerographic paper recycling and recycled content plastic contracts.

The University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

The Vice Chancellor for Administration and Human Resources issued the Use of Services and
Stores Policies, Storerooms/Purchases, (Section VII/B 9) on May 3, 1990. This policy reads:

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xxviii

Best Management Practices: Procurement

"The University will purchase products with recycled material content whenever cost,
specifications, standards, and availability are comparable to products without recycled
content. The University will identify those items that are frequently purchased for which
items with recycled content can be substituted. Additional preference will be given to the
specification of items with the highest content of recycled material. Examples of products
and materials covered by this policy include, but are not limited to: office supplies, paper
products, building materials, lubricants of all types, reprocessed chemicals,
remanufactured parts, landscape products, and materials used in pavement construction
projects. The use of recycled materials should also be encouraged when orders are placed
for brochures, catalogs, books, letterheads, business cards, etc. In addition, to ensure that
a larger percentage of the University's waste stream can be recycled, the procurement
policy will seek to eliminate the purchase of non-recyclable materials when suitable
substitutes exist.

To implement this policy, the campus and the Purchasing Division will act to:
identify and project needs that exist within the University for equipment, supplies, and
services for which recycled and/or recyclable products might be available
actively and diligently strive to identify vendors that can competitively supply recycled
make extra efforts to communicate to campus users the opportunities to meet
requirements through the procurement of recycled and/or recyclable products,
recognizing that the primary goal of purchasing such products is to reduce waste.

To further reduce the waste stream going to landfill, UI-UC passed a policy in December 1999
banning the use and sale of polystyrene products on campus. Since 1991, the University has been
producing bi-annual reports covering the purchases of products having recycled content.

Carnegie Mellon University

The University now has an Environmental Practices Committee, headed by the Environmental
Coordinator who encourages purchasing of eco-friendly products that can be recycled and that
are made of recycled-content materials. The following passage is now included in Carnegie
Mellon's guide for Purchasing Policy and Procedures, which was voted on and passed by the
Faculty Senate in December 2000:

"Buyers and Users should utilize suppliers and service providers that make use, to a
practicable extent, of materials and services that support the Carnegie Mellon
environmental mission and goals of reducing, reusing and recycling."

Although most purchasing on campus is decentralized, items such as copy paper, toilet paper,
letterheads, and janitorial supplies have been included in campus policy that requires purchasing
products with set percentages of post-consumer content. Choice of office machines is up to the

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xxix

Best Management Practices: Procurement

individual offices, although Energy Star purchases are encouraged. The campus has also
purchased three natural gas powered vehicles.

North Carolina State University

The Sustainability Task Force issued recommendations stating that the university should
provide the "intellectual leadership for redefining State purchasing and service procurement
guidelines to incorporate sustainability and involve local businesses and communities in all
purchases by State agencies." In turn, it asked the Chancellor take two actions: (1) propose to
the President of the University of North Carolina that a "green purchasing" task force be
appointed with representatives from all the campuses, and (2) provide funds for half-time
release of a faculty member to coordinate this effort. The purpose of the task force would be
to work with appropriate personnel in State purchasing agencies to identify new approaches to
green purchasing that could serve as national models.
(http://www.ncsu.edu/environmental sustainability/)

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xxx

8.07 Investments

Baseline: Investments

The data in Figure 8.07.1 were collected from the University of Florida Annual Financial Report
under the heading "Investment Income." No details of the nature of the investments were given.
There is no policy for screening investments for social or environmental equity.

Investment Income per Fiscal Year (in millions of dollars)

1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

Figure 8.07.1: Investment Income Per Fiscal Year.

Benchmarks: Investment

Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) policies vary considerably amongst universities and
colleges. The National Wildlife Federation reports that 29% of campuses regularly set and
review goals for making socially and environmentally responsible investments. In turn, 15%
have written policies for making socially and environmentally responsible investments.

Calvert Fund, one of the largest managers of environmentally and socially screened funds,
manages assets for approximately 65 colleges and universities in the United States, including
Arizona State University, Brown University, the California State University system, Dartmouth,
the University of Texas system, Stanford, and the Universities of Massachusetts, Michigan,
North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Washington.

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xxxi

Best Management Practices: Investment

Best Management Practices: Investment

Columbia University

At the recommendation of President George Rupp, the University Trustees directed on February
25, 2000, that he appoint an Advisory Committee on Socially Responsible Investing to advise the
Trustees on ethical and social issues that arise in the management of the investments in the
University's endowment. The Committee, comprised of students, faculty and alumni
representatives as well as two non-voting members from the administration, holds public
hearings and provides a permanent channel for conveying to the University Trustees concerns of
the Columbia community regarding socially responsible investing issues and the endowment.
(http://www.columbia.edu/cu/news/01/11/sri hearing.html)

University of Michigan

In September 1997, the University of Michigan Faculty Senate Assembly voted to adopt a
resolution urging divestment of the University's tobacco holdings. That vote, together with a
nearly unanimous vote from the Student Assembly, led to the appointment of an Ad Hoc
Committee on Socially Responsible Investing. In 1999, this committee unanimously
recommended that the University divests itself of stocks in tobacco companies.
(http://www.umich.edu/-urecord/9900/Apr10 00/2.htm)

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xxxii

Benchmarks: Community Outreach and Integration

8.1 Community Outreach and Integration

Baseline: Community Outreach and Integration

The Office of Community Service reports that 35,224, or approximately 82% of all University of
Florida students in 2000-2001 (a total of 42,947) participated in community service projects.
This number represents students involved with over 341 student organizations helping 941
different charities. In 1999-2000, student organizations reported over 85,000 hours of
community service. Recent community service projects include volunteer work with
organizations including the Alachua County Crisis Center, Habitat for Humanity, Big
Brothers/Big Sisters, Shands Pediatric Clinic, Teen Court of Alachua County, the Alachua
County Schools, and the Corner Drug Store. In addition, in 2000-2001, student organizations
reported raising and donating a total of $984,000 to local, state, and national charities.

Numerous Centers, Colleges, and units around the University also engage in formal interactions
between the University and the community. A complete list of all programs is not available as
there is no central clearinghouse for formal community university partnerships. This type of
clearinghouse is needed to fully assess the cooperative enterprises with the community. A partial
list of units and their programs that engage in such cooperative enterprises with the community
and are familiar to members of the Sustainability Task Force are outlined in Table 8.1.1.

Table 8.1.1: Programs and units that have substantial and formal interfaces with the community.
Unit Program(s)
Center for Precollegiate Education Student Science Training Program (SSTP)
and Training (CPET) State Science and Engineering Fair of Florida (SSEF)
NSF Teacher Research Update Experience (TRUE)
Junior Science, Engineering and Humanities Symposium (JSEHS)
Gator Lab
College of Engineering FLAME
Community College open houses (to expose academic advisors at
community colleges to UF's curriculum)
Florida Museum of Natural History Science and Engineering Experiences for Knowledge: SEEK (Joint
with the Environmental Engineering Sciences Department of the
College of Engineering, Gainesville Regional Utilities, and the
Alachua County School Board. Funded by NSF.)
MESS Around
Buchholz BioTrek
Sensational Science
Shands at the University of Florida Indigent Health Care Program
Levin College of Law Virgil Hawkins Civil Clinic
Gator TeamChild
Criminal Law Clinic

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xxxiii

Benchmarks: Community Outreach and Integration

Benchmarks: Community Outreach and Integration

Part of the STF mandate was to hold 2 public meetings. This section details the responses that
were gathered as a result of the town meeting held on October 30 and from surveys returned by
community members who were unable to attend the meeting.

Based on surveys received in advance by the STF, recurrent themes were identified and explored
at the town meeting. Task force member Elmira Warren began the session with a welcome and
introductions. Dave Newport followed with a review of sustainability issues. A facilitated
brainstorming session by community members then followed, guided by Jodi Gentry. The
meeting began shortly after 6 p.m. and concluded around 8 p.m.

At the meeting, topics were covered regarding access to UF and its associated resources by
community members; UF's contributions to the local economy; the effect of increased student
population; the relationship among city, county, and UF officials; and general "sustainability"

The meeting concluded with an informal review of the priority placed on these topics by the
community members. The most important concern for those in attendance was the working
relationship of UF, city, and county officials. The next most important concern was related to
UF's contributions to our economy. From there, community members ranked the increased
student population, access to UF, and then general sustainability categories.

Citizen Responses to STF Community Perception Survey
234 community perception surveys were returned to the STF as part of the effort to gather public
input into issues of University of Florida's efforts towards community outreach and
sustainability. The results have been compiled on a quantitative basis, as shown below.
Qualitative responses have been incorporated into the recommendations section.

The community survey was divided into 3 parts including a free response section, a scaled
response section, and a demographic section.

The first section features scaled responses to the following seven questions regarding public
perception of UF performance in social, environmental, and economic arenas:
Q1 UF is good for Gainesville-Alachua County.
Q2 UF has no effect on the economy of Gainesville-Alachua County.
Q3 UF takes care of people in Gainesville-Alachua County
Q4 UF is sensitive to its effect on the environment in Gainesville-Alachua County.
Q5 UF is sensitive to the concerns of neighborhoods in Gainesville-Alachua County.
Q6 UF is doing the best it can to insure cultural diversity and equity for all its students and
Q7 UF is paying adequate wages to all its employees

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xxxiv

Benchmarks: Community Outreach and Integration


* Disagree

M Neutral


E Sttrnn l

Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4


Figure 8.1.1: Scaled Responses to Community Perception Survey

The remaining questions featured questions regarding general feeling toward UF, demographics
of the survey audience, and free responses and suggestions for improvement, with results below,
in Figures 8.1.2 through 8.1.6.

How do you generally feel about UF?

Neutral 5%


How often do you visit UF campus?





University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xxxv

5 6- Q7 Agree
Q5 Q6 Q7 Agree



Benchmarks: Community Outreach and Integration

How do you travel to UF campus?

Walk Carpool
7% 4%

What areas of resources from UF would
benefit you?

Pet related




Other resources noted as being
beneficial included academics and
continuing education for non-
traditional students; volunteerism,
specifically for youth activities and
tutoring; leisure, cultural, and
entertainment; and information on
science, technology, research, and

How would you like to receive information
from UF?

8% Phone



Figure 8.1.2 8.1.6: Citizen Response to Community Perception Survey

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xxxvi

Best Management Practices: Community Outreach and Integration

Best Management Practices: Community Outreach and Integration

The best universities find ways to bridge the divide between the institution and its host
community. Examples of this initiative include having places for community members to access
the expertise of the university and its resources in education, research and service; encouraging
faculty, staff and students to connect to various aspects of community life; engaging in
conversations and dialogue about the critical issues that face both the community and the

These universities prominently display a commitment to their community by featuring
community outreach and/or service as a main link from the universities' homepage. There is no
question from looking at these Web pages that community outreach is central to the universities'
mission of teaching, research and service.

Three institutions excelling in connecting the university and the community to one another are
described in their words:

University of Michigan

This directory is designed to help Michigan residents find information about the University of
Michigan's many outreach projects and services that can benefit their lives and their
communities. It is maintained by the State Outreach office in the Office of the Vice President for
Government Relations. Each listing gives a description of the program, lists those areas in which
it is available, and provides web site links and contact information for further details.

University of Arizona

The Office of Community Relations is responsible for developing and maintaining relationships
with various individuals and groups within the Southern Arizona community and beyond,
including Mexico and Canada. Some of the community relations efforts are detailed below.

Conducts neighborhood outreach to promote an atmosphere of goodwill between the
University and its neighbors.
Serves as an information resource and a point of contact for all members of the
Involves public officials in the identification and resolution of public policy issues of
concern to both the University and the community.
Promotes the University as a resource to the community to both city and county
government elected and appointed officials.
Implements the annual United Way Campaign in collaboration with the University
community and serves as an information resource and point of contact for faculty, staff
and students on campus.
Develops and implements inter-institutional activities with Arizona Community College

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xxxvii

Best Management Practices: Community Outreach and Integration

Administers CONAHEC, a trinational consortium advancing collaboration, cooperation
and community building among higher education institutions from Mexico, the U.S. and
Canada. CONAHEC's components include:
Border PACT, a network of over 65 U.S.-Mexico borderlands higher education
institutions and community-based organizations aimed at having a more active role in the
regional social agenda.
The North American Student Forum, created to build a north American student
community and promote collaboration across Canada, the United States and Mexico.
The CONAHEC North American Higher Education Conference, a major event created to
facilitate policy decisions.
Provides a point of contact for University activities with Mexican government and
educational institutions.

University of California, Berkeley

The Office of Community Relations serves as a link between the University of California,
Berkeley, and its neighbors--residents, business and civic organizations, and local governmental
agencies--in the City of Berkeley and the Bay Area.

Being a good neighbor and a valued member of the community is one of the University's highest
priorities. At the Office of Community Relations, we are working to develop and enhance UC
Berkeley's relations with a wide range of constituent groups--promoting mutual understanding,
coordinating the campus's response to local public policy issues, and helping members of the
community access the University's many resources.

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xxxviii

Baseline: Faculty

8.2 Campus Community

8.21 Faculty and Students

Baseline: Faculty

The University of Florida, a member of the Association of American Universities, had as of fall
2001, ranked faculty which consisted of 2,955 members, including 37 Eminent Scholars, 20
Graduate Research Professors, 26 Distinguished Professors, 14 Distinguished Service Professors,
1,211 Full Professors, 743 Associate Professors, 767 Assistant Professors, and 137 Instructors.
A total of 91 % of the faculty have a terminal degree.

Recruiting and retaining a diverse faculty is an ongoing challenge. In 1990, 53 of UF's 2,647
faculty members, or 2.04%, were black. In 2000 this number only increased to 80 of 2,760
faculty members, or 2.90%, that were black. Hispanic faculty members comprised 1.86% in
1990, and 2.72% in 2000. While the figures for 2001 (see Figure 8.21.1) show continued
improvement, the progress is very slow.

Diversity of the Regular Faculty as of Fall 2001

o African-American
0 Native American

Figure 8.21.1: Diversity of the regular faculty as of Fall 2001. Note that the breakdown of Native American faculty
is too small to distinguish. 0.1% of the ranked faculty members are Native American.

As shown in Figures 8.21.2 and 8.21.3, the majority of the faculty is composed of white, male
individuals. When compared with white faculty, a disproportionate number of the non-white
faculty are in positions below the rank of Professor. For example, 23 out of 35 (65.7%) of UF's
black male faculty are below the rank of Professor; by comparison, 406 out of 1439 (28.2%) of
the white male faculty are.
Gender of the Regular Faculty as of Fall 2001


Figure 8.21.2: Gender distribution of ranked faculty as of Fall 2001.

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xxxix

Baseline: Students

With such a small number of diverse, tenured, full faculty, the number of people with diverse
backgrounds who hold leadership positions (Department heads, Deans, etc.) at the University is
low. The University Affirmative Action Office reports the gender, racial and ethnic distribution
of positions in the category "Exec/Admin/Mgr" which includes Provost, Asst. Provost, Vice
President, Asst Vice President, Associate Vice President, Director, Associate Director, Inspector
General, Controller, Univ. Registrar, General Counsel, Dean, Associate Dean, Assistant Dean,
and Department Chair. The 2001 Fall Staff Survey reports 291 white males holding jobs in this
category, representing 66.7% of these positions. White females hold 114 (26.1%) of these
positions. Black males hold 10 (2.3%). Black females hold 8 (1.8%). Hispanic males hold 1
(.2%). Hispanic females hold 4 (.9%). Asian American men hold 5 (1.1%). No Asian American
women hold such positions. American Indian men and women each hold 1 (.2% each).

Percent of Traditionally Underrepresented Faculty by Rank as of
Fall 2001

16.0 14.3
14.0 !11.7
12.0 9.5
S 10.0 8.3
8.0 -5.0
a 6.0 2.7 3.1

Figure 8.21.3: Percent of traditionally underrepresented (African American, Hispanic, and Native American)
faculty according to rank.

Baseline: Students

Approximately 47,000 students currently attend the University of Florida, including 32,000
undergraduates and 12,000 graduate and professional students. They come from every county in
Florida, every state in the United States, and over 100 foreign countries. In fall 2001, the
University reported 3,352 African American students, or 7.17% of the total enrollment. Hispanic
students numbered 4,469, or 9.55% of the total. Due to a statewide removal of race and ethnicity
from admissions considerations, the University of Florida saw the percentage of black students in
its 2001 freshmen class drop by 40%, with a simultaneous 7.5% decrease in the percentage of
freshman Hispanic students. (Gainesville Sun)

In reports dating back as early as 1991, minority students have responded to questions regarding
the campus climate by saying they do not feel welcome at the University of Florida. (Task Force
on Cultural Diversity, August 1991; Task Force on Admissions, June 2000; Campus Climate

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xl

Benchmarks: Faculty and Students

Committee, January 2002) In January 2001, the Provost and Vice-president for Student Affairs
appointed a nine-member committee to research, review, and make recommendations to improve
the campus climate for faculty, staff and students.

Diversity of Students 1999-2000

* Hispanic
O African-American

Figure 8.21.4: UF Student Diversity.

Total Enrollment by Gender




1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

Figure 8.21.5: Gender Breakdown of UF Enrolled Students.

Benchmarks: Faculty and Students

Empirical evidence indicates that all students receive positive educational benefits from an
ethnically and racially diverse educational environment. (Jonathan A. Alger et al., Does
Diversity Make a Difference?: A Research Report available at
http://www.aaup.org/publications/Academe/00so/SOOOTOC.htm .) Reports suggest that students

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xli

Benchmarks: Faculty and Students

who interact with peers of different backgrounds show greater growth in their critical thinking
skills and are more likely to stay enrolled in college, to report greater satisfaction with their
college experience and to seek graduate or professional degrees. (Jeffrey F. Milem, Why Race
Matters, in Academe, Volume 86, No. 5, Sept./Oct. 2000; Benjamin Baez, Diversity and Its
Contradictions, in Academe, Volume 86, No. 5, Sept./Oct. 2000.) A study of students at
Harvard and Michigan Law Schools found that exposure to diversity in law school improved
students' understanding of civil rights as well as various social and economic institutions.
(Jeffrey F. Milem, Why Race Matters, in Academe, Volume 86, No. 5, Sept./Oct. 2000.) The
AAU has adopted a statement endorsing the benefits to students of a diverse educational setting.
(AAU Diversity Statement on the Importance of Diversity in University Admissions, April 14,
1997, available at http:/www.aau.edu/issues/Diversity4.14.97.html). As an aspect of education
that promotes sustainability, a diverse educational environment also gives students the
opportunity to develop the skills they will need to function in the global context that
characterizes the world today.

In light of the findings by the American Council on Education (ACE) and other research
organizations regarding the benefits to students of a diverse learning environment, achieving and
sustaining a diverse faculty and student body has become a widely shared goal among colleges
and universities. However, many campus sustainability initiatives to date have overlooked the
social equity component of the concept of sustainability. Nonetheless, national data on the race,
gender and ethnic composition of faculties and students in higher education provide one measure
against which UF's faculty and student diversity can be assessed. While not representing "best
practices," but merely average performance, these figures may provide a minimum for
comparing UF to its national peers, if UF seeks to excel.

The 2000 Minorities in Higher Education report published by the ACE reports that 5% of full-
time faculty at American universities are African-American (non-Hispanic), 2.4% are Hispanic,
5.1% are Asian American and .4% are American Indian. The relative percentage of African-
American faculty at UF is below the national average of 5%, at 3%. UF's proportion of Hispanic
faculty exceeds national averages at 3.4%, as does its proportion of Asian American faculty at
7.9%. The .1% of faculty who are Native American falls below the .4% national average.

UF's student body, with 7.17% African American students and 9.55% Hispanic students,
compares favorably with most of its AAU peer schools (see AAU Fall 2000 Minority Enrollment
chart at http://www.ir.ufl.edu/minority/enroll.htm) in its diversity.

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xlii

Best Management Practices: Faculty and Students

Percent Minority Enrollment in Graduate Programs

94-95 95-96

96-97 97-98

98-99 99-00

Figure 8.21.6: Minority Graduate Enrollment Trends.

Percent Enrollment of Women in Graduate Programs

r~n ---------------------------






Figure 8.21.7: Women Graduate Enrollment Trends.

Best Management Practices: Faculty and Students

The following examples were obtained from the University of Florida's Campus Climate
Committee, created by the Provost to focus research on campus diversity and climate issues.
This committee worked simultaneously but separately from the Sustainability Task Force.

University of Virginia

The Office of Equal Opportunity Programs, reporting directly to the Vice President of Student
Affairs, helps develop, implement, and monitor the university's equal opportunity policies,
including those relating to nondiscrimination and affirmative action. The Office offers diversity
information and resources for students and encompasses several diversity related offices and
committees. Examples of these are as follows:
o The Carter G. Woodson Office for Afro-American Studies
o The Luther P. Jackson Cultural Center
o Multicultural Pavilion
o Office of African-American Affairs

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xliii


Best Management Practices: Faculty and Students

o Office of Minority Procurement Programs
o Office of Vice Provost for Faculty Recruitment/Retention
o Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Committee

Emory University

The President's Commission on the Status of Minorities was chartered in 1979 by President
James Laney to support and enhance the commitment of the university to build a stronger, more
diverse university community and to improve the quality of life for minority faculty, staff, and
students. The Commission which reports directly to the University President, serves as a forum
for discussion and analysis of minority issues on campus and of national import; develops and
supports programs and activities that enhance the minority presence in the Emory community;
recommends actions that improve the representation, development, and success of minority
people in the Emory community to the President. The Committee conducts all its actions under
the guidelines of its charter, in which "minority" is defined by the US Department of Education's

University of Miami

The Multicultural Student Affairs Office (MSA) reports directly to the Vice President for
Student Affairs. The mission of the Department is to provide guidance and advocacy for the
retention of ethnically diverse students at the university. A primary focus of the department is to
assess the needs of Hispanic-American, African-American, Asian-American, and Native
American students and to communicate these needs to faculty and administrators. In addition,
MSA provides guidance to the University of Miami in its ongoing efforts to build and maintain a
multicultural campus community.

University of Central Florida

The Office of Diversity Initiatives reports directly to the Vice President, Student Development,
and to Enrollment. It works with universities colleges and departments in establishing
procedures that support the university in becoming more inclusive and diverse. The Office
provides opportunities that support faculty in their efforts to develop pedagogically sound
curriculum that reflects the pluralism in society. Serves as consultants to faculty and staff in
their efforts to recruit and retain a diverse work force and student body. The Office encourages
regional and international diversity education in the campus community as well as service and
research partnerships with schools, governments, and other organizations.

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xliv

Baseline: Personnel

8.22 Personnel

Baseline: Personnel

Total Wage Expense

Accrued Salaries and Wages Payable per Fiscal Year
(in dollars)

1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

Figure 8.22.1: Total Wage Expense by Year.

University of Florida Employment



1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

Figure 8.22.2: Jobs, by type, absolute and net change.

Net Change 95/96 96/97 97/98 98/99
A&P +94 +52 +60 +99
USPS +29 -81 -388 +9

TOTAL UNIVERSITY +112 -44 -358 +196
Figure 8.22.3: Changes in UF Employment.

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xlv


Best Management Practices: Personnel

These values were determined by comparing the number of employees on payroll at the
beginning of the fiscal year with those at the end. Movement among colleges and departments
was not considered. Faculty, A & P (Administrative and Professional), and USPS (University
Support Personnel System) positions were included in the calculations.

Percent of Employees Retained

411 -~ ~ -41 I

95-96 96-97

97-98 98-99

Figure 8.22.4: Percent of Employees Retained, by Year.

Ratio of lowest wage to national legal minimum
The ratio of university lowest wage to the national minimum wage is 1.27:1. The lowest
University employee wage is $7.00 per hour versus the federal minimum wage of $5.50 per hour.

Health and pension benefits provided to employees
A significant portion of a benefit-employee's overall compensation is provided by the
University's wide variety of benefits. The University finances a large percentage of the overall
cost of insurances offered, resulting in lower premiums. Detailed information is available on the
University Personnel Services website http://www.ups.ufl.edu/benefits.

Benchmarks: Personnel

Data not available at this time

Best Management Practices: Personnel

Data not available at this time

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xlvi


Best Management Practices: Organizational Policies and Practices

8.3 Organizational Policies and Practices

Baseline: Organizational Policies and Practices

Data not available at this time

Benchmarks: Organizational Policies and Practices

A strong sustainability program begins with goals and policies at the institutional level that apply
campus wide. About 50% of institutions surveyed by the NWF responded that they had goals for
reducing wastes and conserving energy and resources, but only about 30% had written policies
or standards to achieve those goals. Specifically, 27% of all campuses have written declarations
committing them to promoting environmental responsibility. Additionally 21% of all campuses
have written declarations that educating students about environmental responsibility is part of
their mission. To supplement these declarations, 8% of campuses have a formal system for
holding units accountable for environmental performance with incentives and/or penalties. In
addition, 24% of all campuses have an environmental or sustainability task force or council
within their university framework.

Best Management Practices: Organizational Policies and Practices

Data not available at this time

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xlvii

Detailed Listing Of Sustainability-related Courses

9.0 Supplementary Reference Material

Detailed Listing Of Sustainability-related Courses

Courses with Environmental Sustainability Topics

AGG 5932
ALS 3133
ALS 5106
ARC 5811
ARC 6391
ARC 6633
ARC 6805
ARC 6821
ARC 6822
ARC 6851
ARC 6852
BCN 6580
BCN 6584
BCN 6585
EES 4050
EES 5305
EES 5306
EES 5307
EES 5315
EES 5415
EES 6007
EES 6051
EES 6301
EES 6405
EES 6932
ENV 4612 /6932
ENV 5075
ENV 6932
ENV 6935
ENV 6510
FOR 4660
FOR 4664
FOR 5615
FOR 6170
FOR 6934
FYC 5905
GEO 5159
GEO 6495
GLY 4155C
GLY 5075
ICM 6680

Ethnoecology, 3 CR
Agriculture and Environmental Quality
Food and the Environment, 3 CR
Historical Preservation and Restoration, 3 CR
Architecture, Energy, and Ecology
Thermal Systems, 3 CR
Architectural Conservation, 3 CR
Preservation Problems and Processes, 3 CR
Preservation Programming and Design, 3 CR
Technology of Preservation: Materials and Methods I, 3 CR
Technology of Preservation: Materials and Methods II, 3 CR
Principles of International Construction, 3 CR
Construction Ecology and Metabolism, 3 CR
Sustainable Construction, 3 CR
Environmental Planning and Design
Ecological and General Systems
Energy Analysis
Ecological Engineering
Ecology and Environment, 3 CR
Environmental Health, 3 CR
Advanced Energy & Environment, 3CR
Advanced Environmental Planning and Design
Comparative Approaches in Systems Ecology
Environmental Toxicology
Ecological & Biological Systems
Green Eng Des/Sustainability
Environmental Policy
Emergy Analysis
Systems Ecology Seminar
Ground Water Restoration, 3 CR/ consent of instructor
Natural Resource Policy and Administration
Sustainable Ecotourism Development
Forest Conservation and Management Policy & Issues
Tropical Forestry
Education for Sustainability, 3 CR
Human Ecology
GIS Applications in Environmental Systems
Environment and Behavior
Ecology of Florida
Global Climate Change: Past, Present, Future
International Sustainability Development

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xlviii

Detailed Listing Of Sustainability-related Courses

IDH 2931
IND 3468
IND 5428
LAA 6342
LAA 6382
ORH 4932
PCB 6447C
PHC 6937
SYD 6506
URP 6421
WIS 2040
WIS 2552
WIS 5496
WIS 6934

Courses with
AEB 6933
ALS 5905
ALS 5932
ANG 4930
ANT 3141
ANT 4403
ANT 4930
CPO 3303
CPO 3633
CPO 4034
CPO 4104
CPO 6732
EVS 4000
FYC 4126
HIS 3483
HIS 3495
INR 2001
INR 3084
INR 3102
INR 3333
INR 6305
ISS 2160
JST 3930
LAS 6938
PAD 3003
PHH 3100
PHI 2630
POS 3142
POS 3263
POS 3606

HNRS Energy & Policy
Interior Environmental Technology
Materials for Interior Design, 3 CR/ consent of grad. Coordinator
Landscape Architecture and Environmental Policy, 3 CR
Ecological and Environmental policy
Ecology of Urban Landscape
Community Ecology
Environmental Justice Issues in Public Health
Urban Ecology
Environmental Impact Statements
Wildlife Issues
Biodiversity Conservation
Res Design Wildlife Ecology
Advanced Topics in Population Ecology

Social Sustainability Topics
[new class for spring 2002]
Contemporary Family Studies
Theory of Community Development
Human Rights
Development of World Civilization
Environmental and Culture Behavior
Trans-nation Migration
Intro Latin American Politics
Politics in Russia
Developing Nations
Polit/Instit European Union
Democrat/Regime Trans
Critical Thinking
Urban/Rural Amer Tran
The Nuclear Age
Evolution of Infectious Diseases
International Relations
Culture and World Politics
US& World Affairs
International Internal Security
Politics American/Foreign
Cultural Diversity U.S.
Politics Middle East
[new class for Spring 2002]
Intro To Public Administration
Ancient Greek Philosophy
Contemporary Moral Issues
Urban Politics
Political Leadership
American Civil Liberties

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix xlix

POS 4291
POS 4931
POS 6146
POS 6933
POS 6933
PUP 3002
PUP 3204
PUP 3323
URP 3001
URP 6122
URP 6312
URP 6716
URP 6880
URP 6884
SYA 4110
SYA 4930
SYA 4930
SYA 4930
SYD 3700
SYD 4020

Courses with
AEB 6252
AEB 6299
AEB 6453
BCN 6641
EES 6009
GEO 2500
GEO 3430
GEO 6435
INR 3034
URP 6541
URP 6745

Detailed Listing Of Sustainability-related Courses

Religion & Politics in the U S
Politics of Education
Urban Politics
Political Sociology of Latin America
Peasant Politics
Current Controversies
Politics and Ecology
Women in Politics
Cities of the World
Alternative Conflict Resolution
Land Development Planning Evaluation
Transportation Policy and Design
Defensible Space and CPTED
Community Conservation and Revitalization
Developing Sociological Thought
Environment and Society
US Population Issues
Environment and Society
Minorities in American Society

Economic Sustainability Topics
Foundations of Food and Resource Economics
Benefit-Cost and Social Impact Analysis
Natural Resource and Environmental Economics
Value Engineering
Ecological Economics
Global/Regional Economy
Population Geography
Seminar in Population
Politics World Economy
Economic Development Planning
Housing Public Policy/Planning

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix I


9.02: Additional Resources, References and

An abundant and varied collection of resources was used to compile baseline,
benchmarking, and best management practice information for use by the
Sustainability Task Force. Listed below are citations and references for the
individuals and organizations that contributed resource material for the final

Benchmarking data were obtained from the National Wildlife Federation
Campus Ecology report on the State of the Campus Environment, a national
report card on environmental performance and sustainability in higher education,
based on surveys from 891 U.S. colleges and universities. This report is located
online at http://www.nwf.org/campusecology/stateofthecampusreport.cfm.

Data regarding faculty, students, and staff were supplemented by information
compiled by a subsequently appointed Committed to Community University of
Florida Campus Climate Committee Report, Part One: Issues of Race and
Ethnicity, chaired by Dr. Gail Baker, Vice President for Public Relations. The
report may be obtained from the UF Office of Public Relations.

Baseline data for UF sustainability were primarily drawn from the 2001
University of Florida Sustainability Indicators Report, which was the first report
of its kind to be published in accord with The Global Reporting Initiative
Sustainability Reporting Guidelines (www.globalreporting.org). The UF report
can be found at http://www.sustainable.ufl.edu/indicators.pdf.

Greening UF research assistants, listed below, provided research and data to
supplement the findings detailed throughout the appendix. This research was
performed at the request of the UF Faculty Senate and President Charles Young
and in conjunction with Greening UF's mission of increasing UF's sustainability
and the ecological literacy of faculty, staff, and students.

Additional information regarding Greening UF campus-wide projects and
sustainability research can be found online at
http://www.sustainable.ufl.edu/GreenUF /index.html

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix li


The Task Force recognizes and deeply appreciates the work of Greening UF
Research Assistants who provided considerable research, content analysis,
editing, and meeting support throughout the Task Force's 16 months of
deliberation. Heartfelt thanks to:

Thomas C. Chesnes, PhD., Environmental Engineering Sciences
Ana Lavagnino, M.S., Building Construction
Mary Robbins, B.A., Political Science
Callie Whitfield, M.E., Environmental Engineering Sciences

The Task Force also recognizes and appreciates the contributions from staff of
Alachua County's Department of Community Support Service, headed by
Elmira Warren; and from UF's Personnel Office, who provided facilitation
services by Jodi Gentry. Additional support is recognized from UF's Office of
the Provost, who provided financial resources for the Task Force during
challenging budget times. Thanks to all.

University of Florida Sustainability Task Force Final Report July 2002: Appendix lii

UF Office of Sustainability
College of Design Construction and Planning
M.E. Rinker Sr. School of Building Construction

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