Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Training materials and concepts...
 Participation in practice
 Back Cover

Group Title: Economics of Sustainable Development catalogue
Title: Participatory Development catalogue
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089853/00005
 Material Information
Title: Participatory Development catalogue
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: International Institute for Environment and Development
Donor: Marianne Schmink ( endowment )
Publisher: International Institute for Environment and Development
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: 1996
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089853
Volume ID: VID00005
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Training materials and concepts for participatory development
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Participation in practice
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Back Cover
        Page 23
        Page 24
Full Text


Institute for
Environment and


( elebranng Tw.-ty F,e Yar


Celebrati, Ttwet' F-e Y ars

Institute for
Environment and

IIED is an independent, non-profit organisation which seeks to
promote sustainable patterns of development through re-
search, policy studies, consensus-building and public informa-
tion. Focusing on the connections between economic de-
velopment, the environment and human needs, the Institute's
principal aim is to improve the management of natural re-
sources so that countries of the South can improve living stand-
ards without jeopardising their natural resource base. Its work
is undertaken with, or on behalf of, governments and interna-
tional agencies, the academic community, foundations and
non-governmental organizations, community groups and the
peoples they represent.

The Institute is comprised of seven programmes which are
funded by international organizations and governments and
by private and corporate foundations. IIED is a registered
charity in the United Kingdom (No. 800066).

The set of IIED publication catalogues also includes:
Economics of Sustainable Development
Natural Resource Management & Sustainable Livelihoods
Planning for Sustainable Development
Urban Issues

International Institute for Environment and Development
3 Endsleigh Street, London WC1H ODD, UK
Tel: (+44 171) 388 2117 Fax: (+44 171) 388 2826
E-Mail: iieduk@gn.apc.org


The publications are listed in two sections:

Training Materials and Concepts for Participatory Development 4

Participation in Practice 7

Title and Author Index 21

IIED Programmes with publications listed in the
Participatory Development catalogue:

Sustainable Agriculture
Environmental Planning Group
Forestry and Land Use

Publications Manager: Marilyn John

Edited and compiled by Fiona Hinchcliffe
Designed and produced by Eileen Higgins
Printed by Russell Press Ltd, Nottingham

Every effort has been made to ensure accuracy in compiling this catalogue.
However, publication dates, prices and other details are subject to change without notice.

Training~~ Maeil an C-cfsfrhfspfr eeomo

hThe Myth of Community: Gender
Issues in Participatory Development
Edited by Irene Guijt and Meera Kaul Shah
When a process is described as 'participatory', most
people assume that this then includes everyone's
opinions, ideas or needs. Yet only in very rare cases will a
participatory discussion or planning process fully
represent the diversity of gender, age, class, religion, and
ethnicity of the community in question. This book aims to
encourage more critical reflection on, and above all
improved practice, regarding the integration of an
understanding of gender issues into participatory
development. It challenges the myth of community
cohesion that continues to permeate much supposedly
participatory work. The contributions will discuss how
participatory approaches have, and have not, dealt with
gender, and how gender studies deal, and do not deal,
with participatory development. The book comprises
theoretical reflections, practical experiences and
institutional examples from Asia, Africa, Latin
America, and Europe, covering a
wide range of sectors.

1AH your oc co1 ?

Participation in Environmental
Impact Assessment: A Review of
EPG Environmental Planning Issues Series No.11
Ross Hughes and Barry Dalal-Clayton
There is a slow global trend towards greater consultation
in EIA, but public involvement has mainly been limited to
asking questions and attending public meetings to
comment on proposals and EIA findings. This review
examines progress and opportunities to involve
stakeholders (project beneficiaries, affected peoples, etc.)
more effectively in the EIA process itself.

Participation in Strategies for '
Sustainable Development
EPG Environmental Planning Issues Series No.7
Stephen Bass, Barry Dalal-Clayton and Jules Pretty
This paper considers why participation in strategies is a
key to their success, and discusses the need to
complement the traditional science-based

approach with a people-centred
approach. It discusses what
participation means in practice, at both
field and policy levels. It also presents
the benefits of participation based on
the evidence to date, and explores the
challenge of defining and planning for
participation in future strategies.
118 pages, 1995 8.00


= Questions of Difference: PRA, Gender
and Environment
A multi-lingual trainer's pack comprising a video,
trainer's guide and slide set. Available in English,
French and Portuguese.
Irene Guijt
How women and men use, manage and are affected by
their natural environment is strongly influenced by their
socially determined roles and responsibilities. Participatory
Rural appraisal (PRA) can help development workers
explore the links between gender and the environment,
enabling more effective work with local communities. The
purpose of this pack is to provide training ideas and
audiovisual material to support those planning to facilitate
a workshop on PRA, gender and environment.

Questions of Difference: The Video
Overview (34 minutes): A summary of the key elements,
which are illustrated by three case studies. Structured as a
series of short thematic segments (2-14 minutes), this
enables trainers to select items to fit specific training
objectives and to stimulate discussion on related
People's Roles
Images and Realities
Key Questions
An Introduction to PRA
Thinking about Communication
PRA Methodsfor Analysis
Revealing Difference.

Case Studies (28 minutes each): Specific ___
case studies from a range of
agroecosystems demonstrating a sequence of methods in
detail. For use as fieldwork examples, or for more in-depth
study using hand-outs in the trainer's guide: Exploring
Mangrove Use in Pakistan; Exploring Drylands Use in
Burkina Faso; Exploring Biodiversity in Brazil.
Price: 25 for individuals & organizations in OECD
countries. 7 for individuals and organizations in the Third
World PAL and NTSC versions.

Questions of Difference:The Trainer's ]!I
Guide MMEM
The Trainer's Guide provides background material on
learner-centred training, and on the key issues relating to
gender and the environment. Trainers can use the
examples of different training modules to plan their own
sessions. Training strategies for developing
communication skills, using innovative exercises and PRA
methods, and facilitating the transition from the classroom
to the field are dealt with in detail. The final section
contains dozens of practical training exercises, and
provides training notes and hand-outs of case studies
from Pakistan, Burkina Faso and Brazil to complement the
video. Appendices provide key references and useful

Questions of Difference: The Slide Set n
60 slides, with annotations, from Brazil,
Burkina Faso and Pakistan that can be used to discuss
field methods in more detail, highlighting different
cultural issues, environmental concerns, and
communication needs.
ISBN: 1 899 825 150 (English) 1 899 825 258 (French);
1 899 825 207 (Portuguese)

A Trainer's Guide for Participatory Learning
and Action
Jules N Pretty, Irene Guijt, lan Scoones and John
Illustrations by Regina Faul-Doyle
This guide is designed for both experienced and new
trainers who have an interest in training others in the use
of participatory methods, whether they are researchers,
practitioners, policy-makers, villagers or trainers. The
* provides a comprehensive background to the principles
of adult learning;
* focuses on the facilitation skills necessary for effective
* describes group dynamics and how to build
interdisciplinary teams;


I Taiin Maeral ad Cncphfo Pafiipfoy Dveopel

Wi 1996 5

I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~I TriigMfail d.nsts o ifepfr eeom

* summarises the principles of participatory learning and
describes in detail the process of training, both in the
workshop and in the field;
suggests how to organise workshops, from laying the
groundwork to post-training evaluation;
details 101 interactive training games and exercises.
270 pages, 1995, ISBN: 1 899 825 002 14.95

How People Use Pictures: An Annotated
Bibliography and Review for Development
Sarah Murray Bradley
How People Use Pictures is the first comprehensive review
of the literature on visual literacy in over a decade and
offers new insights into this complicated issue. Written
for practitioners interested in communicating with local
people using pictures and visual symbols and for
researchers interested in gaining a deeper appreciation of
the 'language of the visual', this book provides detailed
annotations of over 100 key references, as well as an
extensive list of useful institutions and visual resources.
Ch 1 Pictures made by people for their own use; Ch 2 -
Visual literacy in the context of local and national
information systems; Ch 3 The relationship of visual and
verbal literacy; Ch 4 Pictures as codes for reality; Ch 5 -
Pictures and culture; Ch 6 Pictures seeing and
understanding; Ch 7 Communicating ideas with
diagrams; Annex 1 'How To' books; Annex 2 Resource
list; Indexes
123 pages; published by the British Council and IIED, 1995
ISBN: 1 899 825 05 3 10.00

Rapid Appraisal for Community Forestry:
The RA Process and Rapid Diagnostic Tools
Donald A. Messerschmidt
This is a book about rapid appraisal (RA) research for use
in forestry development, and particularly with community
or social forestry work. Written in the context of Nepal's
innovative new approach to forestry development through


community forestry, this guide is designed for forestry and
natural resource professionals, researchers, trainers and
academics worldwide. It provides a comprehensive guide
* RA and associated approaches, such as participatory
* the philosophy, concepts, and fundamental methods of
* applying RA in the field;
* data analysis and delivery;
* the use of rapid diagnostic tools for research, and
especially for social forestry.

There are many boxes of information throughout the text to
aid readers in identifying the literature and appreciating the
accumulated wisdom and knowledge of RA in an
abbreviated and highlighted format. A comprehensive
bibliography is provided at the end.
136 pages; 1995; ISBN: 1 899 825 10 X 10.00

OK, The Data's Lousy, But It's All We've Got
(Being a Critique of Conventional Methods)
Gerard Gill
Sustainable Agriculture Programme Gatekeeper Series
Number 38,20pp 1993. 3.00

Introduction a la M6thode Acc6ler6e de
Recherche Participative (MARP)
Quelques Notes Pour Appuyer Une Formation Pratique
Bara Gu6ye and Karen Schoonmaker-
One of the only detailed French documents on Rapid Rural
Appraisal (RRA), this clearly written and well-illustrated
introduction draws on work in francophone Africa. It
explains the principles underlying PRA, shows how it can
be used and describes the main methods in detail. The last
section is devoted to practical aspects of organising an RRA.
70 pages, 1991 8.00

SParticipatory Planning with Pastoralists:
some recent experiences
Ann Waters-Bayer, Wolfgang Bayer, Annette von
27 pp. 1995. Drylands Issue Paper No 58. 2.00

Planification participative en milieu
pastoral: Quelques experiences r6centes.
Ann Waters-Bayer, Wolfgang Bayer, Annette von
31 pp. 1995. Dossier des zones arides n 58. 2.00

uI r Moving Slowly and Reaching Far:
Institutionalising participatory planning
for child-centred community development
An interim analysis for Redd Barna
Irene Guijt
There are few documented examples of how an institution
goes about developing, implementing, and adjusting its
particular approach to participatory planning. Since 1994,
Redd Barna Uganda and the Sustainable Agriculture
Programme of IIED have been working to institutionalize
participatory planning for child-centred community
development. This report describes the first follow-up
phase which encompassed support to field staff; assessing
follow-up work at the community level; integrating vision,
strategy and procedures; and advice on training strategy.
Creating viable local partnerships, the need to produce
tangible benefits, quickly, and the limitations of a
Community Action Plan approach are also discussed. This
example might help other organizations think through the
implications of institutionalising participatory planning.
August 1995, IIED and Redd Barna-East Africa/ROTD,
Uganda. 80 pp 5.00

Working with Pastoralist NGOS and
Land Conflicts in Tanzania
A report on a workshop held in Terrat, Tanzania.
11th 15th December, 1994.
Mark Bradbury, Simon Fisher & Charles Lane.
The survival of pastoral communities and hunting and
gathering peoples in Tanzania is threatened by the
widespread alienation of communal lands. Government
and private interests are acquiring those lands for
commercial farming, mining, wildlife conservation and
military bases. In response, some pastoralists are
organising themselves to defend their rights. Violent
conflict often accompanies rapid social, political and
economic change. The conflicts between pastoralists and
competing land users in Tanzania are not large-scale
armed conflicts. They are nonetheless violent in their
impact, forcing pastoralists onto marginal lands and into
increasing poverty. Overt resistance has often been met
with human rights abuses.

This is a report of a "conflict resolution" training
workshop held in northern Tanzania, organised by a
forum of Pastoral Indigenous Non-governmental
Organizations which is working to protect the rights of
pastoralists in Tanzania. The workshop brought together
over forty representatives from Tanzania's Maasai and
Barabaig pastoral communities, as well as Hadzabe and
Ndorobo hunter and gatherers. The workshop explored
case studies of land alienation, customary ways of
handling conflict in Maasai and Barabaig societies, the
potential use of participatory techniques of analysis for
advocacy, and future strategies for addressing the issue of
land conflicts.

The report will be of interest to development planners and
researchers working with pastoralist peoples;
development practitioners and researchers in sustainable
resource management; human rights activists; and
activists and students of conflict resolution.
53 pp. 1995. Pastoral Land Tenure Series No 7. 5.00


Porf isipof !on in Proof ise

S 1996 7

It Is The Young Trees That Make a Thick
A Report on Redd Barna's Learning Experiences with
Participatory Rural Appraisal in Kyakatebe, Uganda
Edited by Irene Guijt, Andreas Fuglesang and Tony
Like many organizations working in development, Redd
Barna Uganda is seeking to develop more participatory
forms of community development, as well as better ways
to achieve their aims to recognize, analyse and address
intra-communal difference and human resource
development, and to recognize that children constitute an
important interest group in communities.

This report describes the beginnings of Redd Barna's
experiences with the use of PRA to support more child-
centred community development. It provides details of
the implicit and explicit analytical process followed by
trainees when dealing with the analysis of intra-
communal difference in Kyakatebe, a rural community in
Masaka District, Uganda.
188 pages, Published by IIED in association with Redd
Barna, 1994 8.00

Planning for a Change
Participatory Rural Appraisal for Community-Based
Edited by John Thompson, Jafar Shah and Erhard
Planning for a Change provides a detailed description of an
intensive PRA workshop and fieldwork organised by the
Kalam Integrated Development Project (KIDP) in Pakistan
in 1992, in association with Intercooperation, Switzerland
and IIED. It also describes the participatory village
planning and development activities arising from the
workshop over the past two years. The report offers a
candid and concise account of KIDP's experiences with
PRA and participatory village planning to date.
146 pages; published by IIED in association with the Kalam
Integrated Development Project, Pakistan and
Intercooperation, Switzerland, 1994 8.00


Adapting Tools for Local Forest Management
Report of an introductory workshop on Participatory
Rural Appraisal for community-led forest
conservation and development in Papua New
Edited by James Mayers, Basil Peutalo and Meera
Kaul Shah.
This report serves as an example for those interested in
PRA, and as a potential tool in the development of the
approach amongst other non-governmental and
governmental organizations and their supporters.
85 pages, 1994 5.00

Tecnicas de Communicacao Para
Relat6rio dum Semin6rio em Diagn6stico Rural
(Rapido) Participativo Santo Antao, Cape Verde
Edited by Irene Guijt and Koos Neefjes
This report describes the process and presents the findings
of a field-based workshop in Participatory Rural Appraisal
(PRA) on Santo Antao, Cape Verde. It demonstrates the
niche for PRA within catchment planning in two detailed
cases of watershed development and includes user's notes
on a range of PRA methods. It is one of the only documents
about PRA written in Portuguese.
142 pages; published by SARDEP and IIED, 1991 8.00

Fields, Fallow and Flexibility: Natural
Resource Management in Ndam Mor
Fademba, Senegal.
Results of a Rapid Rural Appraisal.
Mark & Karen Schoonmaker-Freudenberger
This paper presents the results of research done in October
1991 in the village of Ndam Mor Fademba, Senegal using
Rapid Rural Appraisal. The study looks at the way one
village manages its natural resources. In particular, the
study focuses on how resource use patterns have changed
over time as villagers have adapted their livelihood
strategies to periods of severe environmental stress,

Parficipofion in'PrIlefice

including twenty-three years of generally low and erratic
rainfall. The study presents contrary evidence to "myths"
behind past development activities in the region to suggest
that these assumptions need to be re-evaluated.
53 pp. IIED, 1993. Drylands Paper No 5. 5.00

Champs, Jach6re et Flexibilit6 La gestion
des resources naturelles 6 Ndame Mor
Fademba, S6negal.
Resultats d'une 6tude raalisbe selon la M6thode
Acc6elree de Recherche Participative.
Mark & Karen Schoonmaker-Freudenberger.
51pp. IIED, 1993. Document zones arides n0 5. 5.00

Participatory Education and Grassroots
Development: The case of rural Appalachia
J. Gaventa and H. Lewis
Sustainable Agriculture Programme Gatekeeper Series
Number 25.14pp. 1991 3.00

Rapid Rural Appraisal for Local Level
Planning, Wollo Province, Ethiopia
Edited by Irene Guijt and lan Scoones
IIED and the Ethiopian Red Cross Society were involved in
a series of Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) workshops
between 1988 and 1990. The collaboration was helping to
develop disaster response strategies focusing on local level
resource management. The focus of the workshop on
hillside closure and tree/woodlot management is
documented in (1). The final workshop documented in (2)
initiated the process of training the Development Agents to
use RRA as a planning tool in their daily work. In both
reports the use of focus group discussions and
diagramming methods is outlined, followed by a set of
possible actions identified as priorities for local
development. [Final workshop report also available in
84 pages; published by the Ethiopian Red Cross Society and
IIED, 1991 8.00

People's Participation in Environmental
Projects in Developing Countries.
Carel Drijver
17 pp. 1990. Drylands Issue Paper No 17. 2.00

La participation de la population dans les
projects 6cologiques, dans les pays en voie
de d6veloppement.
Carel Drijver.
18 pp. 1990. Dossier des zones arides no 17. 2.00

Grassroots Participation in Development.
16 pp. 1989. Drylands Issue Paper No 7. 2.00

Participation populaire au d6veloppement.
13 pp. 1989. Dossier des zones arides no 7. 2.00

Participatory Forestry a national seminar for
Malian NGOs. Segou, Mali, 19-21 September
1988 IIED.
3 pp. 1988. Drylands Issue Paper No 3. 2.00

La foresterie participative s6minaire
national pour ONG maliennes S6gou, Mali,
19-21 septembre 1988. IIED.
3 pp. 1988. Dossier des zones arides no 3. 2.00

Participatory Rapid Rural Appraisal in Wollo,
Peasant Association Planning for Natural Resource
Edited by lan Scoones and Jenny McCracken
93 pages; published by the Ethiopian Red Cross Society and
IIED, 1989 8.00


I Porticipifion in Proefies

1996 9

Building on IIED's work with Participatory Rural Appraisal
(PRA), the Drylands Programme is establishing a training
and research capacity in francophone West Africa with la
Methode active de recherche et de planification participatives
(MARP). Current publications include a report on the
regional training of trainers workshop held in Dakar,
Senegal and a training workshop held in Segou, Mali. In
addition, the first issue of our networking and information
bulletin Relais-MARP is now available. All publications are
available in French only.

L'apprentissage par I'exp6rience. Formation des
formateurs 6 la MARP. Niamey, Niger du 03 au 13
avril 1995.
Editf par Waly Douf & Mamadou Bara Gueye.
46 pp. IIED/UNSO, 1995. 5.00
L'utilisation de la MARP dans I'evaluation des actions
de developpement communautaire d'une ONG au
Mali. Rapport de I'atelier national de formation sur la
method active de recherche et de planification
participatives (MARP). Tabacoro, Mali du 03 au 14
janvier 1995.
Edit6 par Mamadou Bara Gueye.
81 pp. IIED/UNSO 1995. 8.00
Planification participative d'un project de gestion de
resources naturelles Atelier MARP: GTZ-PAGERNA,
Toubacouta, Senegal, 16-26 novembre 1994
Edit6 par Mamadou Bara Gueye
35pp. 1995. 8,00
Rapport de I'atelier de formation des formateurs du
reseau AFNETA -Cotonou, B6nin, 8-18 ao0t 1994.
Editf par Mamadou Bara Gueye
77pp. 1995. 8,00
Rapport de l'atelier regional sur le d6veloppement
de la MARP au Sahel Saly Pordudal, Sen6gal, 30
mai-4 juin 1994
Editf par Mamadou Bara Gueye
28pp. 1995. 5.00

Renforcer les capacit6s dans le domaine de la
planification participative des programmes de
gestion des terroirs au Sahel: Rapport de I'atelier
national de formation sur la m6thode active de
recherche et de planification participatives (MARP),
Maradi, Niger, 20 juin-ler juillet 1994
Edit6 par Mamadou Bara Gueye
136pp. 1994, 8.00
L'utilisation de la MARP dans le cadre de la gestion
des terroirs: Rapport de I'atelier de formation sur la
m6thode (MARP), Koudougou, Burkina Faso, 30
novembre-9 d6cembre 1993
Edit6 par Mamadou Bara Gueye
126pp.1994. 8.00
OXFAM initie ses partenaires 6 la m6thode
accel6r6e de recherche participative: Rapport de
I'atelier organism 6 Segou, Mali, 14-23 juin 1993
Edit6 par Mamadou Bara Gueye
74pp. 1993. 8.00
Rapport de I'atelier regional de formation de
formateurs sur la m6thode acc6elr6e de recherche
participative, Dakar, S6n6gal, 11-23 mai 1993
Edit6 par Mamadou Bara Gueye
133pp. 1993. 8.00

Bulletin de liaison et d'6changes d'informations sur la
M6thode Active de Recherche et de Planification
(Networking bulletin for information exchange on PLA).

NumBro 2: Innovations m6thodologiques et exigence
de quality. 37 pp.
Edited par Mamadou Bara Gueye.
IIED, 1994. 8.00
Num6ro 1: Outils, techniques et attitudes: le partage de
guelques experiences 53 pp.
Edit par Mamadou Bara Gueye.
IIED, 1993. 8.00
(gratult pour les orc.a,:r,ic.:ti.r, et individus des pays en
Ce bulletin n'est disponible qu'en francals,


Participation in Pro'et'les

1 1996

Notes on Participatory Learning and
Action PLA Notes (formerly RRA Notes)
Distributed in February, June and October
Participatory learning and action has been adopted by
the Sustainable Agriculture Programme as a collective
term to describe the growing body of participatory
approaches and methodologies. Established in 1988
and formerly known as RRA Notes, the principal aim of
the periodical Notes on Participatory Learning and
Action is to enable practitioners of participatory
methodologies throughout the world to share their field
experiences, conceptual reflections and methodological
ISSN 1357-938X

Subscribing to PLA Notes
PLA Notes is distributed three times a year in February,
June and October. It is free to subscribers who have

PLA Notes 25: February 1996
Includes a special issue on children's participation
MI Editorial
1. Sharing Experiences of Participation in Latin
America: A workshop report Costanza de Toma
2. PRA for Risk Reduction: Lessons from Mozambique -
Ailsa Holloway and Diane Lindsey
3. Retrospective Community Mapping: A tool for
community education Wilbert Z. Sadomba
4. Revealing Gender Differences through Well-being
Ranking in Uganda -Janet Seeley, Januario Nabaitu, Lorraine
Taylor, Ellen Kajura, Tanance Bukenya, Elizabeth Kabunga and
Fatuninma i.;,
5. Stumbling Towards GenderAware PRA Training in
Indonesia Judith Dent
6. Staff Perceptions of the Impact of PRA on MYRADA's
Work Robert Leurs
7. Facilitating PRA Amidst War: Experiences from Sierra
Leone Ann C. Hudock
Special Issue: Children's Participation
8. Introduction: Starting a Dialogue on Children's
Participation Victoria Johnson
9. Children's i,1 -,- and the Changing Face of Work in the

difficulty obtaining foreign exchange (those from non-
OECD countries) and 15/$25 a year to subscribers in
OECD countries (but free to libraries). Alternatively you
can now save money by subscribing for two years at the
reduced rate of 28 or $47.

To subscribe to PLA Notes, please contact IIED's
Sustainable Agriculture Programme and ask for a
subscription form.

Back-copies of PLA Notes
It is also possible to order back-copies of PLA Notes.
For requests from OECD countries:
Issues 1-10: 3 each
Issues 11-24: 6 each
Full set of backcopies: 15% discount off total

Please note that we can supply one free back-copy to
requests from non-OECD countries and libraries

Field Brian Milne
10. Children as Special Citizens Louise Chawla and Anne
Trine Kjorholt
11. Institutionalising Children's Participation in
Development Michael Edwards
12. Action Research with Street Children: A role for street
educators Olga Nieuwenhuys
13. PRA with Street Children in Nepal Rachel Baker
14. Participatory Interactions with Street Children in Nepal -
Pashupati Sapkota and Junita Sharma
15. Whither Children's Hour? An experimental PRA among
labouring rural children N. Narayanasamy, B. R. Dwaraki, B.
; .,,i....,.. .; and R. Ramesh
16. Children and Participatory Appraisals: Experiences from
Vietnam Joachim Theis
17. Young People, Participatory Research and Experiences of
Leaving Care Andrew West
18. Teenage Facilitators: Barriers to improving adolescent
sexual health Tilly Sellers and Martin Westerby
19. The Process of Empowerment: Lessons from the work of
Peace Child International David Woollcombe
20. Tips for Trainers
In Touch...


1996 11

isipation in Proatice

PLA Notes 24: October 1995
Critical reflections from practice
Editorial: Critical Reflections on the Practice of PRA Irene
Guijt and Andrea C., ,r ill
PRA and Social Anthropology
1. Editorial: Context and Complexity: Anthropological
reflections on PRA Andrea Cornwall and Sue Fleming
2. Participatory Rural Appraisal: A quick and dirty
critique Paul Richards
3. PRA and Anthropology: Challenges and dilemmas Ian
4. Trades in Different Worlds: Listening to refugee voices -
Rachel Hinton
5. Social Analysis in Participatory Rural Development -
David Mosse
6. Participatory Appraisal and Education for
Empowerment? Korrie de Koning
7. Consensus or Cover-up? The limitations of group
meetings Johan Pottier and Patrick Orone
Politics and Practicalities
8. PRA, Social Tremors and Rolling Heads: Thoughts on
PRA and empowerment Judith Appleton
9. Participatory Methods: Precipitating or avoiding
conflict? Parmesh Shah and Meera Kaul Shah
10. Linking PRA-based Research to Policy Victoria
11. Making the Best of Going to Scale Robert Chambers
12. Only Playing with Beans? Participatory approaches in
large-scale government programmes Christoph Backhaus
and Rukman l. ',,. ,..,'
13. Participatory Approaches in Save the Children Fund,
UK Louisa Gosling
14. Development of PRA in Francophone Africa: Lessons
from the Sahel Bara Gueye
15. The Respective Merits of RRA and Conventional
Methods For Longer-Term Research Kathrin Schreckenberg
16. PRA: A new literacy? Anna Robinson-Pant
17. Tips for Trainers
In Touch....

PLA Notes 23: June 1995
Includes section on participatory approaches to
HIV/AIDS programmes
1. A Strategic Approach to Community Development
Planning: The case of a rural community in Belize -
Michael Warner
2. Force-Field Analysis: Identifying forces for and against
change Richard Montgomery
3. A Participatory Methodology for Community-Based
Land and Resource Use Planning: A case study from
Tanzania Derek Armitage and Suman Garcha
4. Who Should Choose? Community Participation in
Prioritising Road Network Rehabilitation -Nick Osborne
5. Villagers in Sri Lanka Plan Their Future in Partnership
With Government Development Authorities Kamal Kar,
Gareth Phillips and Sunil Liyanage
6. Participation In Scotland: The Rural Development
Forestry Programme Andy Inglis and Ann Lussignea
7. Identifying and Tackling Poverty: ActionAid's
experiences in Vietnam Carrie Turk
8. Some Notes On Conducting PRA Training in Nepal -
Saloni S. "i and Birendra Bir Basnyat
9. Storytelling for Participatory Rural Appraisal Wouter
de Groot, Franke Toornstra and Francis Tarla
10. Using PRA for a Radical New Approach to Adult
Literacy David Archer
Participatory Approaches to HIV/AIDS Programmes
11. Introduction Alice; k, ..
12. Using PRA to Assess Community HIV Risk Factors:
Experiences from rural Uganda Joseph Ssembatya, Anne
Coghlan, Rachel Lumala and Deo Kituusibwa
13. A Participatory Approach to Promoting AIDS
Awareness in Thailand Dusit Duangsa
14. Participatory Educational Theatre for HIV/AIDS
Awareness in Kenya Roger Chamberlain, Mindy
C','ii. Lenin Ogolla and Ochieng '\, ...1. ,,1
15. Community Mobilisation Against HIV Infection in
Kenya Tilly Sellers and AJ Oloo
16. Tips for Trainers: Leadership Circles
In Touch...


Parfielpeflon 10'Proefies, I

PLA Notes 22: February 1995
1. Sharing our Concerns and Looking to the Future
2. Handle with Care! Rapid Studies and the Poor Clas
I ....., Vesa-Matti Loiske, Wilhelnm Ostberg and Claude
3. PRA and Raised Expectations: Potentials and Pitfalls -
Richard Edwards
4. The Grandfather Graph Nurul Islam Nazem and Pete
5. Social Maps and Geographical Transects some recent
experiences in Orissa, India Prahlad Mishra and Gayatree
6. Women Prefer Lunchtime Clans Euler
7. Beyond Ranking: Exploring relative preferences in P/
RRA Simon Maxwell and Claud Bart
8. Defending the Land with Maps Derek Denniston (with
Andrew Leake)
9. PRA in a Health Education, Water and Sanitation Project
in Kenya David Adriance
10. RRA in Coastal Resource Planning: Malampaya Sound,
The Philippines Michael Pido
11. Rehabilitating Minor Irrigation Tanks S. Kasivelu,
Rupert Howes and John Devavaram
12. Diagrams in Demographic Data Collection: Examples
from the Tembomvura, Zimbabwe Ravai Marindo-
13. PRA for Self-Reliant Rural Development: The case of a
resettlement area in Ethiopia Savina Ammassari
14. A Participatory Organisational Appraisal of ACORD -
Mick Howes and Chris Roche
15. Ranking Constraints in a Community Forestry and Soil
Conservation Programme Kebede Asrat
16. PRA for People and Parks: The case of Mole National
Park, Ghana John Mason and Elijah Danso
17. The Use of RRA in Conservation Expeditions:
Experiences from Sierra Leone Sarah Pocknell and Danny
18. Tips for Trainers: Non-Verbal Sequences

RRA Notes 21: November 1994
Special Issue: Participatory tools and methods in
urban areas
Editorial: Addressing the Gaps or Dispelling the Myths?:
Participatory Approaches in Low Income-Urban
Communities Diana Mitlin and John Thompson
1. Urban Management Training, Action Learning and
Rapid Analysis Methods Philip Amis
2. Rapid Assessment Procedures in Urban Communities:
The Experience of the Health and Habitat Project in Barrio
San Jorge, Argentina Silvina Arrossi
3. Regaining Knowledge: An Appeal to Abandon Illusions
- Joel Bolnick and Sheela Patel
4. The Death of the Clinic? Participatory Urban Appraisal
(PUA) in a Dominican Barrio Hilary Cottam
5. Participatory Needs Assessment in the Peri-urban Areas
of Lusaka, Zambia Michael Drinkwater
6. PALM in Slum Improvement Projects: a Training
Experience from India Sheelu Francis
7. Showing What You Mean (Not Just T li k, bout It) -
Tony Gibson
8. Targeting Aid to the Poorest in Urban Ethiopia is it
Possible? Rapid Urban Appraisal Martin Leach
9. Observations on Urban Applications of PRA Methods
from Ghana and Zambia: Participatory Poverty
Assessments Andy Norton
10. Linking Government Agents and Local Users: PUA for
Artisanal Fishing Port Development Rene Reusen and Jan
11. Community Participation in the Sustainable
Development of Human Settlements in Mexico City -
Gustavo Romero, Patricia Nava and Lilia Palacios
12. Community Participation and Empowerment: Putting
Theory into Practice David Wilcox
13. Bottom-up Planning for Urban Development: the
Development Planning for Real Pilot Project Ellen Wratten
14. The Million Houses Programme in Sri Lanka
15. Endnotes


1996 13

sipation in prostles

RRA Notes 20: April 1994
Special Issue: Livestock
Editorial: PRA and Livestock Development: Some
Challenges Cathy Watson and Adrian Cullis
1. A Review of PRA Methods for Livestock Research and
Development Kate Kirsopp-Reed
Case Studies: Animal Health
2. Ethnoveterinary Question List Barbara Grandin and
John Young
3. Planning a Community Animal Health Care Programme
in Afghanistan Tim Leyland
4. Seasonal Disease Incidence in the Sanaag Region of
Somaliland David Hadrill and Haroon Yusuf
5. Livestock Healthcare for Tibetan Agro-Pastoralists:
Application of Rapid Rural Appraisal Techniques Claire
Si tT., ,,if..
6. Evaluation of an Animal Health Improvement
Programme in Nepal John Young, Henk-Peter Dijkema,
Karen Stoufer, Narayan Ojha, Goma Shrestha and Lava Thapa
Case Studies: Animal Production
7. Sheep Husbandry Among Tzotzil Indians: Who Learns
from Whom? Rail Perezgrovas, Marisela Peralta and
Pastor Pedraza
8. The Progeny History Data Collection Technique: A Case
Study from Samburu District, Kenya Karen lies
9. Rapid Appraisal Techniques: A Tool for Planning and
Managing Animal Health and Production Development
Programmes Mauro Ghirotti
10. Ranking with Shagaa in Mongolia -Adrian Cullis
Case Studies: Natural Resource Management
11. Browse Ranking in Zimbabwe Ian Scoones
12. Natural Resource Mapping and Seasonal Variations
and Stresses in Mongolia Robin Mearns, D. Shombodon, G.
Narangerel, U. Tuul, A. Enkhamgalan, B. Myagmarzhav, B.
Bayanjargal and B. Bekhsuren
13. Mapping of Seasonal Migrations in the Sanaag Region
of Somaliland David Hadrill and Haroon Yusuf
Case Studies: Socio-Economic Dimensions
14. Pastoral Production in Mongolia from a Gender
Perspective Louise Cooper and Narangerel Gelezhamstin
15. Historical Matrices: A Method for Monitoring Changes
in Seasonal Consumption Patterns in Mongolia Louise

Cooper and Narangerel Gelezhamstin
16. Livestock, Livelihood and Drought: A PRA Exercise in
Botswana Neela Mikherjee
17. Proportional Piling in Turkana: A Case Study Cathy
18. Evaluation of a Community-Based Buffalo Project in
Tamil Nadu John Devavarain
19. The Problem and Solution Game Jeremy Swift and
Abdi Noor Umar
20. Success Ranking in Garba Tulla, Kenya Stella Maranga
21. Livestock, Livelihood and Change: The Versatility and
Richness of Historical Matrices Karen and Mark
Schoonmaker Freudenberger
Case Studies: Land Tenure, Conflict and Institutions
22. The Application of PRA Methods to the Study of
Conflict Management in a Pastoral Society Michael Bollig
23. Institution Ranking and Social Mapping in Rural
Mongolia Robin Mearns and D. F.'..; :.,. i
24. Livestock Rehabilitation Programme in Mozambique -
Anabela Braganca
25. Endnotes

RRA Notes 19: February 1994
Special Issue: Training
Editorial: Training for Learning Jules Pretty
Training in Universities
1. PRA Training in Universities: Some Thoughts Prompted
by a Recent Workshop in Canada -Andy Inglis and Janice
2. RRA Training in a UK-Based Rural Development
Course Mick Hozoes
3. PRA Exercise in an Indian Village A Retrospective
Evaluation of the Process N. Narayanasamy
4. RRA Training in a US Masters Programme: The
Director's View Stephen Howzard
5. RRA Training in a US Masters Programme: The
Students' View Tracy Mygrant
6. Learning by Doing to Enhance Local Initiatives Marc
7. PRA Training for Health Workers Neela Mukherjee
Reflections of New Trainees
8. Some Reflections of a New PRA Participant: The Action
Researcher Kavita Srivastava


Participation in Practice

9. Some Reflections of a New PRA Participant: The
Development Manager -Manu N. Kulkarni
Reflective Learning of Trainers
10. Extracts from a Trainer's Notebook Alice Welbourn
11. Reflections of a Trainer James Mascarenhas
The Forgotten Issues: Training Areas Commonly
12. Making a Difference: Integrating Gender Analysis into
PRA Training Irene Guijt
13. From Participatory
Appraisal to Participatory
Practice: Viewing Training
as Part of a Broader Process
of Institutional
Development John
14. Some Insights into
Training for Rapid and
Participatory Appraisal in a '
Northern Setting Uwe C
Kievelitz and Reiner Forster
15. PRA Training
Workshops: Follow up
Issues from Uganda and --
Ethiopia Parmesh Shah
PRA Training for Special
16. Participatory Rural
Appraisal in Women's
Health Education Project in
Bangladesh Marcy Vigoda
17. Applying the Methods
to a New Context David
18. PRA Learning Methods
in Agricultural Policy Analysis: Implications for Training -
Gerry Gill
19. Training in Rapid Rural Appraisal for Baseline Data
Collection and Target Group Identification Bill Duggan
20. Applying PRA Methods to Participatory Monitoring
and Evaluation: Report on a Course Held in El Obeid,
Sudan Suzanne iin..... ,
21. Training of Village Analysts: from PRA Methods to

Process Parmesh Shah and Meera Kaul Shah
22. PRA Training for Church Workers: An Example from
Tanzania Thomas Kroeck
23. PRA Training in the Participants' Workplace: an
Example from Kenya Kenneth K. Odero
Training Tips and Ideas
24. Juggling Game to Energise a Seminar Sarah Holden
25. Twenty-One Ways of Forming Groups Robert
26. Twenty-One Tips for
Short PRA Workshops with
Lots of People Robert
27. Endnotes

RRA Notes 18: June 1993
1. Genealogies as a Method
of Social Mapping in PRA -
(i David Mosse and Mona
2. Are Some
1 = ==1OP "Participatory" Techniques
S(\ ) I Culturally Biased? (Or: Are
-3 7 We Hooked on Mom's
Apple Pie?) Gerard J Gill
3. Community Self Survey -
Huub Gaymans and Yanti
4. Learning to Use RRA
and PRA to Improve the
Activities of Two Landcare
Groups in Australia Tony
5. Finding Out How People
Prioritise Their Food Security Problems in Chad: the
Challenges of RRA at National Level M. Buchanan-Smith,
K. .',,o ,. ... M Saleh Abdelmajid, A. Allemane, I. F.;, -. it,;
Behonm, S. Djel, B. Idrissa, U. Kleih, B. \, !,:.l,. ,, F. Riviere,
A. Sainibi, D. Tambayo and B. Vandou
6. Community Participation in Small and Big Villages N.
Narayanasamy and M.P. Boraian
7. Some Observations on Wealth Ranking after an RRA
Looking at Soil Fertility Management in Northeastern


elpotion in, Proof Ws'

- 1996 15

Zimbabwe S. Carter, A. Chidiamassamba, P. Jeranyama, B.
Mafukidze, G. Malakela, Z. Mvena, M. Mudhara, N. Nabane,
S. Van Oosterhout-Campbell, L. Price and N. Sithole
8. Wealth Ranking for Agricultural Research Purposes in
the Eastern Hills of Nepal G.O'G Sharrock, K. Waldie and
Y. Joshi
9. FARMI's Experiences on Wealth Ranking in the
Philippines: Different Farmers Have Different Needs L.
Tung and F. Balihia
10. PRA: An Approach to Find Felt Needs of Crop
Varieties M. Manoharan, K. Velayudham and N.
11. Tips for Trainers: Symbolic Introductions
12. Endnotes

RRA Notes 17: March 1993
1. Correspondence Corner
2. Helicopters at Nhlangwini Raymond Auerbach
3. Resource Flow Venn Diagrams: a Two-in-One
Approach Rama Gounder, K. Natarajamoorthy, C.
Ci,;,,:,r:.,,;,; P. Nasuredeen, R. Ganesan, N. -I.,,n.r ,i ..- ,
V.A. Sakunthala, J. Rao
4. Measuring Agroecosystems Properties: Adaptation of
Matrix Scoring Technique -M. ;,i.eb :,;,, A. 1;d,:l.n. S.
Jeeva, A. Kumar, K.C. John, Mr. and Mrs. Marappan
5. Sorting Fact from Opinion: the Use of a Direct Matrix to
Evaluate Finger Millet Varieties Michael Drinkwater
6. Ranking in Planning of Emergency Programme in
Angola Marie-Noelle Vieu
7. The Role of Focus Group Interviews in Assessing the
Primary Health Care and Family Planning Programme in
India Abusaleh Shariff and Pravin Visaria
8. Comparison of RRA and Intensive Residential Study:
the Case of Marit, Plateau State, Nigeria RRA Workshop
Participants (Marit Team) and Newcastle Li:i ,.:,'.
E ,l i,,* *'i
9. Women's PRA in Hindupur Eva Robinson
10. Examples of PRA in Wetland Development in Guinea
Bissau Koos Neefies
11. Rapid Appraisal of Organisational Cultures: a
Challenge for Field Work Uzwe Kievelitz and Rolf-Dieter
12. Methodological Innovations in Burkina Faso with

Village Network Mapping Irene Guijt
13. Tips for Trainers: the Margolis Wheel

RRA Notes 16: July 1992
Special Issue: Applications for Health
Editorial Alice Welbourn (Guest Editor)
1. Rapid Appraisal for Health: An Overview Susan Rifkin
2. Participatory Rural Appraisal: Potential Applications in
Family Planning, Health and Nutrition Programmes -
Richard Heaver
Discussions with Communities
3. Qualitative Methods for Assessing the Acceptability of
Immunization in Somalia -Anne LaFond
4. Unemployment and Health: the Development of the Use
of PRA in Identified Communities in Staveley, North
Derbyshire Teresa Cresswell
5. Community-based Information Systems Francesca Moneti
Illustrated Discussions
6. Training Workshop on Participatory Rural Appraisal for
Planning Health Projects Sheelu Francis, John Devavaranm,
Arunothayam Erskin
7. Trends in Health Care Alok Kumar
8. Participatory Rural Appraisal in Identifying Major Illness,
Healthcare Providers and Costs Sam Joseph
9. A Little Experience of PRA Exercise Conducted at
Mecluskigang Mahadeo Sahu and Ranjan Tirkey
10. Extract from: Participatory Rural Appraisal for Nepal:
Concepts and Methods. A Guide to the Slide Presentation -
Lorna Campbell and Gerard J Gill
11. Participatory Methods for Research on Women's
Reproductive Health Elizabeth Tolley and Margaret E. Bentley
12. Body Mapping in Health RRA/PRA Andrea Cornwall
13. Notes from a Food and Nutrition PRA in a Guinean
Fishing Village Judith Appleton
14. A Note on the Use of Disease Problem Ranking with
Relation to Socio-economic Well-being: An Example from
Sierra Leone Alice \ \-Ii ....I
South America
15. Exploring the Potential for Primary Environmental Care:
Rapid Appraisal in Squatter Communities in Salvador da


Participation in Practice

Bahia (Brazil) P. de Coloinbani, G. Borrini, M.C. Meira de
Melo, M. Irshaid
16. Actual or Potential Uses of RRA/PRA Methods in
Health and Nutrition.

RRA Notes 15: May 1992
Special Issue: Wealth Ranking
1. The Elusive Poor: A Wealth of Ways to Find Them.
Report on IDS/IIED Seminar on Wealth and Well-Being
Ranking Irene Guijt
2. Wealth Ranking in the Gambia: Which Households
Participated in the FITT
Programme? -Marie-Therese
3. Villagers' Perceptions of
Rural Poverty Through the
Mapping Methods of PRA -
Neela Mikherjee
4. The "Beans-Game" -
Experiences with a Variation
of Wealth Ranking in the
Kivu Region, Eastern Zaire -
Stefanie S Schaefer
5. Direct and Indirect Uses of
Wealth Ranking in Mongolia
- Robin Mcarns, D. o/
Shombodon, G. Narangerel, LU. .
Turul, A. Enkhamngalan, B. .
Myagmarzhav, A. Z:i.;,,,; *Il .i-
and B. Bekhsuren
6. Finding the Poorest in a Tamil Nadu Village: A Sequence
of Mapping and Wealth Ranking -Jules Pretty, S.
Subramnanian, N. Kempu CI... ri, D. Ananthakrishnan, C.
Jayanthi, S. \ ,,.,.I ,, ......,,., and K . .. .,,
7. A Simple Method for Scoring Housing Conditions as
Income Proxy in Ethiopia Mauro Ghirotti
8. FARMI's Experiences of Wealth Ranking in the
Philippines: Different Farmers Have Different Needs -F.T.
Banlina and Ly Ti, "i
9. Cultural Sensitivities on the Rapid Appraisal Team -
Donald A. Messerschmidt

10. Interviewing Cows Kassaye Hadgu, Mohammed Yisehak
and Girmay Tekle
11. An Architect from a Different School Ranjit Ambastha
and Meera Shah
12. Together get a Grip on the Future: RRA in the
Emmental of Switzerland Ueli Scheuenreier and Raymond
13. A User's Note on Wealth Ranking by Cards and List of
Sources on Wealth Ranking Irene Guijt
14. NEW!!!! Tips for Trainers: Fruit Salad
15. Endnotes

RRA Notes 14: December
1. But How Does It Compare
With the REAL Data? Gerard J.
o o 2. RRA and the Analysis of
Difference- Alice Welbourn
o L 3. Participatory Modelling in
North Omo, Ethiopia:
Investigating the Perceptions of
SDifferent Groups through
Models Ejigu Jonfa, Haile
o Mariam Tebeje, Tadesse Dessalegn,
SHailu Halala and Andrea Cornwall
S 4. Shoulder Tapping: A
Technique of Training in
Participatory Rural Appraisal -
Anil Shah
5. "Pass on the Pen" Approach: Identifying the Poorest of
the Poor Families K Chandramouli
6. The Use of the School Essay as an RRA Technique: A
Case Study from Bong County, Liberia Jennifer A Sutton
and Blair D Orr
7. Methodological Notes on Exploring Indigenous
Knowledge and Management of Crop Health James
8. The Thippapur Experience: A PRA Diary Somesh Kumar
and A Santhi Kumari
9. RRA Notes Readership Survey The Editors
10. Endnotes


Parfirsipation in Proefies


Li 1996 17

RRA Notes 13: August 1991
Proceedings of the February 1991 Bangalore PRA
trainers' workshop, IIED/MYRADA.
Edited by James Mascarenhas, Parmesh Shah, Sam Joseph,
Ravi Jayakaran, John Devavaram, Vidya Ramachandran,
Aloysius Fernandez, Robert Chambers and Jules Pretty
Overview of PRA in India: Review and Future Directions
- James Mascarenhas, Parmesh Shah, Sam Joseph, Ravi
Jayakaran, John Devavaram, Vidya Ramachandran, Aloysius
Fernandez, Robert Chambers and Jules Pretty

1. PRA and Participatory Learning Methods: Recent
Experiences from MYRADA and South India James
2. Sharing our Limited Experience for Trainers Aloysius
Fernandez, James Mascarenhas and Vidya Ramachandran
3. Participatory Rural Appraisal and Planning (PRAP):
The Experience of AKRSP Parmesh Shah, Girish
Bharadwaj and Ranjit Ambastha
4. Farmers as Analysts and Facilitators in Participatory
Rural Appraisal and Planning Parmesh Shah, Girish
Bharadwaj and Ranjit Ambastha
5. PRA in Malda District, West Bengal: Report of a
Training Workshop forActionAid India and Tagore Society
for Rural Development Thomas Joseph and Sam Joseph
6. PRA for Rural Resource Management John Devavaram,
Ms Nalini, J. Vimalnathan, Abdul Sukkar, Krishnan, A P
Mayandi and Karunanidhi
7. Anantapur Experiment in PRA Training Somesh Kumar
8. PRA Camp at Mahilong, Bihar: Krishi Gram Vikas
Kendra Ravi Jayakaran
9. Wealth Ranking in Mahilong, Bihar Anup Sarkar
10. PRA Approach and Strategy: the HIDA/MYRADA
Agroforestry Programme in Andhra Pradesh Eva
11. Participatory Impact Monitoring of a Soil and Water
Conservation Programme by Farmers, Extension
Volunteers and AKRSP Parmesh Shah, Girish Bharadwaj
and Ranjit Ambastha
12. PRA: A Brief Note on ActionAid's Experience Sam
13. MYRADA Kamasamudram Project: A Brief Report A

L Shivaraja, Rajendra Prasad, T G Bhat, Anjaneya P. .,.!
Amarnatha Jadav and Benedicta Cutinha

RRA Notes 12: July 1991
1. Some Advantages to Having an Outsider on the Team -
Don Messerschmidt
2. Revolutionary Rural Appraisal Susan Johnson
3. Participatory Mapping and Modelling: User's Notes -
James Mascarenhas & P D Prem Kumar
4. Rapid Appraisal for Women in the North West Frontier
of Pakistan Mehreen Hosain
5. Harvesting Local Forestry Knowledge: A Comparison
of RRA and Conventional Surveys Andy Inglis
6. Beyond Chapatis Mick Howes
7. Topical Surveys as a Tool for a More Dynamic Farmer-
Extension Worker Relationship Antony van der Loo
8. Endnotes

RRA Notes 11: May 1991
Special issue: Proceedings of joint IIED and
Development Administration Group (University of
Birmingham), local level Adaptive Planning
Workshop, London.
Includes a summary of workshop presentations and
discussions (Jules Pretty and Ian Scoones) and 15 individual
papers covering five thematic areas, namely: A Critique of
Landuse Planning (Barry Dalal-Clayton, Adrian Wood);
Applications of Participatory PlanningApproaches (Tony
Gibson, Margie Buchanan Smith and Susanna Davies, Chris
Roche, Melissa Leach); Institutionalising Local Level
Planning (Donald Curtis, Robin Grimble, Martin Adams,
Mary Tiffin, Henri Roggeri, Robert Leurs, Mal Jumare, A
Andeley and S Ogede); Governments and NGOs Linkages
(Kate Wellard, Tony Bebbington); and Organisational and
Management Issues (Alan Fowler).

RRA Notes 10: February 1991
1. Farmer Participation on On-Farm Varietal Trials:
Multilocational Testing under Resource Poor Conditions -
The women of Sangams, Pastapur & Michel Pimbert
2. Rural Development in the Highlands of North America:
The Highlander Economic Education Project John
Gaventa & Helen Lewis


Pedicipation in Prosties

3. Assessing Women's Needs in Gaza Using Participatory
Rapid Appraisal Techniques Heather Grady, Anmal Abu
Daqqa, Fadwa Hassanein, Fatma Soboh, Itimad Muhana,
Maysoon Louzon, Noha el-Beheisi, Rawhiya Fayyad, Salwa el-
Tibi and Joachim Theis
4. The Bias of Interviewing John Mitchell & Hugo Slim
5. The Outsider Effect Ueli Scheuermeier
6. Focusing Formal Surveys in Thailand: A Use for Rapid
Rural Appraisal Karen Ehlers and Christine Martins

RRA Notes 9: August 1990
1. Wealth Ranking: A Method to Identify the Poorest -
Verona Grovernman
2. Rapid Rural Appraisal: Lessons Learnt from
Experiences in the Philippines Victoria Ortega-Espaldon &
Leonardo Florece
3. Some Techniques for Rapid Rural Appraisal of Artisanal
Infrastructures Godfrey Cromwell
4. Hearing Aids for Interviewing John Mitchell and Hugo
5. Participatory Rural Appraisal: Is it Culturally Neutral?
Thoughts from a PRA in Guinea-Bissau Weyman Fussell

RRA Notes 8: January 1990
1. Nutrition and RRA ji ai, Appleton
2. The Use of Wealth Ranking in Nutrition Surveys in
Sudan -Helen Young
3. The Role of Community Participants in RRA Methods
in Ethiopia Dessalegn Debebe
4. Attitudes to Income-Earning Opportunities: Report of a
Ranking Exercise in Ethiopia Simon 'I., . II
5. Economic Classification of a Community Using Locally
Generated Criteria Parmesh Shah
6. Publications: Manuals and Guidelines -Jennifer

RRA Notes 7: September 1989
Special issue of proceedings of second joint IDS/
IIED RRA review workshop, Sussex, England.
Includes summaries of presented papers on topics of
diagrams, aerial photographs, interviews and groups,
ranking, health, participatory approaches, and monitoring

and evaluation (Papers by Jules Pretty, Ruth Alsop, Ueli
Scheuermeier, Robert Leurs, Peter Dewees, Robin Mearns,
Howard Jones, Anne Floquet, Ian Scoones, Miranda Munro,
Susan Rifkin and Hugh Annet, Pauline Ong, John Thompson
& Peter Veit, Jennifer McCracken, David Potten & Mike
Howes). Also includes notes on discussions of these topics,
plus the ideology of RRA, the dangers of RRA, training in
RRA, and the future of RRA.

RRA Notes 6: June 1989
1. Rapid Assessment of Artisanal Systems: A Case Study
of Rural Carpentry Enterprises in Zimbabwe Godfrey
2. The Rural Rides of William Cobbett: RRA and
Sustainable Agriculture in 1820s Jules Pretty
3. A Note on the Use of Aerial Photographs for Land Use
Planning on a Settlement Site in Ethiopia Dick Sandford
4. Using Rapid Rural Appraisal for Project Identification:
Report on a training exercise in Jama' are Local
Government Area, Bauchi State, Northern Nigeria -
Michael Hubbard, Robert Leurs & Andrew Nickson
5. Visualising Group Discussions with Impromptu
Cartoons Ueli Scheuermeier
6. The Use of Community Theatre in Project Evaluation:
An Experiment from Zimbabwe Andrea Cornaoll, Mathou
Chakavanda, Simbisai Makumbirofa, Guilter Shumba &
Abraham Mawere

RRA Notes 5: May 1989
1. Letter to the Editor Barbara Grandin
2. The "Fertiliser Bush" Game: A Participatory Means of
Communication Kristin Cashman
3. Rapid Appraisal for Fuelwood Planning in Nepal -John
4. Rapid Food Security Assessment: A Pilot Exercise in
Sudan Simon Maxwell
5. RRA Has a Role to Play in Developed Countries Peter
Ampt & Raymond Ison


Q' 1996 19

Participifion in Tradies

RRA Notes 4: February 1989
1. Wealth Ranking in a Caste Area of India Ruth
2. Popular Theatre through Video in Costa Rica Keith
3. Participatory RRA in Gujarat -Jennifer McCracken
4. Successful Networking!

RRA Notes 3: December 1988
1. Ranking of Browse Species by Cattlekeepers in Nigeria
Wolfgang Bayer
2. Direct Matrix Ranking in Papua New Guinea Robin
3. Sustainability Analysis -lain Craig
4. Oral Histories and Local Calendars Robin Mearns
5. Portraits and Stories Jules Pretty
6. Bibliographic Notes

RRA Notes 2: October 1988
1.Using RRA to Formulate a Village Resources
Management Plan, Mbusanyi, Kenya Charity Kabntha &
Richard Ford
2. Learning About Wealth: An example from Zimbabwe -
Ian Scoones
3. Investigating Poverty: An example from Tanzania -
Sheila Smith & Join Sender

RRA Notes 1: June 1988
1.RRA Methods Workshop in Thailand Jules Pretty
2. Notes of an RRA Meeting held in Sussex Robert

3. Pairwise Ranking in Ethiopia Gordon Conway
4. Direct Matrix Ranking in Kenya and West Bengal -
Robert Chambers
5. Recent Publications enn ifer McCracken


Participation !A Proctles

Title Index

Adapting tools for local forest management: report of an
introductory workshop on Participatory Rural Appraisal
for community-led forest conservation and
development in Papua New Guinea 8
Applications for Health: Special issue of RRA Notes 16
Children's Participation: Special issue of PLA Notes 11
Fields, Fallow and Flexibility: Natural Resource
Management in Ndam Mor Fademba, Senegal 8
Grassroots Participation in Development 9
How People Use Pictures: An Annotated Bibliography and
Review for Development Workers 6

Introduction a la Methode Acc6ler6e de Recherche
Participative (MARP): Quelques Notes Pour Appuyer Une
Formation Pratique 6
It Is The Young Trees That Make a Thick Forest: A Report on
Redd Barna's Learning Experiences with Participatory
Rural Appraisal in Kyakatebe, Uganda 8
Livestock: special issue of RRA Notes 14
Moving Slowly and Reaching Far: Institutionalising
participatory planning for child-centred community
development 7
The Myth of Community: Gender Issues in Participatory
Development 4
Notes on Participatory Learning and Action PLA Notes 11

OK, The Data's Lousy, But It's All We've Got (Being a Critique
of Conventional Methods) 6

Participation in Environmental Impact Assessment: A
Review of Issues 4
Participation in Strategies for Sustainable Development 4
Participatory approaches in HIV/AIDS Programmes: special
issue of PLA Notes 12
Participatory Education and Grassroots Development: The
case of rural Appalachia 9
Participatory Forestry a national seminar for Malian NGOs
Participatory Planning with Pastoralists: some recent
experiences 7
Participatory Rapid Rural Appraisal in Wollo, Ethiopia:
Peasant Association Planning for Natural Resource
Management 9
Participatory Tools and Methods in Urban Areas: special
issue of RRA Notes 13
People's Participation in Environmental Projects in
Developing Countries 9
PLA Notes 22-25 9-13
Planning for a Change: Participatory Rural Appraisal for
Community-Based Development 8
Questions of Difference: PRA, Gender and Environment 5
Rapid Appraisal for Community Forestry: The RA Process
and Rapid Diagnostic Tools 6
Rapid Rural Appraisal for Local Level Planning, Wollo
Province, Ethiopia 9
RRA Notes 1-21 13-20
Relais Marp Bulletin (French) 10
R6seau MARP/MARP Network Publications (French) 10
Tecnicas de Communicacdo Para Extensionistas: Relat6rio
dum Semin6rio em Diagn6stico Rural (Rapido)
Participativo Santo Antao, Cape Verde 8
Trainer's Guide for Participatory Learning and Action 5
Training: Special issue of RRA Notes 14
Wealth Ranking: Special issue of RRA Notes 17
Working with Pastoralist NGOs and Land Conflicts in
Tanzania 7


Index --

1996 21

Author Index

Bass, Stephen
Bradbury, Mark
Bayer, Wolfgang
Dalal-Clayton, Barry
Cornwall, Andrea
Cullis, Adrian
Douf, Waly
Drijver, Carel
Fisher, Simon
Foellmi, Erhard
Fuglesang, Andreas
Gaventa, J
Gill, Gerald
Guijt, Irene
Gueye, Bara
Hughes, Ross
Kisadha, Tony
Lane, Charles
Lewis, H


Mayers, James
McCracken, Jenny
Messerschmidt, Donald
Mitlin, Diana
Murray Bradley, Sarah
Neefjes, Koos
Peutalo, Basil
Pretty, Jules
Scoones, lan
Schoonmaker-Freudenberger, Karen
Schoonmaker-Freudenberger, Mark
Shah, Jafar
Shah, Meera Kaul
Thompson, John
von Lossau, Annette
Waters-Bayer, Ann
Watson, Cathy
Welbourn, Alice


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