Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Background information
 Project justification
 Project objectives
 Project activities
 Institutional framework of the...
 Project output, monitoring evaluation...
 Reporting aspects and input...
 Provisional work plan
 Tripartite mid-term review of the...
 Terms of reference: International...
 Details of project inputs
 Project cover page

Title: guide to formulation and design of FAO field projects on women in food systems
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089857/00001
 Material Information
Title: guide to formulation and design of FAO field projects on women in food systems
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Donor: Marianne Schmink ( endowment )
Publisher: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Place of Publication: Rome,
Publication Date: 1986
Copyright Date: 1986
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089857
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Background information
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Project justification
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Project objectives
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Project activities
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Institutional framework of the project
        Page 23
    Project output, monitoring evaluation and research
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Reporting aspects and input requirements
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Provisional work plan
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Tripartite mid-term review of the project
        Page 35
    Terms of reference: International project manager
        Page 36
    Details of project inputs
        Page 37
    Project cover page
        Page 38
Full Text

Not for Distribution








A. General Economic Situation

B. Role of Women in Food Production

C. Constraints Affecting Women in Food Production

D. Family Food and Nutrition











Provisional Work Plan Example

Tri-partite Project Review Terms of Reference

Terms of Reference: International Project
Manager Example

Details of Project Inputs Example

Project Cover Page Example


















This document is intended to serve as a practical guide for
the formulation and design of FAO technical assistance field projects.
It is based on the experiences gained during the development of FAO's
Women in Food Systems Country programme. It has been tested and
modified at two international workshops on the formulation and design
of projects to support rural women in food production activities in
Sierra Leone (November, 1985) and Harare (February, 1986).

This guide has been developed as a resource for government
planners in the step-by-step approach to designing project proposals
specifically for rural women in food systems, food security and food
production. The format is that used by FAO for projects funded
through Trust Funds. Project emphasis is directed towards support for
strengthening institutions and food production systems, in other words
projects which train extension officers and women farmers in improved
agricultural techniques, leadership and skill development, the use of
technology to lessen the burden of physical work. Projects have the
overall aim of improving the food production capacity and hence
economic and nutritional status of rural farm families by providing
support to women farmers. The approach is not to create a separate
rural/agricultural development system to support women farmers, but
rather to emphasize reorientation and strengthening of existing
systems to be beneficiary-oriented with due emphasis on input and
training needs of women farmers, in order to redress any inequalities
adversely affecting women farmers.

The formulation and design of projects for women in food
production systems should be based on the following considerations:

(i) Most rural women are agricultural producers with a major role
in food production. The development process should therefore
include provision for women as well as men.

(ii) Effective project and programme planning should take into ac-
count any differing roles of men and women in the productive
systems and socio-economic structure of the country.

(iii) Plans and activities aimed at increasing food production and
food security should involve women at all levels. Rural
women should be consulted about their development needs.

Women in Food Production is one of the vital undertakings to-
wards strengthening the overall impact of the broader issues of Women
in Development. By developing national policies and programmes for
women in food and agriculture, and by constantly promoting women's ac-
tivities in agriculture, the overall objectives of equity, economic
development and peace for women can be achieved. By focusing on the

-2 -

importance that women play in food production; by increasing women's
roles in decision-making, leadership, finance and management skills;
by studying the socio-economic structures of societies in terms of
gender; and by making women's roles in society a central theme in
country-wide policy planning, more comprehensive, cost-beneficial, and
productive proposals can be developed.

In this manual, the sections which should be included in a
project proposal are discussed in detail and illustrated with examples
from African countries. The sections are :

Project Summary
Background Information
Project Justification
Project Objectives
Project Activities
Project Framework
Project Output
Monitoring, Evaluation and Research
Reporting Aspects
Input Requirements

Though project summary is the first section of the project
proposal, it is more convenient for the purposes of this manual to
review this section later in the text, after the major sections have
been discussed.



Background information should serve the following purposes:

to assist in the definitition of appropriate project
to provide a situation analysis for project justification;
to assist in the identification of project beneficiaries;
to assist in the future monitoring and evaluation of the
to ensure that the project is related to national develop-
ment goals;
to inform donors, and other parties concerned with project
.appraisal and implementation, of the existing situation.

Information should be provided at two levels country and
project. This allows an officer appraising the project proposal to
have a clear insight on the role of the proposed project in the con-
text of the national situation.

Projects for Women in Food Production Systems should contain
information focusing on three main points:

the general economic situation;
the role of women in food production;
constraints affecting women in food production.

A. The General Economic Situation

This should be concise and should be quantified or qualified
to the extent possible. Facts presented should include:

Climate Mean rainfalls and in-country distribution;
rainfall season; maximum and minimum

Land Use Total cultivable land; land actually under
cultivation; land suitable for livestock
only; land unsuitable for cultivation or
livestock; land tenure.

Economy G.D.P.; G.N.P.; per capital income and distri-
bution; contribution of different sectors,
including agriculture, to the economy; export
earnings from agriculture; food import costs;
employment levels.

Population Total population; urban/rural distribution;
density; growth rate; life expectancy; morta-
lity rates; literacy; average rural household

-4 -

Agriculture Major food and cash crops; livestock;
fisheries; percentage population employed in
agriculture; price policy.

Food Security Total food availability; consumption figures;
and Nutrition national stocks; nutrition status; types of
nutritional disorders; seasonal food availa-

Institutions Services to rural farmers; national marketing
systems; women's support services.

National Summary of development plans/goals relating
Development to agriculture, food production and women.

In addition, information relevant to the scope of the project
should be included. For example, if the project concerns one parti-
cular commodity or institution, concise details of the situation rela-
ting to that commodity or institution should be provided.

EXAMPLES: General Background Country Level

1. Sierra Leone

The population of Sierra Leone is approximately 3.35 million,
occupying an area of about 28,000 square miles, with an average den-
sity of about 120 per square mile. About 75 per cent of the popula-
tion live and work in the rural areas.

The 1974 Census assessed life expectancy for the population
as 41.3 years for males and 45.1 years for females. The infant morta-
lity rate was approximately 182/1000 live births. The rate of morta-
lity in children up to the age of 5 is around 30 per cent.

Agriculture is the basis of the livelihood of about 75 per
cent of the total population and contributes more than 30 per cent to
gross domestic product and accounts for 18 per cent of total exports.
.Agriculture has been accorded the highest priority in development

A high rate of migration from rural to urban areas means that
food production must be raised not only to keep pace with population
growth, but also to meet the demand of the much faster growth of towns
and cities.

Given support, women can contribute greatly to increasing the
food supplies available in the country. Women grow, market and pro-
cess food in addition to their other family responsibilities. Women
are still using out-dated, labour-intensive methods of cultivation
that result in low yields. Trading and marketing have always been the
domain of women. It is necessary to identify new technologies and
methods for the use of women.



Ethiopia has an area of 1,234,000 sq. km. made up of a cen-
tral highland mass of volcanic origin surrounded by lowlands. Of the
total population of 42 million, 88 per cent live in the rural areas.
The average density of population is 25.9 per square kilometre. The
majority of the population live in the highlands whilst the lowlands
are inhabited mainly by nomadic pastoralists. The average life
expectancy at birth is 47 years. Population is increasing at 2.5 to
2.8 per cent per annum. Infant and child mortality rates are high.

The country has a dry season prevailing from October to
January. The pattern of rainfall is bimodal. The first cycle or small
rains is from January to June, with a peak in March. The second,
stronger cycle is from July to September.

Agriculture is the dominant sector of the economy, contri-
buting 50 per cent of Gross Domestic Product, 90 per cent of export
earnings (mainly coffee) and providing a livelihood for 85 per cent of
the population. Crops are primarily rainfed with limited irrigation.
Because of Ethiopia's varied ecological characters, agricultural pro-
duction covers a wide range of crops, including cereals, pulses,
fruits, vegetables, coffee, oilseeds, cotton, tobacco and sugarcane.

Agricultural productivity is low in the country owing to the
adverse effects of human and animal population pressure, water availa-
bility, low-level technology and low participation of women in agri-
cultural extension training programmes.

The Role of Women in Food Production

This section should highlight women's involvement in farming
activities and in specific crops/livestock and should describe ser-
vices available to women.

Women's employment
in agriculture

Women's activities
and workloads

Women's agricul-
tural and agricul-

Percent of women actively employed in
agriculture; percent of female-headed house-
holds; landless women casually employed in

Average time spent by women on activities
such as farming, food preparation and proces-
sing, child care, marketing, social activi-
ties, water and fuel collection, home main-

Cropping patterns; women's labour input into
farming activities (eg. planting, weeding,
harvesting, storage) by crop; livestock;
fisheries; horticulture; food gathering; pro-
cessing and preservation; marketing; access
to and uptake of credit.

- 6 -

Women's role in

Women's sources
of income

Women and educa-
tion and training


Land use; use of family resources such as
farm produce, income.

Control of income from specific crops or
livestock; income from other sources, eg.
beer-brewing, casual/off-farm labour, crafts,
food preparation.

School attendance; literacy levels; access
and uptake of training programmes; types of
training available to women; age breakdown of
women participating.

Policies, programmes and services for rural
women; community participation for women.


1. The rural women of Ghana, as agents of agricultural produc-
tion, help to form a strong backbone for the country's economy. The
rural woman is responsible for and actively involved in growing food
crops and also assists the man in the cultivation of cash crops. She
assists in clearing the land, planting, and is often wholly responsi-
ble for tending the crops and weeding once the planting has been done.
Women are involved in harvesting, storing and transporting crops for

2. Women in Botswana are responsible for and carry out many
crop operations, especially weeding, bird scaring, harvesting, thresh-
ing and storage. They also keep pigs and poultry and a number of
women are responsible for smallstock. Women have considerable in-
fluence on decision-making. In the absence of men, many women make
all decisions.

Constraints affecting Women in Food Production

This section should include general constraints, that is
those affecting men and women equally, such as inadequate marketing
infrastructure or limited extension services to the small farm family,
and those constraints which affect women specifically.


(i) General

-inadequate infrastructure (roads,
marketing); inadequate extension
outreach; producer incentives;
limited credit; availability of in-
puts (seeds, fertilizer etc.); labour
and technology;

-7 -

(ii) For women

organizations to assist women;
extension services directed mainly to
men; credit not available directly to
women; women's legal rights to land.

Sociological/ Men responsible for major decisions;
Cultural new technology considered "men only".

Logistical Access to transport for marketing; access to
transport by extension services; climate/
rains affecting mobility.

In analyzing the constraints, consider the following

1. Technical

What are the technical problems involved in hoe-ing and
weeding? Planting? Irrigation? Harvesting? Storing? Marketing?
Pest control? What are the training resources and inputs available to
women? Are there sufficient extension workers with adequate technical
expertise? What is the usage and availability of appropriate techno-
logy? Access to farm inputs?

2. Institutional/Technical Services

Are there existing local, regional and national services or
institutions which are likely to support the project more forcefully
and with more resources if it is formulated for women only/for both
sexes? In the absence of qualified personnel for promoting women's
concerns, policy makers and planners may find it difficult to address
these needs. Departments co-ordinating or directing Women's Affairs
may not have authority over technical ministries to promote women's
interests in rural development and may have limited capacity them-
selves for the implementation of agricultural projects which require
strong technical backstopping. If so, what mechanisms for effective
collaboration may be suggested?

3. Cultural/Familial

Have the development needs and desires of women in the
project areabeen establsihed eg. through community consultation;
research studies? Are there cultural conditions which prohibit or
encourage a certain approach? Will women's roles be enhanced or
diminished by focusing on a single/both sexes?


EXAMPLE: Botswana

Various constraints impede women's effective participation in
agricultural development in Botswana. These include:

(i) Land. Women are less likely to own land in their own
right and those who do have land are likely to
have smaller acreages than men.

(ii) Draft Power. Studies show that a larger percentage of
female-headed than male-headed households had
no cattle for ploughing.

(iii) Access to Extension and Credit. Rural women have only
limited access to agricultural extension and
training services. Since the extension service
is also responsible for delivery of credit,
rural women are therefore likely to have less
access to credit than men.

D. Family Food and Nutrition

Family food security and improved nutritional status are one
of the fundamental objectives of Women in Food Production projects.
The project design should therefore include an analysis of the exist-
ing food and nutrition situation, including food production and con-
sumption, the prevalence of nutritional disorders eg. protein-energy
malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, iron-deficiency anaemia. The major
factors contributing to the prevalence of nutritional disorders should
be indicated.


A project is a targeted response to a problem and its justi-
fication lies in its ability to resolve that problem.

The planner must answer the question "why is this project
needed?" by responding to the following points:

what problem is the project addressing?
how will the project resolve the problem?
who or what institution will benefit from the project?
what gap is the project filling?
how will women specially benefit from the project?
if the project is addressing purely economic, rather than
nutritional and economic needs, have any possible nega-
tive effects on nutritional status and food supplies been
guarded against?


Consideration should be taken on the following:

i) Overall project impact. What effects will the project
have on the economy? The women/men involved? The
over-all society? The government infrastructure? What
will it do? How will it do it? Why do it?

ii) Resolving the problem. What will be the long-range ef-
fects of resolving the problem? What will happen if the
problem is not resolved? Who will be affected?

iii) What are the cost-benefit criteria? On what grounds do
you justify the expense of a project? How do you jus-
tify a project monetarily, what is the cost-benefit ef-
fectiveness of the project? Is the project going to be
an asset or a liability for the government or implemen-
ting agency?

iv) How is the institutional capacity of the agencies
directly involved in the project strengthened or

v) Project targeting. What are the characteristics of the
proposed project beneficiaries? Are low-income groups/
nutritionally "at risk" groups adequately represented?


1. Sierra Leone is presently having structural imbalances and
basic economic problems. One of these problems is the wide gap bet-
ween consumption and production in the staple foods,particularly rice.
It has resulted in the high importation of rice and increased losses
in foreign exchange earnings.

Cassava can be considered as the second staple food in Sier-ra
Leone and in periods of acute shortage of rice it has been the altern-
ative basic food. Cassava is processed in many ways, mostly in the
house by women. The economic viability of cassava production for ex-
port to the European market is currently being examined.

Cassava is important not only as a crop but also because it
illustrates the complicated position with respect to the role of
women. Women frequently participate in the drudgery of its produc-
tion and are almost always the principal labourers in processing.

To increase the production of cassava and increase efficiency
in its processing would not only reduce dependence on rice, but would
also create savings in foreign exchange. Women would benefit directly
from the project through increased earnings from cassava production
and through easing of the workload in processing.

- 10 -

2. Many peasant families in Tanzania are now facing a serious
problem of post harvest grain losses, and subsequent food shortages,
owing to spoilage by rodents, grain weevils and the devastating large
grain borer. According to Ministry of Agriculture reports, it is
estimated that up to 30 per cent of harvested grain is lost in this
way. Household level storage facilities, where they exist, are very
inadequate both in capacity and quality. Recent research conducted by
the Ilonga and Uyole Agriculture Training Institutes strongly suggest
that family level storage could be improved sufficiently to ensure a
significant reduction in post harvest losses and so increase family
food security.


Project objectives should state the specific goals of action
programmes targeted to a defined group, in terms (for example) of
achievable improvements in overall status, security, productivity and
welfare. In the context of Women in Food Production, the ultimate
beneficiaries will be rural women and their families or institutions
providing services to women farmers.

There are two types of project objectives: long-term
objectives and short-term objectives.

A. Long-term Objectives

These should indicate the expected developmental impact or
continuing consequences of project implementation. Long-term object-
ives should show, for example:

how institutions will be permanently strengthened in order to
increase women's participation in the rural development process e.g.
through establishing increased access to extension services;
ensuring adequate participation in rural development planning;

what measures will be taken to assist women farmers in the
commercialization of farm enterprises as a means of increasing their
income levels e.g. through providing increased access to credit and
e marketing services;

how the production efficiency of women farmers will be increased
e.g. through the transfer of technology.

Long-term objectives should be carefully assessed in terms of
cost, feasibility and probable impact to ensure the optimum use of
resources and the attainment of development goals. Project beneficia-
ries must have access to any technology or technical expertise neces-
sary for the achievement of objectives. Where income generation is an
objective, marketing constraints must be fully taken into account.

The standards against which a proposed objective may be as-
sessed are called CRITERIA (*). The main criteria are:

(*) Based on "Selecting Interventions for Nutritional Improvement",
FAO, 1983.

- 11-

i) Relevance:
Does the objective relate to a definite problem? What
kinds of lasting benefits are expected?

ii) Feasibility:
Can the objective be achieved? What are the probable
technical and organizational constraints and how can
they be overcome?

iii) Cost-effectiveness:
What will be the cost in relation to the expected im-
pact? What resources, e.g. time, personnel, money,
materials, transport, will be needed?

iv) Targeting:
Can the stated beneficiaries be reached and
effectively assisted during the time frame of the

v) Evaluation:
Can the objective be evaluated? What indicators will
be used? Would adequate evaluation add significantly
to project costs?

vi) Impact:
What is the expected impact on food security, income,
nutrition status?

vii) Linkages with existing rural agricultural development
Is the objective in line with national policy? Is a
new programme required or can the objective be
achieved through strengthening of existing programmes?

Long-term objectives should be precise in indicating who
or which institution will benefit and how they will benefit from the

- 12 -


a) Poor examples of long-term objectives are:

to improve the well-being of the rural population with
particular reference to women farmers;

to improve the productivity and employment opportunities
of women, and hence raise their economic status, in rural

Both these examples are too vague. They do not indicate how
the well-being or productivity of women will be improved.

b) Good examples of long-term objectives are:

to increase the production of leguminous crops by rural
women, for income generation and home consumption, through
improved agricultural practices;

to develop a methodology for strengthening agricultural
extension services to women through the reorientation and
training of extension agents;
to establish agricultural credit facilities for women

to increase the income levels of women farmers through
training in basic marketing skills.

These objectives indicate who will benefit and how they will
benefit from the project, i.e. the expected impact is stated.

When long-term objectives have been defined, they should then
be assessed against the criteria mentioned above.

Some examples in applying the criteria to long-term objectives

1. Credit

Objective: To establish agricultural credit facilities for
women farmers.

i) Relevance

This is usually very relevant. Access to credit is
often a major factor influencing the adoption of
improved agricultural methods and technology. In many
countries, credit services are directly largely
towards men and uptake by women is low. The lowest
income farmers, however, are often unwilling to accept
the risks associated with short-term credit.

- 13 -

ii) Feasibility

The major constraint is likely to be cultural. In some
societies, men have considerable control over women's
financial affairs and traditionally a husband or male
relative must act as guarantor for loans to women.
Disbursement of credit through self-accounting Women
Farmer Groups can help overcome this problem.

iii) Cost-effectiveness

Recovery rates of credit to women are usually higher
than from male farmers. Credit systems operating
through Farmers Groups are more cost-effective than
individual credit systems.

iv) Targeting

Beneficiaries are normally reached through agricul-
tural extension services or a specific credit service.
Institutional strengthening may be required to ensure
that women farmers are aware of the availability of
credit and have ready access to it.

v) Evaluation

Direct evaluation of a credit programme through
records of credit uptake and repayment is relatively
easy. Indirect evaluation of the impact of credit on
production levels requires a farm record-keeping

vi) Impact

Given favourable weather conditions, access to credit
has very significant impact on agricultural producti-
vity and income levels.

vii) Linkages with existing programmes

Small farmer credit services exist in most countries.
It may be necessary, in the early stages of project
implementation, to open a special account for women
farmers until the appropriate institutional strength-
ening has been achieved.

- 14 -

2. Minor crop production

Objective: To increase production of leguminous crops by
rural women for income generation and home consumption.

i) Relevance

In many countries, these crops are popular and nutri-
tionally valuable items in the diet of rural communi-
ties. Their production is often mainly the concern of
women, who can obtain income from the sale of any sur-
plus above subsistence requirements. Levels of
production are usually low, due to inefficient
cultivation practices and/or non-availabi-lity of
improved seed and other inputs. This kind of activity
is generally very relevant.

ii) Feasibility

Provided climatic and soil conditions are favourable,
feasibility should be high. Yields can be increased by
improvements in cultivation practices eg. ridging, cor-
rect spacing, weeding, even if improved seed and ferti-
lizer cannot be made available.

iii) Cost-effectiveness

This will depend on inputs used eg. cost of improved
seed/fertilizer compared with expected yields.

iv) Targeting

Beneficiaries can be reached through the usual
extension methods, eg. Women Farmer groups.

v) Evaluation

Farm record-keeping systems can be used to determine
increases in production levels.

vi) Impact

This should be high, in terms of both improving family
food availability and increasing women's access to

vii) Linkages with existing services

Minor crops are often neglected by agricultural exten-
sion services. Institutional strengthening eg.extension
staff training, adaptive research, may be required to
facilitate implementation of this activity.

- 15 -

3. Improved grain storage

Objective: To reduce post-harvest storage losses of grain
through the promotion of improved methods of post-harvest grain

i) Relevance

This is usually high, but depends on existing methods
and the type of grain. Local varieties usually have
good storage properties, whereas hybrids often are more
susceptible to insect and mould attack. Protection
against rodents is usually very relevant.

ii) Feasibility

This depends on the type of improvements to be promo-
ted. Metal rat guards, for example, may not be fea-
sible in some rural areas where scrap metal is not
readily available.

iii) Cost-effectiveness

This depends on the cost of improvements. If these are
in the nature of storage hygiene, improved mud walls,
raising the height of granaries etc., then the cost-
effectiveness should be very favourable.

iv) Targeting

Beneficiaries can be reached through the usual exten-
sion methods. In some societies men are responsible
for granary construction and need to be involved in the
improvement programme.

v) Evaluation

Adoption of improved storage methods is easy to assess
by observation and through interviews. The impact on
storage losses is best done by specialist staff.

vi) Impact

This can be high in increasing household food availabi-
lity. Post-harvest losses of stored grain can be as
high as 30 per cent in some cases.

vii) Linkages with existing Services

Governments are giving increasing attention to the pro-
blem of post-harvest losses and it should therefore be
easy to integrate such a programme into existing

- 16 -

B. Short-term Objectives

Whilst long-term objectives consider the broader development/
economic/socio-political aspects of the project, short-term objectives
are expressed in more specific and immediate terms. They should make
a tangible and practical statement of an expected impact, related to
the achievement of a long-term objective, to be attained during the
period of project implementation.

Short-term objectives should be:

i) Specific:
Who will benefit? how will they benefit?

ii) Realistic:
Are resources available to meet the objective? is the
objective over-ambitious?

iii) Time-based:
Within what time-frame is the objective set?

iv) Measurable:
Is the objective stated in quantitative terms to allow
for future monitoring and evaluation?

v) Relevant:
Does the short-term objective relate to the accomplish-
ment of a long-term objective?


a) Poor examples of short-term objectives:

to establish women's processing groups in Bothe District
by the end of the first year of the project.

This example is time-based, but it is not specific or measur-
./able, in other words it does not say how many groups are involved and
what they will be processing. It is therefore not possible to judge
whether the objective is realistic.

to reduce the workload of women by 50 per cent in the
second year of the project by providing necessary inputs
and appropriate technologies.

This short-term objective is time-based, but it does not meet
any of the other requirements of a short-term objective.

- 17-

b) Good examples of short-term objectives:

to reduce by 50 percent the workload of 100 women in
groundnut harvesting in the second year of the project by
providing tested and appropriate groundnut lifters.

to provide a two-week training course each year of the
project duration for 30 women in the operation and main-
tenance of motorized cassava graters.

to establish 1/4 acre plots of mixed legumes by each mem-
ber of 10 Women's Clubs in the first eighteen months of
the project.

to provide reorientation and training for 20 extension
agents in extension methodology and communication through
annual one-week training courses.

to establish an appropriate marketing system for group
farm produce by November 1986.


More than one major activity may be required in order to
achieve an objective. Each major activity will, in turn, require se-
veral specific activities, which will be detailed in the project work-
plan prepared in the early stages of project implementation. A brief
description of major activities, but not the related specific activi-
ties, should be included in the project proposal.

Activities may be conducted simultaneously or in sequence,but
must relate to specific objectives. Types of project activity will be
varied and may include: research-feasibility studies; training; provi-
sion of agricultural inputs; workshops.

Activities should be described concisely, but should provide
enough information to allow the identification of all necessary inputs
such as manpower, training materials, time, funding, transport. These
inputs will then be detailed in the project workplan. Specifying pro-
ject activities enables the overall project design to be realistic in
terms of budgeting and manpower requirements.

When selecting project activities,the following points should
be considered:

i) are major activities related to short-term objectives?

ii) have the concerns of the beneficiaries been taken into

iii) are the activities specific enough to provide guidance
to project management and government?

iv) is the time allocated for project activities realistic?


18 -

v) is there sufficient information to allow the development
of a detailed workplan?

vi) do the activities connect and coordinate with each

The description of each major activity should include the
following points:

WHAT description of the project activity
WHY technical and economic need; justification for
the proposed activity
FOR WHOM description of the beneficiary or benefiting
BY WHOM institutions/persons responsible in planning and
implementing the proposed activity
HOW description of the technical strategy/plan for
activity implementation
WHERE locations of activities
WHEN time-frame or schedule of the activity

In the following examples, the links between objectives and
activities are illustrated. The descriptive paragraph for major acti-
vities is then given.


Long-term objective:

Related short-term

Major activities:

Specific activities:

To increase household food availability through
the reduction of post-harvest storage losses of

To promote the construction of five improved gra-
naries in each of six project sites, by women
farmers, before the 1987 harvest.

1. Selection of improved granaries
2. Extension and training

1.1 Identification of possible improved models
1.2 Field trials of various improved models
1.3 Selection of model for extension promotion


Extension staff training
Construction of demonstration granaries
Training of women farmers
Monitoring of adoption

- 19 -


Selection of Improved Granaries

The Crop Storage service has developed various models of gra-
nary with improved rat-proofing and insect-proofing qualities. Losses
by these means are estimated to be 15 per cent. These models will be
field-tested in the project area during the first storage season of
the project, the testing to be undertaken by a local specialist ins-
titution. Ease of adoption by farmers as well as effectiveness in re-
ducing losses will be criteria for selection of a model for extension
promotion. The project will provide all necessary materials and fund-
ing for the trials.

Extension and Training

A one-week training in the construction, maintenance and
hygiene of improved granaries will be provided for 20 agricultural
field assistants, with assistance from the Crop Storage service. This
training will be implemented after the field trials, in May of the
second year of the project. Each field assistant will then construct
a demonstration granary in his own working area as part of the exten-
sion programme. A one-week training course in crop storage and
improved granary construction will be organized for Group leaders from
18 Women's Groups in 6 project sites for June. Demonstrations and
field days for Women's Groups will be organized by field assistants.
The rate of adoption will be monitored. A comparison of storage los-
ses on a sub-sample of adopting and non-adopting farmers will be un-
dertaken, with assistance from the Crop Storage service.


Long-term objective:

Related short-term

Major activities:

To increase the productivity per unit area of se-
lected crops by strengthening agricultural exten-
sion and training services to women farmers.

To train a total of 120 women farmers annually in
improved cultivation methods for maize, ground-
nuts and beans through four annual one-week

1. Preparation of training programme content
2. Preparation of support materials
3. Course implementation and evaluation
4. Field monitoring and evaluation

- 20 -

Specific activities: 1.1 Assessment of current farming practices
1.2 Preparation of recommendations for improved
cultivation practices for each crop
1.3 Development of training course objectives,
content and timetable
1.4 Farmer selection

2.1 Selection of types of materials (posters,
flipcharts etc.)
2.2 Preparation of drafts
2.3 Field testing of drafts
2.4 Finalization and reproduction

3.1 Conduction of four training courses
3.2 Evaluation by staff and farmers

4.1 Preparation of reporting system
4.2 Reporting
4.3 Interpretation/analysis of information


Preparation of Training Programme Content

Data on current farming practices for maize, groundnuts and
beans will be obtained from the baseline information study to be car-
ried out November 19 to January 19--. Local adaptive research has
resulted in the development of recommendations for improved cultiva-
tion practices for local and improved varieties for these three crops.
The objectives, content and timetable for a practically-orientated
training course will be developed in March 19-- and implementation
will be prior to the next planting season, i.e. Aug-Sept 19--. Women's
Group leaders will be asked to nominate participants by mid-July.

The timing and duration of major activities should be
summarized in the form of a bar chart (see example on page 21

/ A summary of major project activities in chronological order
can be included as an Annex and will represent a provisional workplan
outline. This outline is intended as a guide for the preparation of a
detailed workplan by project staff in the early stages of project im-
plementation. An example is given in Annex I.

Specific activities have been included in these examples only
to illustrate the difference between major and specific activities.
Major activities only will be included in the project proposal.

Time Table of Activities

Major Activity

1. Appointment of
Natioril Director

2. Arrival of International
Project Manager

3. Establishment of
Advisory Committee

4. Community Consultation

5. Collection of Baseline

6. Initial Training of
Extension Staff

7. Farmer Training

8. Extension Programme
to Farmers

9. Marketing Study

10. Crop Trials


Year One

Year Two

4L---- C---- -- -

- -- -- -

Year Three -







Time Table of Activities (cont'd)


LMajor Activities

11. Preparation
of Agricult

4ear One


Year Two


A 4 4

/ Delivery

12. Nutrition Training

13. Marketing System
Ofr, a tiona L

14. Trials of Improved

15. Crop Storage

16. Monitoring of Farm

17. Mid-Term Evaluation


Year Three

I 1 I

Y ~


4 ~ .4 ~-


& ______________________________

- 23 -


The institutional framework of the project indicates where
overall responsibility for a project will be and should show the link-
ages and co-ordination with relevant technical units.

Whilst the overall execution of a project which deals prima-
rily with food production is usually more effective if the responsibi-
lity is assumed by the Ministry of Agriculture, in some cases Women
and Food Production programmes are the responsibility of Ministries or
Departments concerned with Women's Affairs. In this situation, the in-
stitutional framework must show clearly the linkages between the two
agencies which will ensure the smooth technical implementation of the

Once the technical and related agencies have been designated,
the institutional framework should provide information on their res-
pective roles. This information should include:

i) a summary of the agency's organizational structure and
location, staff resources and roles within governmental
organizational structure;

ii) identification of other agencies which will play an
indirect role;

iii) an explanation of the mechanisms for achieving co-
ordination among concerned agencies;

iv) physical location of the project's headquarters;

v) identification and training of counterparts who are
hired as project staff;

vi) if a task force is envisioned, details about its loca-
tion, function, structure and leadership.


The project will be implemented through the Federal Ministry
of Agriculture. Managerial staff will be provided by the Ministry
whilst FAO will provide technical and financial support. The project
will be headed by the National Project Director, Ministry of Agricul-
ture. FAO inputs will include technical experts, consultants, inputs
on policy and crop research. All material will be co-ordinated in col-
laboration with the National Director by a chief technical advisor
(the Project Manager) appointed by FAO. The national project director
will be assisted by six national country project staff. Each month, a
task force, consisting of one representative from FAO, the four tech-
nical departments concerned with project implementation, the Project
Manager, the National project director and representatives of the
Women's Bureau, will meet at the Ministry of Agriculture to review
project implementation.


Outputs are the specific products or services which an acti-
vity is expected to produce from its inputs (goods, funds, services,
manpower, technology and other resources) in order to achieve its

Examples of outputs in a rural development project are:

a) physical outcomes, eg. area irrigated; number of
co-operatives established; training centres constructed;

b) services provided, eg: farmers or extension agents
trained and credit services provided.

The summary of the project output should be in quantifiable
terms. It should state (where applicable):

the numbers of people involved and influenced by the
the percentage increase in food production by commodity;
the amount of credit disbursed and recovery rates;
numbers of people trained (farmers and national staff);
overall economic gains resulting from the project.

It is important to note that the project outputs must be
specified in relation to project costs as these are essential
indicators for analyzing the cost-benefit effectiveness of the


100 agricultural extension workers will receive In-Service
training in extension methodology and communication over a
three-year period;
maize yields will increase from 1,000 kg/ha to 3,500 kg/ha
over a three-year period;
fifty women will be trained in improved grain storage
methods over a three-year period;
five hundred and fifty women will be trained in improved
methods of cassava production over a three-year period;
ten demonstration vegetable gardens will be established
over a three-year period.


a) Monitoring and Evaluation

Monitoring and evaluation are activities and components which
must be considered from the beginning of project formulation. These
important functions are not meant to label any project "good" or
"bad", but are intended to improve the project management delivery
systems by adding objectivity and perspective on the overall design
and functioning of the project. Projects can be altered according to
the results obtained from monitoring and evaluation activities
throughout the on-going activities of the project. All participants,
from field workers to project managers should be acutely aware of the
monitoring and evaluation process to see if all project components are
working according to schedule and plan. Monitoring and evaluation
actively allow for review of all components of a project and the
phasing in of different cycles of a project.

- 24 -

- 25 -

Monitoring can be defined as the continuous or periodic
review and surveillance (overseeing) by management at every level of
the hierarchy of the implementation of an activity to ensure that in-
put deliveries, work schedules, targeted outputs and other required
actions are proceeding according to plan.

The purpose of monitoring is to achieve efficient and effect-
ive project performance by providing feedback to project management at
all levels. This enables management to improve operational plans and
to take timely corrective action in case of shortfalls and
constraints. Monitoring is thus a part of management information
system and is an internal activity. As an integral component of the
management function, and hence an essential part of good management
practices, monitoring needs to be conducted by those responsible for
project/programme implementation at every level of the hierarchy.

Close monitoring of projects allows the project manager and
participants to ask if the project is working at all levels according
to time frame. If not, the project activities can be altered so as to
assure success of the project. Monitoring allows for flexibility in
project design and implementation. Financial monitoring allows for an
analysis of budget expenditures within a certain time frame so as to
allow for sufficient funding throughout the duration of the project.

Evaluation is the process of determining systematically and
objectively the relevance, efficiency, effectiveness and impact of
activities in the light of their expected objectives. It is an organi-
zational process for improving activities still in progress and for
aiding management for future planning, programming and decision-

There are two types of evaluation processes. The Formative
Evaluation stresses process implementation. It is an ongoing function
that focuses attention on the step-by-step activities in formulating,
designing and implementing projects. Its primary goal is to offer
feedback on the day-to-day project functioning, and to ensure that
short-term objectives are obtainable within their stated time frame.
If goals are not being met, a form-ative evaluation can offer
alternate solutions to a particular project problem.

A second evaluation process, the Summative Evaluation occurs
at the end of a project. It focuses on the overall results, the
totality of project impact, and the attainment of long term impact and
accomplishments of the project, with overall conclusions as to the
success of the project.

The evaluation process usually asks who or which group has
benefitted (or has been adversely affected), by how much (compared to
the situation beforehand), in what manner (directly or indirectly),
and why (establishing causal or associative relationships between
activities and results to the extent possible).

- 26-

Whereas monitoring is carried out only during implementation,
evaluation is carried out:

i) during implementation (ongoing evaluation);
ii) at completion (Terminal evaluation 6 12 months after a
project is finished);
iii) some years after completion when the activity is expec-
ted to reach its full development and full impact (ex
post facto evaluation).

Tripartite Review takes place during the mid-term implementa-
tion of the project, to assess the progress of the project and to make
recommendations to be followed during the remaining implementation pe-
riod of the project. The participants of the Tripartite Review exer-
cise are the representatives of the Host Government, Donor Government
and the Executing Agency. Prior to the Tripartite Review a background
report is prepared by project staff for review by the members of the
Tripartite team. This report should contain information on the pro-
ject objectives, activities which have taken place, constraints and
difficulties encountered during implementation of the first phase,
recommendations for the future and resources needed to implement them.
An example of Terms of Reference for a Tripartite Review is given in
Annex II.

Indicators to be used in monitoring and evaluation should be
selected before project implementation and should be incorporated into
project reporting systems. Examples of indicators include: numbers
trained; vegetable gardens established; crop production; prevalence of
underweight in children; credit disbursed. Complete details of the
monitoring and evaluation system will be given in the project work

b) Research

A research component should only be included if its findings
can contribute to implementation and expansion of the existing project
or the development of a complementary new project. Applied research
must always relate to a problem or need affecting project implementa-
tion and its findings should facilitate project implementation.
Activities under the heading of "research" may include:

studies on women's roles in food systems, eg. marketing;
adaptive crop research or crop trials;
impact of projects on women's access to and use of income;
appropriate technologies to assist women in food produc-
tion and processing.

- 27-

The project proposal should include details of the expected
objectives or hypotheses to be tested and a summary outline of the
framework for the research activity. Full details will be developed
within the work plan prepared in the early stages of project
implementation. Cost and timing of the research activities should be
taken into account very carefully.


1. Six-Monthly Progress Reports

Progress Reports shall be prepared every six months and
submitted to FAO on 1 November for transmission by FAO to both the
recipient and financing governments. The reports will describe the
scheduled activities and provide data on which progress towards the
immediate objectives of the project may be evaluated.

2. Terminal Reports

A terminal report will be prepared at the end of the project
and submitted to FAO for the transmission to both the recipient and
financing governments. It will assess in a concise manner the extent
to which the project's scheduled activities have been carried out, its
outputs produced, its immediate objectives achieved, and the recom-
mendations for future work arising from the project.


Inputs are the manpower, funds, supply, equipment, services,
technology and other resources provided for an activity with the
expectation of producing specific outputs and achieving the objectives
of a project.

Inputs required from the donor agency should have an
explanation of why they are needed. They should consist of:

expertise/personnel (project manager, international
experts, national counterparts, extension workers,
travel (regional, headquarters/field, conferences,
contractual arrangements (universities, research centres);
supplies (tools, fertilizers, seeds);
equipment (vehicles, petrol, spare parts, machinery,
training (materials, staff);
facilities (storage facilities, classrooms, etc.).

Where technical assistance in terms of an International Pro-
ject Manager/Advisor is requested, terms of reference for this expert
should be provided. An example is given in Annex III.

Inputs expected as part of government contributions are es-
sential to the overall success of the project. Government input con-
tributions exhibit a sense of commitment and involvement on behalf of
the government towards the justification and success of the project.

- 28 -

Government contributions can be in :

personnel (host-country counterparts);
materials and supplies;
providing venue for training activities;

The contributions of both the donor agency and government
must be specified in the project input section of the proposal. It
should be clearly stated which agency is responsible for which input.

After itemizing inputs for each activity and arranging them
by source (international organizations, donor governments, national
governments, private associations, communal groups, participants,
etc.), cost estimates should be made for all the inputs and budgets
drawn up for the entire project. Most inputs can be costed in US
dollars using the guidelines of the administering organization. This
allows for easy adjustments for price increases if project implementa-
tion is delayed. However, for supplies to be purchased locally,
salaries of local personnel and stipends for participants, it may be
more practical to give the estimates in local currency, noting the
current exchange rates, and allowing for fluctuations in these rates
(see XI The Budget).

An example of Project Inputs in given in Annex IV.


The main features of the project should be summarized and
presented at the front of the project proposal document. The summary
should include the scope of the project, justification, main object-
ives and activities, management, institutional responsibility and the
duration of the project. The summary should preferably be no longer
than one page.

A cover page should also be provided. An example is given in
Annex V.


The project will be located in ........ District and will
improve household and community food security through the introduction
of improved grain storage methods at the household level and the in-
troduction of cereal banks at the village level. The efficiency of
grain processing will be increased by the provision of grain proces-
sing units.

Research has shown that the present 30 percent post-harvest
storage losses of maize can be reduced to 5 percent by low-cost
improvements to existing storage methods. The agricultural extension
service will establish demonstration units and provide training to
women's groups in improved storage methods.

- 29-

Cereal banks will be promoted to control seasonal price
fluctuations of maize. Community participation is well established in
the district, operating through village development and Women's Com-
mittes. The Women's Committees will receive training in the installa-
tion and management of cereal banks and will have access to loans from
a revolving fund for the establishment of grain banks. The Women's
Committees will also be responsible for the operation and management
of grain processing units, which will provide a non-profit-making
service to rural women. The revolving fund will provide loans for the
installation of the units, which will be electrically operated. Main-
line electricity is available in the District.

An internationally recruited Project Manager will be appoin-
ted and will report to the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of
Agriculture. A Project Advisory Committee including representatives
of the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Community Development,
the Ministry of Local Government and Co-operatives, the National
Women's Association will be responsible for project monitoring. A na-
tional counterpart will be appointed by the Government of ...........
The project will be of three years duration.


1. The Donor-Provided Budget

The Donor-Provided Budget should be broken down into catego-
ries, according to yearly time-frame and type of expense incurred:

A. Personnel (project manager, consultants, administrative
support, counterparts).
B. Official travel (field, regional, in-country,
C. Supplies and Equipment (vehicles and equipment, including
maintenance, spare parts, tools, fertilizers, seeds, bags,
hoses, etc.), office equipment (desks, chairs,
typewriters, xeroxes, paper and toner, audiovisual).
D. Training (extension workers, local women, short-term
staff, training materials).
E. Project Servicing Cost of 13 percent.
F. Contingency Costs of 10 percent.
G. Total year-by-year allotment.

2. Government Contributions

The Government-provided contributions should also be listed
according to category, year-by-year, as above.




10 Personnel Services

m/m 1986


International Project Manager -(12)
International Consultan'ts (3)
(incl. hon., travel & per diem)
Admin. Support Personnel

20 Official Travel

30 Commercial Services

Research and training institutions
Revolving funds
Reporting costs

40 General Operating Expenses
(incl. maintenance of vehicle
and equipment)

50 Supplies and Materials

Additional inputs to Income
Generating Activities
Expendable Supplies & Materials

60 Furniture & Equipment

Office Equipment
Audio-visual Equipment
Tools and implements

80 Training

Training of Ag. Ext. Tech.
Training of women




26,000 (2)































































- Local short-term for Ag.
Ext. Tech.

- Preparation of Training materials

m/m 1986









90 Project Servicing Cost 13%




Special Factor 10% p.a.


Rounded to



















820, 14







32 -


Additional Admin. Support Personnel

Extension Personnel

Office Space

Training Facilities

Other Facilities

1st Year







2nd Year







3rd Year


















1. Establishment of Coordi-
nating Committee

2. Appointment of National
Project Director

3. Arrival of Int. Project
Manager & Preparatory Mis-
sion consisting of Inter-
nal Consultant on Social
Impact Analysis and 2 FAO

4. Setting up of coordinat-
ing Committee at District

5. Collection of baseline data

6. Revolving fund established

7. Plan of Operation prepared
with rural women

8. Training of Women Ag.Ext.
Technicians (including
planning course)

9. Training of Village Women
in Management, marketing,
literacy, etc.

10. Women Ag.Ext. Technicians
reside in selected vil-
lages, set up demonstra-
tion centres & train rural
women in agric. & soil
conservation knowledge &

11. Marketing Survey to de-
termine possibilities for
vegetable, fruit & live-
stock income generating

12. Establishing marketing


Capital Min. of Agric.

Capital Coord. Comm.

Capital FAO








& Sur-


Project Direct./
Coord. Committee

Local researchers

Coord. Comm./Pro-
ject Div.

Proj.Div.P.M. &
Coord. Committee

Training Inst.
Project Dir. & P.M.

Extension Workers &
other Trainers

Ag. Ext. Tech.;
Project Dir.

Research Inst.

Proj. Dir.,P.M.
Dist. & Coord.

Starting Date
& Duration

July 1986

August 1986

September 1986

September 1986

September 1986

October 1986

October 1986

Oct./Nov. 1986

November 1986

November 1986


March 1987



13. Setting up Social Impact

14. Intensify or begin income-
generating Activities

15. Survey and evaluation of
ongoing activities of
selected women farmers
including time use

16. Intensification, testing &
demonstration of appropriate
technology equipment for
household and farm use

17. Continuation of training of
extension workers and
village women

18. Continued Monitoring of

19. Technical assessment of
project including increase
in yield, soil conservation
practices implemented; use
of tools and equipment,
marketing; management and
administration of activities

20. Mid-term review

21. Revision of project activi-
ties where necessary and
continuation of training &

22. Continuation of income-
generating projects, train-
ing & monitoring

23. Final Evaluation of Project

24. National Workshop to review
projects & extend success-
ful elements as government
ongoing activity










Research Inst.


Research Inst.
P.M. Consultants

P.D., P.M. & Agric.

P.D., P.M. and
Training Inst.

Consultant, P.D.
P.M. & Ext.Officer

P.M. Research Inst.


P.M., Consultants,
Ext. staff women



Site to be

Starting Date
& Duration

March 1987

April 1987

May-June 1987

May October

July 1987
June 1986

July 1987
June 1988

Feb. April

June 1988

July 1988

July 1988
May 1989

March April

June 1989



Project: Strengthening of the Rural Farm Family
Development Programme

Participants: Representatives of the Government of Norway
FAO and Host Government

Proposed Time: November 1987

Terms of Reference of the T.P.R.

a) to verify the status and progress of the project in terms of both
quantity and quality of the deliveries of inputs of both govern-
ment and executing agency;

b) to review the feasibility of the existing work plan;

c) to review the status of project expenditures and the feasibility
of the implementation of the allocated budgets, as scheduled;

d) to assess the extent to which the objectives of the project are
being, or will be, achieved;

e) to identify opportunities for improving project efficiency and
effectiveness, as well as problems hindering efficiency and

f) to agree on consequential action that can be taken locally or
recommended to other levels by parties concerned; and

g) to establish an action schedule with respect to follow up on
decisions taken during the T.P.R., with clear identification of
the parties responsible for the different required actions, and
with particular reference to work plan and budget rephasings and



International Project Manager

Duty Station: SIERRA LEONE Koinadugu District

The international Project Manager, in close collaboration
with the national Project Director, will be responsible for the
effective implementation of the project throughout the project life
and will provide the necessary technical assistance to ensure that
project activities will be carried out by the nationals after the
completion of the project. She/he should be an expert with consider-
able training and experience in agricultural rural development and
women's organizations. She/he will carry out the following specific

1) to assist in the preparation of detailed work plans for each
project site;
2) to assist in the design and implementation of a local needs
3) to organize, on the basis of the needs assessment, an ef-
fective cadre of national staff to carry out all project
activities required;
4) to assist in coordinating project activities with extension
and credit/marketing services;
5) to assist in the training activities required for extension
workers and rural women;
6) to administer all FAO inputs, including management of the
revolving fund which will be operated in collaboration with a
local financial institution;
7) to prepare a schedule and specifications for contractual ser-
vices, supplies and materials and furniture and equipment and
to order them either locally or through FAO Headquarters, as
8) to select the institutions which will provide training and
research under sub-contract;
9) to prepare six-monthly reports and a terminal report describ-
ing achievement, progress, negative and/or positive effects,
problems encountered and recommendations for future project
activities on the basis of project evaluation and social
impact analysis.


Inputs Required for the Implementation of the Project
"Support to Rural Women in Pig Production, Uganda"

No. of Units Unit Price Total
1. Pigs

Inpig gilts 45 172 7 740
Young boars (8-9 months) 15 100 1 500
Gilts (6-7 months) 30 86 2 580

Sub-Total 11 820

2. Transport

Land Rover (Diesel) 1 18 000 18 000
Spare Parts 10% 1 800
Motorcycles 125 cc 10 1 600 16 000
Spare parts 10% 160 1 600
Helmets 10 10 70 700
Bicycles 30 140 4 200
Spare parts 10% 14 420

Sub-Total 42 720

3. Educational Materials

Carousel projector with
case and remote control 1 695 695
Generator 1 600 600
Spare bulbs for above 6 7 42
Spare carousels 2 11 22
Acetate roll attachment 2 7 14
Acetate rolls 6 4 24
Boxes acetate sheets 6 5 30
Ext bracket for above 1 4 4
Pens suitable for writing on
Acetate sheets (black, red,
blue, green) 48 0.5 24
Econ screen 50" x 50" 1 19 19
16mm marie projector w/case 1 1 298 1 298
Spare reels 2 10 20
Lamps 6 19 114
Supply of backing spares for
16mm marie projector 98
Films on pig management
practices 5 50 250
Slide projector 1 50 50
Camera (35mm) 1 300 300
Film (rolls) 10 10 100
Black-boards 5 20 100
Dusters (Erasers) 10 2 20
Consumer education material 2 000

Sub-Total 5 824



FAO/Government Co-operative Programme


Project Title


Government Executing


External Assistance

Government Contribution

Sierra Leone

Integrated Agricultural Project for
Women through Community Action

Food and Agricultural Organization
of the United Nations

Ministry of Agriculture, Natural
Resources and Forestry

Three years

US$ 829,000

US$ 370,000

The cover page should be at the beginning of the document.

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