Women Safety Leaders, Inc.
FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF WOMEN SAFETY LEADERS, INC.
Compiled by the
Women Safety Leaders, Inc.
STATE OF FLORIDA
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REUBIN O'D. ASKEW
GOVERNOR'S HIGHWAY SAFETY COMMISSION
POST OFFICE BOX 1853
102 SOUTH CALHOUN STREET
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA 32301
October 9, 1972
Thank you for your interest in one of the most challenging
problems facing Florida today; traffic safety. Much has
been written and said about this vital topic, but only
after thousands of other citizens follow the leadership
you are providing in this field will we be truly success-
ful in dealing with this problem.
As a safety volunteer, you will be working with hundreds of
other men and women throughout Florida, and will be backed
up by many State, local and federal agencies, also working
to improve our safety climate.
Please continue to demonstrate your interest in the highway
safety field, and more importantly, encourage other members
of your family, as well as your neighbors, to share this
While it is not possible to work side by side with you and
your associates personally, I pledge to do everything in my
power to help in this fight through the efforts of the
Governor's Highway Safety Commission. Together we will
make Florida's highways the safest in the nation to travel.
J.-. Wright, Jr.
The social pressures of today's complex life create a
demand for a greater exercise of personal responsibility. In
the safety field men have sought to meet this demand through the
technical avenues of Enforcement, Engineering and Education.
Women by their very nature, see things in the context of the
family. Probably it is the recognition of this quality in women
which has prompted safety experts today to seek their leadership
in the work of accident prevention.
One fact stands out. Safety features may be built into
roads and cars; mass media may use their facilities to alert the
public; laws may be enacted; but always there remains the person.
This person, a driver or a pedestrian, is the target of our
concern. This person is our hope.
To reach these individuals, men, women or children and
make them aware of safety, we have developed this workbook.
Here, we have suggested program ideas for all civic organizations,
clubs and small groups.
Your organization should choose the programs most need-
ed in your community. Check with your local law enforcement
officers and safety director. If you stay within the guidelines
of the enclosed calendar, you will find statewide emphasis on the
projects you undertake.
This book can be used from year to year. We hope you
will put it in a binder and pass it on to the incoming safety
chairman of your organization. New activities will be added as
they are developed, and can be inserted in this workbook.
For further information write:
Mrs. William R. Kidd, Chairman
Florida Association of Women Safety Leaders, Inc.
Post Office Box 1222
Ocala, Florida 32670
The enclosed programs have been indexed by
calendar to spread them throughout the year.
They may be used anytime.
This workbook has been planned so that each
program can be removed and used individually
for your organization meeting.
By removing the staple and inserting the
material in a loose leaf notebook you will
find this workbook convenient to use.
INDEX & CALENDAR
YEAR AROUND PROGRAMS
The Highway Safety Program Standards
Greater Tampa Alcohol Safety Action Project
National Safety Council Defensive Driving Course
"C & C" Driver Control and Cooperation
Safety Booster ARRIVE ALIVE
School Bus Safety
High School Safety Councils
First A Friend...Then a Host
Safety on the Streets
Operation Self Defense
Operation Safe Child
Drug Alert Drug Abuse
Home Safety for Retired People
Toys and Play Equipment
Power Mower Safety
Traffic Court Visits
THE ORIGINAL EIGHTEEN FEDERAL STANDARDS
1. Periodic Motor Vehicle Inspection
2. Motor Vehicle Registration
3. Motorcycle Safety
4. Driver Education
5. Driver Licensing
6. Codes and Laws
7. Traffic Courts
8. Alcohol in Relation to Highway Safety
9. Identification & Surveillance of Accident
10. Traffic Records
11. Emergency Medical Services
12. Highway Design, Construction & Maintenance
13. Traffic Control Devices
14. Pedestrian Safety
15. Police Traffic Services
16. Debris Hazard Control and Cleanup
17. Pupil Transportation Safety
18. Accident Investigation and Reporting
In November of 1971 the National Highway Traffic Safety Adminis-
tration proposed nine standards designed to replace the original
Eighteen Federal Standards.
In proposing the revised standards the NHTSA pointed out that the
principal objectives are "(1) to incorporate countermeasure con-
cepts which have been developed or refined since the issuance of
the current standards, (2) to refine the program evaluation
requirements of the standards, and (3) to achieve a greater utili-
cation of performance objectives and performance oriented language."
It is planned that the proposed standards will be published in the
Federal Register in the near future giving opportunities for
private comment prior to final issuance of the new standards early
in January 1973. They will serve as the basis for the development
page 2 PROPOSED STANDARDS
of future state and local highway traffic safety programs. Flex-
ibility should be allowed states and local units of government in
adopting and implementing these standards as well as the prepara-
tion of priorities and program development. This is very important
because conditions vary from state to state and between local units
1. PROPOSED STANDARD PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION AND EVALUATION
This standard establishes the performance requirements
of a State Highway Traffic Safety Program. They are designed
to assist in coordination and communication among all levels
This standard is designed to assure that State highway
traffic safety programs are: (1) based upon a thorough
analysis of the highway traffic safety problems existing in
the State, (2) coordinated to include all the political sub-
divisions of the State, (3) coordinated to include appropriate
elements of the State government, (4) comprehensive to include
all aspects of highway safety, and (5) effective in applying
the human, financial and technological resources.
2. PROPOSED STANDARD TRAFFIC LAWS, RULES,AND REGULATIONS
This standard establishes requirements for a State Highway
Traffic Safety Program, including the adoption of uniform
traffic laws, rules, and regulations to govern motor vehicle
and pedestrian traffic on the public streets and highways.
This standard is designed to assist the States in achiev-
ing and maintaining a reasonable degree of uniformity among
traffic laws and regulations that are deemed essential for the
safe, efficient and equitable use of the highways.
3. PROPOSED STANDARD VEHICLE REQUIREMENTS
This standard establishes performance requirements for the
Vehicle Requirements activities of a State Highway Traffic
Safety Program. These requirements are designed to fulfill the
needs of highway traffic safety, and be compatible with motor
vehicle ownership, operation, repair and maintenance.
This standard is designed to encourage and maximize its
safety potential as in information, identification and control W
mechanism. The program functions as a central system that
identifies and describes each vehicle and its owner and provides
essential support to other highway safety program standards.
page 3 PROPOSED STANDARDS
The Equipment standard is designed to insure that safety
equipment installed on new vehicles is not removed or rendered
ineffective or inoperative.
The Vehicle Repair and Maintenance standard is designed
to insure the safe operating condition of all vehicles that are
in use upon the highways of the nation.
4. PROPOSED STANDARD TRAFFIC SAFETY EDUCATION
This standard establishes performance requirements for a
State highway traffic safety program in the areas of motor
vehicles, drivers, pupil transportation and other vehicle
operators, and pedestrians.
This standard is designed to provide a program to improve
the quality of skills and knowledge of highway users.
5. PROPOSED STANDARD DRIVER LICENSING
This standard establishes performance requirements for a
State highway safety program related to the examination, re-
examination and licensing of drivers; the administration of
driver improvement programs; and the development and mainten-
ance of a driver information system.
This standard is designed to provide a program to improve
the quality of driving by insuring that only persons physically
and mentally qualified will be licensed to operate a motor
vehicle by implementing more effective and uniform licensing
procedures. The program is designed further to prevent need-
lessly removing the opportunity of the citizen to drive through
application of driver improvement techniques.
6. PROPOSED STANDARD POLICE TRAFFIC SERVICES
This standard establishes performance requirements for a
State highway traffic safety program for police traffic ser-
vices which include the primary functions of accident investi-
gation, traffic law enforcement, traffic direction, debris
hazard control and restoration of traffic flow.
This standard is designed to provide a program to insure
that police traffic supervision is efficiently and effectively
administered and performed in a manner designed to reduce
traffic accidents, deaths and injuries.
page 4 PROPOSED STANDARDS
7. PROPOSED STANDARD ADJUDICATION SYSTEMS
This standard establishes performance requirements for
an Adjudication Systems State highway traffic safety program
whose goal is to reduce traffic offense recidivism rates
through the use of appropriate punishment, training, and re-
This standard is designed to develop a balanced local
and Statewide adjudication system which will promote highway
safety through prompt, impartial, and effective adjudication
of traffic law violations.
8. PROPOSED STANDARD TRAFFIC RECORDS SYSTEMS
This standard establishes performance requirements for a
State highway traffic safety program in the area of traffic
The standard is designed to assure that appropriate data
on drivers, motor vehicles, highway and motor vehicle traffic
accidents are gathered, are compatible, and are entered into the
records system, retrievable and used for analysis in planning,
evaluating and furthering highway safety program goals of crash,
injury and death reduction.
9. PROPOSED STANDARD EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES
This standard establishes performance requirements for the
Emergency Medical Services of a State Highway Traffic Safety
Program. They are designed to fulfill highway safety needs and
to be compatible with, and satisfy the needs of non-highway re-
quirements of an emergency medical system.
This standard is designed to provide life-sustaining and
morbidity-reducing emergency medical care at the scene of a
highway accident and in transit to a medical facility, where
definitive medical treatment can be rendered.
When these standards are finally adopted these pages can be replaced.
To educate and alert the citizens of the state
as to needed safety legislation and methods to
assure its passage.
1. Find out from your Safety Council, law enforcement
officers or this office what legislation is needed.
2. Make sure that you and all the members of your
organization are knowledgeable and understand the
laws in effect and new ones needed.
3. Plan a safety meeting where the needs can be
thoroughly discussed and be sure people in authority
are there to answer questions.
4. After you understand the needs make sure that your
Legislators know how you feel about proposed
legislation. If you can't call in person, write
letters. Just be sure your views are heard.
5. When the laws are passed, review them and then make
every effort to obey them. Encourage people to
back up their enforcement officers.
6. Do a similar program at the local level to be sure
local ordinances are understood and enforced. If
any are obsolete, work to have them corrected.
7. Make your community aware of laws and then encourage
1. Include Alcohol Safety Ouestion in License Examination and Driver Handbook.
2. Provide for Certification by the License Applicant Regarding Previous Arrests and
Treatment for Alcoholism.
3. Record in Driver's Record Alcohol Related Traffic Convictions from Court Records.
4. Record in Driver's Record Non-Traffic Alcohol Related Convictions.
5. Record in Driver's Record all Alcohol-Related Information from Social Health Agency Records.
6. Provide for Flagging Vehicle Record for Cars Owned by Problem Drinkers.
7. Provide for Including Chemical Test Data in Accident Record.
8. Provide for Chemical Tests and Specify Concentrations.
9. Provide for Implied Consent for Chemical Tests.
10. Require License Revocation if Test is Refused.
11. Set Specification and Procedures for Chemical Tests.
12. Establish Qualifications for Alcohol Safety Personnel.
13. Provide for Special Enforcement of Drinking-Driving Laws.
14. Provide for Special Training on Breath Testing Equipment
15. Determine Locations and Times of Day of Accidents Involving Drinking Pedestrians.
16. Require Presentence Investigation of Convicted Drinking Drivers.
17. Provide for Referral of Problem Drinkers for Treatment
18. Establish Medical Advisory Boards (MAB's) for Licensing Agency.
19. Provide for Review of Convicted DWI Drivers by MAB Prior to Reinstating Licenses
20. Empower MAB to Require Physical Exams on Drivers whose records they Review.
21. Provide for Vehicle Impounding for Driving while Revoked or for Second DWI Conviction
within 3 Years.
22. Provide for Cancellation of Collision Insurance if Insured Driver has BAC above 0.10 Percent.
23. Provide for Special Surveillance of Revoked Drivers.
24. Develop Special Pedestrain Safety Programs in Areas of High Accident Risk or Drinking, i.e.,
1) Better Lighting, 2) Reroute Traffic, 3) Reduce Speed Limits, 4) Special Caution Signs, etc.
25. Provide Special Patrols to Assist Intoxicated Pedestrians.
26. Arrange for Detoxification and Treatment Assistance for Pedestrians.
27. Provide for Suspension or Revocation of License Plates of Vehicles Owned by Persons Convicted
of a Drinking Driving Offense.
28. Provide for Special Tags or Registration Certificates for Vehicles Owned by Convicted Drinking
29. Prohibit the Transfer of Vehicles with Special Registration Certificates.
30. Develop Mass Media Public Education Campaign on Alcohol Safety.
31. Develop Speakers Bureau Program on Alcohol Safety.
32. Augment Alcohol Safety Sections of High School Driver Education Programs.
33. Add Sections on Alcohol to Primary Safety Courses and to Appropriate Secondary Courses
(Family Life Courses, etc.)
34. Develop Special Offenders School Driver Improvement Programs.
35. Implement a Driver Assistance Program in Cooperation with Social and Health Agencies.
OFFICE OF ALCOHOL COUNTERMEASURES
NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION
L1039 PRINTED IN U.S.A.
GREATER TAMPA ALCOHOL SAFETY ACTION PROJECT
The Drinker-Driver Menace
OBJECTIVE: To reduce deaths, injuries and property damage
caused by alcohol-related accidents. Also to alter
the habits of problem drinker-drivers.
What's Being Done About It?
Studies and surveys in the past ten years have proven consistently
and conclusively that at least half of all highway deaths are
alcohol-connected. Research has shown that two-thirds (66%) of
all alcohol-related vehicle deaths are due to problem drinker-
drivers (7% of all licensed drivers). In Florida, the level of
BAC (Blood Alcohol Concentration) accepted as prima facie evidence
of intoxication is .10%. At that level, a driver is seven times
as likely to crash as if no drink had been taken. At .15%, the
odds go to 25 times the likelihood of a crash compared to no drink
There are now 35 ASAP projects assigned, plus Puerto Rico, entirely
paid for, for three and a half years, by Federal money. At the end
of that time, the community is expected to take over.
What Is The Greater Tampa ASAP?
The project's aim is basically educational, rather than punitive,
although legal punishment can be and is imposed. Identification of
the problem drinker-driver is the first step. Twenty-one specially
trained law enforcement officers (11 Tampa Policemen and 10 Florida
Highway Patrolmen) are paid and equipped with GTASAP funds, work
Hillsborough County and the City of Tampa with the prime objectives
of spotting and arresting drunk drivers.
In most cases, a finding of "guilty" of DWI by the judge involved
results in Court-ordered attendance to the DWI Counterattack School,
consisting of 4 two-hour sessions. Driving licenses are usually
restricted to "business" only. During this time, each individual
attending DWI Counterattack (with emphasis on the drinking vs.
driving relationship) is required to undergo an interview with a
counselor. A questionnaire is used to determine (with a high degree
of accuracy) whether the individual is a social drinker, a heavy
drinker, or problem drinker. From this interview stems rehabilitation
if needed (under Court Order). Results of the interview are used to
determine judicial disposition of the case.
Extended group therapy may also be recommended (concurrent with other
treatment). Severe problem drinkers are referred to specialized
Page 2 Greater Tampa Alcohol Safety Action Project
Functions of all countermeasures (21 of them) are evaluated and
results forwarded to Washington, through Atlanta, on a quarterly
An ongoing and continual Public Information and Education Program
is carried out to stress a positive approach to the project by the
general public and to gather their support for now and the future.
The electronic media is used along with newspapers and all forms
of collateral material.
HOW CAN YOU HELP?
1. With a Speakers' Bureau---trained groups to speak before church
and civic organizations as well as industry leaders and industrial
workers on a continuing and repetitive basis.
2. Displays---set up and manned in banklobbies, shopping malls, etc
to disseminate literature and show approved drinking-driving
3. Suggest legislation and support legislation regarding drinking-
driving, both local, state, and national.
4. Assist in local government planning of a mini-ASAP.
5. Begin a campaign for reporting suspected drunk drivers to police.
6. Develop a local AID Line (Alcohol Information for Drivers) to
lend assistance on a referral basis in your community for the
problem drinker who might drive.
7. Develop a DWI School (Driving While Intoxicated) in your area.
8. Work closely with the Judiciary in having the Courts regard the
person with a drinking problem as a sick person and not as a
9. Issue educational material on the subject of drinking-driving.
10. Explain the ASAP story to Industry.
PROJECT: National Safety Council's
"Defensive Driving Course"
OBJECTIVE: To prevent traffic accidents by making available
to the licensed motorist a standardized course
in better driving.
1. Organize your group (women's club, service club,
auxiliary, PTA, religious or civic) to sponsor a
Defensive Driving Course by appointing a committee
to make contact with the Safety Officer of your
Florida Highway Patrol, arrange for meeting room,
recruit attendees and make all other arrangements.
2. Seek cooperation of other groups (as mentioned
above) to work with you as a sponsoring group, or
to assist in publicizing the course.
3. Seek out nearest Highway Patrol Safety Officer who
will provide visual aids, films, booklets, and
4. Recruit class membership from your own and other
organizations and from the community. Recommended
class size is 25 (small enough to allow for group
5. Seek cooperation of local news media for publicizing
the Defensive Driving Course.
6. Plan to make the Defensive Driving Course a continuing
community program, offering a course at regularly
scheduled times, depending on local facilities and
preference of sponsoring groups.
7. Study the enclosed Driver Improvement brochure for
NOTE: This is not a driver education course; it is
intended for licensed drivers only.
Defensive Driving / A Preview
In this course, we've got only eight sessions in which to raise questions con-
cerning safe driving techniques and to provide answers. We believe that safe
driving is a continuous learning process, and we hope that you will find this
course to be an unsettling experience-one that will cause you to re-examine
your driving behavior and your preconceptions about how to handle driving
emergencies you may never have actually experienced.
SESSION ONE/"Preventable or Not?"
Does the United States really have the world's worst
traffic accident record? Is there such a thing as a perfect
trip? What is a preventable accident? Who prevents it?
What goes on in traffic court? Are you putting your
license on the line every time you get behind the wheel,
just because there's some traffic law of which you're not
SESSION TO/ How to Avoid a Collision
SESSION WO with the Vehicle Ahead
What does it mean to drive defensively? How does it
differ from the way you're driving now? How can a
formula keep you out of an accident? What are the six
ways you can become involved in a collision with another
car? How can you stay clear of rear-end collisions?
SESSION THREE /How to Avoid a Collision
/ with the Vehicle Behind
How do you cope with a tailgater? If he rams into your
vehicle, is he completely at fault? What do you need to
know in order to drive? What do you look for and where
do you look for it?
SESSION FOUR How to Avoid a Collision
Switch an Oncoming Vehicle
Why are headon crashes the deadliest? What are some of
the signs that an oncoming car may cross the center line
into your path? What do you do when the other car
comes straight at you on a straight road? On a curve?
How can you become involved in an accident while mak-
ing a left turn?
SESSION FIVE/How to Avoid an
F IVE/ntersection Collision
What four steps can keep you out of intersection colli-
sions? Who has the right of way at an intersection that
has no traffic control signals? How much distance do you
need to come to a stop from 60 mph? When you approach
an intersection, which way do you look first-to the left
or to the right?
SESSION SIX/The Art of Passing and
S/ON Being Passed
How can you get involved in an accident when passing?
When being passed? How can you help another driver
pass? How long does it take to pass another vehicle at 60
mph? If another vehicle is approaching at 60 mph, how
much distance do you need in order to complete the pass-
ing maneuver safely?
SESSION SEVEN/"The Mystery Crash"
What is a "mystery crash?" What causes it? How can
you avoid it? How can you best control your vehicle on
a curve? How do you recover safely from a right-wheel
pavement drop-off? What do you do when a tire blows?
Why is it dangerous to drive with all the car windows
SESION IT/How to Avoid Other Common
Types of Collisions
How many vehicle-pedestrian accidents involve drunken
pedestrians? What causes you to collide with a fixed
object? How far from a railroad crossing should you
stop? How can you avoid a collision with a cyclist? Why
is backing said to be a "dangerous" maneuver? What
makes expressways more deadly than regular roads
when the weather's bad?
Page 2 Driver Control and Cooperation- "C & C"
COOPERATION is the essentail element that must prevail in any com-
munity, and through all of its professional and social groups.
COOPERATION is based upon the elements of:
Understanding of the problem
A knowledge of the possible solution to the problem
A willingness-fortified by enthusiasm-to put these solutions
Reduction of traffic accidents, injuries and deaths by:
.Promoting the Challenge to Women-Driver Control and Co-
operation in local communities, states and nationally
.Supporting and implementing the National Safety Standards
in the four areas of Driver Education, Driver Licensing,
Driver Reexamination and Alcohol Countermeasures.
.Encourage strong legislative leadership for "C and C"
.Create an atmosphere of public voluntary cooperation through
understanding of driver controls
There is a general need to improve both public and private driver
education courses and to make them more widely available. Higher
standards of classroom and behind-the-wheel instruction are most
important. Programs dealing with remedial training of problem
drivers are also essential.
There is a fundamental and vital difference between passing a test
for a license and passing the constant tests that confront motorists
on a busy highway or in tangled downtown traffic. Today's ever
increasing traffic volumes demand a nation of highly skilled drivers,
aware of how accidents happen and able to avoid them.
Driver education is one of the basic requirements for developing
skilled motorists along with sound laws, driver licensing, police
supervision, and meaningful correction procedures. However, many
factors contribute to poor or inadequate driver education including:
1. Public unawareness of the need
2. Public unwillingness to pay the cost
3. Competition with other school subjects
4. Untrained teachers 0
5. Viewing driver education as a "frill" in the curriculum.
Page 3 Driver Control and Cooperation "C & C"
Do you have a sound driver education program in your community?
Are there young-and old- drivers who have received no driver
education instruction? Is there need for developing public aware-
ness and support? You can help.
DRIVER LICENSING: EXAMINATION AND REEXAMINATION
For most drivers -- and we now have some 117 million of them in
this country -- getting a driver's license does not require a
great amount of knowledge or skill.
After all, driving is considered to be an integral part of the
American way of life and anyone -- so long as he (or she) meets
the established qualifications -- is entitled to be licensed
to operate a motor vehicle.
All you have to do is reach the age of 18 -- or 16 in some
jurisdictions if you've had some pre-instruction through a
driver education course. Then you have to pass minimum tests
of your vision, knowledge of rules of the road and traffic
signs, and demonstrate some ability to operate a motor vehicle
by taking a limited road test. Your physical or mental condition
is subject only to a cursory check, if any, and nonobvious
impairment is no bar in getting a license.
You don't have to show any special capability or knowledge about
driving at high speed, on expressways, at night or in any other
comparable situations that confront drivers every day. Moreover,
you can take the road test in a compact car and later drive a
sizeable truck with the same license in some states. And, of
course, with this precious license you can drive on every highway
and by-way in the land despite the varying qualification require-
ments of the states.
You can readily renew your license without any form of reexami-
nation in some places and by mail in others. Thus, in spite of
advancing years, possible physical disability, or lack of
familiarity with new traffic laws and signs, periodic renewal is
only a revenue measure instead of being a reassessment of your
driving capability and knowledge.
While slightly exaggerated -- but only slightly to make a point --
this is the sad state of driver licensing in this country.
Driver licensing has lagged behind other highway safety programs
and has failed to reach its own full potential in traffic safety
because the public has been generally apathetic about raising
the qualifications of drivers.
There have been sporadic improvements in recent years, but what
is needed is a coordinated program to achieve a higher level of
driver performance in every state as rapidly as possible.
Page 4 Driver Control and Cooperation- "C & C"
Fortunately things are beginning to change. Under the program
of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, improve- 0
ments in driving licensing, long considered essential by traffic
authorities, are feasible and on their way.
Driver licensing standards, first promulgated by NHTSA in 1967,
will be reissued in early 1973 in an improved form to upgrade
procedures, based on current knowledge, experience and technology.
All states will be required to adopt the standards if they are
not part of the state's current programs.
Decisions on a priority emphasis for driver licensing, and the
use of Federal aid funds for this purpose, rest with the states. U
Concerted public support for better driver licensing programs
by women leaders can help influence these decisions.
Here are some of the major elements in the driver licensing
standard on examination and reexamination that need your active
efforts. Check with state officials to see which ones need
legislative or administrative action to implement or improve them
in your state.
Establish the following criteria for an initial license:
Persons under 16 years of age should successfully complete
an approved driver education course
SPersons 18 years or older should successfully complete a
prelicensing instruction program or an adult beginning --
driver education program.
Applicants will have to meet physical and mental standards,
including adequate visual performance.
Examination will test:
Knowledge of traffic signs, signals and markings-
Knowledge of safe driving practices, handling of vehicles
in emergency situations, entering on and exiting from
controlled access highways, traffic laws and the relation-
ship of alcohol to highway safety.
Ability to perform driving tasks, with such ability to be
tested in the type of vehicle to be driven (passenger car,
truck, motorcycle, etc.) and license to be so classified.
All persons to be allowed only one valid license to permit
the development of a single cumulative driving record of
Page 5 Driver Control and Cooperation- "C & C"
License to be issued for a specific period, not exceeding
Provision to be made for reexamination of drivers, including
tests of visual ability and knowledge of safe driving practices:
At least once every four years
After conviction for two hazardous law violations within
When a driver's record needs reevaluation in the opinion
of the licensing department, including crash experience,
or violation history which involve the use of alcohol or
Of the 55,000 persons killed last year on the streets and high-
ways of our nation, more than half died in accidents involving
the use of alcohol. In most of these cases, a driver or pedestrian
not only had been drinking, but was drunk. A survey in Kansas
City documents the extent of drinking and driving. It found that
between 7 p.m. and 3 a.m. motorists on the city's streets encounter
a drunk driver approaching every four minutes.
As an aid in countering this serious problem, all states have
enacted implied consent laws that require arrested drivers to
submit to a test for alcohol or face license suspension.
(The District of Columbia is the only place in the U.S. without
such a law.) In addition, most states have established a blood-
alcohol concentration level of 0.10 percent as the presumptive level
for driving while intoxicated. A few states have made it "illegal
per se" to drive at this alcohol level. Pre-arrest testing also
is now permitted in nine states to assist in enforcing drunk
In the Department of Transportation, the National Highway Traffic
Safety Administration has placed great emphasis on its Alcohol
Countermeasures Program. A major element of this program is the
federally funded Alcohol Safety Action Projects (ASAP). They are
model state and community pilot projects to demonstrate and evalu-
ate a wide range of enforcement, judicial, rehabilitative and
public information and education countermeasures. Innovative ap-
proaches and differences in emphasis make each project unique.
At present there are 35 ASAPs, several of which have completed a
year and a half of operation. Preliminary results have been en-
couraging. Arrests for driving while intoxicated have increased
Page 6 Driver Control and Cooperation- "C & C"
dramatically and there is evidence that ASAPs are reducing
traffic deaths when compared to trends elsewhere.
The ASAPs have become catalysts for additional projects funded
through the highway safety programs of various states. Al-
though less comprehensive, these projects mark the beginning
of a more widespread application of alcohol countermeasures.
Other aspects of NHTSA's Alcohol Countermeasures Program are
its research and development and public education activities.
In the research and development pipeline are improved testing
devices and interlocks that will prevent a vehicle from being
started by an intoxicated person.
In its past efforts, NHTSA has brought home to the public the
magnitude of the alcohol highway safety problem. Now, along
with the National Institutes of Mental Health, NHTSA is under-
taking a concentrated educational campaign to inform the
general public and specialized groups that are a part of the
problems and alcohol countermeasures. In another joint effort,
NHTSA has developed an alcohol and highway safety curriculum
for use in schools from kindergarten through the 12th grade.
The success of alcohol countermeasures requires a dramatic re-
molding of public attitude. The forgiving "there but for the
grace of God go I" attitude must be replaced with one that is
attuned to the measures that will rid our streets and roads of
the individuals who threaten all of us by driving after drinking
heavily. A major role for public support groups in this effort
has unprecedented potential.
OBJECTIVE: To teach children good safety habits to develop
a safe pedestrian.
It is fundamental that children learn proper pedestrian attitudes
and practices as early as possible. A critical period in a
child's life is between the one where he has pre-school parental
protection and the one where he is on his own going to and from
school. To bridge the gap between parental protection and the
school's regular classroom safety program is the role of the
summer Safety Town program. It prepares pre-school children for
traffic conditions they will encounter when they start school
in the fall. Naturally these lessons will carry over into other
traffic situations the child will encounter as he becomes older
and more independent.
There is no known traffic device that will assure a child's
safety on the street. Teaching him about traffic hazards and
to recognize and avoid them is the best and most reliable
protection he can have. Safety Town teaches this activity by
involving the child in simulated traffic situations. Although
small cars or tricycles are used, Safety Town is not a pre-
driver program. It is a pedestrian program. Children, pre-
tending to drive cars, incidentally learn proper driving
practices such as hand signals, stopping behind crosswalks,
stopping at red lights, etc. How much of this carries over as
a pre-driver program is unknown.
At Safety Town, children learn, through participation, to:
1. Recognize and understand the messages conveyed by
traffic and signals.
2. Cross streets only at corners, and why.
3. Cross, wherever possible, where there are traffic
signs, signals or adults to help.
4. Develop the responsibility and judgment necessary
for safe crossings at intersections where there are
no traffic controls.
5. Recognize and understand the meanings of signals
given by drivers for turning movements, etc.
6. Cooperate with police, adult crossing guards, and
school safety patrol members.
Page 2 Safety Towns
7. Walk on left side facing traffic in areas not having
8. Understand a driver's special problems.
9. Avoid the dangers of playing or walking around or
10. Cross railroad tracks safely.
11. Know what to do at the sound of an emergency vehicle e
on the street.
12. Get on and off school buses safely.
There are no set rules for establishing or operating a Safety
Town. The objectives can be reached in many ways, depending
upon the facilities available within a community or area. The
first question is, What is there available in the community to
The initiative for a Safety Town can come from almost any source
such as an interested parent; a parent-teacher organization;
automobile clubs or safety councils; service organizations such
as Rotary, Optomists, Kiwanis, Pilots, Federated Women's Clubs,
Soroptomists, Altrusa, Extension Homemakers; a city police or
recreation department; or a board of education.
The following things will be needed:
5. Course Procedures
6. Course Content
For complete guidelines write Veterans of Safety, International,
4721 Briarbend Drive, Houston, Texas 77035 or this office.
SAFETY BOOSTER PROGRAM
A great project for SAFETY in Florida is being pre-
sented by the Florida Association of Women Safety Leaders, Inc.
1972-1973 ARRIVE ALIVE LICENSE TAGS are offered as a
gift to each person who becomes a SAFETY BOOSTER by donating
$1.00 (or more) to the Florida Association of Women Safety
Leaders. Not only does this aid the cause of safety but, it
will help to swell your club's treasury because it is a
The Florida Association of Women Safety Leaders must
raise funds to continue its fine work which benefits all of us
in the State of Florida. It is a tax exemptorganization and
all donations are deductible.
The following information will explain the ARRIVE
ALIVE SAFETY BOOSTER projects
PROCEDURE FOR HANDLING SAFETY BOOSTER DONATIONS TO THE FLORIDA
ASSOCIATION OF WOMEN SAFETY LEADERS including the ARRIVE ALIVE
1. Order number of Safety Booster Cards, newsletter mailing
slips and ARRIVE ALIVE tags you require in lots of 100 from
Florida Association of Women Safety Leaders, Inc.
Mrs. William R. Kidd, Chairman
P. 0. Box 1222
Ocala, Florida 32670
We will pay for the tags and you will receive them by bus,
transportation charges collect (about $3.00 per hundred).
We will send you the Safety Booster Cards and the newsletter
2. Ask SAFETY BOOSTERS who make $1.00 or more donations to fill
page 2 SAFETY BOOSTER PROGRAM
out the mailing slips. These are used to place their names
on the mailing list to receive the Governor's Highway Safety
Commission Newsletter. Give them the SAFETY BOOSTER CARD as a
receipt for their donation and an ARRIVE ALIVE tag.
3. Keep 450 per Booster contribution for your safety program and
return 550 with the mailing slips to the Florida Association.
4. If you have tags left over, write to us but do not mail the
tags to us. They can possibly be used by another organization
Thank you for being a SAFETY BOOSTER.
For further information write to the Florida Association
of Women Safety Leaders, Inc., P. 0. Box 1222, Ocala, Florida,
SFLORIDA SAFETY BOOSTER
. . . . . . .. ', .. . . . . . . . -
FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF WOMEN SAFETY LEADERS, INC.
Safety Booster Program
Newsletter Mailing Slip
To assure the bicycle driver and the motorist
safer use of the streets and highways.
Every year boys and girls are injured or
killed while riding their bicycles. Statistics show
that most of the accidents could have been avoided if
the child had known and obeyed the laws and rules
that govern bicycle riding.
To teach youngsters these laws, we hope
that every elementary school will have a Bicycle
Safety Program each year. This is the best protection
we can give our children -- a chance to be safe on our
streets and highways.
This kit gives you step-by-step instructions
for the two week program -- starting with a safety
film, instructional session and bicycle check by the
child and his parent. Poster and slogan contests to
alert everyone to know the laws are invaluable and, of
course, the highlight of the safety program is the
Bicycle Road-e-o complete with official inspection,
skill tests, parade, prizes and refreshments. The en-
closed material has been planned so that you can have
the Road-e-o or leave it out.
We know this program will help the students
of your school. Just be sure it is presented in a
serious, meaningful way. It must be carefully planned
and executed to create the proper safety attitude
toward bicycle riding.
BICYCLE SAFETY PROGRAM
The initial step in establishing a Bicycle Safety Program in any
school is setting up a planning and working committee. This group should
consist of the following people: Principal of the school, PTA or spon-
soring organization president and safety chairman, Road-e-o chairman,
Safety teacher (if school has one) and a representative of the City Police
Department, County Sheriff's Office and the Highway Patrol.
Planning Committee should select time schedule for entire safety
education program (suggestion two weeks.)
EARLY IN THE FIRST WEEK
1. Bring all students Grades 1 3 into central area (auditorium or cafe-
teria) for showing of a film (arrange in advance through Highway Patrol
for a good Bicycle Safety Film.)
2. Invite representatives of all law enforcement agencies to participate
if possible. They are especially important to answer questions after
the film and to explain the laws. The children need to become familiar
with the different agencies and become better acquainted with the
.Announce safety poster and slogan contests.
4. Distribute letters to parents, folders and bicycle check sheets to be
5. Announce date posters and slogans must be in (suggest Monday of second
week so they can be displayed all week.)
6. Announce date bicycle check and Road-e-o permission sheets must be in
(suggest Monday of second week).
7. Announce time, place and general rules of Road-e-o.
REPEAT ABOVE FOR GRADES 4 6
EARLY IN THE SECOND WEEK
1. Collect bicycle check and Road-e-o permission sheets.
. 2. Display posters and slogans.
Use posters and slogans made by the students to promote interest in
the program. Have a contest and award prizes to the winners.
3. Have safety poster and slogan winners appear before the PTA with their
4. Give written test
5. Promote attendance of all students and parents at the Road-e-o.
6. Use slogans written by children on PTA messages sent home to parents.
SAMPLE OF LETTER TO BE SENT TO PARENTS
(Reword to suit your plans)
Each year hundreds are killed and thousands suffer disabling
injuries from bicycle accidents. Your (PTA or organization)with enthusi-
astic support from your principal and faculty feel that an org.cnized
bicycle safety program is a definite necessity. It provides our young-
sters with a background of safety rules which will carry over to the time
that they may drive automobiles.
It is with a firm resolve that no child should lose his life or
be injured because of ignorance of bicycle safety laws or good riding
procedure, that we have developed this program, which is climaxed by a
The following rules are necessary for your child to participate,
please follow carefully.
A movie on bicycle safety will be shown to your child and after
a study of bicycle laws a written test will be given, at which time your
child can earn 50 points toward his Road-e-o score. He will then be given
a Bicycle Check Sheet to take home. The bicycle must be inspected and the
sheet signed by the parent. This sheet also contains his or her permis-
sion to participate in the Road-e-o.
The Road-e-o will be held (list location) on (list date) It
begins promptly at 9:00 AM and lasts until 12 noon. Accompanying this
letter will be a brochure entitled'BIKE DRIVERS AND FLORIDA LAWS." Please
study this with your child, inspect his bicycle with him, sign the inspec-
tion along with the permission and return to school before (date)
On the day of the Road-e-o your child reports promptly to the
registration table where he will be issued a contestant number. Then he
will proceed to the bicycle inspection station where a. officer will
inspect his bicycle for good brakes, chain and chain guard, tires, wheel-
spokes, fenders, pedals, seat, handlebars and grips, rear reflectors and
lights. As many as 10 points can be earned. Next he will line up for
four skill riding tests (10 points each) where another officer will judge
his or her riding ability, hand signals, etc. After all tests have been
given he will receive a bicycle decal and identification card. From
there he goes to the parade area where he will decorate his bicycle for
the parade. After the parade all winners will be announced. Trophies
will be presented to the highest scorers. Two age categories will be used
1 3 and 4 6 Grades.
We hope you will attend and support this program with your child.
If you would like to help with the program call (list phone no.
and person to contact) .
Principal or President
Safety Chairman or
SAMPLE OF FORM TO BE SENT HOME TO PARENT
SCHOOL BICYCLE SAFETY PROGRAM
(name of school)
TO ALL PARENTS CONCERNED: The in
(name of school or organization)
cooperation with the will
I(list police or law enforcement agency checking)
hold a bicycle safety inspection and Road-e-o on
(place or location)
Please check your child's bicycle with him(her). Any adjustment needed on the
bicycle should be made by you before the Road-e-o. The bicycle will be
inspected for registration at the Road-e-o.
BICYCLE OWNER'S NAME GRADE
1 BRAKE OK NEEDS REPAIR
2 CHAIN OK NEEDS TIGHTENING
3 CHAIN GUARD OK NEEDS TIGHTENING NONE
4 TIRES OK NEED AIR
5 WHEEL SPOKES OK MISSING OR BENT
6 FENDERS OK NEED TIGHTENING NONE
7-- PEDALS OK NEED REPLACEMENT
8- SEAT OK NEEDS REPAIR
9 HANDLEBAR & GRIPS OK NEEDS ADJUSTMENT__ REPLACEMENT_
10 REAR REFLECTOR OR LIGHTS OK NONE
My child has permission to participate in
S(date) BICYCLE SAFETY CHECK
JD'S NAME_ SUPERVISED BY PARENT:
(must be signed by parent not child) Signature
(50 points )
1. IS IT SAFE TO CARRY MY FRIEND ON THE HANDLEBARS OF MY BIKE?
2. DO STOP SIGNS APPLY ONLY TO CARS?
3. IS IT BEST TO WALK MY BIKE ACROSS A BUSY INTERSECTION?
4. DO YOU NEED A LIGHT TO RIDE AT NIGHT?
5. DOES FLORIDA LAW ALLOW YOU TO RIDE TWO SIDE BY SIDE?
6. IS THE LEFT HAND USED FOR HAND SIGNALS?
7. MUST YOU RIDE ON A BIKE PATH IF THERE IS ONE TO USE?
8. SHOULD YOU RIDE ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE ROAD?
9. IS THE SIGNAL FOR A LEFT TURN THE ARM EXTENDED STRAIGHT OUT?
10. MUST YOU KEEP AT LEAST ONE HAND ON THE HANDLEBARS?
(READ QUESTIONS ONE AT A TIME TO STUDENTS)
BICYCLE SAFETY EXAMINATION
Strike out the wrong word or phrase.
1. A bicycle rider should (occasionally) (always) use a hand signal before making turns.
2. Bicycles (have) (do not have) the right-of-way over pedestrians on sidewalks.
3. Cyclists (should) (should not) carry parcels under one arm while riding.
4. Letting an extra rider on your bike is considered a (safe) (dangerous) practice.
5. The use of guard clips on trouser cuffs (does) (does not) prevent some bicycle
6. Every bicycle (should) (should not) have a bell or horn in good working order.
7. A bicycle should be ridden on the (right hand) (left hand) side of the street.
8. An eight-sided sign means (stop) (slow down) before entering the intersection.
9. After stopping a bicycle on the right side of the street in traffic, the safer way to
dismount is on the (left) (right) side.
10. Hitching a ride by holding onto the rear of a moving truck (is fun if you know
how) (causes many accidents).
11. When making a left turn, the smart bike rider (signals and turns left in front of
traffic) dismounts and walks across pedestrian crosswalks).
12. A quiet street in a residential district (is) (is not) a good place to perform stunts
on a bicycle.
13. Before making a (left) (right) turn, a bicycle rider should give a hand signal by
extending the left arm sideways.
14. It is (wise) (unwise) to ride through an intersection when cars are making turns.
15. A package carrier (helps) (hinders) a bike rider who tries to ride safely.
16. When approaching a flashing red light, the cyclist should (stop) (slow down) and
then proceed when safe.
17. Bicycles which are being ridden at night should have a (red) (white) light shining
toward the front.
18. Before making a turn, a bike rider (should) (should not) look back to see if traffic
is close behind.
19. A rider (can) (cannot) ride a bicycle with complete safety on a wet street.
20. The smart cyclist wears (dark) (light) clothing when riding at night.
21. When approaching a flashing yellow light, a bike rider should (slow down) (stop)
and then move ahead when safe.
22. A cyclist (need not) (should) obey all traffic signs and signals.
23. When a group is riding bicycles in traffic, the safe thing to do is ride (double file)
24. Bicycle riders (should) (should not) come to a complete stop before entering a main
25. A chain guard is useful on a bicycle because it (makes the bicycle look better) (helps
INSTRUCTIONS FOR ROAD-E-O
1. During first week announce date, time, place for Road-e-o.
2. Arrange for representatives of law enforcement agencies to help
inspect bicycles and judge tests on Road-e-o day.
3. Announce that points toward Road-e-o scores may be made as follows:
The written test 50 points
Inspection 10 points
Skill tests 40 points
4. To stimulate interest have a law enforcement officer, Safety Chairman
and the Principal on different days to speak to the children over the
intercom system. Example: "Hello boys and girls, this is Sgt. Jones
of the Highway Patrol. I'm certainly looking forward to meeting all
of you Saturday (date) at the bicycle Road-e-o. There will be prizes,
refreshments, a parade and lots of fun. Now don't forget. I won't!
See you there 9:00 AM."
5. Prepare all score sheets and identification numbers (6 x 6 card) for
the Road-e-o. (See enclosed suggestions sheets.) On master sheet
assign each child a number. Make a large legible number on the 6 x 6
card. Attach child's assigned number card to child's permission slip
with straight pin. Keep in index file boxes separated into grade
categories. The number will be issued and ready to pin to child's
right shoulder the day of the Road-e-o.
6. Assign committees to help such as registration, refreshments, parade,
issuing of decal and membership card, skill tests (have a parent to
assist officer if officer requests) scoring of tests, bicycle inspec-
7. Put prizes on display in cafeteria or office before Road-e-o.
(Saturday morning suggested)
*1. On dayof Road-e-o have children line up at table in their grade
categories. (1 3 and 4 6) for assigned number to be pinned on
2. Only the general chairman of the Road-e-o should keep the master sheet
that reveals the child's name. Contestants should go only by numbers.
3. Several people should be assigned to inspection as this takes longer.
4. Grades 4 6 can be located at another point to avoid mixing the
5. 1 3 Grades line up for Bicycle Inspection (see sample for 10 pts.)
6. 4 6 Grades line up for Bicycle Inspection.
7. 1 3 Grades start skill test first. Have uniformed officer take
group on foot through all four riding skill tests to explain the
purpose. When all have finished the 1 3 grade scores can be taken
up and graded.
8. Grades 4 6 compete last. Same procedure for this group.
9. After contestant finishes with skill tests arrange a table he can go
to for presentation of bicycle decal and Bicycle Safety League
Membership Card. (Order free from Bicycle Institute of America,
122 E. 42nd Street, New York, N. Y. 10017, 4 to 6 weeks in advance.)
10. Plan and arrange a parade route beforehand. Contestants should re-
main in parade area. Issue several strips of crepe paper for them
to decorate their bicycles for parade.
1. The parade is an important part of the program as it appeals to the
children. If your city or town has a personality favorite with the
children ask him to be on hand. (This also applies to teachers,
principal or school officials.)
12. While students wait in parade area arrangements can be made to
register bicycles with the Police Department. Check with them for
13. After parade, announce winners. Present trophies and prizes.
Trophies and prizes should be given to:
High score girl Grades 1 3 Trophy
High score boy Grades 1 3 Trophy
High score girl Grades 4 6 Trophy
High Score boy Grades 4 6 Trophy
Best Poster Grades 1 3
Best Poster Grades 4 6
Best Slogan Grades 1 3
Best Slogan Grades 4 6
14. Separate prizes into categories (Grades 1 3 and 4 6). Bicycle
trophies are suggested for 1st prizes with 2nd and 3rd some type of
bicycle equipment such as speed-o-meter, light, horn, etc.
15. Arrange with local papers to take pictures of winners.
16. Arrange to have refreshments (drinks) served during Road-e-o.
17. Have a few basic tools on hand for minor repairs on bicycles.
For Use At Road-e-o
SAMPLE OFFICIAL INSPECTION SHEET
SCHOOL BICYCLE SAFETY PROGRAM
(name of school)
The in cooperation with the
(name of school or organization)
bicycle safety inspection and
(list police or law enforcement agency checking)
BICYCLE OWNER'S NAME GRADE_
1 BRAKE OK NEEDS REPAIR
2 CHAIN OK NEEDS TIGHTENING
3 CHAIN GUARD OK NEEDS TIGHTENING NONE
4 TIRES OK NEED AIR
5 WHEEL SPOKES OK MISSING OR BENT
6 FENDERS OK NEED TIGHTENING NONE
7 PEDALS OK NEED REPLACEMENT
8 SEAT OK NEEDS REPAIR
9 HANDLEBAR & GRIPS OK NEEDS ADJUSTMENT REPLACEMENT
10 REAR REFLECTOR OR LIGHTS OK NONE
BICYCLE SAFETY CHECK
SUGGESTED MASTER SHEET FOR
(Make same for Grades
GRADES 1 3
NUMBER NAME AGE GRADE & TEACHER FINAL SCORE
1 Jane Doe 6 1 Brown
2 John Smith 7 2 Green
S3 Mary Jones 73 3 Garner
INSPECTION OF BICYCLE SHEET FOR GRADES 1 3
(make same for Grades 4 6)
NUMBER SCORE NUMBER SCORE
@3__ _________ ________----------------------
SCORERS SHEET FOR GRADES 1 3
(make same for Grades 4-6)
)NTESTANT WRITTEN INSPECTION SKILL TEST SKILL T. SKILL T. SKILL T. TOTAL
NUMBER TEST SCORE SCORE 1 SCORE 2 SCORE S 4 SCOR SCORE
140 8 10 9 5 10 82
2 50 10 8 9 10 10 97
3 25 9 8 7 10 10 69
* SCORING GRADES MADE DURING ROAD-E-O USE LEGAL RULED PADS.
TOTAL PADS NEEDED WILL BE 6.
MARK OFF AND LABEL YOUR PADS IN ADVANCE.
SKILL TEST # 1-ON STREET RIDING.
/ q \-'1. I
_I ~-^-c5_ 5OFT. _
SToP s Tj
Lanes 3 ft. wide.
To test the ability of the rider to safely
and legally drive his bicycle on a public
SIGNIFICANCE: Success in executing this test
indicates that the rider has both the
knowledge and ability necessary to insure
his safety while riding on a public
SCORING: Beginning with maximum of ten points,
deduct one point for each instance of the
rider committing the following errors:
1 Touching either foot to the ground,
except at stop signs.
2 Failing to give proper hand signals
on turns and stops.
3 Touching or crossing border lines.
4 Touching or crossing center lines.
5 Failure to observe Stop Signs.
SKILL TEST #2
Purpose: to establish
control while riding
in congested traffic.
7 1 ga. cans full of
1 Stop Sign
coordination and balance
are essential to meet
the necessity of
frequent instances call-
ing for a swerve, a stop,
or a sudden swing to get
out of line of an
PRACTICE on this test
will develop skill and
confidence in the rider's
ability to ride exactly
where he wants to go.
Beginning with maximum
of ten allowable points,
deduct one point for
each instance of the
1-Failing to alternate
direction around each
2-touching or striking
3-Failing to stop with-
in lines at end of
4-Failing to stop with-
in six inches of stop
5-Touching ground with
feet after start.
6-Stopping and/or back-
SKILL TEST # 3- STRAIGHT LINE RIDING
---- -- a *
I--- ----0 1
- - -- ---
PURPOSE: To test poise and
decision in riding.
SIGNIFICANCE: Hitting or
missing an obstacle in the
road, whether it is a stone,
a hole full of water, or a
pedestrian on the sidewalk,
is a psychological problem.
The reason the rider hit
the obstacle was because he
was watching it and
naturally steered where he
If he had looked at the
clear smooth strip of road
to one side or the other of
the stone he would have
passed over that clear strip
and missed the stone. This
test aims to point that fact
to young riders, particular-
ly to immature riders who
are not quite sure of them-
selves. They must be taught
to signal the pedestrian so
that he will take a position
to one side and stay there.
12 drink bottle caps
12 tennis balls
Beginning with a maximum of
ten allowable points, deduct
one point for each instance
of following errors:
1-Striking or moving balls.
2-Riding with wheel outside
of any ball.
3-Riding past stop line.
4-Failure to complete course.
5-Touching ground with fee
after crossing starting line.
SKILL TEST #4
CHANGES IN BALANCE
Purpose: To test changes in balance required
by intended changes in direction.
of ten a
Significance: Traffic frequently demands
that a bicycle rider change his
direction, sometimes with warning
of the necessity of change, some-
times without warning. If the
pavement is studded with the usual
crop of holes that even motorists
must dodge at times, he will have
to pick his spot to change balance
Sand pick it quickly. He should
Snow how to shift his balance at
g with the maximum
ne point for each of
ng or crossing
or inside boundary
e to follow direc-
ng ground with feet
ossing starting line.
4-Stopping before completing
"School Bus Safety"
OBJECTIVE: To acquaint students and parents with safety
laws and procedures to avoid accidents.
1. Call your County Superintendent's office to
make arrangements to set up the program
2. Call each school to set a time students
(during the day) and parents (at a P.T.A.
meeting, probably) can participate in the
program. In some areas parents and students
come together to school on a Sunday afternoon
to do Bus Safety and Operation Safewalk.
3. Call your County, City, or Highway Patrol
Safety Officers to participate.
a. Proper way to enter and to leave bus
b. Behavior on the bus
c. State laws concerning bus drivers,
riders, and drivers of other vehicles
5. Pass out mimeographed sheets explaining the
procedures and ask cooperation of all.
OBJECTIVE: To teach young children to walk safely to and
from school and school bus stops and to teach
their parents the elementary steps to protect
1. Take your child by the hand and walk with him from
home to school, along the route you believe to be
the safest, most expedient route available.
2. Explain to your child that if school is dismissed
other than the regular time, he should come home
immediately, using the recommended route.
3. Speak aloud every thought you have which influences
your decisions regarding where you walk -- which
side of the street, which corners you cross from
and to, and how to use available school crossings.
(Remember to use sidewalks if available; walk facing
traffic if there is no sidewalk; cross at corners
only at right angles; be sure to explain the proper
use of signal lights; walk -- don't run across the
street.) Be sure your child understands why and not
4. Time your trip in order to know how much time your
child needs each day so that hurrying will be
unnecessary. Record time required.
5. Explain the importance of going directly home, not
talking to or riding with strangers.
6. When you arrive at school let your child take you
by the hand and walk home, this time with the child
"thinking out loud," describing each factor con-
sidered and each decision he makes. Correct any
mistakes promptly, then let the child continue.
7. At one corner along your way home, have the child
cross the street alone to demonstrate his ability
to follow your instructions.
Every morning when your child leaves home, say:
"Be Careful." Now he will know what you mean.
"High School Safety Councils"
OBJECTIVE: To organize a Council of Students in each
high school who will set standards for
safety, activate programs and promote self
discipline. This is an effort "by students
-- for students."
1. The Student Council in each high school should
be encouraged to appoint a safety committee made
up of one boy and one girl from each class.
There should be a faculty advisor.
2. This committee should be assigned the responsi-
bility of developing a monthly safety program
for the entire student body. To develop the
program, committee members should seek resource
materials from this book and call on the Safety
Director of the County School System, members of
the Governor's Highway Safety Commission, County
Safety Council, Florida Highway Patrol, Sheriff's
Office and City Police Department.
3. All High School Safety Councils in any one county
can work together by having a Chairmen's Coordi-
nating Committee. This would be a planning and
advisory group made up of the chairman and advisor
from each school.
4. The chairman of each high school Safety Council
should be invited to meet with the County Safety
Council to be a part of the entire county safety
5. All Safety Committees should seek resource materials
from local insurance agents and law enforcement
people for distribution at meetings.
6. News media should be kept informed so they can
alert the community to each monthly safety promotion.
PROJECT: "Fire Prevention"
OBJECTIVE: To make the public constantly aware of the
need for fire prevention.
1. October is Fire Prevention Month. Develop program in
support of and coordinated with objectives and activi-
ties of local fire department.
2. Seek cooperation of utility and heating fuel companies,
Chamber of Commerce, fire insurance agents and other
civic groups, in promoting activities for participa-
tion in Fire Prevention Week, Clean-Up Campaigns and
contests, especially clean out the garage, attic or
3. Set up year 'round emphasis campaign on basis of
seasonal and special needs: July 4th of July Safety;
August School Safety and Firedrills; September In-
spection and service of heating equipment and chimneys;
October National Fire Prevention Week; December -
Christmas Safety; Spring Clean-Up Week, a special
promotion on prevention of rubbish and trash fires:
a. Get rid of debris from attic, cellar, closets,
and garage old newspapers and other com-
b. Clean up yard, with particular note to keep
grass cut low along buildings.
c. Discard old paint cans and oily rags which can
easily cause fire due to spontaneous combustion.
4. Make the public aware of materials and fabrics most
susceptible to fire.
5. During October Fire Prevention Week, encourage local
businesses to mention fire prevention in their ads.
6. Promote Fire Prevention Posters in schools with prizes.
7. Do a complete program on emergency treatment of burns.
PROJECT: "Fire Prevention" (Continued)
8. Stress importance of three fire programs for children:
a. "Bug in Rug" -- how to roll in a blanket if
clothing catches fire.
b. "Hello Central" -- how to call telephone
operator if the house is on fire.
c. "Abandon Ship" -- how to escape from a
9. Develop cooperation and support of news outlets re
releases, publicity, news items.
PROJECT: "Halloween Safety"
OBJECTIVE: To make a safe Halloween holiday.
1. Remind the public of the safety hazards of candles
and lanterns at Halloween.
2. See that all "Trick or Treat" youngsters wear
reflective arm bands so they can be seen by
3. Advise the dangers of more violent pranks and
suggest fun for Halloween under supervised con-
4. Check through the bags of candy your children
bring home and encourage them to wait until you
check before eating.
5. Know where your children are going on their
"Trick or Treat" tour and be sure there are at
least two. It is better for them to go in
6. Invite the group to your house after the tour
and ask them if they encountered any unusual
situations that can be avoided next year.
OBJECTIVE: To encourage proper care and handling of firearms
to decrease accidents and to teach the proper
method of use for protection.
1. Obtain what information is available on firearm
accidents from local police department, local and
State Health Department, and State Conservation
2. Arrange for the presentation of talks or demon-
strations before civic groups and on television
and radio. "Firearms Safety -- A Presentation
Outline," includes firearm safety in the home as
well as in the field; available from the National
Rifle Association, 1600 Rhode Island Avenue, N.W.,
Washington 20006, D. C.)
3. Instructors for Hunter Safety Courses are certified
by the NRA and the courses (usually four one-hour
sessions; sometimes two two-hour sessions) are
usually offered by a local rifle club, sportsman's
club, or other civic-minded group. All interested
women should be encouraged to complete this course.
4. The public relations chairman of a local organiza-
tion sponsoring the NRA Hunter Safety Course is
sure to welcome assistance in arranging publicity
so that each class will be filled, if possible.
Women's organizations can play an important role
in assisting with such public information.
5. Organize a "Petticoat Posse" with the help of your
local law enforcement officials toteach basic
shooting and care of guns.
6. Develop cooperation and support of news outlets --
local newspapers, radio, TV. Publicize also through
announcements at PTA meetings, civic associations,
local bulletin boards, and other media particularly
appropriate in your area.
PROJECTs "Motorcycle Safety"
(including scooters and motorized bicycles)
OBJECTIVE: To alert cyclists and all other motorists to the
laws and proper procedures for safer cycling.
The need for greater skill is indicated by the fact that for
motorcycles the fatal accident rate (deaths per 100,000,000 miles
of travel) is six times as great as that for automobile passengers.
Over 2000 motorcyclists die each year in traffic accidents. In
many cases the fault lies with the automobile driver, but the
cyclist is just as dead as if he'd been wrong. Your programs
should tell how to ride defensively and avoid many accidents which
may actually be caused by the automobile driver.
A safe, skillful and courteous motorcycle operator can do much to
improve the image of the motorcycle rider. A good image will do
much to lessen the chance of oppressive and restrictive legisla-
tion being passed. Unfortunately the conduct of a few motorcycle
operators has left an undesirable image in the minds of many people.
Motorcycles have suddenly become an important part of the traffic
stream. Total registration hovered around the half-million mark
for many years. In 1963 registration began to climb due mainly to
the importation of light-weight motorcycles from Japan. Now there
are well over 2* million. In 1963 one out of every 106 motor
vehicles was a motorcycle. In 1970 the figure was one out of 44.
Because of the nature of motorcycling it most generally appeals to
the younger person. Most riders are between the ages of 16 and 25.
In this age group are also found the new automobile drivers.
Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that motorcycle riders, if
they are not presently, will eventually become automobile drivers.
Thus, the knowledge you acquire from motorcycling experience will
assist you in operating an automobile.
1. Prepare programs and distribute materials concerning the
facts from accident reports on the study of motorcycle
In 1970, 2330 motorcycle riders were killed in traffic
accidents or one every four hours. The seriousness of
the problem cannot be ignored. In recent years motor-
cycle accidents have reached epidemic proportions.
The Motorcycle Death Rate is 6 times that of passenger
A 300-pound motorcycle is no match for a 3,000 pound
car. The motorcycle operator must ride defensively and
and learn to yield the right-of-way regardless of his
With only two wheels in contact with the ground, the
motorcycle is very unstable on slippery surfaces so
page 2 "Motorcycle Safety"
great caution is required. Since there is little pro-
tection in case of upset or collision, the wearing of
protective clothing is essential if the seriousness of
injuries is to be reduced.
The U. S. Public Health Service reports that 20% of
those injured are riding for the first or second time
and 70% were riding a rented or borrowed motorcycle.
This points up the need for extreme care while learning
and the need for thorough training before the motorcycle
is ridden in traffic.
Riding a motorcycle can be safe but no safer than the
2. Do a study on purchasing a motorcycle.
The advantages in relation to an automobile are economy,
simpler maintenance, less expensive insurance, easier
parking and it serves as a second car.
The disadvantages are discomfort on long rides, 6 times
greater chance of being killed, no room for passengers
or baggage and no protection from weather or road condi-
Checklist for purchasing a motorcycles
( )New or( )Used Price $_
( )Two cycle or( )Four cycle Size cc
( )Scooter or( )Motorcycle No.of Cylinders
( )Dealer or( )Private owner Insurance cost $____
License Plates $___
Checklist of Safety features for the cyclist and the cycles
( )Helmet ( )Crash bars
( )Eye protection ( )Reflective material
( )Protective clothing ( )Mirrors
3. Make a study of legal requirements concerning
a. Driver's license
b. Certificate of title
c. License plates
d. Safety equipment
The laws generally reads
a. A cyclist has the same rights, privileges and
responsibilities as the driver of an automobile.
page 3 "Motorcycle Safety"
b. Cyclists include operators of bicycles, motorbikes,
minibikes, motorscooters and motorcycles.
c. All motorcycles are motor vehicles. Motorbikes,
minibikes and motorscooters are motorcycles.
d. All must carry tags if ridden on public streets,
highways, or thoroughfares.
e. Operators of all must have a valid driver's license.
No license will be issued to persons under 15 years
f. An operator 15 years of age is eligible for a
restricted license in the State of Florida.
g. An operator with a restricted license can operate a
motor driver cycle in DAYLIGHTS HOURS ONLY and the
machine can be rated at no more than five brake horse-
power. (The dealer or manufacturer must be contacted
to determine brake horsepower.)
h. Operators must observe all traffic laws, signs and
i. No person shall ride on any motorcycle except on a
seat PERMANENTLY attached and SPECIFICALLY DESIGNED
to carry the rider in a safe manner.
j. All operators or riders of motorcycles or motor-driven
cycles are REQUIRED TO WEAR an approved crash helmet
of safe design and strength and a protective safety
mask, safety goggles or glasses to prevent eye injuries.
k. THE FOLLOWING ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT ARE REQUIRED ON ALL
MOTOR DRIVEN CYCLES -- regardless of size.
(1) BRAKES at least one, capable of stopping the
machine within 30 feet at 20 miles per hour.
(2) HEADLIGHT sufficient intensity to reveal an
ofject at no less than 300 feet when operating
at a speed of 35 M.P.H. or more.
(3) TAIL LIGHT red, visible from 500 feet to the
(4) STOP LIGHT red, visible from 100 feet in
daylight and actuated by the braking mechanism.
(5) MUFFLER must be in good working order, and
must prevent excessive or unusual noise.
(6) HORN must be audible for 200 feet.
(7) REARVIEW MIRROR required just as for all other
page 4 "Motorcycle Safety"
4. Do a program on proper procedures for operating a cycle
a. Riding in traffic
(1) Speed control
(2) Lane position
(3) Overtaking and passing on two lane roads
b. Special hazards such as
(1) Hazardous road conditions
(2) Carrying passengers and packages
(3) Obstacles in the roadway
5. Make a study of building a better image
Motorcyclists who fail to recognize the fact that
there are others on the road and that it is their
responsibility to share the roadways are doing a
great disservice to the cause of cycling. They
cannot expect to be respected by other motorists.
In order to fit into the smooth, safe flow of traffic
the cyclist should ride so as to blend with the
traffic around him. Any vehicle which can be iden-
tified as standing out in the flow of traffic due to
erratic moves tends to disrupt the safe movement of
other vehicles and irritates other drivers. The
cyclist should operate his vehicle in a manner which
will not call special attention to him. In other
words, don't be conspicuous in traffic.
One of the most irritating things a cyclist can do
as far as pedestrians and other motorists are con-
cerned is to ride through city streets with his
muffler sounding the alarm of his approach. Noise
is no indication of skill or ability. Motorcyclists
who wish to be accepted by the public should refrain
from using loud mufflers. In some states it is
against the traffic regulations to modify mufflers
to increase their noise. Excessive acceleration also
produces unnecessary noise.
The size of the cycle, its maneuverability, plus the
noise that it often makes, add to the belief that the
cycle is traveling faster than it actually is. There-
fore, it seems to others that the cyclist is speeding
or traveling too fast for existing conditions. In
page 5 "Motorcycle Safety"
order to dispel this belief and to maintain safe
operating procedure, the cyclist should stay with
the flow of traffic and not dart in and out of his
traffic lane, or speed between two lanes of slowly
moving traffic. The minutes saved by darting in
and out are hardly worth the bad opinion of other
motorist which it causes.
PROJECTi "Christmas Safety"
OBJECTIVEs To make people aware of the dangers of
decorations, etc., associated with Christmas.
1. Develop a safety float for the Christmas Parade.
2. Either print or let youth groups make Christmas
tree tags in the shape of a tree with safety
instructions on tag. The other side of the tree
tag may include a Christmas greeting from the
3. Arrange for a local paper to run a large ad with
a Christmas Safety checklist. Urge children to
check the list with parents and take the completed
list to a prearranged place such as local fire
station or safety committee office. Give children
a candy cane and a safety button.
4. Make flame proofing of trees and greenery a part
of the Christmas Safety program. Mix 9 ounces
of borax, 4 ounces of boric acid and 1 gallon of
water. Spray or dip tree to saturate it. Let
dry. (To aid penetrating qualities of solution,
add 1/4 tablespoon low-sudsing detergent, such as
Dash or All, to mixture.)
5. Ask club groups meeting before Christmas to list
all the Christmas home hazards they can think of.
Give a prize to the member with the longest list
consolidate the lists and prepare news releases
and an exhibit.
6. Demonstrate or make an exhibit of safe and unsafe
toys for infants and children at each age level.
Use leaflet, "Select Safety Toys," and a collection
of safe and unsafe toys.
7. Promote giving safety gifts for Christmas such as
seat belts, fire screens, safety gasoline cans,
rubber bath mats, flashlights, locked medicine
cabinets, or locked gun racks. An attractive
exhibit may be made with these gifts displayed, or
a poster may be made using pictures.
8. Make everyone aware of the dangers of driving at
Christmas rush hours. TV and radio will stress
"FIRST A FRIEND...THEN A HOST"
"First a Friend...Then a Host" campaign is an approach to
the re-definition of the role of the host in relation to
the Drinking-Driving Problem.
A GOOD HOST IS FIRST A FRIEND THAN A HOSTs A good friend
does not endanger a guest's welfare. But, that is exactly
what a host does who urges too many alcoholic drinks upon
his guest. A good host knows that alcohol is a leading
factor in more than half of fatal motor vehicle accidents.
"LOADING" a guest is not the sign of a good host -- it is
an indication that the host doesn't care what happens to
his "FRIENDS". Remember the one-for-one plans allow one
hour before driving for each drink consumed; no more than
one drink an hour.
LET'S HAVE A PARTY -- LET'S HAVE FUN! LET'S FIRST BE A
FRIEND THEN A HOST by...
1. offering non-alcoholic beverages for those who
prefer them. Let your guests make the choice.
2. providing an attractive self-service bar. Let
your guests decide how much they want.
3. generously providing attractive and tempting food.
4. passing trays of food instead of "urging"
alcoholic beverages -- especially toward the end
of the party.
5. providing transportation for a guest who has had
According to the Licensed Beverage Industries, THE HOSTESS
WHO POURS THE MOSTEST IS A POOR HOSTESS.
The first thing the good hostess owes her guests is good
hospitality. Good hospitality, of course, means many
things. But one thing it doesn't mean is forcing drinks
on your guests.
Happily, most hostesses know it. And while they want
their guests to enjoy the best in food and drink, they
recognize that with the drink comes a responsibility.
That's why, to the responsible hostess, the cocktail hour
is simply a relaxing prelude to a well-prepared meal -- a
prelude she doesn't stretch beyond its normal limits. She
knows that liquor is not for everyone, so she always has
on hand a variety of soft drinks and juices. She serves
"coffee and" before her guests drive home, rather than the
proverbial "one for the road." And she makes certain that
anyone who has one too many is driven home by someone else.
PROJECT: "Personal Safety" (Continued)
e. When you stop for a light, stay a car-length
behind the car ahead of you to allow maneuver-
ing space. If someone tries to get into your
car, sound your horn and keep it blowing until
he goes away or help comes; or, better still,
"take off" -- even if it means disobeying a
traffic signal. You might even attract the
attention of a nearby police officer, and this
is just what you want.
f. If a suspicious car follows you, drive into a
filling station. It is also a good idea to
know where the police substations or fire
stations are so that these may be havens of
safety in case of emergency.
g. Park in well-lighted areas. Look around for
loiterers before leaving your car.
h. Never pick up hitchhikers. Make this a hard
and fast rule.
i. Always keep your car locked and the keys in
your possession -- yes even though a car is in
your own garage or you are only popping into
the store for a minute.
j. Leave a light on in your garage when you will
return after dark.
k. If you have car trouble, signal for help with
a white handkerchief tied to the radio antenna.
Leave the hood up, if possible. Getback in the
car. Lock the doors until help comes and until
you are sure of the intent of the person offer-
ing help. A woman alone should avoid stopping
to aid others. If you do stop, keep doors
locked, get instructions for sending help and
1. If, in spite of everything, you are held up in
your automobile, don't offer resistance to the
holdup man. Do what he says short of personal
injury. But be observant. Remember such de-
tails as an accurate description of the criminal
and the direction of his escape.
PROJECT: "Personal Safety"
OBJECTIVE: To alert citizens to the dangers that are always
present and prepare them to act quickly.
1. Contact your local police department to set up
Personal Safety classes.
2. Notify all clubs and organizations of the time
and place for the Personal Safety Classes and
encourage their attendance.
3. Present a program using the points stressed in
"Project Aware," which follows.
4. Encourage your club members to arrange the
showing of personal safety films to your organ-
5. Develop a program urging citizens to observe
the following safety rules in automobiles:
a. Keep all doors locked.
b. Stay on a well-traveled and well lighted
street, even it if means going out of your
c. Keep car windows rolled up whenever possible,
especially at intersection, when stalled in
traffic, or in suspicious areas. If a window
must be opened to give signals, close it at
other times. For ventilation, open several
windows just an inch or so.
d. Do not leave a purse, valuables, or packages
on the car seat in clear view of any would-be
thief and invite thievery. Bide such items
in the glove compartment, under the seat, or
in the trunk.
PROJECT: "Personal Safety" (Continued)
m. Do not keep identification cards, receipts,
registrations, or credit cards in your car.
In the event the car is stolen you are arming
the thief with additional credentials to
defraud others and to make charges on your
n. It is not advisable to have car keys identi-
fied with your license number, i.e., minia-
ture license plates. If such keys are stolen
or lost, the identification on miniature
plates makes it easier for a would-be thief
to steal your car. Mark your keys in a way
that is only known to you and members of your
o. Don't leave your car parked for lengthy
periods at railroad or airport parking lots.
License plates can be traced by those on the
lookout for empty homes.
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"Safety on the Streets"
A national call for a Women's Crusade for
Safety on the Streets, S.O.S. by the
Women's Department, National Safety Council
OBJECTIVEs Let's bring back Safety on the Streets --
Freedom from fear is a fundamental right of every
human being---yet accidents and assaults are
occurring on our streets and---
A pervasive fear is becoming a major problem in
contemporary life. Because of a deep concern for
the safety level of our communities, the executive
committee of the Women's Conference of the
National Safety Council, representing some 30 to
50 million women, announces a national call for a
women's crusade for Safety on the Streets (S.O.S.).
Women activated can make the difference. Women care.
And through this crusade women can protect their
loved ones, their neighbors, themselves.
National and local safety council services, and
those of public officials, law enforcement and other
agencies, can, through the alchemy of volunteer
womanpower, help restore the safe life which is the
good life to every community. The morale and
physical qualities of neighborhoods can be upgraded.
Citizens once more can be granted that fundamental
right-freedom from fear.
Change begins with caring enough. Any woman who is
concerned about the problem of safety on the streets
need not feel isolated or helpless. As an indi-
vidual she can initiate action, or, through a club
or community group, she can help initiate action as
suggested in the following steps.
Steps for conducting a program,
1. Choose participants for an S.O.S. core group (indi-
viduals and/or existing clubs or groups).
2. Ask an important local official to call the first meeting.
Or, perhaps, your group or you yourself can issue the call.
3. Get the facts on accidents and assaults from sources
such as local officials, the media or local safety
4. Share facts and knowledge at the meeting, bringing in
resource people so the group can make an accurate
appraisal of the problem.
5. Assign priorities. Choose the problems on which to
concentrate. Decide where you wish to "Zero in" at
first-neighborhood, school, downtown, or entire city.
page 2 "Safety on the Streets"
6. Find out what is being done by others about these
priorities in your area.
7. Join others in their activities or initiate action
8. Evaluate skills of your participants and add personnel
9. Utilize press, radio and TV. Involve them from the
beginning of your project.
10. Inform citizens of your crusade and of the growing
danger -- through the media, speakers bureau, town
meetings, visual adis (poster, bumper stickers, bill-
boards, etc.), school assemblies, business, professional
and fraternal association meetings, church sermons,
industrial open houses. Keep citizens informed of your
11. Work with national and local safety councils and other
organizations such as the nationaland local AAA,
Chambers of Commerce and Councils on Crime and Delin-
quency; youth, labor and farm groups; men's and women's
clubs; public officials at all levels of governments
and leading citizens.
ACCIDENT-ORIENTED PROGRAMS Discussion Topics
1. What are the accident statistics -- fatalities and
injuries -- for your community?
2. Use of DDC (NSC'S "Defensive Driving Course") as an
8 hour classroom course or several workshop sessions
using tape cassettes.
3. Use of DDC by courts for a violators' school.
1. What is the incidence of bicycle fatalities and
injuries? Where do accidents occur?
2. What is the age level of those involved in accidents?
3. Are there existing laws and/or ordinances for bicycles?
4. Do the present codes need to be revised? Are new laws
5. Should bicycles be registered?
page 3 "Safety on the Streets"
6. Is Bicycle training available? Where?
7. What is the parents' role?
National Highway Standards
Standards have been established by the National Highway Traffic
Safety Administration of the U. S. Department of Transportation.
States vary in their adoption of these standards.
1. What are the highway standards? (Motor vehicle inspec-
tion, codes and laws, driver education, etc.)
2. What standards has your state adopted?
3. What are local priorities?
4. What course of action should be taken to implement
ASSAULT-ORIENTED PROGRAMS Discussion Topics
1. Preparations before leaving home, and leaving and
2. Walking on the streets -- precautions against assault.
Self-defense, legality and effectiveness of weapons.
3. Driving on the streets -- precautions and self-defense.
4. Using public transportation -- precautions and self-
5. Precautions, self-defense in stores, theaters, laundro-
6. Precautions and self-defense for the child.
ACCIDENT/ASSAULT-ORIENTED PROGRAMS Discussion Topics
1. Alcohol's effect on performance and judgment.
2. Alcohol's involvement in motor vehicle accidents and
3. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's
program on alcohol.
4. State implied consent laws, alcohol-blood level.
5. Facilities for testing alcohol-blood levels.
Surveillance and enforcement.
page 4 "Safety on the Streets"
1. Types of drugs (hallucinogenic, stimulant, sedative,
2. Incidence of drug involvement in accidents and assaults
in the community.
3. Roles of government, medical profession, educational
institutions and parents in combating drug abuse.
4. Possible countermeasures.
5. Surveillance and enforcement.
1. Incidence of pedestrian fatalities and injuries.
2. Are pedestrian crosswalks effective? Are there signs
where children and the elderly regularly cross?
3. Should jaywalkers be ticketed?
4. Are speed limits realistic?
5. Is lighting adequate?
6. Are local pedestrian laws adequate? Are they well
1. Report on areas with high incidence of accidents,
2. Consider current and long-range needs for street and
3. Determine type and amount of lighting for areas selec-
ted for change and/or improvement.
4. Justify use of funds for lighting changes and improve-
5. Consider a campaign for public support in lighting
6. Consider types of outdoor lighting for homes.
School and Children
1. Driver Education
2. Qualifications for school bus drivers and school bus
page 5 "Safety on the Streets"
3. Parent observer plan for the schoolyard
4. School safety patrol
5. Crossing guards
6. Parent Block Plan
7. School dropouts
8. Respect for police, law
9. Instructions in bicycle safety, traffic signals and
"Operation Self Defense"
OBJECTIVE: To alert women to the needs for self defense
and to the use of everyday possessions for
1. This program must be administered by your law enforce-
ment officers so your first step is to contact them.
There are many good pamphlets and elementary Karate
and Judo can be introduced.
2. Set a time and place for the program and notify other
women's organizations and ask them to participate.
3. Notify your local newspapers and radio stations so
that everyone will know the time, place and purpose
of this demonstration.
Arrange with your local law enforcement officers for
a four or six weeks course in the proper handling and
shooting of firearms. Be sure that your program and the
time and place are well organized and that the newspapers
and radio stations give you good coverage.
Be sure that you have your first and last meetings in
a large auditorium. We have found that many more attend
this course than you expect.
You can charge a small fee for this course to allow
you to have certificates printed to present at graduation
(the last meeting.)
"Operation Self Defense" can be the last meeting date
in your "Petticoat Posse" program and this has been done
with great success in many areas. These two programs
combined make a very satisfactory and worthwhile four or
six weeks project.
"Operation Safe Child"
OBJECTIVE: A program to alert parents of young children
to the physical and emotional dangers that
are always present.
PROCEDURE: The words most often used by parents to their
children are, "Be Careful!"
The following information should be circulated
as a guide in helping the parent to know what
the child should be cautioned about in order to
"Be Careful and Be Safe." This is offered at
mid-way of the school term as a new reminder.
1. Explain to your child why he should not speak to
strangers, accept rides, candy, etc. If someone
strange offers the child a ride in his or her car,
tell the child to back away and run either to
school or home for help and safety. If possible,
scratch the license number of the car in the dirt
on the ground...or try to remember it and write
it down when the child reaches safety.
2. Forbid your children under any circumstances to
accompany strangers who claim to be sent by the
3. Know where your children are, and with whom. This
also applies from earliest years through teenage.
Know your children's friends. Don't leave them
home "alone"...an adult should be near by. Many
troubles come from lack of attention on the part
of the parent.
4. Inspect the comics and magazines or paperback books
your child reads...or looks at. This applies to the
child up to adulthood. It is alarming to consider
the number of pornographic materials that are avail-
able everywhere to entice the young and degrade
their morals. Since recent Supreme Court rulings
permit the circulation of many types of filthy
literature, parents must take an interest in what
their children are reading. Only sound counseling
and constant vigil by parents can protect our youth
from these dangers.
PROJECT: "Operation Safe Child" (Continued)
5. Check your parent's movie guide and know which
movies are not for children. If you want strong,
upright adults...don't put temptation in our
children's way by a too lenient attitude towards
today's movies and shows. Our children are with
us just a little while...and then they'll be
grown. Our Almighty Father gave them to us to
care for...and we must indeed CARE!
LET'S KEEP OUR CHILDREN SAFE
OBJECTIVE: To assure better safety for the pedestrian.
1. Get the pedestrian accident facts -- identify
your local pedestrian problem areas. Is emphasis
needed for the very young, the elderly, or school
age pedestrians? Is alcohol a factor?
2. Find out what, if anything, is already being done
in your community to meet these needs.
3. Call upon chief city official...explain what the
group proposes. Get his support and support of
interested and concerned department heads.
4. Work for enactment of a pedestrian ordinance. If
an ordinance is already on the books, work for
effective enforcement of the ordinance. Provide
background material to the press and radio so
the public may be properly informed.
5. Promote the idea that pedestrians are an integral
part of traffic with basic traffic responsibilities.
Discuss safe walking practices. Provide fluorescent
arm bands for night walking.
6. Urge that street and highway planning give con-
sideration to pedestrian needs in traffic.
7. After defining specific problem areas, work with
appropriate groups in your community with interest
in these particular areas as, for example, PTA's,
Golden Age Clubs, church groups, etc.
"Pedestrian Safety" (Continued)
8. Make reprints of the material below on 3 x 5 cards
and distribute them locally.
HOW TO WALK AND STAYALIVE
(10 Steps to Safety)
The following rules are for the guidance of all pedestrians:
W-ear or carry something white when walking on the street at night.
A-lways look left, then right before crossing the street.
L--ook out for cars turning corners.
K-eep your umbrella away from your face, so that your vision is not blocked.
S-tepping into traffic lanes from behind or in front of parked cars is dangerous.
A-lcohol blurs your vision don't over-indulge, if you're walking.
F-or your own protection, wait at the curb until you're sure you can cross safely.
E-xtra care is needed crossing wet or slippery streets. Cars take longer to stop.
Ir--ook out for traffic before entering or leaving a bus.
Y-ou are protected by traffic signals. Cross only on GREEN or WALK signal.
The problem of the pedestrian in traffic has always
been a serious one, but today it is acute. With more and
faster cars appearing, pedestrians must become more conscious of
traffic dangers, must adjust themselves to greater speeds, and
must be more careful in observing safety principles. Younger
children, especially, must be taught the dangers and the safety
precautions to overcome those dangers.
Each year about one-fifth of the total of all motor-
vehicle deaths are pedestrians. Nearly two-thirds of all pedes-
trian deaths occur in urban areas. Nearly one-fifth of the toll
is in the 5 to 14 year age group. Pedestrian deaths are most
numerous in the early hours of darkness, especially in the fall
and winter months. At this time of year the peak rush hours of
traffic are at a time of comparative darkness and this combina-
tion constitutes a very real hazard.
About two-fifths of the pedestrian fatalities in the
cities occur between intersections. In rural areas almost one-
eighth of the pedestrians killed are persons walking in the
In the 5 to 14 year age group, circumstances associa-
ted with fatal and nonfatal accidents are as follows:
About one-half occur while crossing between in-
Approximately one-fourth occur when crossing at
About one-fourth happen when coming from behind
One-fourth occur under other circumstances.
More than half of the pedestrians killed by motor
vehicles are either violating a traffic law or committing an
unsafe act. The most common of these violations of law and/or
common sense are:
Crossing the streets between intersections;
Crossing intersections diagonally;
Ignoring traffic signals;
Coming into the street from behind parked cars;
page 2 PEDESTRIAN SAFETY
Playing in street;
Walking on the wrong side of the road; 0
Walking at night without carrying or wearing
light or white articles to attract the motorists'
Waiting in the street instead of on curbs for
traffic to pass.
The pedestrian problem is the most serious traffic
accident prevention problem in most urban communities. Of all
motor-vehicle deaths in urban areas, pedestrian fatalities
account for nearly two-thirds. Education of the pedestrian in
regard to safety practices and enforcement of pedestrian regula-
tions are of prime importance in cutting down pedestrian acci-
Some practices for safe walking that the individual
should remember are:
Always cross the street in marked crosswalks or
at intersections in line with sidewalks.
Walk only with the signal light or at
the direction of a police officer or
Before leaving the curb, stop and look
both ways and for turning cars to be
sure the way is clear.
Walk fast, don't run -- and be alert
for cars which may suddenly turn into
the street. Be especially careful of
footing if the pavement is slippery or
Walk directly across the street -- do
not loiter in the middle, talking,etc.
Carry an umbrella in such a way as to have a clear
view; keep alert and aware of traffic.
Get into or out of a car on the curb side if possi-
ble. If not, be sure the way is clear.
page 3 PEDESTRIAN SAFETY
When boarding a bus or other car, wait on the
curb or in the safety zone for it to stop.
When you must walk through traffic to get to
the safety island, move cautiously.
When alighting from a busor car, walk in the
safety zone to the crosswalk and then directly
to the curb. If crossing to the opposite side
of the street, wait until the vehicle has moved
on; never dash around behind or in front of it
and risk being caught in the flow of traffic.
At night cross where the lights are bright and
the visibility is good.
Always stand on the curb, not in the street,
while waiting to cross.
When walking along a road where there is no side-
walk, walk on the left side, facing on-coming
At night wear or carry something white, light in
color or reflective, or carry a light, so that the
motorists' attention will be attracted to you.
Never play in streets or roadways, nor run sudden-
ly into the street after a ball, pet, etc.
Make use of subways or elevated crossings, safety
islands and other safeguards which are provided.
Be self-reliant and confident, not hesitant, if
you are within your rights and are observing
safety laws. At the same time, do not be fool-
hardy and do not try to buck the motorist, even
if you are right and he is wrong.
Be just as alert and careful when walking in a
group as when alone, and do not depend on others
to watch out for your safety.
PROJECT: "Drug Alert"
OBJECTIVE: To alert the public to the dangers of drug abuse
especially while driving.
1. Using the following material as a basis, set up
a program on Drug Abuse for your organization.
2. Invite a local doctor or druggist to lead the
discussion and be available for questions and
3. Invite guests from other organizations and help
them set up similar programs.
4. Make copies of the information on the teenage
ALERT sheet for distribution to your members.
5. Especially stress that parents be watchful of
symptoms or signs of use of drugs in their
TEENAGE .... .................. ........ PARENTAL
AL ZMA 7"
DAVID J. LEHMAN, M.D.
WM. G. STAFFORD
"Twin Projects"-Sponsored by the Broward County Medical Association
2200 S. Andrews Ave., Ft. Lauderdale, Fla. S8816
Problems of Identification:
It is important that teachers and parents recognize the common symptoms and signs of drug abuse, since many
potential "hard-core" addicts can be rehabilitated if their involvement in drug abuse is detected in its early
1. COMMON SYMPTOMS OF DRUG ABUSE:
Changes in school attendance, discipline and grades.
Change in the character of homework turned in.
Unusual flare-ups or outbreaks of temper.
Poor physical appearance.
Furtive behavior regarding drugs and possessions.
Wearing of sunglasses at inappropriate times to hide dilated or constricted pupils.
Long-sleeved shirts worn constantly to hide needle marks.
Association with known drug abusers.
Borrowing of money from students to purchase drugs.
Stealing small items from school.
Finding the student in odd places during the day such as closets, storage rooms, etc. to take drugs.
2. MANIFESTATIONS OF SPECIFIC DRUGS:
(a) THE GLUE SNIFFER:
(1) Odor of substance inhaled on breath and clothes.
(2) Excess nasal secretions, watering of the eyes.
(3) Poor muscular control, drowsiness or unconsciousness.
(4) Presence of plastic or paper bags or rags containing dry plastic cement.
(b) THE DEPRESSANT ABUSER: ... (BARBITURATES-"GOOFBALLS"):
(1) Symptoms of alcohol intoxication with one important exception-no odor of alcohol on the breath.
(2) Staggering or stumbling in classrooms or halls.
(3) May fall asleep in class.
(4) Lacks interest in school activities.
(5) Is drowsy and may appear disoriented.
(c) THE STIMULANT ABUSER: ... (AMPHETAMINES-"BENNIES"):
(1) Cause Excess Activity-student is irritable, argumentative, nervous and has difficulty sitting
still in classrooms.
(2) Pupils are dilated.
(3) Mouth and nose are dry with bad breath, causing user to lick his lips frequently and rub and
scratch his nose.
(4) Chain smoking.
(5) Goes long periods without eating or sleeping.
(d) THE NARCOTIC ABUSER: . (HEROIN-DEMEROL-MORPHINE, ETC.):
These individuals are not frequently seen in school, and usually begin by drinking paregoric or cough
medicines containing codein-the presence of empty bottles in wastebaskets or on school grounds is
(1) Inhaling heroin in powder-form leaves traces of white powder around the nostrils, causing redness
(2) Injecting heroin leaves scars on the inner surface of the arms and elbows. ("Mainlining.") This
causes the student to wear long-sleeved shirts most of the time.
(3) Users often leave syringes, bent spoons, cotton and needles in lockers-this is a telltale sign of an
(4) In the classroom the pupil is lethargic, drowsy. His pupils are constricted and fail to respond to
(e) THE MARIJUANA ABUSER:
They are difficult to recognize unless under the influence of the drug at the time they are being
(1) In the early stages student may appear animated and hysterical with rapid, loud talking and bursts
(2) In the later stages the student is sleepy or stuporous.
(3) Depth perception is distorted, making driving dangerous.
NOTE: Marijuana cigarettes are rolled in a double-thickness of brown or off-white cigarette paper. These cig-
arettes are smaller than a regular cigarette with the paper twisted or tucked in in both ends, and with tobacco
that is greener in color than regular tobacco. The odor of burning marijuana resembles that of burning weeds or
rope. The cigarettes are referred to as "reefers, sticks, Texas tea, pot, rope, Mary Jane, loco weed, jive, grass,
(f) THE HALLUCINOGEN ABUSER:
It is unlikely that students who use LSD will do so in a school-setting since these drugs are usually
used in a group situation under special conditions.
(1) Users sit or recline quietly in a dream or trance-like state.
(2) Users may become fearful and experience a degree of terror which make them attempt to escape
from the group.
(3) The drug primarily affects the central nervous system, producing changes in mood and behavior.
(4) Perceptual changes involve senses of sight, hearing, touch, body-image and time.
NOTE: The drug is odorless, tasteless and colorless and may be found in the form of impregnated sugar cubes,
cookies or crackers. LSD is usually taken orally but may be injected. It is imported into South Florida in ampules
of clear blue liquid.
This information was reproduced in connection with project "PARENTAL ALERT." Copies may be obtained
on request to the Broward County Medical Association, Fort Lauderdale, Florida.
What Is a Drug?
A drug is a substance which by its chemical nature has an effect
upon the mind or body. Many substances not usually thought of
as drugs are included in this definition such ass caffeine,
alcohol, nicotine, pollutants, and household chemicals. These
are considered drugs because they affect the function of the
living organism. However, this deals with those drugs commonly
referred to as drugs of abuse, including marihuana, hallucinogens,
narcotics, amphetamines, and barbiturates.
Why Are Drugs Being Abused Today?
The misuse of drugs is not a new phenomenon. Different types of
drug abuse have been present for years in the United States and
other countries. The reasons that man has used drugs throughout
history are mainly the same reasons for today's non-medical drug
uses to ease pain, to stop anxiety, to produce happiness, and
to change experience and thought. Many of the reasons that young
people and adults use drugs are one and the same: for fun, to
make social communication easier, to feel better, to relieve bore-
dom and frustration, to escape from problems, and perhaps to
What Is the "Problem"?
The drug problem is complex. There are few issues which arouse
so many emotions as the abuse of drugs. In one respect, the
problem is that we are a drug-oriented society and people are us-
ing more drugs without understanding their actions.
The problem is also one of people and their feelings and beliefs
about drugs. Just as no two people are exactly alike, no two
drug users are the same. Many people tend to lump everyone who
uses drugs into one category. However, not all drug abusers are
at the same level of involvement and distinctions must be made
between the various types of users.
The experimenters have tried a drug, most likely marihuana, only
a few times often due to curiosity or peer-group pressure. This
group does not plan to continue drug use and their experience is
usually not more than an occasional social exposure.
The moderate or social group uses drugs with some regularity;
however, drugs have not become the most important factor in their
The chronic users regularly take drugs which have assumed a central
role in their life styles. This group consists of a small propor-
tion of all drug users, but they are the ones who are drug
page 2 DRUG ABUSE
What Are Some Definitions Associated With Drug Misuse?
Drug dependence -- physical or psychological -- is a condition
which results from chronic, periodic, or continuous use of
various chemicals. There are many different kinds of drug
dependence according to the type of drug used and each has
specific problems associated with it.
Habituation is the psychological desire to repeat the use of a
drug intermittently or continuously because of emotional needs.
Many individuals come to use drugs habitually to escape from
reality or just to feel better.
Addiction is the physical dependence upon a drug. Its defini-
tion includes the development of tolerance and withdrawal. As
a person develops tolerance he requires larger and larger
amounts of the drug to achieve the same effect. Withdrawal
occurs when the use of an addicting drug is stopped abruptly
and is such ass diarrhea, vomiting, and cramps. Many drug
users develop a compulsion to continue taking a drug to avoid
the withdrawal symptoms.
Are All Drugs Harmful?
Many people still seem to think of drugs as magic potions which
have only the good effects they seek. However, almost every
drug, even those not commonly thought of as drugs of abuse, is
potentially dangerous at some dosage level for certain people
under some circumstances. Some drugs can also be harmful when
taken in dangerous combinations or by very sensitive people in
small or ordinary amounts.
The fact that some drugs can bring about beneficial results does
not mean that pills will solve all problems. What is needed is
a new respect for all drugs. Drugs that affect the mind can have
subtle or obvious side effects which may occur immediately or
become evident only after long-term, continuous use.
Why Do Drugs Have Such a Wide Range of Effects Upon Different Users?
All drugs have many effects and these vary among individuals, on
different occasions in the same individual, with the amount of the
drug, and the length of time the drug is used. Many factors not
related to the chemical make-up of the drug cause varying effects.
These include the expectations of the user, the circumstances or
setting under which he takes the drug, and the meaning of drug use
to the individual.
Even the same individual taking the same dose of a drug on subse-
quent occasions may have a completely different reaction. As the
drug affects the individual, he becomes more susceptible to the
moods of the people around him and the setting in which he takes
the drug. These factors can markedly alter the drug's effects.
page 3 DRUG ABUSE
Where Does a Person Go If He Has a Drug-Related Problem?
A user can ask his family, a friend, physician, or minister to
help find the best resource in the community. The family doctor,
mental health professionals, or school counselors should be among
the first contacted. Some community mental health centers have
special drug abuse units; all centers can provide referral to
What Considerations Could Make an Impact on Our Drug Abuse Problem?
1. A double standard produces a credibility gap. Adults who mis-
use liquor, tobacco, or other drugs should be judged by the
same standards as young people.
2. Children should not be continually exposed to the idea that
the stresses of daily life require chemical relief. Respect
for all chemicals, especially mind-altering chemicals, should
be instilled in people at an early age.
3. Factual information about drugs should be stressed rather than
attempts to frighten people.
4. Efforts to detect and apprehend all illegal manufacturers and
large-scale traffickers of illicit drugs should increase.
5. Further research in prevention, education, and treatment
techniques should be carried out.
What Is Marihuana?
Marihuana is a dried plant material from the Indian hemp plant
(Cannabis sativa). The plant grows wild in many parts of the
world, including the United States, and is frequently cultivated
for its commercial value in the production of fiber for rope,
bird seed, and other purposes. In its drug use it is known by
such names as "pot," "grass," "weed," "Mary Jane," and many others.
For use as a drug, the leaves and flowering tips of the plant are
dried and crushed or broken into small fragments which are then
typically rolled into thin homemade cigarettes, often called
"joints." It may also be smoked in small pipes and is occasionally
incorporated into food and eaten. The smoke smells like burning
rope or alfalfa. Because of its distinctive odor, users sometimes
burn incense to mask the smell.
Marihuana varies greatly in strength, depending upon where it is
grown, whether it is wild or specifically cultivated for smoking
or eating, and which portions of the plant actually go into the
drug mixture. Marihuana is also sometimes adulterated with other
materials such as the seeds and stems, tea, catnip, or oregano,
still further reducing the strength of the resulting mixture.
Hashish ("Hash") is the potent dark brown resin which is collected
from the tops of high quality cannabis. Because of the high con-
centration of resin, it is often five to six times stronger than
the usual marihuana, although the active drug ingredients are
the same. Basically it is a much more concentrated form of the
What Is Its Use?
Marihuana has been in widespread use for several thousand years,
both for its intoxicating effects and for its presumed value as
a medicine it has been used for such varied complaints as pain,
cough, rheumatism, asthma, and migraine headaches. Other drugs
have taken its place in modern medicine and at present it is no
longer prescribed in the United States. Despite the fact that
the drug is illegal in almost all countries, it has continued to
be used for its intoxicating effects by many millions, especially
in Asia and Africa.
How Widely Is It Used In The United States?
While estimates based on various surveys differ, it is generally
conceded that the use of marihuana has undergone a sharp increase
in the last several years, particularly among young people. On
some college campuses where use is extensive, a majority of the
students have tried the drug at least once. Use which has now
expanded to include individuals from many widely different social
Page 2 MARIHUANA
While the exact extent of marihuana use in the United States is not
known, health authorities believe that as many as 8 to 12 million
Americans have used the drug at least once in their lives. Other
estimates have ranged as high as 20 million. Perhaps as many as
one million are "potheads." They have made marihuana a way of
life, and are the equivalent of the chronic alcoholic who also
uses a chemical to deal with problems of living. Research studies
are underway to examine trends in use and to determine more pre-
cisely patterns of use.
How Does The Drug Work?
When smoked, marihuana quickly enters the bloodstream and within
minutes begins to affect the user's mood and thinking. The exact
mechanisms of action and the alterations of cerebral metabolism
are not well understood. Extensive research is currently underway
to provide this basic information. Because it can cause hallu-
cinations if used in very high doses, marihuana is technically
classified as a mild hallucinogen. Despite several thousand years
of use, less is presently known about the mode of action of this
drug than is known about most other drugs in widespread use. It
is only in the last few years that the synthesis of THC and the
development of methods to assay THC in marihuana have made precision
What Are Its Physical Effects?
The long-term physical effects of marihuana are not yet known.
To answer this question, extensive scientific research is currently
underway. It is based on both laboratory findings and research in
countries where use has been widespread for many years.
The immediate physical effects on the user while smoking include
reddening of the whites of the eyes, increased heart beat, and
coughing due to the irritating effect of the smoke on the lungs.
Users also report dryness of the mouth and throat. Reports of
increased hunger and sleepiness are also common.
What Are Its Psychological Effects?
The drug's effects on the emotions and senses vary widely, depending
on such factors as the user's expectations, the circumstances of
use and, of course, the strength and quantity of the drug used.
Typically time is distorted and seems much extended-5 minutes may
seem like an hour. Space may seem enlarged or otherwise distorted.
Sounds and colors sometimes seem intensified. Thought frequently
becomes dreamlike. The notion that one is thinking better is not
unusual. Illusions (misinterpretation of sensations) are often A
Page 3 MARIHUANA
reported. Hallucinatinations (experiencing non-existent sensations)
and delusions (false beliefs) are rare. Frequently the user under-
goes a kind of passive withdrawal accompanied by some degree of
"high." The individual tends to withdraw into himself. Occasion-
ally, uncontrollable laughter or crying may occur. While some users
find the effects pleasant, others find them frightening or very un-
pleasant. Unfounded suspiciousness may occur and this may be
accompanied by marked fear or anxiety. Occasionally, such reactions
may be sufficiently severe as to cause a susceptible individual to
develop symptoms of panic, a paranoid state or a temporary break
with reality. Such effects may be more likely to occur in the
youthful user whose personality is still in the process of rapid
Recent evidence has documented a loss of immediate recall, and
difficulty in thinking and speech due to disorganization of recent
memory. These have been found in experiments with single doses.
The implications for the chronic marihuana user must await additional
How Does Marihuana Affect Judgment?
A person under the influence of marihuana may find it much harder
to make decisions requiring logical thinking. At the same time
he may erroneously believe that his judgement is unimpaired, or
even that his mental functioning has been enhanced by the action
of the drug. Performing any complex task requiring good reflexes
and clear thinking may be impaired, making such tasks as driving
particularly dangerous. Research is currently underway to more
accurately determine the effects of varying quantities of marihuana
on driving and other skilled activities.
Is Marihuana Less Harmful Than Alcohol?
The results of intoxication by both drugs can be harmful.
We know that alcohol is a dangerous drug physically, phychologi-
cally, or socially for millions of people whose drinking is out of
control. There is no firm evidence that marihuana would be less
harmful if used consistently. American experience to date has largely
been limited to marihuana of low potency, infrequently used over a
relatively short period of time. In countries where the use of
marihuana and related drugs has been widespread, "skid rows" based
on marihuana use exist. At present the research evidence is suf-
ficient to answer this question with certainty. It should, however,
be remembered that it frequently requires extensive use over a long
period of time by large numbers of people before the public health
implications of a drug are clearly understood.
Page 4 MARIHUANA
What Are The Latest Findings About The Drug?
With increasingly widespread use have come numerous reports of
adverse reactions to the drug. While not typical, instances of
acute panic, depression, and occasionally more serious mental ill-
ness have followed the use of marihuana in susceptible individuals.
There is reason to believe that such reactions may be more likely
to occur in the youthful user.
Working with man-made tetrahydrocannabinol, a leading scientist
recently found that high dosages of the drug brought on severe
reactions in every person tested.
The scientist observed that a dose equal to one cigarette of the
weak United States type can make the smoker feel excited, gay, or
silly. After larger amounts, the user experiences changes in per-
ception. Colors seem brighter, his sense of hearing seems keener.
After a dose equal to 10 cigarettes, he experiences visual halluci-
nations, illusions, or delusions. His mood may swing from great
joy to extreme horror. He may become deeply depressed, or have
feelings of uneasiness, unreality, or suspiciousness.
Is Marihuana Addicting?
Authorities now think in terms of drug "dependence" rather than
"addiction." Marihuana, which is not a narcotic, does not cause
physical dependence as do heroin and other narcotics. This means
that the body does not become dependent on continuing use of the
drug. The body probably does not develop a tolerance to the drug,
either, which would make larger and larger doses necessary to get
the same effects. Withdrawal from marihuana used in ordinary
amounts does not produce physical sickness.
A number of scientists think the drug can cause psychological
dependence if taken regularly. All researchers agree that more
knowledge of the long-term physical, personal, and social conse-
quences of marihuana use is needed before national decisions
about its legal status can be made.
Does It Lead To Use Of Narcotics?
A 1967 study of narcotic addicts from city areas showed that more
than 80 percent had previously used marihuana. Of the much larger
number of persons who use marihuana, scientists agree that few go
on to use morphine and heroin. No direct cause-and-effect link
between the use of marihuana and narcotics has been found. Re-
searchers point out, however, that a person predisposed to abuse a
drug may be likely to abuse other, stronger drugs. We are cur-
rently observing multiple drug use among young people, involving
marihuana, stimulants, sedatives, hallucinogens and, increasingly,
opium and heroin.