Group Title: Land & livestock
Title: Hillsborough County land and livestock
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Title: Hillsborough County land and livestock
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Hillsborough County Extension Office, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: Hillsborough County Extension Office
Place of Publication: Seffner, Fla.
Publication Date: Summer 2007
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Bibliographic ID: UF00089229
Volume ID: VID00005
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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illi,,..u'ji..n[ ,! IFAS EXTENSION
F!I 'i .LI

University of Florida IFAS Extension and
Hillsborough County, FL


. ,_ I li ,' r


Upcoming Events 2
FL Cattle Auctions Weekly 3

Beef Management Calendar 3,4

Hot Topic: Fire Ants 4,5

EDIS Publications 6

Poker 101 & Lowering the Cost 7,8,9
of Production

Worldwide Honeybee Decline 9,11
Strategies to Offset High 10,
Nitrogen Costs

Dear Fiiernds, IIB
This issue emphasizes the beef cattle industry a little more than
others considering we just held the 56th Annual Florida Beef Cattle
Short Course, "Enhancing Quality Production While Maintaining
Profitability" from May 2-4, in Gainesville. During the event I had the
opportunity to visit with some of you, meet with other long time
producers around the state, network with industry partners and help
plan for a great Cattlemen's Institute coming in January, 2008. For
those of you who were not able to attend, I'd like to take this
opportunity to highlight some of the Economic and Market Outlook
Projections for 2007 that Walt Prevatt, Extension Economist and
Professor at Auburn University, presented at the Short Course. Due to
the interest in the relationship between ethanol plants and corn prices,
let's focus on Feed & Forage Conditions:
* Corn & Soybean prices increased sharply since 9/06 due to corn
demand (ethanol & export demand)
* Dec. 2007 Corn is trading at $4.10/bushel
* Nov. 2007 Soybeans trading @ $8/bushel
* Dec. 2007 Soybean meal trading @ $233/ton
* Corn prices pd to farmers over $4/bushel puts this corn market
in the top 5% of those received during the last 10 years. Prevatt

reports that an estimated additional 6.5 million acres planted to corn with an average yield of 155 bushels/Acre
would provide (approximately) an additional 1 billion bushels of corn for the ethanol industry during the 2007/08
period. If fewer than 6.5 million acres are planted then corn prices will likely move higher. Alternatively, if more
than the 6.5 million acres are planted, then corn prices should move lower. Many analysts expect about 8 million
additional acres of corn will be planted and should move corn prices lower to about $3.00-$3.40/bushel. Of
course, {this} discussion assumes adequate growing is realized.
If less than adequate growing weather is incurred and some acreage is not harvested or significantly lower
yields are realized then corn and soybean prices could exceed $5/bushel. Another wild card adding uncertainty
to the cattle outlook is the price of oil. As the price of oil goes up ethanol plants can afford to pay more for corn,
which could cause corn prices to rise above the $4/bushel. The number and capacity of the ethanol plants add
an additional level of uncertainty to the equation, as several southern plants are on hold until corn becomes more
reasonably priced. It will be important for cattlemen to pay close attention to the corn market this year, and corn
futures market prices may be viewed daily at (grains at the bottom of webpage).
Warm Regards,
S~tea# A. D, ~ ~oc, Steffany L. Dragon, Hillsborough County Livestock/Small Farms Agent

i .,,. ,.



Page 2

Summer 2007 Upcoming Events

Florida Cattlemen's Association
Annual Convention & Allied Trade
Show, Nrac. Island b.larr,, ,tt
June 1 -21

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2007 Far l t.o Fuel Su(nt
July 18,.11

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Advanced Pasture Manage mne nt
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September 5-<(
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity -Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.

USDA-FL, Florida Cattle Auctions Weekly Summary

At the Florida Livestock Auctions (Friday, May 18, 2007); Cattle receipts at 9 markets: Okeechobee,
Lakeland, Webster, Ellisville, Arcadia, Wauchula, Ocala, Madison and Lake City totaled 7,431 com-
pared to 7,839 last week, and 6,343 last year. According to the Florida Federal-State Livestock Mar-
ket News Service: Compared to one week ago, slaughter cows 2.00 to 3.00 higher, bulls 3.00 higher,
feeder steers unevenly steady, heifers steady to 2.00 higher, replacement cows steady to 1.00 higher.
Feeder Steers & Bulls: Medium and Large 1-2 200-245 Ibs $150.00-195.00; 250-295 Ibs $134.00-
170.00; 300-345 Ibs $125.00-152.00; 350-396 Ibs $120.00-142.00; 400-440 Ibs $108.00-135.00;
450-495 Ibs $105.00-123.00; 500-549 Ibs $101.00-115.00; 550-595 Ibs $98.00-110.00; 605-635
Ibs $94.00-102.00;650-660 Ibs $90.00-93.00; Medium and Large 2-3 200-245 Ibs $120.00-165.00;
250-299 Ibs $120.00-152.00; 300-345 Ibs $110.00-138.00; 350-399 Ibs $105.00-126.00; 400-445
Ibs $100.00-121.00; 450-495 Ibs $96.00-113.00; 500-540 Ibs 88.00-109.00; 550-590 Ibs $87.00-
102.00; 600-645 Ibs $75.00-92.00; 710-715 Ibs $80.00-81.00; 755-785 Ibs $77.00-81.00; Feeder
Heifers: Medium and Large 1-2 200-245 Ibs $120.00-165.00; 250-295 Ibs $114.00-152.00; 300-345
Ibs $114.00-124.00; 350-395 Ibs $102.00-120.00; 400-446 Ibs $100.00-113.00; 450-499 Ibs
$96.00-111.00; 500-545 Ibs $92.00-102.00; 550-595 Ibs $90.00-102.00; 600-645 Ibs $90.00-96.00;
670-685 Ibs $80.00-90.00; 750-790 Ibs $71.00-72.00 Medium and Large 2-3 200-245 Ibs $105.00-
140.00; 250-298 Ib $100.00-128.00; 300-347 Ibs $100.00-122.00; 350-396 Ibs $95.00-112.50; 400-
445 Ibs $89.00-108.00; 450-495 Ibs $86.00-105.00; 500-545 $84.00-95.00; 550-596 Ibs $80.00-
93.00; 600-645 Ibs $79.00-84.00; 660-695 Ibs $71.00-80.00; 702-730 Ibs $70.00-75.00; 750-790
Ibs $71.00-72.00.

Beef Management Calendar

v/Last date to plant sorghum
v/Check mineral feeder, use at least 8% P in
mineral and not over 2.5:1, C:P ratio
v/Check pastures for spittlebugs, mole crickets &
" Liquid and granular formulations of insecticides
are commonly applied to the soil to suppress
newly hatched mole cricket nymphs from April
through June.
v/Check dust bags
/Observe cows for pinkeye & treat
/Vaccinate heifers against brucellosis
/Pregnancy check cows
/Market cull cows & bulls
/Update market information & plans
v/Make first cutting of hay
v/Put bulls out June 1 for March 11 calving (start)
v"Re-implant calves at 90-120 days with growth

v/Cut corn silage
V'Scout for & control weeds in pastures/hay fields
/Fertilize warm season pastures
v/Check mineral feeder
v/Check for armyworms, mole crickets, spittlebugs &
treat if necessary
/Apply spot-on agents for grub & louse control
v/Check dust bags
/Vaccinate & implant with growth stimulant any
later calves
v"Re-implant calves with growth stimulant at 90-120
days, when you have herd penned
/Update market info. & refine market strategy for
/Watch for evidence of footrot & treat
vRevaccinate calves at weaning for blackleg
/Consider preconditioning calves before sale


Page 3

Page 4



Beef Management Calendar

vTreat for liver flukes as close to Aug. 15 as
"Cut hay
v'Soil test & apply if needed of fall & winter crops
v Harvest bahiagrass seed
v"Check mineral feeder
vObserve animals regularly for signs of disease

v"Wean calves & cull cows from herd
vWatch for evidence of abortion
vIf cattle grubs were found last winter or heel flies
observed in pasture, treat for cattle grubs this
vPregnancy test and cull open heifers from
replacement herd

-Ho-t 7-op : Fire Ants

During May, the News Media and Associ-
caught the attention of the United States
Florida and that the agency is now seek-
virus into a pesticide to control fire ants.

The Overall Problem: Two
accidentally introduced into the
ica in the early 1900s. With-
keep them in check (as
America) these fire ants
country and their numbers
their native South America.
problem throughout the south-
ing livestock operations where
electrical equipment are damaged,
mans and livestock are subject to
estimated that the annual cost of prob-
riculture was $750 million, with $38 million


ated Press have reported that a virus has
Department of Agriculture researchers in
ing commercial partners to develop the

(f species of imported fire ants were
southern US from South Amer-
r out the natural predators to
they had had in South
have spread across the
exceed populations in
They are now a major pest
S eastern United States, includ-
crops are destroyed, farm and
soil erosion is increased, and hu-
stinging attacks. In 2003. the USDA
lems caused by imported fire ants in ag-
in losses to livestock (

Direct Implications for Livestock Producers: Newborn livestock and wildlife, birds just hatch-
ing from eggs or animals in confinement are particularly vulnerable to attack by imported fire ants.
During the hot summer months that are fast approaching, ants are starved for food and moisture
causing the frequency of livestock injury and deaths due to fire ants to dramatically increase. This
is yet another reason why we do NOT recommend summer calving or foaling. When it cannot be
avoided, however, placing cows or mares in designated calving/foaling pastures that have been
treated to reduce fire ant populations may be justifiable and cost effective. These fire ants are not
known to harm mature animals (other than inflicting the uncomfortable stinging sensation) other
than ostriches and emus that, reportedly, can go into shock when stung (




(Hot Topic: Fire Ants...cont'd) A number of agricultural products are available to treat your
pasture. The broadcast application of a bait has been found by the Southern Region Inte-
grated Pest Management Center to be one of the least toxic, most cost effective, and envi-
ronmentally sound approach to reducing fire ants in large areas of land. The following treat-
ment information has been derived from

Treatments: These treatments are particularly suitable where fire ant mounds are numerous
(20 or more per acre). A number of baits can be broadcast for about $10-$15 per acre. Baits
containing hydramethylnon (Amdro Pro), pyriproxyfen (Esteem), or s-methoprene (Extinguish) are
currently labeled for use in cattle pastures or pastures for companion animals. Award fire ant bait
(containing fenoxycarb) and Extinguish Plus (hydramethylnon premixed with s-methoprene) can be
applied to pastures grazed by companion animals such as horses.

Timing: Baits are considered food by the ants. The fire ants only forage for food when
conditions are favorable and this occurs when air temperatures range from 65 to 90 degress F. In
the heat of the summer, foraging occurs mostly in the evening so baits should be applied in the
late afternoon or early evening. When deciding whether or not your ants are foraging, place a
potato chip or small pile of bait near a fire ant mound. If the ants carry off the food within 30
minutes of placement, it would be a good time to apply bait to the pasture!

Other Cases: If you are treating more than 100 acres, you might want to consider aerial
application of fire ant bait. A mound drench containing carbaryl (such as Sevin 4F, Sevin XLR, and
Sevin 80S, that are labeled for use in pastures) can be applied to individual mounds. Fire ant baits
can also be used as individual mound treatments but do not work as quickly as carbaryl. It would
not be economical to treat very many mounds individually because of the cost of the materials and
labor involved.

Use pesticides only according to the directions on the label and follow all direction, precautions,
and restrictions that are listed. Trade names listed in this article are used only to provide examples
and specific information but not to endorse or guarantee any product and one product is not
recommended over a similar one.

Other Options: In March 2007, a project developed by the USDA's Agricultural Research
Service (ARS) in cooperation with the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
and the University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) received a top
USDA national award for the progress it has made in finding biological control methods to manage
the red imported fire ant. From the decapitating fly to a pathogenic protozoan from Argentina, to
the recent discovery of the first virus (Solenopsis invicta virus-1) that infects the red imported fire
ant, state and federal partners are working together to combat this nuisance. The ARS funded
program, and Area-Wide Suppression of Fire Ant Populations in Pastures has been under way for
about 6 years and will end in 2008. The goal is to maintain greater than 80%
reduction of fire ants using an integrated management approach that combine -
both toxic baits and biological control methods.


Page 5

Page 6


EDIS is the Electronic Data Information
Source of UF/IFAS Extension

New Relevant EDIS Publications
EDIS Homepage:
* AN168/AN168: Total Protein Requirements of Beef Cattle II. Feeding By-product Feedstuffs.
AN168, a 4-page fact sheet by Jeffrey N. Carter, discusses the nutritional contributions of by-product feedstuffs and how to compare the economic
values of different feedstuffs. Includes a table of protein and energy concentrations of selected feedstuffs. Published by the UF Department of Ani-
mal Science, February 2007.
* AN180/AN180: Florida Dairy Farm Situation and Outlook 2007
AN180, a 4-page report byRuss Giesy and Albert De Vries, is one of a series of annually published reports on the dairy industry in Florida, based on
the results of a survey by the Dairy Business Analysis Program (DBAP). It includes discussion of the situation and outlook, as well as background
information on the challenges facing the dairy industry in Florida: production, economic, environmental, and social. Published by the UF Depart-
ment of Animal Sciences, February 2007.
* ENH1044/EP299: Ornamental Vegetables: Production Tips and Varieties to Produce or Sell
ENH-1044, a 5-page illustrated fact sheet by Dr. James L. Gibson, provides growers with information they need to take advantage of the increasing
demand for cool season ornamental mustards and kale plants. Includes descriptions and cultural information for best performing varieties, refer-
ences, and a table of recommended cultivars with seed source information. Published by the UF Department of Environmental Horticulture, August
* FA144/FA144: The Concept ofldeal Protein in Formulation ofAquaculture Feeds
FA-144, a 3-page fact sheet by Richard D. Miles and Frank A. Chapman, discusses the concept of using proteins meeting the digestible amino acids
requirement of the fish using lysine as a reference, and the problem with using feed with an excess of protein. Published by the UF Department of
Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, March 2007.
* FE686/FE686: 2007 Farm Bill Survey: Characteristics of Southern Producers
FE686, an 8-page fact sheet by Rodney L. Clouser, Nathan B. Smith, Michele C. Marra, and James L. Novak, describes the demographics and edu-
cation of participants in the survey, as well as their relative ranking of farm bill goals, their sales and income, past participation in government pro-
grams, and land ownership and use. Includes tables and references. Published by the UF Department of Food and Resource Economics, March
* FE687/FE687: 2006 Florida Land Value Survey
FE687, a 5-page fact sheet by Rodney L. Clouser, Ronald Muraro, and Laila Racevskis, describes the results of a survey conducted in May 2006 to
provide an estimate of the value of different types of agricultural land for geographic regions of the state. It describes changes in the survey from
past surveys and provides a summary of results. Includes references and tables. Published by the UF Department of Food and Resource Economics,
April 2007.
* VM152/VM114: Humane Euthanasia of Sick, Injured, and/or Debilitated Livestock*
VM-152, a 16-page full-color publication by Jan K. Shearer and Paul Nicoletti, includes sections on indications for euthanasia, methods, anatomical
landmarks, exsanguination, and confirmation of death. Includes references. Published by the UF Department of Veterinary Medicine -- Large Animal
Clinical Sciences, April 2007.
* VM-153/VM123: Humane Euthanasia Procedures: For Sick, Injured, and/or Debilitated Livestock Wall Chart*
VM-153, a full-color wall chart by Jan K. Shearer and Paul Nicoletti, describes the correct way to humanely euthanize cattle using gunshot or pene-
trating captive bolt. Published by the UF Department of Veterinary Medicine -- Large Animal Clinical Sciences, April 2007.
* VM154/VM124: Humane Euthanasia Procedures for Sick, Injured, and/or
Debilitated Livestock, Desk Card on Euthanasia of Cattle*
VM-154, a full-color desk card by Jan K. Shearerand Paul Nicoletti, describes the
correct way to humanely euthanize cattle using gunshot or penetrating captive
bolt. Published by the UF Department of Veterinary Medicine -- Large Animal Clini- k -
cal Sciences, April 2007.
* VM-155/VM125: Quick Reference Wallet Card on Euthanasia of Cattle* .
VM-155, a full-color wallet card by Jan K. Shearerand Paul Nicoletti, describes the
correct way to humanely euthanize cattle using gunshot or penetrating captive
bolt. Published by the UF Department of Veterinary Medicine -- Large Animal Clini-
cal Sciences, April 2007.

*tambien disponible en espahol

.Weanlngs at the utF Lse. Teaching Unit


According to Curt Lacy, Extension Livestock Economist & Assistant Professor at the University of
Georgia, most livestock economists are predicting lower prices for feeder cattle and calves in the near
future. Because of the potential for this to negatively impact the profitability of Florida's cow-calf
industry, it is certainly worth taking the time to consider strategies to proactively minimize profit loss.
This can most effectively be done in two ways. Through: 1. managing risk and 2. lowering cost of

1. Always know the odds.
2. Never risk more than you can afford to lose.
3. Never risk a lot to gain a little.

So, let's talk about risk. For you cow-calf producers, price risk is very pertinent to your operations.
Price risk is due to declining output prices or increasing input prices. Some traditional price risk
management tools such as hedging, options, forward contracting, etc. are available, but there are
additional ways to manage the price risk that may seem obvious. How about producing the type of calf
the market wants. In addition, you might consider retained ownership through preconditioning/
backgrounding, stockering, or custom feeding. "Wait" you say, "that's just going to increase my risk!".
Lacy reminds us that when feeder cattle prices are as close to fed cattle prices as they are today,
retaining ownership makes much more economic sense. However, he does concede that cow-calf
producers should always consider any profits they have made in a weaned calf before they attempt to
capture any additional returns.
capture any additional returns.

Paaop 7

(Poker 101 & Lowering the Cost of Production...cont'd)

Now that we've talked about risk, let's consider some concrete practices useful in lowering cost of
production. How do you determine cost of production? Many of us think of dollars per cow, right? While
$/cow cost estimates are important in terms of managing the beef herd, in terms of profitability, Lacy states
that the most important cost item to know is dollars per hundredweight ($/cwt). For commercial cow-calf
producers, the $/cwt formula is:

Variable cost + Fixed cost
Hundredweights produced

or more specifically:
Variable cost + Fixed cost

$/cwt= Number of cows X Weaning % X Average Weaning

In order to plug the correct numbers in, let's review the terms 'variable costs' and 'fixed costs'. In any
enterprise, the first priority is to cover variable costs so we will begin with those.

Variable Costs:
Will vary, or fluctuate with production
Also called 'direct costs' or 'costs of production'
Include items such as: feed, hay, seed, fertilizer, fuel, oil, etc.
If you cannot cover these costs, you cease production

Fixed Costs:
Over head costs
Will occur, regardless if you have 0, 4, or 400 cows
Include taxes, insurance, interest or loan payments, equipment, buildings

Reality ": In most years, it is unrealistic to expect to cover both variable and fixed costs. More commonly,
producers do well to cover their variable costs and contribute as much as they can to their fixed costs.

Back to the formula: If $/cwt represents the cost of production, then we want this number as small as
possible, right? Back to basic arithmetic then, we either have to make the numerator (top number) smaller or
the denominator (bottom number) larger. How does a producer in the real world do this? Lacy suggests
'breaking the variable and fixed costs apart and determining which costs are the largest ones within the two
categories and focusing on those general areas.' For example, in most commercial cow-calf operations,
variable costs comprise most of the total cost; and feed, hay, and pasture costs account for most of the
variable expenses. Wouldn't it make sense then for a producer to analyze the purchased feed, hay and
pasture components of the feeding sector of their operation to see which areas could be improved?


Page 8

(Poker 101 & Lowering the Cost of Production...cont'd) Lacy recommends the following general cost-
cutting practices for cow-calf producers for 2007:
1. Cull open cows.
2. Cull cows that are not covering their variable expenses.
3. Compare replacement economic alternatives.
4. Consider the economics of hay production.
5. Consider alternative feeds.

Let's first look at cow considerations. It is doubtful that every cow in your operation is a money-maker. The
first step should be to identify money-losers and eliminate them from your herd. For example...if the cow did not
wean a calf, she generated ZERO revenue for you, yet you had an overhead cost to maintain her. Next, let's
identify least profitable cows and eliminate them too. If a cow did wean a calf, try to determine whether or not it
was profitable. The most straightforward way to do this is to take the actual calf weight times sales price minus
annual average cow cost. Note, this is the only time that cow cost is more important than $/cwt cost. In
addition to determining the profitability of individual cows, Lacy predicts that 2007 may also be a good year to
revisit replacement female alternatives.

Next, let's consider feed and forage. Forage and feed costs typically make up two-thirds of the annual
variable costs in a cow operation. The significant increase in fuel and fertilizer prices has increased pasture
and hay costs considerably. Some general recommendations for 2007 include: soil testing, comparing sources
of nitrogen fertilizer, revisiting the economics of legumes where appropriate, examining the economics of
controlled and/or rotational grazing, and comparingthe economics of hay, baleage/haylage, and silage.

In summary, being well aware that 2007 will bring higher prices for fuel, fertilizer and feed, causing much
smaller profit margins allows beef cattle producers to already think ahead, manage this risk and focus on cost
reduction strategies that reduce the cost per hundredweight and maintain a strong Florida cow-calf industry.
Adapted from Risk Management & the Cost of Production, a presentation given by R. Curt Lacy, Extension Livestock Economist & Assis-
tant Professor at UGA, during the 56th Annual Florida Beef Cattle Short Course.

Where have the honeybees
gone? Could cell phones really be
linked to the mysterious
disappearance of honeybees?
Researchers are puzzled as at least
27 states have reported significant
losses to their honeybee colonies
since fall, 2006.

A German study stated that cell
phone signals disorient the bees and
destroy their ability to communicate.
This is one theory that scientists are
clearly not passing final judgment
on. Dr. Jamie Ellis, Assistant Profes-
sor at the Honey Bee Research and

Extension Laboratory through the
University of Florida Department of
Entomology and Nematology comments,
"Cell phones may be doing it. In a
Hypothetical sense, chemical toxins in
the environment may be causing the
Decline but it's really not safe at this
point to pin the blame on any one
thing." Regardless of the
"'s really not safe at cause, the phenomenon will

thispoint to pin the
blame on any one

certainly nave implications tor

For more information, refer to V"js
page 11 of this newsletter.


Page 9


Farming Strategies to Offset High Nitrogen Cost

What is driving the cost of fertilizer to be
so high?

Usually, a combination of factors. One of
the major contributors is the price of .
petroleum. With fossil fuel prices remaining
high, we are expecting to see a direct rise in
nitrogen prices this year. Another factor is the .
price of corn and the record number of acres
being planted to corn this year to supply grain
for the ethanol plants. To put things in
perspective, Walt Prevatt, Extension
Economist from Auburn University states, "we
are gambling on making the largest corn crop
in U.S. history to supply food, feed, energy,
and export uses of corn." Other economists
predict that we will be paying the highest
prices we have ever paid for nitrogen on a
national basis this year.

"We are gambling on
making the largest corn
crop in U.S. history to
supply food,feed, energy,
and export uses of

What strategies can Florida cow-calf producers utilize to off-set these high
nitrogen costs and stay out of the red?

To make sure that the fertilizer you apply to your pastures is getting utilized
properly, make sure your soil pH is within the target range for that forage. If the soil is
too acidic, for example, the nutrients you apply will not be soluble and taken up by the
plant and therefore wasted. A basic soil test can be done to tell you your soil pH and
let you know if your soil is deficient in any nutrients. If you are only testing your soil for
pH, the Hillsborough County Extension office provides this service every Friday
morning and I will give you a call to go over the recommendations based on the soil
analyses. If you are also checking your P, K, Ca, and Mg levels including the pH levels,
you will need to send samples to the University of Florida Soil Testing Laboratory.
Please see the orange form included with this newsletter.

Another very helpful thing producers can do is add forage legumes into the pasture systems. One
recommended legume for this area of Florida that has shown promise is the warm-season annual,
Aeschynomene, often referred to as 'deer vetch.' Dr. Joao Vendramini, University of Florida Range Cattle Forage
Specialist, recommends common aeschynomene, or Aeschynomene americana, as one of his top choices due
to its successful establishment, high nutritive value and palatability to cattle. This forage has long been used in
the cattle industry but is regaining importance because it is a crop that does not require nitrogen. Before
planting the aeschynomene seeds, make sure they are inoculated with the proper bacteria cowpeaa group). This
is important because after the plant begins to grow, this special N-fixing bacteria will invade the tiny root hairs
and multiply in large numbers. The legume roots, in reaction to this infection, form tumor-like swellings called
nodules on the root surface. Bacteria inside the nodules absorb air from the soil and convert (fix) gaseous N into
ammonia (NH3), replacing the need for us to fertilize the plant! The plant furnishes the necessary energy that
enables the bacteria to fix gaseous N from the atmosphere and pass it on to the plant for use in producing
protein. This partnership is known as symbiotic N fixation.


(Farming Strategies...cont'd) In order to really
make a legume substitution for nitrogen fertilizer,
Vendramini highly suggests using an aeschynomene
pasture as part of a rotational grazing
system. The bulk of the nitrogen that
will be returned to the system will be
in the form of manure and urine and
the best way to do that is to allow the
animals, after grazing the protein rich
aeschynomene leaves, to move onto
a grass pasture (plants that do not fix
their own nitrogen) and deposit -
manure and urine high in Nitrogen ,
content. In this way, the wealth of
nitrogen is spread to deficient areas
and the aeschynomene is not over-
grazed and has the opportunity to recover.

Dr. Vendramini warns however, that it will not
persist like a grass and a producer is doing well if one
planting lasts two years. Typically you will experience
a strong stand the first year, notice it thinning the
second and be ready to reseed the third. Once
established, rotational grazing is recommended when

plants reach a height of 18 inches. A stocking rate of
2 to 5 animal units per acre has been suggested.
Moving animals to the next pasture when a 14-inch
stubble remains will allow for maximum regrowth and
good seed production. You might
read in industry publications
Recommendations to utilize clovers
as well since they are legumes that
also fix nitrogen. While they are a
** viable option for North Florida,
S Vendramini says the only clover
species currently recommended for
South Florida is white clover, which is
variable itself. Dr. Vendramini has
j fl been working on some clover trials
" ... h and has found varying results for this
area. While like most legumes, it fixes nitrogen and
has good nutritive value, it is easily overgrazed and
does not seem to be tolerant of marginal conditions.
We will continue to conduct research with this forage
to select for more adapted varieties and to discover
management practices to utilize this option more
successfully in this area.

Worldwide Honeybee Decline

Since the fall of last year (2006), beekeepers around the country
have reported extreme colony losses, some equaling 50-90% of
their colonies, often within a week's time. This epidemic, so to
speak, has since been termed, "Colony Collapse Disorder" or CCD.
Reported losses have translated into thousands of dead colonies
and millions of dead bees. We currently depend on honeybees to
Spollinate 1/3 of the nation's agricultural crops and to contribute
billions of dollars in added revenue to the agricultural industry, so
these bee losses are drawing national and international attention.
While the cause of CCD is unknown and under investigation, listed
below are the leading candidates in no particular order:
1. Traditional Bee Pests & Diseases (American & European foulbrood, chalkbrood, nosema, small hive beetles, &
tracheal mites)
2. Style of Feeding Bees & Type of Bee Food
3. How the Bees were Managed (for honey or pollination and good or poor management practices)
4. Queen Source (genetic diversity issues)
5. Chemical Use in Bee Colonies (sub-lethal effects of labeled chemicals to control various maladies)
6. Chemical Toxins in the Environment (non-target pollution from pesticides)
7. Genetically Modified Crops (due to genetic modification or systemic insecticides in which seeds are dipped)
8. Varroa Mites & Associated Pathogens (world's most destructive honey bee killer)
9. Nutritional Fitness (malnutrition is a stress to bees leading to a weakened immune system)
10. Undiscovered/New Pests & Diseases
Many scientists believe CCD may be a combination of factors. For more information, please visit:
http://pestalert.ifas.ufl.ed u/Colony_Collapse_Disorder. htm

Page 11

Hillsborough Extension Service
5339 S. County Road 579
Seffner, FL 33584-3334


Non-Profit Org.
US Postage Paid
Permit # 15

is.c Pasture Management Schoo
Saturday, August 11, 2007
Hardee County Extension Office, Wauchula
& Hands-On Session @ Ona Range Cattle Station

Hardee County Extension Office Seminars

> Soil Basics & Pasture Fertilization

SPasture Grass/Forage Selection & Planting

Grazing Management : Grazing Systems, Stocking Rate


Hands-On Session at Ona Range Cattle Station:

Taking Soil Samples



How to Apply Seed, Lime, Fertilizer

For more information, please call 863-773-2164

Prepare Your Farm &

Livestock Before A

Hurricane Hits!

This time each year, it is simply good management to take the time to review these hurricane
preparedness tips:

STake an inventory of your livestock-count your animals before the storm
SMove machinery, feed, grain, pesticides and herbicides to higher ground
SConstruct mounds of soil for livestock, or open gates so livestock can escape high
SLeave building doors and windows open at least 2 inches to equalize water pressure
and help prevent buildings from shifting
SIf possible, move motors and portable electric equipment to a dry location
SDisconnect electric power to all buildings which may be flooded
SCheck with a veterinarian to be sure cattle are properly immunized before being
exposed to flood waters
STo keep surface water out of your well, use materials such as heavy plastic and duct
tape to seal the well cap and top of the well casing

Particularly for Horse Owners:

SEvacuation must occur 48 hours before hurricane force winds occur in the area
STransportation of horses when wind gusts exceed 40 mph is dangerous.
For Emergency Equine Evacuation and Relocation sites and availability, check:
SA health certificate is required to cross the state line. A negative coggins test is necessary
to be evacuated to a community shelter or cross state lines as well. During evacuation
circumstances, the Commissioner of Agriculture may waive this
Make sure each horse has at least one of the following:
SLeather halter with name/farm info in a zip lock bag secured to halter w/duct tape
SA water-tight luggage tag with information and phone number braided into the tail
> Make sure you own and carry photos of horses for proof of ownership

Africanized Honey Bee


Friday, 6 July 2007
Hillsborough County Cooperative Extension
5339 County Rd 579
Seffner, Fl., 33584-3334

Morning Session: 9:00 a.m. Noon
Training for First-Responders
(Fire Fighters, Law Enforcement, Pest Control Operators)
Afternoon Session: 1:00 p.m. 4:00 p.m.
Safety Training for Outdoor Workers
Registration is Free! Registration is Required!
This program is supported by a grant from the Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
*Registration Is Required! To register, pls call Steffany Dragon
at 813-744-5519 x 127 or Lacey Marsden x 128. Thank you.

UF UNIVERSITY of Division of
U FLObRIDA M XuR Plant Industry
IFAS Extension Ia .Mw

AHB Training Programs

Morning: Training for First-Responders
(Fire Fighters, Law Enforcement)


Africanized Honey Bee Biology and Behavior
Personal Protection Equipment and Tactics
Rescue / Extraction
Distribution of Training Certificates

Afternoon: Outdoor workers

1:00 Africanized Honey Bee Biology and Behavior
2:00 Personal Protection Equipment and Response
3:00 Swarm and Colony Control Recommendations
4:00 Distribution of Training Certificates and GHP

Africanized Honey Bee

Informational Program

Thursday Evening, 5 July 2007
Hillsborough County Cooperative Extension
5339 County Rd 579
Seffner, Fl., 33584-3334

Introduction to the Africanized Honey Bee 6:30 p.m.

Questions and Answer Session 7:30 p.m.

Free to the General Public!
This program is supported by a grant from the Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services

F UNIVERSITY of Division of
U FLORIDA Plant Industry
IFAS Extension I a. *" **--

Location of the Hillsborough County Cooperative
Extension Service


B^-L_- 579 Old Hillsborough Ave

Exit 260 6Y lUbll |
West M. L. King Blvd Bank
West 574

Exit 260A
IChurch Rraiidlii

Please register to attend this program by

Steffany Dragon Small Farms & Livestock Agent
(813) 744-5519 x 127 or Lacey Marsden @ x 128

2007 Farm to Fuel Summit
July 18-20 St. Petersburg Florida
Marriott Renaissance Vinoy Resort
and Golf Club
This unique conference provides industry leaders with an excellent
opportunity to learn, network and strategize. The 2006 Summit
drew nearly 400 participants, and we expect this year's will be bigger and better!

View the 2007 Farm to Fuel Summit Agenda.

Who should attend?

Producers, Marketers and Retailers of Ethanol, Biodiesel, and Petroleum; Farmers, Ranchers,
Agriculturalists; Government Officials; Transportation Industries; Researchers, Scientists;
Lenders and Financial Institutions; Investors.

Registering for the Farm to Fuel Summit:

If you are interested in attending the 2007 summit, please fill out the summit registration
form; click the following link to open the document: Summit Registration Form (PDF).

The Summit Registration Fee is $250.00. Late Registration (After June 20, 2007) is $300.00.
Please make your check or money order payable to:
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.

Registration Forms, along with Registration Fees should be mailed to:

FDACS- Farm to Fuel Summit
3125 Conner Blvd Suite E MS C17
Tallahassee, FL 32399-1650

Room Reservations: The summit rate for the Vinoy Resort is $139/night. Reservations should be made
directly with the resort. Be sure to ask for the Farm to Fuel Summit rate. Marriott Renaissance Vinoy
Resort. Toll Free: 1-888-303-4430
http ://
If you have any further questions regarding the 2007 Farm to Fuel Summit, please send us an email at or call (850) 922-5432.

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