Title: Myakka
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089449/00015
 Material Information
Title: Myakka
Series Title: Myakka
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Department of Soil and Water Science. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. University of Florida.
Publisher: Department of Soil and Water Science. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. University of Florida.
Publication Date: Fall 2005
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089449
Volume ID: VID00015
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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A Soi an Wae Scec Deatmn Publ-icatio

l Volume 5 Number 3 Institute of Food and Anricultural Sciences

The C-ech Expenence

Recycling Biosolids in the
Urban Setting

lie,' Turfgrass Research
Facility at the Unirersity
of Flonda
le', Flonda Homeo' 'ners
often Encounter Problem
Enhanced Storm' waterr
Basin Design

Pam Marlin

Darryl Palmer

Dr. Vimala Nair


Urban land use is an important component of
global land transformation, as prime agricultural
and forested lands are now converted into cities
and towns. Less than half of the world's
population now reside in urban environments.
Urban land use is a dominant demographic trend
in Florida and the U.S. with approximately 80%
of the US population now living in urban areas. In
Florida, almost 90% of it's population of nearly 17
million, occupy urban land areas. The intense
use of these lands brings unique challenges of
soil and water quality including: soil
contamination and remediation, stormwater
management, land application of wastes and
waste waters, septic tanks, water borne
pathogens, and flooding of these land areas
during extreme events such as hurricanes. Given
these challenges, the Soil and Water Science
Department (SWSD) is making efforts to increase
its role in addressing current and future needs in
this area.
Here are few highlights since the last newsletter:

Alan Wright joined as Assistant Professor in Soil
and Water Science at the Everglades REC, Bell
Glade, Florida. Alan's research and extension
activities will revolve around nutrient
management and water quality issues in
agricultural and urban land areas in south Florida.
The Sixth Annual SWSD Research Forum was a
success, thanks to active participation from
students, faculty, and clientele. Dr. Henry Gholz,
from the National Science Foundation, and Dr.
Kirby Barrick, Dean for Academic Programs,
CALS, were the key speakers at the Forum.
Several graduate students and post-doctoral
fellows made oral and poster presentations. Best
oral and poster presentation awards were given
to: Gabriel Kasozi, Sanjay Lamsal, Rosanna
Rivero, and Ondine Wells.

Once a year the SWSD awards scholarships to
graduate and undergraduate students. This year, the
F. B. Smith award was given to undergraduate
students: Aja Stoppe and Julie Driscoll. The
following graduate students were awarded
scholarships: Carlisle award Gabriel Kasozi;
Polston award Myrlene Chrysostome, Daniel
Herrera and Carolina Medina; Robertson award -
Elizabeth Hodges. The SWSD Outstanding
Undergraduate award was given to Lauren Dillard.
The SWSD award for excellence in graduate studies
was given to Patrick Inglett in the Ph.D category and
to Julie Padowski in the M.S category. Manohardeep
Josan received the "Graduate Student of the Year
Alpha Zeta 2005 Homecoming Award" and the CALS
"Outstanding International Student Award". The
SWSD Superior Accomplishment Award was given to
USPS staff members: John Thomas and Yu Wang.
The SWSD Teacher and Advisor of the Year award
was given to two faculty members: James Jawitz and
Vimala Nair.
At the national level, recognition to faculty include:
Mary Collins, President of Soil Science Society of
America; George O'Connor recipient of the
Environmental Quality Research Award; and Willie
Harris elected as a Fellow of the Soil Science Society
of America.
Congratulations to all award and scholarship winners
for their outstanding contributions to SWSD.
Overall, accomplishments of faculty, staff, and
students in the past five years have continued to
elevate the department's stature at national and
international levels. The Department continues its
commitment to excellence in teaching, research, and
extension/outreach programs. The following goals
for the next 5 years were developed during the
departmental statewide faculty meeting (conducted in
MFREC-Apopka): (1) recognize advances and
changes in soil and water science discipline and
adjust programs accordingly to stay current; (2)
continue to build on SWSD strengths and develop
nationally prominent programs in teaching, research,
and extension; (3) develop stronger programmatic
linkages between Gainesville campus and RECs; (4)
develop stronger linkages with the clientele; and (5)
overall, bring SWSD programs to the next level of
excellence. To our alumni and friends, we wish you
a happy and prosperous new year. / .

DrK Raes Reddy Chir Soi an Wae Scec Departmnt 106. Neel Hal Box 1150 Unvrst of Flria Gansvle Flor0ida
321. Telephon 329210;g Fa 329-39..Eal k f.ed htp:/sil*iasuf.ed

Fall 2005

.'F L 0 R I DEA





SrNew Graduate Students
Fall 2005

"nd .rea lbertin. .-d I:or. J icl-m an
ia' .13,a. -dj ior. S Daroub
Ha P,an \ Im. d i:or. Pedd.,
Je:ica 3 Mi4le d i:or. ', Grun a 31d
Michael M ittah, .d i'.or .1 Fechciol
a'. e' chmidl. .-d ior. M .I.13r
Lauren ,erra. -Id I:or, rJ Comerfojrd
Famuna ,n mith, e.d ir, J Sicman

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Cher,l 3apFti:t., d i~.r, Pq Teplit 1`i
C:h3rle: Bohall. Pd I::r, I- Pedd,
C.hriLtine Coffin. -d i Lor. I Li
'Catlin Hiic :, -.d .i r. t Pedd,
L311tha Janardhanan. -d.,l :or. D:'arOub
3 athleen Lo:C h3r[. d I:.:r, i.run ald
M3r, Maaddo-. d I Csr. ..: MacI. i13
uugou:tine Mu amba. -d I.:cr. P rl-edi.
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f.Aircela -QuinLero. .d iC-r. N C';omerford
Catherine Polen. -d I:or. C. Wil:,on
Jo.e *;e ard:, -d ior, C ,.:lar-
LI la h3 -d iSOr, Pq Cl134r
'Itephen lirjtr uo, ,d..i,:r. L a3
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Sam vacca. -d i:or. Fedd,
Gu;ta -) .aques. ,d 1i'.r, JS ,.-run ald
Jiang iang. .d I:or. L Ma

Graduated Fall 2005

Noel '.:3a le d 1 isor w Harris
MP rlene Chr, : Lo:tme. -d i.:r, '' N ir

S ulie FPad ,o i r, J .113 it:
W3rren Z 3nla. -d..i:or. D Graet:


Wade Hurt and Vic Carlisle presented a
poster at the 2005 Coastal Zone Conference,
New Orleans, LA, July 17-21, 2005. The
poster, 'Using Soil Morphology for
Identification, Delineation, and Mitigation of
Wetlands in Coastal Zone Landscapes', was
awarded a blue ribbon.

The Czech Republic Experience

A group of nine undergraduate students from the
University of Florida participated in a month long
course, which integrated aspects of forestry,
S wildlife, hydrology, soils, and policy. Based in
Prague, the capital of the Czech Republic, the
group was exposed to a rich culture, brilliant
architecture, and a peaceful countryside. I was
fortunate enough to have been selected for the
program and gained the awesome opportunity to
study Czech soils and watersheds, said Leanna
Woods. The soils that we may call Spodosols in
the United States are referred to as Podzols in
victoria Gardner, SWSD undergraduate Czech and they are not formed through the effects
of a fluctuating water table. The great permeability
of the Podzols allows water to rush through the
system, carrying nutrients to lower soils depths. The Podzols are an excellent environment
for the Forests of the Czech Republic, which currently are dominated by the Norway Spruce,
Picea babies. Growing quickly and with a high timber yield, foresters have purposefully
planted the Norway Spruce, allowing other species to dwindle. Recently, the forests have
been under attack by a bark beetle, which enjoys the monoculture the Czechs have created.
Efforts are being made to stop the spread of the bark beetle and promote the growth of other
tree species. The preservation of forests is of utmost concern to many a Czech, for the
lands are not only used for timber production, but are also very popular recreational sites.
Many Czechs enjoy picking mushrooms and berries, hiking, and feeling close to nature.
Therefore, when trees are cut for timber or for the health of the stand, the public becomes
quite agitated. Foresters must attempt to balance economics, the health of the stand, and
public opinion, which is a hard enough task without the overhaul of one's government having
taken place over the last decade. The fall of communism in 1989 has allowed the people of
the Czech Republic to make their own decisions without foreign influence. With admittance
into the European Union, there is likely to be even greater changes occurring in this
fascinating land. We hope one day to return to the Czech Republic to enjoy the forests and
the culture. This article was written by Leanna Woods, SWSD undergraduate student, who
participated in the program.


2005 Environmental Quality Research Award

SGeorge A. O'Connor received the 2005 Environmental Quality
Research Award. This award is given annually by the American
Society of Agronomy to an individual known for original and significant
research in environmental issues related to agriculture and natural
resources. George O'Connor is a Professor of Environmental Soil
Chemistry in the Soil and Water Science Department at the University
of Florida. O'Connor's program focuses on the application of basic soil chemistry to issues
associated with the land application of non-hazardous wastes (primarily biosolids) and the
determination and control of the fate and transport of waste constituents. Recent efforts
have focused on the interpretation of data in light of risk assessment, sustainability issues,
state and national rule development, and the use of various soil amendments to control
pollutant behavior. O'Connor was Chair of the Soil and Water Science Department (UF)
from 1990-1994 and is a Fellow of both the American Society of Agronomy and the Soil
Science Society of America.


Willie Harris SSSA Fellow
Willie Harris was elected as a Fellow of the Soil Science Society of America (SSSA). This is the highest recognition
given to SSSA members for their professional achievements and service. Up to 0.3% of the active members are
elected as Fellows each year. His general research activities relate to mineral stability and transformations in soils
.. and sediments; properties of soil minerals; mineral distributions as related to stability and genetic processes; and soil
'- properties as related to mineralogy.

Harris was elected as a Fellow of SSSA for his outstanding research and teaching accomplishments. He has also been
selected to receive the 2005 College of Agricultural and Life Sciences (CALS) graduate Teaching/Advising Award.
This award is given annually to an outstanding graduate advisor/teacher in the CALS.



The continued urban growth in Florida poses
unique challenges for the use and management of
soil and water. Urban uses of soil are replacing
rural uses in many Florida counties. Soil is a very
important natural resource even in urban and

S foundation for buildings and structures, and as an
absorbent for pollutants. Citizens do not realize
the amount and importance of non-concrete,
non-asphalt "open-space" in urban environments.
For example, City Parks provide open-space but
are often constructed on abandoned land or even
Soil scientists investigate soils in subdivisions to landfills with vastly different soil properties.
determine depth to high water table and the Children play on ball fields that may have high
presence of shrink-swell clays, contents of heavy metals and other pollutions. In
urbanizing areas soil properties may be the
limiting factor for development. Soils with high shrink-swell mineralogy must be identified
before construction. Homeowners may need to spend thousands of dollars if cracking occurs in
foundations built on shrink-swell clays. Urban wetlands and constructed storm water retention
basins must be monitored to ensure that hydrocarbons or heavy metals do not build up and
contaminate the basin. Thus, there are many questions and concerns related to soil for urban
land use and management in Florida. For further information, contact Mary Collins at


BC .. .


Layered wlth
o0- tcEarse
aar.dy loami

This soil is located in a landfill that is now a
park in New York City.

Recycling Biosolids in the Urban Setting

Biosolids are nutrient-rich organic
materials that result from the
treatment of sewage sludge. When
treated and processed to exacting
standards, sewage sludge becomes
biosolids which can be safely
recycled and applied as fertilizer to
sustainable improve and maintain
productive land and to stimulate
plant growth. In Florida, biosolids
identified as Class AA have
essentially no pathogen hazard and
minimal heavy metal concerns.
Biosolid application on turf Class AA biosolids, especially
pelletized products (e.g.,
Milorganite, GreenEdge), lend themselves to easy application on urban
lawns, and are favored products for golf course greens. See Biosolids Page 4

New Turfgrass Research
Facility at the
University of Florida
An exciting new era for the University
of Florida turfgrass research program
began in February at the Plant
Science Research and Education Unit
near Citra. Heavy equipment began
transforming a 28.6 acre parcel into a
state-of-the-art turfgrass research
facility that will harbor three complete
golf holes, a football field, a baseball
infield, a 20K sq foot variable depth
USGA green, a 20 K sq ft push up
green, a 32 K sq ft variable rate
irrigation area, a 1.2 acre putting
See Facility Page 4

New Florida Homeowners
Often Encounter Problem Soils

Many ne.. residents of Florida s rapidl-gro. .ing
urban areas learned ho.. to garden and gro,.
ornamental plants in Mid' es.tern states They
Quickly find that the SOils in their ne yards are
astl, different than .hat they remember from back
home Soils high in .c13a and organic iiarter are
no. -here to be found but there is no shortage of
poor-fertilit, coarse sand especially to the south and
close to the coast Do-it-y.ourself gardeners and
landscapers disco.*er their old -3as of doing things
do not ork '..ell so man, Of them gi e up and hire a
professional landscape ser ice The bra.e ones take
time and effort to learn Florida gardening
techniques often taking ad..antage of the uIF-IF"S
E tension Ser..,ice Master Gardener program

A major factor leading to gardening and landscaping
. oes is the burial of nati..e surface soil around the
home and yard '..ith fill material In lo..-lying areas
near the coast building codes often require the
ele...ation of home sites to be raised 3 feet or more
abo.e the natural ground surface so fill from sand
mines is brought in This soil is essentially, all sand
contains almost no organic matter and usually
contains free cal-ciumr carbonate not surprising
considering the Florida peninsulas lirme rock base
The resulting alkalinity leads to immediate problems
* hen the unkno. ing homileo ner plants an acid-
lo..ing species like I ora and iron deficiency appears
Micronutrient deficiencies in plants on high pH soils
are e.tremelv difficult to overcome One solution is
to consult a local Master Gardener or Etension
"gent to learn which ornamental species can thri.e
at high pH then use them, in the landscape

See HomeCon ne, 5 Page -


FDEP Environmental Plots-Towers
represent collection points for buried

green and thirty 10 K sq ft research plots.

Con't Facility Page 3

Eight of these research plots (80 K sq ft) have been dedicated to the turfgrass breeding
program. Six vegetative and seeded bermuda cultivars were planted on the football field.
One hundred lysimeters (3 ft diameter by 3 ft depth) were buried in the plots for leachate
collection. Results from this three-year study sponsored in part by the FDEP will serve as a
basis for BMP fertilization recommendations for home lawns.

A 6 K sq ft maintenance facility has been approved for construction and is slated for
completion in February 2006. The Toro corporation has been one of the major contributors to
the facility. Toro donated state of the art irrigation equipment and turfgrass maintenance
equipment each valued at approximately $250 K. The Seven Rivers Golf Course
Superintendents Association using funding from the Envirotron Classic, pledged $30 K
annually for a five-year period to support a field research maintenance position. The Florida
Sod Growers Cooperative and Environmental Turf donated turfgrasses in the form of sprigs
and sod. The Florida Gulf Coast Golf Course Superintendents Association donated funding for
a part time OPS position. Harrell's, Green Edge Technologies, Pursell's and Liquid Ag Sys-
tems donated fertilizer materials for grow-in and maintenance of the turfgrasses. Pennington
Seeds donated the seeded bermudas for the football field.

This turfgrass research facility is unequaled in complexity and research opportunities. Due to
the number of turfgrass species, cultivars and the growing media diversity this facility
represents research opportunities that are not found at any other turfgrass research facility in
the US. Take the short drive down to Citra and Jerry Sartain will gladly give you a tour of this
fantastic facility! For further information, contact Jerry Sartain atjbs@ifas.ufl.edu.

Con'tI Homeowners Page 3

Eutiai if sutface soa, unce, fin inaietii

DLeteri-ini-d gardeneri can battle alkaline
iOl Lic ing eienvientaI 6ilifur and organic 5oil
ainiiefdm-fltc b~il the-i ChOld prepare
thern~el es for a long and coidtl, effort For
kirlher information contact TOin -bre0 a 3t
taob( If3S Iifl edLu

SCon't Biosolids Page 3
Applying biosolids can improve the soil by adding plant essential nutrients, including nitrogen and phosphorus, sulfur, and micronutrients. The
nutrients in biosolids are also usually more slowly released than from traditional fertilizer sources, so nutrients are plant available over a longer
time span and less of the nutrients are susceptible to leaching losses during heavy rains. Biosolids can also have a favorable impact on the soil,
by increasing water-holding capacity and helping to reduce erosion. In Florida, biosolids can be especially beneficial because the sandy soils
have low nutrient and water holding capacities. Additionally, biosolids may contain micronutrients not present in typical chemical fertilizer mixes
of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. For further information contact George O'Connor at gao@ufl.edu.


Enhanced Stormwater Basin Design

Urban areas cover approximately 11% of the state of Florida, and an estimated 130,000
acres of natural and agricultural lands are developed every year. With this intensification
of land use often comes an increased quantity of stormwater runoff, as well as higher
concentrations of sediments, nutrients, heavy metals and other contaminants. Impacts to
Florida's water resources, as well as those across the nation, have lead to new permitting
requirements for stormwater discharge to state waters and to watershed wide efforts to
reduce existing contaminant loads. There is also a growing interest in Low Impact
Development strategies that reduce the likelihood of water quality degradation before it

Many opportunities exist to minimize the quantity and quality changes in stormwater resulting from development through use of source
controls and innovative structural and non structural management practices within the watershed. One such practice is the integration of
wetlands into stormwater basins to improve water quality. Stormwater basins are designed to mitigate for the difference in volume between
pre-development and post-development runoff as well as provide some improvement in water quality. However, with the increased need to
address water quality impacts, traditional designs may not be sufficient to meet necessary discharge concentrations or loads. In addition,
although stormwater basins have typically been thought of as infrastructure and often been isolated within a development, enhanced basin
designs could provide multifunctional benefits that make these areas an amenity to the community and not just a regulatory requirement.

On the University of Florida Campus an existing three acre stormwater retention basins was retrofitted in 1998 in an attempt to improve water
quality, promote vegetative diversity, enhance aesthetics, provide wildlife habitat and facilitate the Natural Area Teaching Laboratories
(NATL) outdoor classroom research and education resources. Named the Stormwater Ecological Enhancement Project or SEEP, this three
acre area has gone from a low diversity (thirty two vegetative species), low complexity (uniform topographic and hydrologic regime) and
minimal use education resource to now hosting over 120 vegetative species, five hydrologic regimes, forty two avian species, thirteen
herptifauna, four mammals, and two fish species. Water quality improvements have been facilitated by increased sediment accretion rates
within target forebay areas allowing for greater removal of contaminants and sorption by organic matter. Over seventy six university courses,
numerous Natural History Museum student programs and other educational tours now utilize NATL and SEEP annually. To learn more
about SEEP contact Mark Clark at clarkmw@ifas.ufl.edu.


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