Title: Myakka
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089449/00026
 Material Information
Title: Myakka
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Department of Soil and Water Science. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
Publisher: Department of Soil and Water Science. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: Spring 2010
Copyright Date: 2010
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089449
Volume ID: VID00026
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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Immobilization of Lead and Arsenic
in Shooting Range Soils

Trace Metals in Coal Ash

Arsenic-resistant Bacteria from the
Rhizosphere of Chinese Brake Fern

Metals Research in the Soil Microbial
Ecology Laboratory

Colloid-Facilitated Mercury
Transport and Methylation

Field-scale Phytoremediation of
Arsenic-contaminated Groundwater
using Chinese Brake Fern

Faculty, Staff, Et Student News

SWS Distinguished Seminars

Dr. Mary Collins' Retirement

Susan Curry

Dr. Vimala Nair

Dr. Lena Ma


From the Chair...

Soils serve as major sinks for metals such as copper, zinc, arsenic, lead,
cadmium, chromium, mercury, and others. Some metals are needed in trace
4 quantities as nutrients to support biota growth, while others if accumulated in
soils may be toxic to many biotic communities. Industrial wastes and biosolids,
when land applied, can be a source of metals in soils. Metals such as iron,
5 aluminum, calcium, and magnesium may present at high concentrations and these
metals regulate the bioavailability of phosphorus in soils. In agricultural lands
copper-based fungicides are a major source of copper, which tend to accumulate
5 in soils and sediments of the drainage basin. In recent years several innovative
techniques have been developed to reduce the bioavailability of these metals in
soils. For example, Lena Ma's program has conducted extensive studies on
remediation of metal contaminated soils. This includes discovery of a fern plant,
6 which hyper-accumulates arsenic. This discovery received national and
international recognition. The department is committed to strengthen the trace
7 metal biogeochemistry programs to address current and future needs of our
8 clientele, while advancing the science in this area. In this newsletter we present
a few examples of research conducted in our department on the fate and
transport of trace metals in a range of ecosystems. I I I

I ~ a- ~ ~ ~a a ~ 6 0 I 0 *U~. .R~ A
0 ~6

Join us at...
The 11th Annual Soil and Water Science
Research Forum
The 11th Annual Soil and Water Science Research Forum is scheduled for September
10, 2010, in Gainesville, Florida. The forum is designed to bring together
representatives from state and federal agencies as well as private industry, faculty,
graduate students, and prospective students interested in soil and water science.
The forum will provide an opportunity for all those interested in soil and water
science to interact with our students, faculty, and administrators on campus. This
year theme for the forum is on "Soil, Water Contamination and Public Health" ,
which is one of the thrust areas of the department. This year, Dr. lan L. Pepper,
Professor and Director, Environmental Research Laboratory, Soil, Water, and
Environmental Sciences Department, University of Arizona, is the featured keynote
speaker at the forum. We look forward to your participation in the forum. If you
are planning to attend, please register at http://soils.ifas. ufl.edu/forum/.
For additional information, contact James Jawitz at Jawitz@ufl.edu.

Remediation of Copper-Contaminated Soils

The accumulation of copper (Cu) in soils under citrus
production system in south Florida has been A .,~ ...o. C.....c md.o C,
accelerated due to repeated and increased application
of Cu-fungicides for preventing and curing of citrus
diseases such as canker. A study by Zhenli He, Jinghua
Fan, Xiaoe Yang, and Lena Ma found that total Cu in
soil was as high as 1200 mg kg-1 in the Indian River
area, as compared with 5-20 mg kg for most non-
contaminated agricultural soils. Contamination of soil
by Cu causes phytotoxicity to citrus trees and poses a
threat to the environment including water quality.
Amendment of water treatment plant residuals (WTRs,
consisting of mainly CaCO3 and CaO) at 5 g kg-
effectively reduced water soluble and exchangeable Application of calcium water plant residues (Ca-WTRs)
Cu in the soil, while increasing Fe and At oxides- for remediation of Cu-contaminated soil
bound and residual Cu fractions. Application of WTRs
at eight metric tons per hectare was observed to decrease Cu loading in surface runoff water under field
conditions. Chemical remediation of soils can alleviate Cu-contamination problem but cannot solve the
problem permanently as the fixed Cu can become active again when calcium is leached and pH decreases with
time. Studies are underway to remove excess Cu in soil using Cu-accumulating plants, Elsholtzia splenden and
Elsholtzia argyi, which were identified by Dr. Yang in China. These plants can accumulate Cu up to several
thousands ppm in the roots and several hundreds ppm in the shoots (10-20 ppm for regular plants), with annual
biomass yield up to 15 metric tons dry matter yield per hectare. Our preliminary results indicate that these
plants can grow well under Florida climatic conditions and therefore have a potential for phytoremediation of
Cu-contaminated soil in south Florida. For additional information, contact Zhenli He at zhe@uft.edu.

Immobilization of Lead and Arsenic in

Shooting Range Soils

Both lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) are trace metals of great environmental
concern due to their toxicity to both humans and animals. Elevated Pb
and As concentrations have been found in shooting ranges since they
are constituents of lead shot and bullets currently in use. Thus, it is
important to understand the environmental fates of Pb and As in
shooting ranges and develop best management practices (BMPs) to
minimize their adverse impacts on the environment. Best management
practices have been developed for Florida shooting ranges; however
some of the methods recommended in the BMP are not well tested.
The overall objective of this research was to develop a cost-effective A typical shooting range in Florida
amendment based on P or time, combined with iron or clay to with targets and a berm
immobilize both Pb and As in shooting range soils. Phosphate (reacts
with Pb), lime (increases pH) and clay (binds Pb) effectively immobilize lead in soils and are recommended by the
Florida Department of Environmental Protection for application to shooting range soils. However, their
effectiveness has not been shown in shooting ranges. While addition of phosphorus and time may potentially
increase As mobility in soils both clay and iron oxide have high affinity for binding As in soils, hence may be used
in shooting range soils together with either P or time to immobilize both Pb and As. For additional information,
contact Lena Ma at lqma@ufl.edu

Welcome... Incoming Students
Spring 2010

Ellen Bourne (Zhenli He)
Jacob Butterworth (Peter Nkedi-Kizza)
Cheryl Dunne (Zhenli He)
Jane Hart (Edward Philips/Patrick Inglett)
Nicole Howard (Todd Osborne)
Drew McLean (Rex Ellis/Amy Shober)
Rebekah Meyerholt (Lena Ma)
George Opderbeck (Maria Silveira)
Michelle Ouellette (Yuncong Li/Patrick Wilson)
Tina Patterson (Andy Ogram)

Rima Tufino-Rath (George Hochmuth)
Jeffery Van Treese (Yuncong Li)
David Weddle (Cheryl Mackowiak)

Daniel Irick (Yuncong Li/Patrick Inglett)
Neil Young (John Cisar)
Yingia Zhu (Lena Ma/Willie Harris)
Ignacio Rodriguez (Gurpal Toor)

Trace Metals in Coal Ash

Environmental impact is always an issue in the land application of
coal ash products. Of particular concern is the possibility that trace
metals accumulate in treated soils and in the edible parts of crops, .
and leach into groundwater. In a 3-year study of coal ash as soil
amendments in south Florida, Yucong Li in collaboration with Jianjun
Chen and Quigren Wang, showed coal ash application improved soil
fertility and crop yield and had insignificant impacts on the
accumulation of trace metals in soil, plant, fruit, and on groundwater
quality. Greenhouse studies showed that coal fly ash amended at 18 -
kg m-3 of potting media neutralized potting media pH and provided .
nutrients for ornamental plant growth. Monitoring heavy metal -. :
leaching from the coal ash amended potting media during a 6-month
plant production period indicated that As, Se, Mo, Cr, Pb, and Hg
were not detectable in the leachates, and the amounts of Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn in weekly collected leachates were
relatively low. However, with a heavy loading rate (equivalent to 50 Mg ha-1) of coal ash applied to a gravelly loam
soil, concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb in leachates were greater as compared to other soil amendments, such
as biosolids and composts. Coal ash (fly ash and bottom ash) is a solid
..-....--. waste regulated at the federal level under the Resource Conservation
and Recovery Act of 1976 and Subtitle C or D may apply. Subtitle D is
for nonhazardous wastes that are subject to individual state laws. Most
states including Florida have exempted coal ash from hazardous waste
regulation. Coal ash management in Florida is covered by FAC 62-701,
which has no specific requirements for land application. Nevertheless,
FDEP requires the permit for using coal ash by following FAC 62-701, 62-
709, and 62-4.070, which makes it almost impossible for agricultural use
of coal ash. For additional information, contact Yuncong Li at


Arsenic-resistant Bacteria from the Rhizosphere

of Chinese Brake Fern (Pteris vittata)

Arsenic (As) hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata produces large amounts
of root exudates, which are hypothesized to solubilize arsenic and
maintain a unique rhizosphere microbial community. In collaboration
b with Max Teplitski, Anhui Huang identified 12 bacterial isolates
.i^ .' ( tolerating 400 mM arsenate (AsV) in liquid culture, the most arsenic-
resistant bacteria to date. Selected bacterial isolates were tested
for their resistance to osmotic and oxidative stresses. Results
showed a generally better growth under osmotic stress generated by
arsenic than sodium chloride, demonstrating that arsenic
detoxification metabolism also cross-protected bacterial isolates
S- a from arsenic-induced osmotic stress. After 32 h of growth, all
Pteris vittata growing in Florida arsenate was reduced to arsenite (Aslll), but arsenite remained
unchanged. Sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide (H202) was similar to
that in broad-host pathogen Salmonella enterica sv Typhimurium wild type. The results suggested that these
arsenic-resistant bacteria are metabolically adapted to arsenic-induced osmotic or oxidative stresses in
addition to the specific bacterial system to exclude cellular arsenic. Both these adaptations contribute to the
high arsenic-resistance in the bacterial isolates. For additional information, contact Lena Ma at lqma@ufl.edu.

Metals Research in the Soil Microbial Ecology


The first work on metal research by the Soil Microbial Ecology Lab was
conducted by Kanika Sharma Inglett in 2002, who defined potential biological
mechanisms involved in remediation of chromium (CrVI), an EPA priority
pollutant. Inglett's research described the role of fermentative bacteria in
the reduction of CrVI, which has implications in the broader context of
bioremediation. She isolated several microbial consortia from a wetland soil
heavily contaminated with Cr via enrichment with various electron donors and
acceptors. Several CrVI-reducing strains were isolated from these consortia,
and fermenters proved to be most efficient at CrVI reduction. One of these
strains, a novel species belonging to the genus Clostridium, reduces CrVI to
Crlll by use of electrons shuttles such as Felll and the humic acid analogue
AQDS. She conducted an array of studies on the kinetics of CrVI reduction by
this strain in the presence of various electron shuttles, and investigated The novel metal reducing
their impacts on potential shifts in fundamental physiology of the strain via bacterium, Clostridium CFO-6
production of fermentation products.

A new student in the department, Chris Weidow, is interested in mercury (Hg) transformations in the
Everglades. Mercury deposition is greater in the Everglades than any other area in the Eastern US, and its
subsequent transformation by soil bacteria to the more dangerous methylmercury is of great concern due to
human health impacts. Inorganic mercury is generally thought to be methylated by sulfate reducing bacteria and
iron reducing bacteria. The biogeochemical context of mercury methylation in the Everglades is quite complex,
with a variety of factors controlling the bioavailability of mercury and the activities of methylating and
demethylating bacteria. Chris will investigate the physiological ecologies of methylating and demethylating
bacteria along environmental gradients in the Everglades. For additional information, contact Andy Ogram at

Colloid-Facilitated Mercury Transport and


sediment and biota in the streams of Oak
Ridge Reservation

Due to its toxicity and potential to biomagnify in food chains,
elevated mercury (Hg) in soils and aquatic systems is of great
ecological concern at many Department of Energy (DOE) sites
including Oak Ridge in Tennessee. Its accumulation and movement
in the environment is complicated due to biogeochemical
sensitivity and potential to strongly associate with soil
components. The adsorption of Hg by soil components doesn't
assure immobility in cases where components can be mobilized as
colloidal particles. Hence, colloid-facilitated transport is a factor
that must be accounted for in predicting the fate of Hg. Faculty of
the Soil and Water Science Department (Willie Harris, Lena Ma and
Yuncong Li) in collaboration with Dr. Bin Gao and J.C. Bonzongo
from other departments have initiated interdisciplinary research
focused on a more thorough and integrative understanding of Hg
transport. The objectives are to investigate Hg mobilization
mechanisms and develop predictive models that realistically
account for soil complexities affecting Hg transport. This

integrative approach will couple knowledge in colloid transport in heterogeneous porous media with
biogeochemistry of Hg (e.g., methylation) to gain insight in Hg dynamics at Hg-contaminated sites. Results will
be pertinent to effective remediation of Hg-contaminated soils and watersheds. For additional information,
contact Willie Harris at apatite@ufl.edu.

Field-scale Phytoremediation of Arsenic-

contaminated Groundwater using Chinese Brake

Fern (Pteris vittata)

In collaboration with Dr. Robert Stamps, a field-scale hydroponic
system to phytoremediate arsenic-contaminated groundwater using
the first-known hyperaccumulator Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata)
was tested successfully for the first time. In this field study, two
water sources were used to compensate for evapotranspiration loss
[high-As water (140 and 180 pg L-1) or low-As water (<7 pg L1)] and
three frond-harvesting regimes (15 cm above rhizome, selective
harvest of mature fronds, and infrequent/no harvest) were
investigated. The study was conducted for 34 weeks with two cycles
of water change (Cycle-1 and Cycle-2) using the same plants. During
Cycle-1, arsenic was reduced from 140 to <10 pg L 1 in 8 weeks in
tanks refilled with low-As water compared to 17 weeks in tanks
refilled with high-As water. Reusing the same ferns in Cycle-2 with Chinese brake ferns growing in
higher initial As at 180 pg L1 further reduced the remediation time arsenic-ontaminated groundwater
by 2-5 weeks, indicating that more established ferns removed arsenic
more efficiently. Selectively harvesting mature and senescing fronds coupled with refilling with low-As water
was the most effective practice whereas harvesting all fronds while continuously exposing the ferns to high-As
water was the least effective. For additional information, contact Lena Ma at lqma@ufl.edu.

Faculty, Staff, and Students
Congratulations to our faculty, staff, and students for their outstanding
accomplishments in soil, water, and environmental sciences.
John Cisar, Affiliate faculty member, was elected Fellow, Crop Science Society of
America in 2009, and was recognized in Pittsburgh, PA, at the Annual Meeting of ASA-

Sabine Grunwald was selected to receive the 2010 NACTA Teacher Fellow Award. This
Ma a a award is given by North American Colleges and Teachers of Agriculture (NACTA). She
i Hw~ i* l will receive this award at the 56th Annual NACTA/SERD Conference, which will be held
at the Pennsylvania State University campus, State College, PA during June 22-25,
Edward Hanlon, Southwest Florida Research and
Education Center, recently received the "CAST
Champion Award." The Council for Agricultural
Science and Technology (CAST) expresses its sincere
gratitude and appreciation for Hanlon's exemplary
service and outstanding contributions while serving
for 11 years as a CAST Board Member, Adviser to the
CAST Staff, and Treasurer of the Corporation. The
CAST Champion Award honors those individuals who
volunteer their "time, talents, and personal contacts John Bonner (left) awarding the
to benefit CAST in extraordinary ways." 2009 CAST Champion Award to
Ed Hanlon (CAST archives)
The Council for Agricultural Science and Technology
(CAST) prepared an issue paper and video on Water, People, and the Future: Water
Availability for Agriculture in the United States. James Jawitz, is one of the coauthors
of the paper and also featured on the video. See http://www.cast-science.org/
Sabine Grunwald and Ramesh Reddy were named as UF Research Foundation
Professors for 2010-2013. The recognition goes to faculty members who have a
--F -distinguished current record of research and a strong research agenda that is likely to
lead to continuing distinction in their fields. Since the inception of this award (in
m -M -B 1998), 13 Soil and Water Science faculty have received this recognition. Each year
only one faculty member can be nominated from each unit.
Zhenli He received 2010 UF/IFAS Superior Accomplishment Award in the category of
Academic Personnel.
Warmest congratulations to Kelly Jacoby for receiving the 2009 Superior
Accomplishment Award of the SWSD.
Debolina Chakraborty (advisor, Vimala Nair) was placed third in SSSA divisions S-4 and
S-8 at the Graduate Student paper Competition at the Annual Meetings in Pittsburg, PA
in November 2009.
1 Ryan Graunke, an SNRE graduate student (advisor, Ann Wilkie) was awarded a
Southern Region Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) Graduate
Student Grant for a project entitled "Bioenergy and Biofertilizer for Small-Farm
Augustine Obour (advisors, Maria Silveira and George O'Connor) won the second place
at the graduate student competition ASA Division A-5 2009 annual meeting in
Pittsburg, PA (Nov. 1-5, 2009).
Julia Showalter (advisor, Vimala Nair) was awarded the first place at the student
presentation contest at the recently concluded Southern Branch ASA meetings in
Orlando, FL, February 7-8, 2010.
A student design team under the advisement of Ann Wilkie was awarded a Phase I EPA
P3 (People, Prosperity and the Planet) grant to design an eco-energy model linking

Soil and Water Science Distinguished Seminars

Dr. Jorge Gardea-Torresdey, Dudley Professor of Chemistry & Environ. Science & Engineering, Chair of
Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, TX presented a seminar
entitled "Toxicity and biotransformation of metal oxide nanoparticles in terrestrial
plants" on March 12, 2010. Dr. Gardea-Torresdey research interests include metal
binding to biomaterials for remediation of contaminated waters, phytoremediation,
bioproduction and fate of nanoparticles in the environment. Dr. Gardea-Torresdey is
a co-investigator for the "Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology"
funded by NSF/EPA. His research achievements were recently highlighted in the
Lawrence Hall of Science at the University of California Berkeley. He received the
2009 SACNAS Distinguished Scientist of the Year Award. He was highlighted by the
journal Nature in the December 3, 2009 Issue. Dr. Gardea-Torresdey has also made
significant contributions to the scientific community. He currently serves on the Editorial Board of 7 journals
including Environmental Science and Technology and Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. He was appointed
as the Editor of the Journal of Hazardous Materials in 2007, which ranks number one in the civil/environmental
engineering field. For additional information related to Dr. Gardea-Torresdey's research program, please visit

Dr. Johan Bouma Emeritus Professor of Soil Science, Wageningen University, The
Netherlands, presented "The role of soil science in sustainability studies" on April 15,
2010. Johan Bouma is a member of the Royal Dutch Academy of Sciences (RDAS) (1989), a
Fellow of the Soil Science Society of America (1983) and an honorary member of the
International Union of Soil Science (2006). He was a member of the Scientific Council for
Government Policy in the Netherlands (a think-tank in the prime minister's office) from
1998-2003. Professor Bouma is now chair of the scientific advisory council of a national
research program on sustainable agriculture. His research interests are in the field of
Hydropedology and Land-use Policy, and covered water and solute movement in structured
soils; relating soil morphology to flow patterns; development of pedotransfer functions;
effects of soil management defined in terms of phenoforms to be derived from a given taxonomic soil-genoform;
land use policy; and interactive research with stakeholders and policy makers. Seminar can be viewed at:
https://swsde.ifas. ufl.edu/

(Continued from page 6)
methanogenesis and photosynthesis to utilize wastes and generate biofuels. The team includes Scott Edmundson
(SNRE), Ryan Graunke (SNRE) and Jon Alldridge (ABE).
A publication by Mengsheng Gao, Melanie J. Barnett, Sharon R. Long, and Max Teplitski made it to the cover page
of the journal of Molecular Plant Microbial interactions and is available online at
http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/page/mpmi_cover_4-10. Congratulations to the authors!
Fall 2009 CALS Dean's List
Congratulations to Jennifer Frey, Kimberly Johnson, and Kayla Milburn for achieving this recognition. CALS Dean's
List criteria are a 3.70 GPA with a minimum of 12 semester hours of graded credits.

Congratulations to the following students who were recipients of SWSD 2009 awards
William Mahler: Outstanding Undergraduate Award
Mia Requesens: Frederick B. Smith Scholarship
Luke Gommerman: Victor W. Carlisle Scholarship Award
Manmeet Waria: Sam Polston Scholarship Award
Shiny Mathews: Sam Polston Scholarship Award
Davie Kadyampakeni: William K. (Bill) Robertson Scholarship Award


Dr. Mary E. Collins Retires

Mary E. Collins grew up in The Bronx (NYC) and the Catskill Mountains
(Wurtsboro, NY). Her mother was a bookkeeper. Her father was a lawyer,
later in his career a NYS judge. Therefore, she did not come from an
agricultural background. It was in high school taking an Earth Science class
that she became interested in agriculture. Mary was not a very good student
in high school so the opportunity for college was limited to two-year colleges.
She ended-up attending the State University of New York (SUNY) at Cobleskill,
a two-year agricultural and technical college in upstate NY. There she found
her calling. During her first semester she took her first soil science course.
The professor talked about the soil survey program and how one could be a
soil scientist with the USDA. Mary applied and was accepted becoming the
youngest (18 yrs old) soil scientist ever hired in NYS. She was also the second woman ever hired as a soil
scientist in NY. During her college-years she worked for the USDA Soil Conservation Service (SCS; now the
Natural Resources Conservation Service).

At Cobleskill she learned how to milk and show a cow, shear sheep, drive a tractor, and overhaul a combine. She
was a very good softball and basketball player earning three varsity letters. Most importantly, she became an
exceptional student. Therefore, after receiving her AAS degree she continued her undergraduate education at
Cornell University. At Cornell she was President of the Agronomy Club, represented the club at the ASA meeting,
and was in the honors program. Her honors research was on soil survey interpretations for urban soils. She
continued to work for SCS during this time. One of her professors at Cornell recommended that she go to Iowa
State University for her MS. Her next stop was the Hawkeye State.

Mary asked SCS to transfer her to Iowa. She was stationed in Elkader, Iowa. This area of Iowa is known as "Little
Switzerland" because of the beautiful hilly landscapes. There she met her husband-to-be and her lowann
mother." Mary completed her MS degree at ISU studying physical and chemical properties of eroded
biosequences. Her PhD involved statistically modeling the geographic extent of the Colo soils series (mixed,
mesic, fine-silty Cumulic Haplaquoll). During her PhD program Mary was asked to return to Cornell as a faculty
member to teach for one semester. That experience sealed her desire to join a university to instruct and mentor
graduate students. After being the first woman to receive a PhD in soil science at Iowa State, her next stop was
the Sunshine State.

Her research has been cutting-edge since she first arrived at UF in 1981. One of her first projects was to
computerize the Florida soil survey information. She was very involved with the Florida Characterization
Program and the National Cooperative Soil Survey Program being the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
representative from 1990 to 2001. Much of her early research was in support of the soil survey program. Mary
Collins is internationally known for her research using ground-penetrating radar to investigate subsurface
features. These radar investigations included her work with forensic anthropologists to locate buried bodies.
She has been invited to more than 20 countries giving key note lectures, seminars, and teaching students.
Recently, her research has been studying subaqueous soils in near- coast environments. She taught
undergraduate, graduate, and short courses as well as coached the Soil Judging Team. She has especially
enjoyed the travel courses she formed. Since 2001 Mary has been the Undergraduate Coordinator and very much
enjoyed her time helping undergraduate students.

Dr. Collins has won several awards and honors. At UF she awarded a TIP award for her teaching and two PIP
awards. She was elected Fellow in the American Society of Agronomy (ASA) and the Soil Science Society of
America (SSSA). Mary served on the National Academy of Sciences National Committee for Soil Science. Her
greatest professional honor came when she was elected President of SSSA. In her leadership role she was
instrumental in establishing the SSSA K-12 Education Committee, securing the necessary funding for the
Smithsonian Soils Exhibit, and welcoming the World Congress of Soil Science to the United States. In 2007 she
was honored as "Distinguished Alumna" at SUNY Cobleskill.

After 29 years in the department Dr. Collins retired March 19, 2010. She and her husband Ron are moving their
two dogs, one cat, and two horses to Iowa to be closer to Ron's family and her Iowan mother. She will continue
to be involved with the department by teaching distance education courses from afar.

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