Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Tribute to grass
 Livestock is more than an...
 Tribute to the cow
 General history of cattle
 Breeds of beef cattle
 The breeding herd
 Beef cattle program for Florid...
 Some breeding terms defined
 Herd management
 Florida needs feeds
 Feeding terms explained
 Pastures and forages
 Feeds and feeding rations
 Feeder cattle
 Barns, silos and equipment
 Common diseases and parasites of...
 Cattle shows, showing cattle and...
 Marketing cattle
 Stamping beef, beef cuts and their...
 Country hides and skins
 Table of Contents
 Pastures--why not do this?

Title: Beef cattle in Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089047/00001
 Material Information
Title: Beef cattle in Florida
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Lewis, L. H.
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture,
Publication Date: 1944
Copyright Date: 1944
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089047
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alr0734 - LTUF
41435025 - OCLC
002307412 - AlephBibNum

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    Tribute to grass
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Livestock is more than an industry
        Page 7
    Tribute to the cow
        Page 8
    General history of cattle
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Breeds of beef cattle
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    The breeding herd
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Beef cattle program for Florida
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Some breeding terms defined
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Herd management
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Florida needs feeds
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
    Feeding terms explained
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
    Pastures and forages
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
    Feeds and feeding rations
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
    Feeder cattle
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
    Barns, silos and equipment
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
    Common diseases and parasites of cattle
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
    Cattle shows, showing cattle and showmanship
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
    Marketing cattle
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
    Stamping beef, beef cuts and their preparation
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
    Country hides and skins
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
    Table of Contents
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
    Pastures--why not do this?
        Page 271
        Page 272
Full Text

Bulletin No. 28 New Series May 1944



Livestock Specialist, Florida State Marketing Bureau



Bulletin No. 28

New Series

May 1944


The author desires to express his appreciation to all agencies
from whose data materials were taken, and especially to the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, the Florida Agri-
cultural Extension Service, Livestock Sanitary Board, Agricul-
tural agents of the various railroads, the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture, and other State experiment stations, as
well as the various Beef Cattle Breeder Associations-including
the American Aberdeen Angus Breeders' Association, Amer-
ican Brahman Breeders' Association, American Devon Cattle
Club, American Hereford Breeders' Association, Red Polled
Cattle Club of America, American Shorthorn Breeders' Asso-
ciation for pictures; and Morrison's Feeds and Feeding, as well
as other authors.
The author desires to express especial appreciation to Drs.
R. S. Glasscock and R. B. Becker of the Florida Experiment 1
Station, Gainesville; Dale C. Snodgrass and Al Howard, Agri-
cultural Agents, A. C. L. R. R., Jacksonville, for verification
of materials in the bulletin and suggestions made to improve
the manuscript; to Hon. T. J. Brooks, Assistant Commissioner
of Agriculture, Tallahassee, who read the manuscript and offered
many suggestions; to Prof. W. E. Stokes and R. E. Blazer,
Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, for materials on
"Pastures" which they kindly wrote for the bulletin, as well
as to Dr. J. V. Knapp, State Veterinarian, Tallahassee, who
prepared the chapter on "Diseases and Parasites"; and to also
express appreciation to many other persons and agencies from
whose thoughts materials were taken.

The production of beef cattle in the United States has
undergone a great many changes since the days when cattle
took the place of the roving buffalo herds on the western plains.
Every State in the Union raises some beef cattle and it seems
safe to predict that the future will see vast herds of beef cattle
being raised in sections that heretofore have not been noted for
cattle raising.
In the State of Florida there have been cattle for 375-400
years, or since the early days of Spanish settlement. These
early importations by the Spaniards were not given much atten-
tion in the way of herd management-the cattle being left to
rustle for themselves. Fortunately the ranges provided some
forage for this early stock, and as a result of this compulsory
self-feeding, the offspring of these early cattle is today noted
for its hardiness and rustling ability.
Florida is naturally adapted to beef cattle production. The
climate permits grazing from nine to ten months of the year
on the soils found in hammock and flatwood ranges; but South
Florida muck lands, a twelve months grazing sometimes is pos-
sible. To produce the best quality of beef it is advisable, how-
ever, to supplement the forage crops with properly balanced
rations as suggested herein.
There are approximately 1,200,000 head of cattle in Florida,
having a value of approximately $45,000,000.00 (1943), which
does not include land, fences, corrals, horses for handling and
other equipment of estimated value $160,000,000 total. Pro-
duction of good beef cattle in Florida fundamentally is the
same as in other states. There must be carefully selected breed-
ing stock, and proper facilities provided for the care of the
herd; the right kind of feed, water and shade, and often mineral
supplements, to both plants (soils) and animals, are most neces-
sary in the production of good beef.
Florida enjoys a very good market position, the outlets being
almost unlimited. With an under-production, the market de-
mands in Florida are perhaps the highest of any section in the
United States, therefore ready markets are within the State.
There is a heavy demand for veal calves which will undoubt-
edly stimulate their production in Florida. There are about 40
meat packing plants in the states of Florida, Georgia and Ala-
bama, as well as markets of the North and East, which assures
a market for all the marketable cattle Florida produces.
Florida produces a considerable amount of high quality beef
and the meat from these cattle should be advertised as "Florida
bred and fed beef."


Tribute to Grass, by John J. Ingalls....-.......--..........-........

Livestock is More Than An Industry -...............---....... --....

Tribute to the Cow, by F. M. Wood.....--..--.....---...- ..-..---

Chapter I General History of Cattle.












Breeds of Beef Cattle .................

The Breeding Herd --....... ......-......

Beef Cattle Program for Florida.

Some Breeding Terms Defined.....

Herd Management --..-.....-------

Florida Needs Feeds........... -

Feeding Terms Explained..-.......---

Pastures and Forages...........- ....-

Feeds and Feeding Rations........

Feeder Cattle.............. ....

Barns, Silos and Equipment...........

.--....-. 13

.---..... 33

..-..........- 53

.- -.... .. 57

---.... 65

..-----.. 85

.. -.......... 101

. ....---. 117

...- ...... .. 141

..-....... 157

.. .......- 169

Chapter XIII Common Diseases and Parasites of Cattle.

Chapter XIV Cattle Shows and Showmanship.................

Chapter XV Marketing Cattle --............. --.. -.......

Chapter XVI Stamping Beef, Beef Cuts and Their
Preparation -......- --.....-..-... ---..... --

Chapter XVII Country Hides and Skins................ ..----

Appendix and Tables Appendix..............-........ ...

Table of Contents ..........--... ... .........

.... 183

.... 193

.... 203

.... 233

.... 243

- 245

.... 263

















By John J. Ingalls

"Next in importance to the divine profusion of water, light
and air, those three great physical facts which render existence
possible, may be reckoned the universal beneficence of grass.
Exaggerated by tropical heats and vapors to the gigantic cane
congested with its saccharine secretion, or dwarfed by polar
rigors to the fibrous hair of northern solitudes, embracing be-
tween these extremes the maize with its resolute pennons, the
rice plant of southern swamps, the wheat, rye, barley, oats, and
other cereals, no less than the humbler verdure of hillside, pas-
ture and prairie in the temperate zone, grass is the most widely
distributed of all vegetable beings, and is at once the type of our
life and the emblem of our mortality. Lying in the sunshine
among the buttercups and the dandelions of May, scarcely higher
in intelligence than the minute tenants of the mimic wilderness,
our earliest recollections are of grass; and when the fitful fever
is ended, and the foolish wrangle of the market and the forum

is closed, grass heals over the scar which our descent into the
bosom of the earth has made, and the carpet of the infant becomes
the blanket of the dead.
"As he reflected upon the brevity of human life, grass has
been the favorite symbol of the moralist, the chosen theme of the
philosopher. 'All flesh is grass,' said the prophet; 'My days are
as the grass,' sighed the troubled patriarch; and the pensive
Nebuchadnezzar, in his penitential mood, exceeded even these,
and, as the sacred historian informs us, did eat grass like an ox.
"Grass is the forgiveness of nature-her constant benedic-
tion. Fields trampled with battle, saturated with blood, torn
with the ruts of cannon, grow green again with grass, and car-
nage is forgotten. Streets abandoned by traffic become grass-
grown like rural lanes, and are obliterated. Forests decay,
harvests perish, flowers vanish, but grass is immortal. Be-
leaguered by the sullen hosts of winter, it withdraws into the
impregnable fortress of its subterranean vitality, and emerges
upon the first solicitation of spring. Sown by the winds, by
wandering birds, propagated by the subtle horticulture of the
elements which are its ministers and servants, it softens the rude
outline of the world. Its tenacious fibers hold the earth in its
place and prevent its soluble components from washing into the
wasting sea. It invades the solitude of deserts, climbs the inac-
cessible slopes and forbidding pinnacles of mountains, modifies
climates, and determines the history, character and destiny of
nations. Unobtrusive and patient, it has immortal vigor and
aggression. Banished from the thoroughfare and field, it bides
its time to return, and when vigilance is relaxed, or the dynasty
has perished, it silently resumes the throne from which it has
been expelled, but which it never abdicates. It bears no blazonry
of bloom to charm the senses with fragrance or splendor, but its
homely hue is more enchanting than the lily or the rose. It
yields no fruit in earth or air, and yet should its harvest fail for
a single year, famine would depopulate the world.'


Courtesy American Hereford Breeders' Assn.

"But livestock is far more than an industry.
It is also a way of life. It is important to the
nation, not merely for the money it brings, but
primarily for the sort of people it develops."


"The grand old brute-man's greatest friend-without her
Sunday stillness would pervade the great stockyards, and many
cities would decay; one-half the freight trains of the U. S. A.
would be sidetracked; 50 % of their employees would draw no
pay Saturday night; our tables would be bare of the greatest
luxury with which they are now furnished, and millions of
prosperous homes would be destroyed.
"There is nothing like a cow. Everything from her nose
tip to tail tip is used for man,-her horns for combs; her skin
for man's feet and horses backs; her hair to keep plaster on
walls; her hoof makes glue; her tail makes soup; she gives us
our cream, milk, butter and cheese, and her flesh is the greatest
meat of all nations. She is the foster mother of civilization;
she works for man day and night; she has gone with man from
the orient to the accident; her sons drew the prairie schooner
for the pioneer; her milk fed the family at the end of the day.

"Eliminate the cow and one eliminates milk for the baby,
the cream biscuit, the custard pie, cream for the coffee, butter,
cheese, the smoking beefsteak or roast.
"The cow makes it possible for man to make an undeveloped
America into a land of happy homes. When she came to Amer-
ica the buffalo disappeared, the Indian tepee gave way to the
church, the school house, the home, and where once wild ani-
mals roved and howled today children laugh and play, grass
grows, flowers bloom and birds sing. The cow is man's second
greatest benefactor, being only subject to grass-man's greatest


General History of Cattle


The ancestors of our modern beef cattle roamed the earth
when wild animals first inhabited its forests. It is difficult to
state definitely the original sections where they began life, and
it seems most reasonable to believe that almost every section
of the globe except the frigid zones contributed to their general
welfare, however their origin antedates history.
Dr. Frederick B. Mumford states: "The domesticated cattle
of the world are now classed in two species: The Bos laurus, or
common cattle of Europe and America; and the Bos Indicus,
the humped cattle of India, called Zebus. The humped Zebu
was domesticated in Egypt over 2,000 years before the Chris-
tian era.
"The prevailing type of cattle common to Europe and Amer-
ica belongs to the species, Bos laurus. From this animal all the
principal British breeds have descended, this species has been
widely dispersed to every country on the globe. The first at-
tempts toward development were very crude and little progress
was made.
"Systematic improvement which resulted in specialized
breeds began about the close of the 18th century. The greatest
progress was made in Great Britain, and to Robert Bakewell
(1725-1795), of Leicestershire, England, must be given the credit
of producing such markedly superior animals; types which
justly have entitled him to the distinction of being called the
'father of the science and art of modern cattle breeding'."
Careful selection and breeding originated by Robert Bake-
well was carried on in Scotland and England by Colling Broth-
ers, Amos Cruickshank, Richard Tompkins, and Hugh Watson.
This work was continued in America and is still receiving the
best thought of our outstanding cattle breeders.
A general classification divides the existing breeds into beef
and dairy cattle.


Among the old English writers is found the word "cattle"
or "catel" used collectively to designate all kinds of live ani-
mals held as property or those raised for food or beasts of


burden. This classification included horses, sheep, swine, and
some writers even applied the word to cover bees and poultry.
Our present dictionaries give the meaning of the word "cattle"
to be: "domesticated bovine animals such as oxen, cows, bulls,
and calves."
Bovine animals were those known as "horned cattle" and
at later periods as "black cattle" and "neat cattle." "Neat
cattle" were so called because of their usefulness, "neat" hav-
ing its origin in the Anglo-Saxon word "neaten," meaning "to
make use of."
The term "ox" often used for cattle in general, signifies
more correctly mature, castrated males that are used for draft
purposes. In Continental Europe a broader meaning is given
to the word as it is used to include all male cattle; in the plural
it includes both sexes.
Animals which may be comprised as cattle in its more re-
stricted meaning are oxen which have been placed in six groups,
Buffaloes (India and Africa); Bison (Europe and North
America); the Yak (Thibet); the Gaur Gayal and Bantin
(India and Further India); Eastern and African domesticated
cattle or Zebu, and Western or European domesticated cattle.
The India Buffalo, Yak, Gayal and Bantin have also been do-
mesticated. All of the species named are rather closely related
except the Buffalo.

Idle land is useless to its owner, and a drag on the pros-
perity of the community; it, therefore, appears one of the prob-
lems of Florida is to make use of land not otherwise producing,
in order that taxes and overhead expenses may be taken care of.
In Florida, a few years ago, millions of acres of land were in
perfectly good virgin timber; these lands were cut over without
Government control, some were put into farms for cultivation,
or were allowed to grow volunteer timber; but the need is to
improve two major crops in this State-livestock and timber.
There are thousands of acres of land unsuitable for cattle or
lands which do not give very high return per acre of beef;
such lands might be used for timber. The best lands no doubt
should be used and improved for cattle. The poorer or whiter
sand lands of Florida should be stocked to timber, but the
darker, heavier, more fertile types of land should be kept, used,
and improved for cattle. It is possible to raise cattle and timber
on the same land, but impossible to raise a full stand of timber


and the maximum number of cattle on the same land, therefore
one should think of using lands in terms of their adaptability.
Florida is producing about 70% of its present beef con-
sumption. With the proper utilization of such lands as are
adapted to pasture, Florida can more than supply herself with
the beef that she needs. With improved pasture conditions,
Florida can produce more than three times as many pounds of
beef as are being produced at present.
Florida has 35,111,040 acres of land, of which about 6,000,000
acres are cleared for cultivation; 3,000,000 in beaches and pleas-
ure resorts; approximately 6,000,000 acres are white sand carry-
ing a high percentage of silicon which might be developed into
the production of glass; therefore there are approximately 22,-
000,000 to 25,000,000 acres adaptable to the production of beef
cattle. What shall be done with these lands except to develop
them in cattle and/or timber?
Native wild grass lands, in wire grass, or other wild grasses,
will produce from 15 to 18 pounds of beef per acre, some acres
more and some less, while improved lands will produce 175-300
pounds or more of beef per acre; or steers on lespedeza and the
better grass pasture have made gains per acre of 220 pounds
from .une 1st to November llth. It is a known fact that im-
proved pastures will give from 3 to 20 times as much beef per
acre as our average wire grass, or other wild grass pastures,
therefore the necessity of pasture improvement. Many lands in
Florida have as great carrying capacity as the lands of any state.

Florida is particularly adapted to the production of cattle
for the following reasons:
1. She has the lands adapted to the production of improved
2. She has ample rainfall to generally guarantee an abun-
dant growth of feed, as well as pastures; she has never had a
general drought and has never been generally flooded; therefore
her lands are safe.
3. Her seasons are mild, making for as long a grazing season
as any state.
Some of Florida's natural resources are: Climate and adapt-
able soils. As to climate, the following table tells one that as
to rainfall and temperatures, Florida has rainfall so well dis-
tributed throughout the year and temperatures so mild that
grasses, forage and grains can be abundantly produced.


Monthly Averages of Normal Precipitation and Temperatures
Over Period From 1898-1932-35 Years.
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July
Precipitation .........-...- 2.79 2.96 3.23 2.83 4.21 6.76 7.17
Temperature ..---..........--.. 59.60 61.10 65.10 70.00 75.60 79.80 81.30
Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Annual
Precipitation ------.... .... .. 7.22 6.67 4.37 2.23 2.83 53.27
Temperature _.... ......... 81.40 79.50 73.30 65.10 60.20 71.00
4. Her soils are generally heavy enough to produce a good
carrying capacity of grass per acre when put in improved pas-
5. Feeds or grazing crops can be produced cheaply in
6. Improved beef type cattle, grades and pure breds, have
done well under good management.
7. Lands can be obtained at cheap prices and in large acre-
ages, making for cheap fencing per acre unit.
8. Florida producers have sold calves not only to the forty
livestock markets in the states of Alabama, Georgia and Florida,
but have sold thousands of calves on the Jersey City and Balti-
more markets at satisfactory prices. Feeder and stocker steers
have been shipped to Kentucky and Ohio, North Carolina, Vir-
ginia, Indiana, Illinois, etc.
9. Many producers in Florida are finishing steers in their
own feed lots; some of the best cattle feeders have made these
cattle into quality grades of medium, good, choice, and a few

Native cows vary in color, showing evidence of such breeds
as the Jersey, Ayrshire and Devon. Cows averaging about 700
pounds are obtainable. In many respects the native Florida
cows are the most desirable for establishing a herd. By proper
selection of cows from these survivalss of the fittest" and the
mating of them to suitable bulls, beef cattle improvement should
be rapid. Most herds in this State now are showing improve-
ment by such breeds as Hereford, Angus, Shorthorn, Brahma,
Devon, etc.
Florida dollars spent in Florida help to build her cattle indus-
try, and it is expected that the beef cattle industry will, before
many years, grow to such size that every local demand for beef
may be supplied by good Florida cattle.


Breeds of Beef Cattle

The principal breeds of beef cattle in the United States are
Shorthorn (both Horned and Polled), Hereford (both Horned
and Polled), Aberdeen-Angus, Galloway, Devon, Red Polled,
and Brahman (Zebu). These breeds (excepting the Brahman)
have been carefully bred for many generations in the United
States; all of these breeds except Brahman having been orig-
inally developed in England; the Brahman were bred and de-
veloped in India. The dairy breeds do not yield the largest
quantity or the best quality of beef, therefore the beef breeds
are supreme for beef production.

A good beef animal is one which gives dominatingly high
priced cuts; it is quick maturing; it furnishes the kind of meat
the market wants; it gives quality of maximum nourishment
and with minimum waste. It should be healthy, vigorous, hardy,
rustler, early maturing, adaptable to conditions, prepotent,
fecund; it should fatten quickly and economically.

There is no best breed of beef cattle, as various breeds for
the production of desirable beef are practically on a parity,
although breeding characteristics may be different. One should
select the breed that one prefers, taking into account its peculiar
adaptation to one's condition. It would be well for each stock
breeder to visit well bred herds of other breeds and make a
thorough study and become conversant with the different breeds,
thus have reasons for selecting a breed rather than promiscuous
buying. This is particularly true of purebreds. The person
engaged in commercial herds should select, generally, bulls
similar in type and conformation, even though he may use several
breeds. He should know what he wants and buy only what he
does want. The following pictures illustrate some of the more
nearly ideal types of cattle, namely, Angus, Brahman, Devon,
Hereford, Shorthorn, Red Polled.
Beef breeds of cattle normally are divided into major and
minor breeds, the majors being Angus, Hereford, Shorthorns.
The Galloways, while a major beef breed, have never taken a
major place in the Southeast. Brahmans in coast country have


taken a big place; therefore they will be discussed with the
major breeds. In this discussion the breeds will be classified as
major beef and dual purpose breeds for beef.

The first known importation of Aberdeen-Angus cattle was
made in 1873 by George Grant, of Victoria, Kansas. They are
black in color and have no horns. Aberdeen-Angus cattle are
good rustlers, and are valuable for grading up native cattle.
The cattle give more milk than the Hereford, but not so much
as the Shorthorn.
Cattle of this breed mature very early and have a tendency
to fatten well at any age. The body is more cylindrical, smoother
throughout, and smaller than either Shorthorn or Hereford.
Their readiness to fatten, early maturity, exceptional vigor,
high quality, general smoothness, uniformity, and the high per-
centage of valuable meat produced have made them popular
among cattle feeders. They usually dress out a higher percent-
age of marketable meat than any other breed except Brahman.

Courtesy American Aberdeen-Angus Breeders' Assn.


The head of the Angus shows a sharp, tapered poll, great
breadth between the eyes, prominent forehead and eyes, nose
of medium length, large mouth and muzzle, and large nostrils.
The neck is short and full. The bull has a well-developed crest,
but the neck does not always blend smoothly with the shoulders,
which are sometimes prominent. The chest shows great depth,
width and length. The body is compact, the ribs are curved,
long and well sprung. The deep covering of flesh, the smallness
of bone, and the deep rounding, bulging hind quarters give a
maximum quantity of meat.
Good Angus cattle are blocky, low set, compact, small boned,
and thick fleshed. They have high dressing percentage, have a
high percent of weight and a low percent of waste. They have
small heads, fine bones, which is conducive to high yields. Their
polled characteristic is an economic asset as there is no loss or
set back from dehorning. less danger from screw worm infec-
tion, minimum loss from injury in the feeding lot and transit.
This breed has been hornless for about two hundred years. They
are early maturing and are excellent in transmitting color, horn-
lessness, conformation and fleshing qualities to the offspring.

Courtesy American Aberdeen-Angus Breeders' Assn.


Courtesy Brahman Breeders' Assn.

Fig. o---tUL.KAl KA K MAN CUW
Courtesy Brahman Breeders' Assn.


The term Brahman has been designated by the United States
Department of Agriculture as the name for all breeds of ''India
cattle" in the United States. These India cattle are commonly
known as "Brahmas'' or as "Zebus." In India these cattle are
used primarily for milk and work, and are not killed for meat.
Certain animals have been called the "sacred cattle" of India.
There are many breeds of Indian cattle in India, with the
Nellore or Ongole, Guzerat, Gir, and Krishna Valley being the
principal breeds represented in the United States.
All the India cattle breeds belong to the species "Bos indi-
cus" and are characterized by the prominent hump above the
shoulders, abundance of loose, pendulous skin under the throat,
on the dewlap, navel, and sheath. Good specimens have great
depth of body, showing considerable depth of muscling in the
loins and hind quarters. The rump is drooping, although in
the best individuals it is rather full and rounding. The ears of
the best breeds are usually long and drooping, and the voice is
more of a grunt than a low.
Brahman cattle have a very beneficial characteristic in that
they sweat; this enables them to stand intense heat, although
they likewise can adapt themselves to cold. The Guzerat is the
best beef breed of Brahmas for Florida conditions.
The Nellore breed is one of the largest in size and varies in
color from steel gray to almost pure white, has a moderately
long face, fine muzzle, and broad forehead. The horns are in-
clined outward and slightly backward; the small ears pointed
and drooping. The hump is well developed in both sexes. The
body is of moderate length and the legs fine, with an abundance
of clean bone.
The Guzerat is somewhat larger than the Nellore. The head,
neck and shoulders are usually darker than other portions of
the body; the head is long and slightly bulged above the eyes;
the ears are longer and more pendulous; the horns rise verti-
cally; the neck blends smoothly into the shoulder. The body is
deep and wide, with a less drooping rump. These cattle are
white to black, preferred colors being white to steel gray; the
hair is short and fine, and the skin is generally pigmented.
The Gir breed is of medium size and the color is often a
combination of a medium shade of brown with a dull red.
Speckled color is the one most found. The neck, ears and legs
are frequently darker than other portions; the forehead is
prominent; the horns are usually thick at the base, curve back-
ward and outward abruptly, and then upward. The ears are


long and pendulous, often extending below the nose in calves.
A nick near the point of the ear on the inside is characteristic
of the breed. The body is fairly broad, the rump drooping and
the dewlap is large and pendulous. These cattle are round
bodied and generally shorter legged as well as shorter bodied
than the Guzerat and Nellore breeds.
The Krishna Valley breed is similar to the Nellore. The head
is wide and massive. The horns are short, thick at the base,
slightly flattened, and extend outward horizontally. The body
is wide and deep, and possesses straighter top and bottom lines
than are found in most of the other breeds. The legs are straight,
well fleshed, with large flat bones.
Brahman calves at birth are small as compared with calves
of some breeds, but they take on weight rapidly. They will
weigh from 10 percent to 20 percent more at ages from 3 to 5
months, and at the time they are weaned they generally weigh
from 25 to 40 pounds more than calves of the same age of most
other breeds.
The India cattle were introduced into the United States
about 1850. The Brahman or India bulls are valuable in the
Gulf Coast region in crossing with the native southern cattle
and the domestic beef breeds. The India cattle transmit hardi-
ness, grazing ability, and prolificacy to their offspring. The
crossbred calves develop very rapidly. Breeders who use Brah-
man bulls have had more success in selling the crossbred off-
spring as calves or yearlings off of grass than as older cattle
except for breeding purposes. Cattle possessing Brahman blood
usually show a high dressing percentage.

In the Coast country, and Florida has considerable lands
of such a nature, that Brahman blood has wide adaptability.
1. Brahman cattle are quick growing.
2. They suffer less from heat and can travel great distances.
3. The cows are good mothers and produce rich milk to pro-
duce a sleek, fat calf.
4. They have a high dressing percentage.
5. They seldom ever have pink eye, or cancerous eye.
6. They are very prepotent, having unusual ability to trans-
mit their characteristics to any breed of cattle.
7. They are very hardy cattle with strong rustling ability.
8. They make an excellent first cross on the native cow in
flat woods or Coast counties, and cross well on grade cattle of
either beef breeds.


9. They were bred in India under extremely parasitic and
diseased conditions.
The following are some of the disadvantages of Brahman
1. They are highly nervous and must be handled very care-
2. These cattle are generally leggy. They invariably have
drooping rumps and quite frequently slightly swayed backs.
3. If confined to small pastures in the general farm area
they are more difficult to fence against than British breeds.
4. While the calves are readily sold as veal, Brahman steers
are generally discriminated against by leading packer markets.
The Hereford is very popular and ranks equally to Short-
horn in this country. They were imported by Henry Clay and
Lewis Sanders in 1817.
These cattle, because of their "rustling ability" have found
favor on scant pastures, and on the range where water holes
are far apart they have shown merit. Not only do they thrive
under adverse conditions, but they also respond readily to a
favorable environment. The bulls are active, vigorous, pre-
potent, and very sure breeders; they mature early, and fatten
readily in the feed lot.


Courtesy American Hereford Breeders' Assn.


The Hereford color may be described as a medium to deep
rich red, with white head, breast, belly, crest, switch, and legs
below the knee and hock. The hair is usually medium or long,
soft and silky, with a curly tendency. The neck is short, thick,
and blends well with the shoulders. Great width, depth, length
of chest, and a fullness of the crops account for their constitu-
tion and endurance. The loin is broad and deep. The rump,
long and level, and hind quarters well developed, deep in the
round and full in the twist. The horns of the bull are somewhat
coarser, straighter, and heavier.
Hereford breed is as popular as any breed; they possess
constitutional vigor and have demonstrated their adaptability
to the semi-arid section of the West where they are the most
popular breed; they, therefore, are adaptable to adverse weather
and hardships. They have natural grazing instincts and no
breed is any more popular in the feed lot, as the number of
Herefords found in same demonstrates. They are prolific and
prepotent; fairly early maturing, and, based on the number
found in the United States, they must be profitable.
The Polled Hereford is a new breed, now about 40 years old,
developed in America by mating Hereford cattle that are nat-
urally polled, and are similar to the horned Hereford, except
they are polled.


Courtesy American Hereford Breeders' Assn.






Courtesy American Shorthorn Breeders' Assn.


Courtesy American Shorthorn Breeders' Assn.


Shorthorn beef cattle are very extensively raised. They were
brought to the United States in 1783 by Miller and Gough, of
Virginia and Maryland, respectively, from the Tees River Val-
ley, in Northeastern England, where they were known as York-
shire, Holderness, Teeswater, or Durham cattle. Col. Lewis
Sanders, of Kentucky; Samuel Thorne, of New York; Abram
Renick and R. A. Alexander, of Kentucky, may be considered
founders of the Shorthorn breed in America.
The Shorthorn attains the largest size of any of the beef
breeds, and have great adaptability. They may vary in color
from red to white or any combination of red and white, or a
blending of red and white called "roan."
This is probably the oldest recognized purebred breed of
cattle, and since its inception as a breed its influence has
been felt in every continent of the world. The breed has been
used extensively in cross-breeding programs since early days
when ranchers mated this breed with cattle of Spanish "long-
horned" origin. This breed is very satisfactory in putting on
great weight in short periods of time. Some major characteris-
tics of Shorthorns are-greater weight for age, extra milk pro-
duction, and easy feeding disposition. These characteristics
have given them an unrivalled range of adaptability that have


Courtesy Shorthorn Breeders' Assn.


enabled them to give outstanding performance under a wide
variety of environmental factors. It is a common saying "that
no steer can walk out of a feedlot after a given length of time
carrying more weight than a Shorthorn." Shorthorns have
great adaptability to convert common farm grown roughage into
meat and milk.
The Shorthorn breeds well with native and grade cows.
The bulls are very prepotent and are used to grade up scrub
The Shorthorn cow excels other beef breeds in milk pro-
duction and is preferred on small farms to supply milk and
butter for the family, in addition to raising a calf for beef. The
steers produce very high class beef.
This breed is a good beef type, being wide, deep, and thickly
fleshed. The horns of the cow are small and curve forward, and
should be of a waxy, yellowish color. The head should have
great width between the eyes, short from the eyes to the large
and flesh-colored muzzle, having large, open nostrils. The neck
should be short and full, smooth and well covered with flesh;
the crops full, the heart girth large, and foreflank low; the
chest wide and deep, with the brisket thick and well to the front;
the ribs well sprung and the barrel well developed. In good
individuals, the back is broad and the loin is wide, deep, and
thickly fleshed; the hips are wide and well covered with flesh;
the rump is long, wide, and level, carrying an abundance of
flesh. The hind quarter is almost straight from the root of the
tail to the hocks; it is wide and thick, carrying the flesh well
down. The flank is low; the udder, having teats of medium size,
is usually well developed, extending well forward, with promi-
nent milk veins.
The bull should possess the same desirable features as the
female, but show masculinity, a larger and thicker neck, heavier
bone throughout, greater depth, thickness, and scale; his horns
are heavier and less curved than the cow's.
Polled Shorthorn, formerly known as Polled Durham, is
similar to the Shorthorn in every way except it is hornless.
They have the following advantages:
1. Natural hornlessness.
2. Unexcelled mothers.
3. Adaptability (small or big farm).
4. Thrift, weight for age.
5. Roughage utilization.


It is not known when Galloway cattle first made their ap-
pearance in the United States. They do not respond so rapidly
to careful feeding and management as the other breeds, being
slow in maturing and are smaller than any of the other beef
breeds. The Galloway is low-set and deep, the head being covered
with long, wavy black hair, and the ears are set far back from the


forehead. The body is long and of medium depth; the rump
long and well filled, although the tail head is usually set rather
high. The bone is fine, the skin mellow, the hair soft and silky,
and the meat fine and of high quality. The Galloways have
commanded attention because of their prepotency, as shown
by the uniformity of the offspring when the bulls are used for
grading up or for crossing.



The principal dual-purpose breeds of beef cattle in the
United States adapted to Florida are milking Shorthorn, Red
Polled, and Devon.
The type of animal necessary for the production of large
yields of milk is entirely different from that of beef animals,
and it has been impossible to produce breeds of superior merit
for both purposes. The dual-purpose animal, however, may be
a desirable milker and also produce calves which develop into
good beef animals.

Devon cows are good milkers and the steers are used as work
oxen or for beef. Endurance, intelligence, and gameness have
made them unexcelled as work oxen. They are solid red in
color, white being permitted on the udder, or near the scrotum,
and on the switch. The shade of red varies. The Devons incline
more to the beef than to the dual-purpose type. They are fairly
close coupled, compact, smooth, and rank high in quality.
Although the Devon makes, generally, a somewhat slower
growth and fattens less rapidly than the beef breeds, they pro-
duce meat fine in texture and of good quality.
Devon bulls are very prepotent and have been used very
satisfactorily in grading up the native range cattle in sections
of Florida.

Red Polled cattle is a good grazer and has long been noted
for early maturity, easy fleshing qualities and fairly good milk
flow, but most beef producers prefer either Shorthorn, Hereford
or Aberdeen-Angus cattle. The bulls are very prepotent and
give uniformity in offspring when bred to native cows. The
color ranges from light to dark red; the head is lean, medium
in length, with well-defined poll covered with a tuft of hair of
medium length; the neck is longer and thinner than in the
beef breeds; the chest is usually well developed and the ribs
well sprung, but lack thick covering of flesh. The barrel is
developed to a greater extent than with the major beef breeds,
and the loin and hind quarters are more lightly fleshed; the
bone is of medium size, the skin is thin, soft and pliable and
the hair short and fine; the udder is well developed and the
teats large.


Courtesy American Devon Cattle Club


fig. 14--U1jYUIN ;UW
Courtesy American Devon Cattle Club


Courtesy of Red Polled Cattle Club of America

Courtesy of Red Polled Cattle Club of America


British blood is indispensable for best market outlets. When
British blood is combined with Brahman blood, so as to overcome
the handicaps and yet retain the hardiness of Brahman cattle,
much good will be accomplished by such crosses, both to the
advantage of the producer and probably to Florida's cattle in-
dustry as a whole. Where winter feeds are produced, it would
be probably best to stick to British blood cattle.
Brahman blood may be placed on the native cow for the first
cross calf. No doubt the second and third crosses should come
from British blood, either from Hereford, Shorthorn or Angus.

Courtesy Florida Agricultural Extension Service

The following has been suggested as the probable solution of this
breeding up business, especially in marshy or prairie lands of
the State: For the first cross, use Brahman blood. Second, use
Shorthorn blood. Third, use Hereford or Angus blood; and
repeat. Others suggest the use of Brahman blood for first cross,
Hereford blood for second cross, and then repeat. No doubt a
combination of Shorthorn and Hereford and Angus blood with
Brahman blood should give good results in the production of
calves or veal. Where feeder and stocker steers are produced,
Brahman blood might be diminished and British blood in-
creased. Other producers prefer to use nothing but British blood,





Courtesy Florida Agricultural Extension Service


while others prefer to use nothing but Brahman blood. It will
be interesting to note the improvement which will take place
during the next few years.

The value of an animal as a purebred over the market value
of the same animal is determined by one thing. The purebred
has come down thru many generations bred by conscientious men
for a purpose, and the greater the evidence that this purpose
has been met in each generation, the greater the assurance the
purchaser has that his animal will be able to pass on to the herd
the characteristics or purposes for which he and his ancestors
were bred.


1. Do you put due emphasis on the desired type of the 1944
or the latest, most desirable and acceptable models ?
2. Do you watch the blood lines in your herd-to strengthen
your herd and intensify your preferred blood lines?
3. Are you sure you know what quality is and how to get it?
And do you encourage other purebred breeders to know
quality ?
4. Do you strive to keep the milking qualities of your herd on
a basis that will tend to make your cattle more salable and
better mothers to their calves?
5. Do you constantly cull your herd and market the undesir-
ables via the packer route?
6. Do you give your young cattle additional care?
7. Do you keep your herd bull in condition to present to the
public, and in presenting him not have to apologize too
much for him?
8. Are you a promoter of the breed, and do you cooperate with
good similar breeders as yourself of the breed?
9. Are you a good salesman?
10. Will you stand back of the sales you make?
11. Do you take and advertise in your breeder journal mag-
azine ?
12. Are you constantly on the alert about the health of your
animals so they can be shipped anywhere any time, etc.?
A disease-free herd is an important part of an improved
cattle industry.


When one uses Brahman as first cross on native cows and
uses good Shorthorn bulls on Brahman x native cross, one will
find the following advantages of Shorthorn bulls: (1) The
Shorthorn is the most docile of all breeds of cattle. (2) They
give more milk as a breed than other beef breeds. (3) The
calves from Shorthorn are generally larger at given ages than
other beef breeds, and since Brahmans are fast growing, the
placing of Shorthorn bulls on native Brahman cross should
prove out very beneficial to gentle the cattle, for milk, and
for fast outgrowing cattle that might be sold as calves, stocker
or feeder cattle, and such cattle should prove acceptable on
the range.


Producers of beef cattle may be classified as follows:
1. Outstanding breeders of registered cattle whose cattle are
sold to other registered cattle breeders.
2. Breeders of registered cattle whose output is used by the
best commercial cattle producers.
3. Commercial producers of high grade cattle which find their
way into feed lots.
4. Commercial producers of cows from which calves are mar-
5. Producers with no definite plan-cattle not fenced, using
scrub blood, raising or providing no winter feed, etc.


The Breeding Herd

There are a number of important factors in breeding up
a herd.
1st. Cull the cow herd by eliminating the poorer quality
2nd. By using purebred bulls.
3rd. By segregation of the breeding herd from other classes.
4th. Protecting heifers until 18 months or older before allow-
ing them to breed.
5th. Provide separate pastures for steers and all classes of
6th. The wise use of minerals.
7th. Ample water.
8th. Ample shades on some ranges where shade is not suffi-
9th. Improved pastures. Improved pastures will give from
3 to 20 times as much grazing as wire grass pastures or non-
improved pastures.
10th. If one is unable to purchase sufficient purebred bulls
for his cow herd, he should use some of the best half-breed or
three-quarter bred or seven-eighths bred grade bulls. The use
of good grade bulls would materially improve cattle as com-
pared with scrub bulls. The bulls should always be better than
even the best cows in the cow herd. If the bull is no better than
the cow herd, no improvement can be made.
11th. The wise use of providing winter feeds, including
pastures for the breeding herd.
12th. Timely breeding to fit timely markets will allow the
cow herd a rest period which will materially improve her con-
dition and ultimately improve the cow herd, etc.


Beef cattle, when correct in form and fatness, presents a
massy, blocky appearance from every angle of view. Two di-
mensions of the beef bull should be, great width and depth;
the third dimension, length, should not be extensive. As viewed
from the side, the body is rectangular, very deep and short
from shoulder to hip; the body is very wide, the legs are short and
placed squarely under the body. The back is uniformly broad,
the more width the better. Viewed from the side, the top line
and underline are straight and parallel. An animal showing
too much length of middle and too much leg is referred to as being
"rangy," while an animal standing high off the ground is usually
termed "leggy."
The head should be of medium size, short and broad, with a
broad muzzle indicating capacity for grazing and feeding. The
head below the eye is short; the eyes being wide apart, large,
prominent, bright, clear and placid, indicative of a quiet dis-
position; the forehead is very wide, the jaws broad and well
muscled; the ears of medium size, of fine texture and neatly
attached to the head. The entire head should be clean cut,
giving a well bred appearance, sometimes referred to as charac-
ter. The nostrils large, indicating capacity for breathing and
hence a good constitution. The throat should be neat and trim
without showing coarseness.
The neck should be short, thick and muscular. A long neck
is indicative of poor quality and is usually associated with a
rangy type of body. The neck should show plenty of depth and
fullness at the shoulder, blending smoothly into the shoulder
or disappearing into the shoulder unnoticed.
The shoulders should be very smooth, blending perfectly
with the rest of the body; the shoulder blades should lie snugly
against the ribs beneath and be covered over with a uniformly
thick layer of flesh; the top of the shoulders wide and nicely
rounded over with flesh, not rough or angular or unevenly
covered. Prominent shoulders cause the development behind
them to appear insufficient.
The brisket and chest are highly important. The brisket
should carry forward prominently and wide, be well fleshed,
neat, presenting a full, well developed and trim appearance.
A deep, full chest with a large heart-girth indicates a rugged
sort of animal possessed of much constitutional vigor; the floor
of the chest should be wide as indicated by the distance between
the two fore legs; with the fore ribs lying just behind the


shoulder, arching boldly so that no flatness or depression exists
behind the shoulder. The flesh should carry down deep and
full at the front flanks just behind the elbows. Every intelligent
feeder places emphasis on the depth and width of the chest.
The fore quarters must, therefore, be smoothly laid, and thickly
fleshed, very wide and deep, but showing no lack of constitution
anywhere, not rough or too prominent.
The front legs should be short and placed squarely under
the animal; come straight down, and the toes point straight
ahead. The arms should be wide and muscular at its attach-
ment to the shoulder. "Fineness of bone and smoothness of
joints are evidences of quality; whereas rough, coarse animals
have heavy joints and a big shank bone."
The back should carry great width, be straight, strong, as it
furnishes one of the high priced cuts of beef and always receives
critical attention in judging. Width of back is secured when
the ribs are arched boldly from the spinal column; if the ribs
are not arched the back must necessarily be narrow. When
touched with the fingers, great depth and mellowness should
be found.
The ribs should be well sprung and carry down with much
depth to help make a roomy or capacious body. Cattle have 13
pairs of ribs, the last pair should come close to the hips, but
they should be fairly close together. A wide, deep middle is
essential to digestive capacity.
At all points the animal should fill out "plump" and smooth,
to form a straight line from front to rear; with the fleshing
over the ribs thick, smooth and even; the hind flank well filled
with flesh; the front and hind flanks carrying down properly;
the underline straight.
The loin is that portion of the back lying between the rear
ribs and the hips. It has no ribs below it but consists of large
muscles affording the very choicest cuts of the entire beef car-
cass-the porterhouse and sirloin; the loin should be very wide
and thick and thickly covered with flesh that is smooth and
firm, padded and plumped with muscles having the proper
degree of fatness, or finish.
The hips should be laid in snugly. While it is generally
said that animals should have wide hips, the width should not
be beyond what can be covered over with flesh.
The rump is that portion between the hips and the tailhead.
It should be level and carry out the top straight line and square
up the end of the body. The tailhead should be on a level with
the back, otherwise it presents the appearance of being rounded
off. The rump should be smooth and evenly coated with flesh.
.- _


The thigh is that portion of the body between the rump and
the hock. It should be wide and plump, bulging practically to
the hock. "Plumpness and thickness to the hock" is a common
saying among judges. Viewed from the side or from the rear,
the thigh should be wide, and near the thickness of the body,
to give the animal a uniform appearance.
The hock and hind legs of a beef animal are very important.
They should be straight and properly placed and set squarely
under the animal. The arm or leg below the hock carries straight
down. The bone or joints clean cut and show refinement.
The twist is that portion between the hind legs. It should be
very deep and full and carry well down.
The proportion of muscle in an animal is evident at its birth.
If an animal is not born with the kind of frame work it should
have, it is not likely that it will ever have it. Quality is shown
by the head, the hair, the skin, and bone.
A good animal should be short, thick and deep, not "rangy."
The demand is for animals which will finish at most any age,
particularly for "baby beef." The compact, typical animal or
the heavy bodied compact animal is of the type for which feed-
ers seek, and the type which breeders most need.

Bulls should be of the acceptable beef type: a short, com-
pact, deep body; wide, strong back and loins; deep, well de-
veloped rear quarters; short, straight and stout legs; a short,
wide head with a wide muzzle. Prominent, placid eyes set in
a broad, short face are important characteristics. The narrow,
long, shallow bodied, long legged, thin ewe necked, long headed
bulls should be steered or slaughtered.
Bulls should be fecund or fruitful, prolific, fertile. His
ability to produce regularly over a long period of years is in-
fluenced by individuality, inheritance, environment and disease.
It is, therefore, important that he be prolific or fruitful.
Bulls should be prepotent, that is possess the ability to trans-
mit to his own offspring his desirable characteristics; they should
also possess the ability to lay on flesh rapidly when given plenty
to eat, from 3 to 5 pounds per day or more when on full feed.
A bull which will transmit to his progeny feeding qualities with
the correct beef type, demand that he be clean cut yet rugged
about the head.
Durability is also an important factor. A short, wide head;
a large muzzle; a deep, full chest; strong top line; and a deep
middle, and straight, short, strong legs are indications of dur-


ability which help to stand adverse conditions and insure pro-
ductivity for several years.
Since it is from the hindquarters of the carcass that the
highest price cuts come, it is essential that bulls used as herd sires
be deep, wide and thick in the rear quarters; the loins should
be wide and thickly fleshed; the rump long and level, however
one cannot overlook the fore quarters. While extremely wide,
thick and rough shoulders are undesirable, it is important that
bulls have good chest development, be wide between the front
legs, well filled in the heart girth, which is essential for trans-
mitting type, durability and prolificacy as well.
A good breeding bull has the ability to transmit his desirable
characteristics to his offspring, therefore his offspring should be
outgrowing, thrifty, desirable in type, put on flesh rapidly and
economically, and be predominant in high price cuts. A good
bull is half the herd, a scrub bull is many times all of the herd.
The bull should be better than the best cow in the herd to con-
tinue to make progress.

Bulls to improve range cattle should (1) Be out of a cow
that is a regular breeder and a good milker. (2) Be growth
and thrifty; producers want pounds and not coarseness. (3) Be
well marked, typical of the breed he represents, and if a Here-
ford not a line back, not a red neck. (4) Have every evidence
of beef type; deep, wide, thick, due to natural muscling rather
than fat; heavy boned, moderately low set; reasonably close
coupled; much development in the high price cuts. (5) His
breeding to be from blood lines that are of proven merit and
from a herd that is uniformly good. A poor quality bull is ex-
pensive even if he is a gift. A good breeding bull of real quality
might be a "give-way" at a high price.

Outstanding blood with a highly desirable background for
improvement for many generations as exists in good purebreds
is important. Purebreds excel in (1) the better conformation
and quality, (2) more of a better product for less feed, (3)
greater uniformity to their offspring, (4) earlier maturity, (5)
their offspring is more salable, (6) their offspring is more
valuable. In selecting a sire avoid extremes in type. Generally
the medium type, thick muscled, compact, out-growing kinds
of high quality give greater production per breeding unit at
least cost.


(U. S. D. A.)*


1. Weight and size, according
to age ..................
2. Form, deep, broad through-
out, low-set; straight top
and underline type.......
8. Constitution, good depth
and width of chest........
4. Quality, smooth through-
out; good handler as indi-
cated by soft, loose, pliable
skin covered with fine mossy
hair; bone fine, yet of
sufficient substance and
strength to carry body....
5. Condition, carrying enough
natural flesh to indicate

vigor, free from patchiness 10
6. Breed, type and color, clean
cut head and neck with good
form; color markings typi-
cal for breed-breed char-
acter .................... 10
7. Sex character, strong mas-
culine head and neck in bull
more refinement through-
out in cow than in bull... 10
8. Disposition, docile with
quiet temperament ....... 5

Fig. 19
Disqualifications automatically eliminate the animal from competition in
the class.
*(Taken from U. S. Dept. of Agri., Bureau of Animal Industry.)



The following are some additional reasons for using pure
bred bulls:
1. A purebred bull will generally pay for himself with his
first crop of calves.
2. His keep may be slightly more than that of a scrub, but
one does not have to apologize for his offspring. Generally
speaking, his feed is no greater than that of the scrub. The
profit from him is from 25% to 75% greater. IIe may be fed
during the winter months and should be, for the reason he is
valuable in that his get is valuable.
3. The offspring from a purebred bull gives a greater per
cent of high priced cuts than from a scrub.
4. A greater price is received per pound for the better grades
of cattle.
5. Generally, there is no greater cost per calf, therefore less
cost per pound, as better bred calves are larger at birth and
grow faster after birth.
6. The offspring from a purebred bull will conform to good
feed lot practices as related to feeder cattle type.
7. It is easier to sell the better grades of cattle in that they
argue for themselves, and the outlet buyer demand is greater.
8. Purebred bulls give greater uniformity of conformation
and type, and ultimately more quality and better color of calves,
than those from scrub bulls.
9. A half-breed beef type heifer when bred to purebred
bulls will average 50% better in price than scrub cows to scrub
bulls, therefore one simplifies his marketing problem by im-
proving the beef type blood in one's herd.
10. It is easier to sell quality animals than those of inferior
11. Coupled with purebred bulls, breeders should cull out
the cows which are poor in type, shy in breeding, cows which
"go on to the lift" in the winter, and old cows which fail to
breed regularly or fail to give good calves. Culling should be
done from two angles: (a) "Cut out" scrub bulls and substi-
tute high grade and purebreds. (b) "Cut out" inferior breed-
ing stock within the cow herd.
12. Use pure bred bulls for the general improvement of the
existing herd.
13. To give earlier finishing and greater weight to their
14. For more economical gains, more product for the feed
15. To give superior cuts of meat over that given by the
existing herd.


16. For greater uniformity in the herd as to size, quality,
production, color, etc.
17. To give a more marketable product, the kind sought for
by the stocker, feeder and slaughter trade.
There is no substitute for good, purebred bulls.

(U. S. D. A.)
See How Rapidly the Proportion of Native Blood (Black Por-
tion) Diminishes When a Purebred Sire is Used

Progress in Five Generations Using Progress in Five Generations Using
Purebred Bulls and Native Cows Grade Bulls and Native Cows
Replace Scrub and Grade Sires With Good Purebreds
Join the "Better Sires-Better Stock" Campaign
For full information
Consult your County Agent, your Agricultural College or
the United States Department of Agriculture


In order that a bull may most ably render service, he should
be in good flesh, therefore winter feeding and special attention
during the breeding season is important.
He should not be over-bred or bred too often. Bulls from
12 to 18 months of age may have light service; the number of
cows should be limited to 15 for one season. The 2-year-old
bull hand-mated may give service to 25 to 35 cows; in pastures
20 to 25. The 3-year-old bull may serve from 30 to 50 cows per
season, while with the insemination method 100 to 150 per
year. but when run with cattle on small pastures from 25 to 35,
and in large pastures 20 to 30. When used on purebred cows
and hand bred or lot bred, a mature bull will be able to take
care of 50 to 60 cows per season.
His rations are similar to those for the heifer or cow but in
sufficient quantities to promote strength and vigor.
Under farm conditions, the bull calf should be taught to
lead and stand tied. Impress upon him the fact that you are
his master, and he will learn to depend upon you for proper
Do not leave the bull with the cows the entire year. Provide
separate pasture for him or turn him with the steers after the
breeding season is over. They will keep him company and make
him more contented. During the breeding season and if his
service is heavy, he will probably need a little extra feed. When
feed is required and/or during the winter season, feed grain
with a little protein supplement. Bulls may be fed on the same
feed as purebred cows but will generally need more feed be-
cause of additional weight. They should generally be kept in
as good or better condition than the cows. During the heavy
breeding season if extra feed is required, feed about two parts
of corn and one part of bran or oats. It generally requires
1/ pound to 1 pound of grain to each 100 pounds live weight, to
keep the bull in good breeding condition. During the winter
he may be given 30 pounds of silage, 10 pounds of cowpea hay,
6 to 10 pounds of grain (corn or oats), and about 11/2 to 2
pounds of cottonseed meal per day. Good legume hay may be
substituted for silage, feeding about all he will consume, and
1 pound to 11/2 pounds of cottonseed meal. This is about all
that would be fed ordinarily in dry lot with no pasture. With
pasture available, feed only enough to keep the bull in good
thrifty condition. Ordinarily, good pasture will meet the re-
quirements of the summer. When feeding, remember the gentler
the bull the closer he should be watched-you can never trust
a bull, therefore keep your eye on the bull.


It may be necessary to change bulls at least every two years
if his offspring runs with the breeding cows in the pasture with
the bull. The best thing to do is to select a given number of
cows and place them with a given number of bulls in the same
pasture and wear out the cows and the bulls together. Put the
heifers from these bulls into pastures of other bulls which are
not too closely related; it is not advisable to breed a bull to his
own offspring. Select heifers should go with new or select bulls
in another pasture. By practicing these methods it is possible
to get many years of service out of bulls and cows together,
and save quite a bit of money in buying new bulls.

1. Some cattlemen do not purchase purebred bulls for fear
they will breed up the herd too fast. It is impossible to eliminate
all of the scrub cattle by the breeding-up process.
2. Other cattlemen do not use purebred bulls because their
neighbors will not purchase them, and they claim they are
unable to furnish bulls for the entire community. In such
instances the owner might fence his cow herd and get the full
benefit of the purebred bulls bought, or he might segregate
a portion of his best cows in pastures and use good purebred
bulls, thereby obtaining ultimately good half-breed bulls to go
on his range. Most states have made their most rapid progress
in improvement of cattle when such cattle are behind fences,
and can be bred in season for good management, under screw
worm conditions, etc.
3. Others fail to purchase purebred bulls for fear the pure-
bred bulls might die. Insurance is reasonably cheap on live-
stock; such bulls might be insured against accident or death,
therefore providing the purchaser with funds to replace such
4. Others fear to purchase these bulls because the older
scrub bulls in some instances whip the younger purebred bulls,
thereby rendering poor service from the purebreds. When any
purebred bulls are purchased of any breed, these purebreds
should be placed under fence with some of the best cows in the
cow herd, and separated from other bulls, so as to reap the
full benefit from the purchase.
5. Others fail to purchase purebred bulls for fear the non-
aggressive cattlemen might castrate such bulls. This is another


reason for placing improved cattle behind fences, where the
owner can give good care and management to his herd.
6. Others fail to purchase purebred bulls because they
have not been convinced of the importance of some feed and
care during the winter months. It is impossible to starve profits
into cattle. Bulls which have been well wintered usually get
more calves of a finer quality and more than pay for the feed
given them. These calves will generally be better in proportion
as the parents of such calves are fed during the winter months.


There are all kinds of bulls: (1) bulls not worth the money
paid for them. (2) bulls worth the money paid for them, (3)
bulls worth more money than was paid for them. What kind
have you bought ? A good or an excellent bull is heavy in bone
but possesses a fine quality bone; he is of good size for his age;
is deep bodied; has a level back with its width carried through-
out his body from front to rear; he has well-sprung ribs; a
good head, and is good to excellent in beef type.
Some general facts one should find out about a bull at the
time or before buying, are: (1) Is he desirable in conformation
and quality? (2) Does he possess a loose hide and have the
quality to put on flesh evenly? (3) Does he readily respond to
feed? Is he slow, medium or fast in making gains? Unless a
bull has the ability to put on 2-3 pounds of gain per day on
full feed in a feed lot, he should not be used as a bull. A mature
bull should readily put on 2-31/2 pounds per day; better if he
puts on 3/2-4l/ pounds per day; and he will be a real bull if he
will put on 4-6 pounds or more per day for a period of 100-150
days; or a real bull responds readily to feed. (4) Does he con-
sistently get calves as good as he is or better, or do his calves
look more like the calf's mother? The calves of a desirable bull
should look like him, otherwise he may be a "breeding stick"
instead of a good "breeding bull." (5) Are his calves con-
sistently good, or are a majority of his calves of lower quality
and more undesirable than he, or are his calves one-half good
and one-half of the less desirable, or what? A good bull con-
sistently gets good calves no matter to what bred. (6) Is he a
sure breeder?
Many producers ask the question: "What can I afford to
pay for a bull?" From the above statements one should be able
to judge at least some of the desirable characteristics to look
for in a bull. If a producer gets better than the average bull,
or one better than the best cow in his cow herd, he then may


pay up to 22%~-25 % of the value of the cows the bull will
serve. Assuming a bull under pasture conditions should serve
25 cows per season, the following table may serve as a guide to
what may be paid for a bull, provided the purchaser buys a
bull worth the money. If on the other hand a producer can
buy more bull for the money, such producer is that much better
off; but suppose he buys too little bull for his money, he then is


Average number Average value Total value of Top price can pay
cows served per head of cows served for a bull
cows served

25 $ 25.00 $ 625.00 $135.00-165.00
25 30.00 750.00 165.00-190.00
25 35.00 875.00 190.00-225.00
25 40.00 1000.00 240.00-285.00
25 45.00 1125.00 275.00-315.00
25 50.00 1250.00 295.00-350.00
25 60.00 1500.00 325.00-375.00
25 75.00 1875.00 375.00-450.00
25 100.00 2500.00 400.00-500.00

If cows are high in price, then bulls are generally high, and
the price of the offspring is high. The value of the cow herd
therefore has much to do with what one may pay for a bull.
Furthermore, the pastures available, the amount of feed on hand,
the labor situation, etc., will have its effect upon how much one
can pay for a bull. One should buy bulls that will correct the
defects in the cow herd.

Those desirable characteristics of the purebred bull should
likewise appear in a good purebred cow, except that the appear-
ance of the head and neck will display femininity. A good cow
likewise has a quiet temperament.
One should constantly select the best heifers in the herd as
replacements for undesirable cows in the herd, or one should
constantly be on the alert to improve one's existing herd in con-
formation and quality, selecting cows that are thick, low set,
broad and deep, with well-sprung ribs, and short, compact bodies,
One should use his own good judgment in buying bulls.


and to use or keep cows that are (1) consistent breeders; (2)
produce enough milk to rapidly grow a calf; (3) to stand the
range with minimum help; (4) that have good quality calves.
One should breed only good cows, but poor quality cows should
be culled from the herd and sold for beef.

The breeding characteristics of cows may vary with the indi-
vidual cow, the amount of feed given, or her general physical
condition, but as a general rule (1) the non-pregnant cow comes
in heat from every 18 to 21 days until she is settled. (2) This
heat period of cows in good flesh lasts normally from 12 to 24
hours. (3) The gestation period runs from 278 to 288 days-
the average being about 283 days, or about 9 months.

There are several methods of breeding practiced in different
sections of the State, depending upon whether strictly range or
whether in areas of grain and hay production. For range cattle,
they may be bred to calf from February 15 to July 1, therefore
the preferred breeding time in such practice is from May 15 to
September 15, so the calves will come in late February, March,
April and early May, but so that practically all calving will be
over on or before June 15.
In the feed producing area, where corn and hays are pro-
duced in abundance, and where some high grade and purebred
cattle are now being produced, a number of breeders are breed-
ing their cows so as to calve from December 1 to March 31.
The cows and calves are fed to give from fair to good wintering
and put on pasture as soon as grasses will support cow and calf.
Some breeders are creep-feeding their calves while on grass.
Many of these bull or steer calves go into feed lots when from 8
to 12 months of age, and are being put on the market when
from a year to 18 months old.
There are others who are practicing a modified form of these
two principles, that is, they are primarily raising their cattle on
the range and feeding some in the winter but in the main the
cows are bred to calve from February 15 to June 15.

Service on date given in first column should bring calf on date given in second column

Jan. Oct.

1 10
2 11
3 12
4 13
5 14
6 15
7 16
8 17
9 18
10 19
11 20
12 21
13 22
14 23
15 24
16 25
17 26
18 27
19 28
20 29
21 30
22 31


Feb. Nov.

1 10
2 11
3 12
4 13
5 14
6 15
7 16
8 17
9 18
10 19
11 20
12 21
13 22
14 23
15 24
16 25
17 26
18 27
19 28
20 29
21 30


22 1
23 2
24 3
25 4
26 5
27 6
28 7

Mar. Dec.

1 8
2 9
3 10
4 11
5 12
6 13
7 14
8 15
9 16
10 17
11 18
12 19
13 20
14 21
15 22
16 23
17 24
18 25
19 26
20 27
21 28
22 29
23 30
24 31


25 1
26 2
27 3
28 4
29 5
30 6
31 7





y Feb. Jun. Mar.

1 7 1 10
2 8 2 11
3 9 3 12
1 10 4 13
5 11 5 14
3 12 6 15
7 13 7 16
8 14 8 17
1 15 9 18
) 16 10 19
1 17 11 20
! 18 12 21
3 19 13 22
I 20 14 23
i 21 15 24
22 16 25
23 17 26
1 24 18 27
9 25 19 28
26 20 29
27 21 30
28 22 31

Mar. Apr.

1 23 1
2 24 2
3 25 3
4 26 4
5 27 5
6 28 6
7 29 7
8 30 8

July Apr.

1 9
2 10
3 11
4 12
5 13
6 14
7 15
8 16
9 17
10 18
11 19
12 20
13 21
14 22
15 23
16 24
17 25
18 26
19 27
20 28
21 29
22 30


23 1
24 2
25 3
26 4
27 5
28 6
29 7
30 8
31 9

g. May Sept. Jun.

10 1 10
11 2 11
12 3 12
13 4 13
14 5 14
15 6 15
16 7 16
17 8 17
18 9 18
19 10 19
20 11 20
21 12 21
22 13 22
23 14 23
24 15 24
25 16 25
26 17 26
27 18 27
28 19 28
29 20 29
380 21 30
22 1
1 23 2
2 24 3
3 25 4
4 26 5
5 27 6
6 28 7
7 29 8
8 30 9

Oct. July

1 10
2 11
3 12
4 13
5 14
6 15
7 16
8 17
9 18
10 19
11 20
12 21
13 22
14 23
15 24
16 25
17 26
18 27
19 28
20 29
21 30
22 31


23 1
24 2
25 3
26 4
27 5
28 6
29 7
30 8
31 9

Nov. Aug. Dec. Sept.

1 10 1 9
2 11 2 10
3 12 3 11
4 13 4 12
5 14 5 13
6 15 6 14
7 16 7 15
8 17 8 16
9 18 9 17
10 19 10 18
11 20 11 19
12 21 12 20
13 22 13 21
14 23 14 22
15 24 15 23
16 25 16 24
17 26 17 25
18 27 18 26
19 28 19 27
20 29 20 28
21 30 21 29
22 31 22 30

Sept. Oct.

23 1 23 1
24 2 24 2
25 3 25 3
26 4 26 4
27 5 27 5
28 6 28 6
29 7 29 7
30 8 30 8
31 9


The condition of the cow has much to do with the frequency
of calving, the quality of calf and the general productiveness
of the herd. Cows should be fecund and prepotent. Feed is an
indispensable part of obtaining a calf crop, therefore if cows
lose too much weight in the winter the owner will lose in per-
centage of calf crop. It is the opinion of animal husbandmen
generally that a cow should never lose over 10 to 12 per cent of
her maximum summer weight in the winter; it would be much
better if she did not lose over 8 to 10 per cent of her summer
weight, as her winter weight losses seriously affect the percentage
of calf crop. The following table may serve in a reasonable way
as a guide to maximum losses one may incur if cows are in good
flesh in the summer without seriously affecting the calf crop;
however, if cows are poor and stringy in the summer they should
not be permitted to lose any appreciable weight in the winter.

Winter Loss Versus Summer Weight in Good Flesh
Summer weight of cows Maximum loss of weight
in good flesh to lose in winter
600 lbs. 50-60 lbs.
700 55-70
800 65-80
900 70-85
1000 75-90
If cows lose too much flesh in the winter, it affects (1) the
calf crop; (2) the resistance of cow to parasites and diseases;
(3) it increases the costs from mineral deficiencies; (4) avoid-
ing winter weight loss saves feed; (5) and helps to eliminate
winter death losses, etc.

The cow is valuable because:
1. Heredity influence equal to the bull.
2. She is the soil in which seed is planted and if her condi-
tion is strong during gestation, the offspring will continue, in
the main, strong through life.
3. She furnishes the soil and one-half the seed for the calf
crop, therefore the necessity of keeping cows thrifty before calves
are born.


Improved beef type cattle, including grades and pure breds,
have demonstrated that they do well on Florida ranges. It is
known that native cow and Brahma grades have done well for
years. The better cattle generally require better ranges but
improved blood of the desirable type will stand the range if
managed properly. The broad backed, thick, deep, close coupled,
compact type of cattle should be kept for the following reasons
(whether of British or Brahman blood) :
1. These thicker type cattle as described above will winter
better than the lean, long, lanky, slab-sided or poor type of
2. The thicker kind is sought by buyers more than the
poorer quality kind. These cattle argue for themselves while
the poorer ones have to be argued for at selling time.
3. When put into feed lots these thicker kinds give an ac-
count of themselves through the economy of gains and increased
sales price.
4. These animals accomplish much in production and at
market time. The same grass makes a higher priced animal
at sales time.

To keep the number of cows in the breeding herd constant,
enough heifer calves (from 15-25 % of the heifer calf crop),
should be kept to replace some undesirable cows in the breeding
herd each year. This will allow a small percentage of the poorer
end of these best heifers to be culled before breeding or after
their first calf, if they do not show up as they should in the
herd; but only the best heifer calves should be retained.
If one desires to increase rapidly the size of the breeding
herd one may retain 50 % or more of the better heifer calves
as replacement; however, to improve the herd one should always
sell 25 % or more of the poorer quality heifer calves, as calves;
for the reason that generally 25 % of them are not good enough
to be put in the breeding herd.


The heifers naturally should be better than the cows which
they are replacing. They should, therefore, be (1) thrifty and
outgrowing and of the desired type sought for. (2) They should
be out of cows that are of good type, thick, and good milkers.


(3) These heifers should be of high quality, (4) and be sired
by the right type of bulls. They should possess every evidence
of having those desired characteristics most desired in the herd
and should be an improvement over the cows they replace in con-
formation, quality, adaptation, and utility. These heifers natu-
rally would be substituted for old cows, cows with bad udders,
non-breeders, or cows culled from the herd for other reasons.
They, therefore, should come out of cows possessing the desirable
characteristics sought for, so as to improve the herd. These
heifers, when of suitable age and proper development, should
be separated from their mothers, possibly in the late summer
or early fall, and wintered on good pastures and, if necessary.
fed while on pastures, and be fed when pastures are short.
Many heifers that are in good flesh and thrifty, frequently
come in heat the first time between the ages of 6 to 12 months,
hence it is highly important that heifers saved for replace-
ments be kept away from bulls as heifers bred too young never
reach maximum size, and do not make as good cows as other-
wise. Six month old heifers should be separated from the breed-
ing herd until they are about 2 years old; then they should be
put in separate pastures, from the older breeding herd, while
being bred, so as to permit much of the veterinary work which
comes from the first calving to be centralized in one pasture.
etc. Such management permits the heifer (1) to reach greater
size and development prior to calving, which is reflected in her
future calves; (2) to produce higher quality, thriftier and more
outgrowing calves throughout her life; (3) to produce calves of
quality and size that more nearly fills market demands, thereby
increasing the price of the calf at market time; (4) to store
sufficient minerals in her body to meet the demands of the
developing foetus in her own body, during pregnancy, without
sapping her system completely of its mineral supply.
During the development between the ages of 18 months and
4 years the heifer gets her permanent teeth. The heifer's first
calf should ordinarily be sold, as she may be handicapped on
the range by having a calf at her side, if not given every oppor-
tunity for maximum development. She is unable to graze nor-
mally for the reason that two of her primary front teeth are
out. If the calf remains with her during the winter in this
condition, she will lost much weight due to the fact that she
does not possess a full mouth.
The heifer's first calf should be sold as a calf for the follow-
ing reasons: (1) This permits the heifer to increase her size
and production capacity. (2) Wintering will be easier and death
losses during the winter months will be materially reduced.


(3) The income from the heifer will be immediate. (4) Much
needed minerals will be retained in the heifer's body rather
than be put in the milk-flow for the calf.
Since heifers require strict attention at calving time and
may require some assistance with their first calf, it will prove
time saving and more convenient to have all heifers calving for
the first time separated from older breeding herd and in a pas-
ture together. Heifers having difficulty in calving can readily
be detected, whereas if the heifer is in the regular breeding herd
she may go unnoticed until it is too late. Never overlook milk
producing qualities in heifers and cows. The best time to select
outstanding heifers is when the young are weaned.


1. Keep the heifer on pasture. If grass is plentiful, the
variety of pasture good, the heifer may be kept there. The
heifer should keep growing and not be stunted.
2. As the breeding heifer gets older, cheaper and more bulky
feeds are used, but fed liberally. Daily rations in the winter
may consist of 15 to 20 pounds of silage, 4 or 5 pounds of legume
hay, with a small amount of other roughage. Stover straw or
cheap hays will prove to be economical. Good silage is very good
feed for the heifer. As a substitute, sufficient grain as recom-
mended for other calves may be fed with the addition of rough-
ages to assure satisfactory growth.
3. Reduce the bulking part of the ration previous to calving
time, and substitute some laxative feeds such as bran, oats,
and one of the oil meals. Legume hays should be fed during the
winter. Corn, cottonseed meal, or similar feeds should be fed
previous to calving time.
4. When 20 months old the heifer may be bred. Increase
the ration during the gestation period so as to promote the
heifer's growth and for the development of the foetus or young
calf. Minerals and common salt should be included in the ra-
tion, especially lime and phosphorus.
5. Be sure the heifer is not disturbed by other animals.
Keep her away from rough, steep hillsides, and bog holes prior
to calving.
6. Let the cow care for the calf after it has been dropped.
It is important that the calf get the cow's first milk, and both
cow and calf should be carefully watched.
7. Treat the navel cord of the new born calf with a fly re-
pellent to prevent screw-worm infestation.
Dual-purpose or Purebred



For animals too large to hold securely, the following diagram
is given.
After placing the halter and throw rope as indicated in the
diagram, two men should pull the throw rope from the rear of
the animal. It will usually lie down. After it has lain down,
continue to pull the rope to keep the animal from getting up.
One can usually do what is necessary to the animal as it will
usually lie helpless as long as the rope is drawn tight from the
rear. This method of throwing is used on fairly gentle cattle
that must be thrown to treat for screw worms, trim feet, etc.



1. Select the best females you can afford and if possible get
them of similar type and breeding.
2. Select bulls of similar blood lines and be sure he is equal
or better quality than your cows.
3. Feed and Breed-Test and Weed.


Beef Cattle Program for Florida
Some of the fundamental principles of a good beef cattle
program are:
1. As far as possible know the productive history of each
breeding animal.
2. Know desirable animals. Get the picture of an ideal in
mind and then build so as to approach that ideal as fast as
possible, cull and sell non-breeders, shy-breeders and animals
of inferior conformation, type and quality, and the scrubbier,
slower growing or unthrifty animals from the herd.
3. Use purebred bull of highly desirable conformation and
quality-one that gains fast and lays on its flesh evenly-one
loose-hided and out-growing-one that possesses the natural
ability to grow fast (thrifty) ; docile, yet a hustler-a natural
effective breeder or a good breeding bull, not a "breeding
stick." Feed the bull in winter and breeding season if necessary.
Any person interested in increasing his income from cattle can-
not do so by using a poor grade or a scrub bull. (se a pure
bred bull or one better than the best cow in the herd, ami con-
tinue to make improvement.
4. Keep animals that winter well and are naturally thrifty
or good doers.
5. Keep animals that are good milkers or that give sufficient
milk to make a fast growing, fat, sleek calf.
6. Keep animals that are good mothers and that are fast
breeders, or have a tendency, under good herd management
practices, to calve each year.
7. Keep animals that are good users of feed-fatten rapidly
and with high daily gain per head-the outgrowing kind, not
the tight-hided kind.
8. Keep animals of desirable conformation and quality. (a)
Conformation is the build, outline, profile or contour of the
animal. It is due largely to the size and shape of the bones and
the proportions between the different primal parts, such as the
round, loin, rib or shoulder. Improved blood or good breeding
improves conformation. (b) Quality is a characteristic of the
muscle or lean meat of the animal and of the intra-muscular
and inter-cellular fat contained therein. It involves the relative
size, shape and condition of the bone, and the relation of bone
to muscle and fat. Quality is indicated from certain external
evidences, such as fineness and softness of the hair, thickness
and pliability of the hide, width of muzzle, refinement of head,


or similar characteristics. (c) Fal or Finish has beneficial ef-
fects upon conformation and quality. Further details will be
found in this bulletin under Marketing and Grading. As fast
as possible, eliminate those animals for which one constantly
has to apologize.
9. Never breed heifers until 18 months old or older, and
sell the heifer's first calf to insure better wintering after the
first calf and to give increased size of the heifer as a cow.
10. In buying bulls or cows, buy only disease-free ones. Keep
them separate from the old herd or from cattle known to be
free of disease, and then place in the regular herd only when
found free of disease, and relatively or comparatively free of
parasites. Do everything reasonable to eliminate or control dis-
eases and parasites. This will pay big dividends and keep the
herd healthy. Control stomach and intestinal worms, screw-
worms, lice, T.B., and Bangs-by all means. While very few
cattle diseases exist in Florida, preventive measures should be
taken to protect the industry.
11. Practice systematic breeding. Timely breed to save feed,
and timely market for best prices. Timely breeding to fit timely
grass (feed) and timely markets are very important manage-
ment practices.
12. Segregate different classes of cattle into separate pas-
tures. Keep the breeding herd separate from heifers of non-
breedable age, and from steers, etc. Put all heifers bred for first
calf in separate pastures, so much calving troubles will be close
at hand and altogether, as most calving problems occur during
first calving.
13. Go after and get a calf crop. It is the source of profit.
Generally the bigger or better percent of calf crop, the greater
the income and profits from the herd. Timely breeding, better
winter feeding, and good herd management practices are im-
portant in obtaining a calf crop.
14. Provide feed-pastures, hays and grains. Grass, good
grass, is the cheapest, best feed, therefore more improved pas-
tures. (1) Do not stop short of three acres of improved pasture
per animal unit (one grown cow represents one unit of live-
stock). (2) Provide 1500 pounds of a good legume hay per ani-
mal unit, or 200 pounds of cottonseed cake or pellets, for win-
ter use. (3) Creep feeding calves on pasture pays, or feeding
cow and calf on pasture generally pays. (4) Two pounds of
grain may be substituted for one-half the cottonseed cake or
pellets; or one pound of grain may be substituted for three
pounds of hay up to one-half the legume hay ration (See No.
14, item (2) above) ; the better the cattle winter, the better the
calf crop, and the better the cattle that can be grown. (5) Keep


those fields green in the winter. .One will surely be in a profit-
able cattle business when ample fields and pastures are green
in the winter. (6) It is a serious handicap to be overstocked.
Some ways to prevent this condition are: (a) intelligent culling
of the herd; (b) put in improved pastures; (c) provide plenty
of additional supplemental pastures; (d) provide some addi-
tional extra feed for winter to be used when any shortage of
feed occurs.
15. (a) From native cows and purebred bulls sell more bull
calves and inferior heifer calves, as calves.
(b) From one-half breed cows and purebred bulls, one may
sell not only calves but some stocker and feeder calves and/or
(c) Good half breed and better bred calves and steers may
be sold as calves, or as feeder calves and 'or steers, or may be
put into feed lots and there finished (lot fed) for beef.
(d) Tf these better bull calves are sold as stockers or feeders,
or put into feed lots they should be castrated early, when from
2 to 4 weeks of age; or castrate and dehorn when the horn but-
tons first appear.
16. To increase the profits from the cattle, never brand the
upper half of the animal and do not brand any portion of the
animal promiscuously or unnecessarily. Why not practice jaw,
neck, or thigh branding ? Hides are valuable and that portion
of the hide over the animal's ribs and back is most valuable.
17. Minerals represent feed and are generally comparatively
low in cost, and are as vital as other feeds. Minerals of the right
kind are indispensable to a profitable livestock where mineral
deficiencies exist. Producers generally should use Florida Ex-
periment Station "Salt Sick Mixture" and/or salt and bone
meal, keeping them before all the cattle at all times. Each ani-
mal should have at least one to two ounces of mineral daily for
1,000-pound cow.
18. Water-clean, pure. and wholesome (not stagnant and
contaminated)-will do much to keep cattle healthy. Water
from mud holes is frequently contaminated with parasites. A
full grown or 1,000-pound cow will consume on hot, dry days,
as much as ten gallons of water: probably average about seven
gallons per day the year around.
19. Shade-dry, cool, and breezy, should be well spaced as
well as a part of every pasture or cattle program.
20. When shipping-handle, ship, and load so as to eliminate
death losses, bruises and injuries; never over-load, over-heat, or
over-tax animals; start right, load right, handle right, and ship
right. Segregate classes by weights in cars or trucks, or partition
off each class and/or species.


21. (a) Timely market each class when it brings best prices,
timely breed to fit timely markets. (b) Sell on competitive
markets and induce others to do likewise. (c) Take Market News
and learn cattle and calf grades, so as to keep up with market
prices. (d) Always patronize the best markets, as private selling
generally works to the disadvantage of the one practicing it, as
well as those who are selling competitively.
See your County Agent for additional information on Beef
Cattle Program for Florida.
California Beef Cattle Program states:
1. Put into operation a selective breeding program.
2. Follow a systematic culling program to remove inferior
and aged animals (while prices are good).
3. Maintain breeding stock on normal plane of nutrition and
provide necessary feed for continuous gain of young, growing
4. Make maximum use of pasture crops.
5. Conserve resources on both cultivated and range lands.
6. Watch cost of gains in feed lots.
7. Guard the health of animals.
8. Employ sound marketing practices.
9. Observe fundamental rules of general management.
Texas Beef Cattle Program states:
1. Save a larger percentage of the calf crop.
2. Market old barren and irregular producing cows.
3. Creep feed calves from birth to weaning time. Gain can
be put on during this period with less feed than during any
other period of the calf's life.
4. Fatten for a longer period of time, making the carcass
a little heavier.
5. Keep cattle free of internal and external parasites.
6. Handle cattle more carefully in getting them to market.
7. Keep a good supply of minerals available at all times.

To Acclimate Cattle
To acclimate cattle, feed them the same feeds they had before
buying them for a period of a few months, gradually getting
them on the same feed the other cattle use; keep mineral mixtures
before them at all times. Let them have plenty of grass if
available, and be kept quiet, or disturb as little as possible.
Observe them daily, noting their condition and feed to keep
them thrifty. Observe all those good herd management prac-
tices found under headings "Some Ways of Increasing the
Size of Florida Cattle" and those points found under heading
"Herd Management."


Some Breeding Terms Defined

From earliest beginnings of rational mental processes,
human beings have asked the question "'Why ?"' From the
time when the simple shepherds of Asia watched their flocks
beneath the stars and wondered at the mysteries of nature
around them, man has marveled at the mysteries of heredity.


Some breeders of cattle have believed that objects of strik-
ing color appearing in the vision of the female at the time
of conception had an influence on the characteristics of the
progeny, but such is not the case.
The pregnant mother, whether of the human or of the
animal family, should be an object of the utmost solicitude
and should receive the most thoughtful, tender care. We must
not forget, however, that there is no direct connection of
circulation or nervous system between the mother and the
foetus, therefore, the foetus cannot be affected by what the
mother sees or hears. Accidents to the mother may have effects
resulting in the serious injury or death of the young; but these
results are not due to heredity, no matter what the effect on
the young may be.
Females usually accept service only during the period of
heat. As a rule, not more than one service is necessary during
the period of heat to insure conception, but after conception
takes place, the female does not generally come in heat again
during pregnancy.
The life which results when two animals are mated has its
controlling elements in the nuclei of germ cells. It needs only
nourishment to become, in time, a full-fledged baby member
of its race. Food will have a profound influence on this mite
of life but the character of the resulting animal, its sex, its
identity, and its individuality, whether it is to be white or
black, long-haired or short-haired, ring-streaked or spotted, are
now settled by the laws of life.


Keeping in mind the principles laid down in the foregoing,
it is clear that in order to make the best out of the hereditary
material represented in a herd, and to use the laws of nature
to the best advantage, the standard set must be kept clearly
in mind. This standard must be definite and should be as
practical and simple as possible. The exercise of selection,
wisely and judiciously pursued, offers the breeder one of the
two most effective means of benefitting from the operations
of chance, which otherwise might result in confusion. Con-
stant selection of a good type will increasingly intensify the
properties of a given set of characteristics, but this selection
must be pursued constantly. There is a continual pull, back-
ward and downward, against which the breeder must work by
wise and skillful matings. If this intelligent direction by
human skill should be removed, the animal stock would rapidly
degenerate to the level of the type of centuries ago.
The male is usually depended upon to correct faults in the
parents. The breeding animals should have: Good bone; deep,
broad chests; strong, broad backs; and fully developed bodies.
Especial attention should be paid to the head, for that part of
the body discloses many characteristics which otherwise would
be overlooked. Width between the eyes, full, prominent nos-
trils indicate points of value both to the breeder and the
feeder. In males, masculinity is important. The evidence of
the masterful impressiveness of the masculine sex is often ap-
parent in very young animals. Avoid cows with heads like
those of steers. These points make up in total what breeders
call "character" and are among the most important considera-
tions which a breeder must bear in mind in building up a herd.
Good feed, care, and attention are valuable adjuncts to
selection. Starved animals which never have had an opportunity
to demonstrate their capacity to produce meat, furnish poor
material from which to make selection of animals capable of
maximum and economical production.
While faults undoubtedly can be corrected by the use of
males of superior individuality, it may be unwise to use some
females for breeding even for market stock. To sell them and
substitute better individuals, either high grades or purebreds,
is often the most profitable in the end. It should also be re-
membered that even all purebreds are not desirable.
Selection alone is not always certain to result in steady
progress. Different combinations of hereditary elements may
develop the same characteristics. The introduction of the blood


of a line which merely looks like that of the old stock, may at
any time breed differently. The result will be the undoing of
past progress, the next generation showing the variability
characteristics of the second generation of a cross. Only by
breeding within relatively narrow limits can there be reason-
able assurance that mating animals which look alike have the
same heredity.

Next in importance to selection is the judicious mating of
related animals. This is known as inbreeding, and various
terms, such as line-breeding, close breeding, and incestuous-
breeding, have been used to define varying degrees of intensity
of inbreeding.
This is one of the most discussed subjects in the whole field
of genetics. All sorts of bad results are attributed to it; lack
of vigor, non-resistance to disease, decline in size and fecun-
dity; and even sterility are the fate of inbred animals, in the
minds of many people.
We have, however, the accepted fact that progress in ani-
mal breeding began only when breeders began to inbreed. The
work of Bakewell, and the method that has been most far-
reaching in its results was that he mated his animals with
first regard to their individual suitability for the mating, and
with secondary importance placed on their relationship. Since
the time of Bakewell every breeder who has made an impress
of permanent importance, has used inbreeding as the most use-
ful means at his command.
When related animals are mated there is brought together
more uniform hereditary material than when those that are
not related are mated. The probability that the offspring will
be like the parents is increased, but there may be hidden in
the hereditary material the factors of an undesirable charac-
ter. It is possible to inbreed some animals much more intensely
than others, and certain strains of breeds in the same species
exhibit similar traits.
Inbreeding should be practiced only by the most skillful
breeders, and only when they have definite knowledge of the
The successful use of inbreeding is one of the best tests of
a breeder's skill, and it is absolutely necessary to possess the
requisite skill to make such a step successful.
It is difficult to obtain a good breeding bull, so when one
does one should wear out such bull in the herd.



Cross-breeding is the mating of purebred animals of dif-
ferent breeds of the same species. Except to produce market
animals, cross-breeding should be used only by the highly
skilled breeder, and it is not then practicable unless there has
been an opportunity to place the progeny on the market for
breeding purposes. As a rule such animals prove inferior to
purebreds for breeding purposes.

The art of breeding reaches its zenith in the breeding of
purebreds-the most fascinating, inspiring, and remunerative
branch of animal breeding when successfully followed, but
the most difficult and disappointing when not successful. This
type of breeder is far more than a business man or a farmer;
he is an artist, and the artistic appeal is first in importance
to him. Only an experienced breeder who is a good judge of
beef cattle should raise purebreds; and he must know how to
manage the herd in every particular, what to feed, how much
to feed and when to feed; what to breed, to what should it be
bred, etc., for best results. Winter feed must be provided in
abundance and summer grazing crops must be ample.
A breeder's success largely depends on the ability to judge
animals, knowledge of the pedigrees, and acquaintance with
the characteristics of the ancestors of those animals; and his
ability as a judge must be based on an instinctive gift to recog-
nize animal types and carry them clearly in mind. Every cattle-
man should use either high grade or purebred bulls.

Early maturity is very important in economical beef pro-
duction, and purebred calves will often weigh over 100 pounds
more at six months of age than calves sired by native bulls.
Grade calves will carry more fat and will be heavier muscled,
with a higher quality of meat in the carcasses than that ob-
tainable from natives. There is likewise greater uniformity in
the grade offspring.

In presenting the above material it is suggested that every
interested cattle breeder obtain a copy of Farmers Bulletin
No. 1167 and study it.


To summarize very briefly, let us bear in mind the follow-
ing fundamental facts:
1. All animal forms on the earth have developed gradually
from lower forms by very slow changes, and this process is
known as evolution.
2. The young animal starts on its career when two bits of
heredity material (germ plasm) unite--one from the female
(the egg) and the other from the male (the sperm). When the
union is complete, the sex, identity, and individuality of the
animal are settled. Chance plays a most important part in
determiining these factors.
3. From now on the fate of the animal depends on its
nourishment and environment.
4. The breeder can do much to bend the operations of the
laws of chance to his own ends by careful selection of breeding
stock. "Breed the best to the best."
5. Next to selection, the best means at the command of the
breeder to fix type in his animals, is inbreeding. It is a power-
ful tool, but a dangerous one in unskillful hands. Inbred sires
are more impressive as a rule than sires which are not inbred.
6. Nature does not work lawlessly. Occurrences attributed
to super-natural means can be more rationally explained as a
manifestation of some operation of a law of heredity.
If a breeder has a clear conception of these facts, he can
usually explain by one or the other, nearly every occurrence
which he may observe. The more clearly he thinks on these
subjects the more successful he will be as a breeder.


Mr. A. 0. Rhoad, Animal Husbandman, Jeannette, La.,
and V. H. Black, U. S. D. A., state that "Brahman cattle have
been extensively crossed with the range cattle to obtain a
hardy, fast-growing type of beef animal that will fatten well
on pasture and be adaptable to the long, hot, humid summers
characteristic of the Gulf coast plains. The climate here has
little or no adverse effect on the milk flow and grazing habits
of cows with a noticeable percentage of Brahman blood. ..
First generation hybrids of the Brahman-Hereford cross are
called Brafords by some breeders. Similarly the term "Bra-
horn" is used to designate the first generation Brahman-Short-
horn cross When promiscuous crossing methods are em-
ployed, however, the results are none too favorable. .... A
large proportion of inferior range cattle in the Gulf coast


region is due, in part at least, to lack of a well-planned brele
ing program. Good herds showing evidence of Brahman breeIl
ing are now in the Gulf coast area. Uniformity of type amlI
temperament is more difficult to obtain in hybrid animRIls
than in purebred.
"When Brahman x Hereford or Brahman x Shorthorn bulls
of good quality and type are used on range cows along the
Gulf coast, the experiments indicate that success largely de-
pends on the type of breeding of the herds in which they are
placed. It is recommended that if possible the hardy native
cows be bred to purebred beef bulls and that the resulting
heifer offspring be mated to hybrid beef bulls, one parent of
which was a purebred of the same breed that sired the heifers,
and the other parent predominantly of Brahman breeding.
In all later generations hybrid quarter-bred Brahman bulls
should furnish sufficient hardiness in the offspring to maintain
their resistance to sub-tropical climates and retain a noticeable
amount of Brahman breeding in the future cow herd. In
general, it is recommended that hybrid bulls used have the
same blood lines as were represented in the sire of the heifers.
S. Brahmans used for breeding should be selected on the basis
of individual merit."

"When only purebred Hereford bulls were used on either
native or grade Hereford foundation cows, best results were
obtained by first grading up the foundation herds with these
bulls, then crossing the first-generation heifer offspring with
Brahman bulls, and finally backcrossing the hybrid offspring
with purebred Herefords. The resulting animals were of 5s
Hereford--1 Brahman--l1 foundation breeding.
"Second-best results were obtained by backcrossing the
first-generation grade Hereford heifers with purebred Here-
ford bulls and then crossing the second-generation heifers
with Brahman bulls, producing as the final result animals of
1/ Brahman-%/ Hereford-1s foundation breeding.
"When purebred Aberdeen-Angus cows were the foundation
stock, best results were obtained by first crossbreeding these
cows to Brahman bulls and then backerossing the first-genera-
tion half-bred heifers with the Aberdeen-Angus sires, pro-
ducing in the second generation the quarter-bred (1/4 Brah-
man--4 Aberdeen-Angus), and also by mating the first-gen-


eration half-bred heifers to the quarter-bred, thereby produc-
ing the 3% Brahman-%5 Aberdeen-Angus. Likewise, second-
generation quarter-bred heifers when mated to the half-bred
produced the 3/ Brahman-% Aberdeen-Angus.
"Almost as good results were obtained by backcrossing
half-bred Brahman bulls with purebred Aberdeen-Angus cows,
thereby producing the 1/ Brahman3-%4 Angus, and then mating
such heifers to half-bred Brahman bulls, producing the 3/ Brah-
man-%5s Aberdeen-Angus. Both the quarter-bred and three-
eighths-bred produced by the second breeding method are the
reciprocal crosses to those produced by the first breeding
"For the Gulf coast area, Brahman hybrid beef-type bulls
are recommended for use on range cows with one-half to three-
fourths the blood of a pure beef breed. One parent of the
hybrid bulls should be of the same pure beef breed that sired
the range cows and the other parent predominantly o f Brah-
man breeding and of acceptable beef-type conformation."
Florida needs other additional purebred breeders of Brah-
man, Shorthorn, Hereford, and Angus to supply the need for
desirable types of purebred bulls for these hybrid or breeding
programs as outlined above, or other good programs of pro-
ducing desirable hybrids and crosses. There are also great op-
portunities in Florida for purebreds, to breed up grade cattle
through any breed of beef cattle, using only outstanding fecund,
prepotent, and rugged bulls.

More cattlemen in the territory where cheap feeds can be
grown should feed out the better kinds (1) so as to properly
market these feeds to a better advantage, (2) use the fertilizer
to build up the soil to raise more feed to feed more cattle to get
more fertilizer to raise more feed to go through cattle thereby
simultaneously build up feeds, fertility and cattle income. Flor-
ida is blessed with some good soils and some that could be mate-
rially and substantially built up by the best fertilizer in the
world,-barnyard fertilizer, or livestock fertilizer; (3) and also
with quality fed cattle get an additional income over feed costs.
(4) Surveys in southern states and elsewhere in the U.S.A.
prove conclusively that the most substantial farmers in the
U.S.A. are those farmers who sell their feeds through livestock
and get 50% or more of their income from livestock.
See your County Agent and consult Morrison's "Feeds and


Herd Management

A breeder who understands the value of good herd manage-
ment will regulate the breeding in the herd. The bull should be
with the cows only during the breeding season, and in this man-
ner the birth of calves will be controlled, and the size of the
calves will be uniform, which is very important even if the male
calves are to be grown out as "feeder" steers, or fattened in
the feed lot.

Florida cattlemen may increase their profits from cattle:
1st. By culling the herd-the elimination of non-breeders,
shy-breeders, and cows of inferior conformation, type and
quality, and elimination of the scrubbier animals in the herd.
2nd. Producing more calves per year or by increasing ma-
terially the percent of calf drop.
3rd. Disease control methods. The elimination of Bangs
and T. B. and the control of other diseases.
4th. Planting and using more and better grazing crops the
year round.
5th. Better feed methods-more feed.
6th. Control of internal parasites, screw worms, lice,
warbles, ear ticks, etc.
7th. Through timely marketing. Bean-fed cattle should be
marketed prior to lot-fed cattle, etc.
8th. Taking better care of the cows during the winter and
during the nursing period.
9th. By earlier castration of bull calves and by dehorning,
particularly that group to be sold as feeders.
10th. Providing plenty of shade in hot weather.
11th. Greater protection of the cattle during the winter
12th. Providing at all times a plentiful supply of good,
clean drinking water. There are sections in Forida where it
would pay producers to have windmills to provide good water
when normally there might be a scarcity.
13th. Keeping proper mineral mixtures before the cattle at
all times.


14th. The use of good, purebred, beef type bulls.
15th. The control and systematic breeding of the breeding
16th. The protection of heifers until they are about two
years old before allowing them to be bred.
17th. Keeping in separate pastures the various classes of
cattle. The control of bulls for timely breeding, calving and
18th. The elimination of the scrub bull.

The size of cattle has an important relationship to the price
of cattle and the quality of such cattle marketed. Large
cattle invariably produce better calves, especially if such cattle
carry conformation and the quality they should carry. Cattlemen
generally are interested in profits in cattle and the size of
cattle bears a very important relationship to profits.
Below are given a few factors for cattlemen to consider in
increasing the profits from their herds. By practicing good
herd management, the size of Florida cattle can be materially
increased, making it possible to obtain more beef during a
shorter period of time.
1. A proper balance of minerals kept before cattle and
combined with plenty of grass will materially increase the size
of cattle.
2. Nothing is more important than providing plenty of
water for cattle at all times. The 1,000-pound cow requires
about 10 gallons of water per day in hot weather. This water
should be good, clean and plentiful, even in dry weather. The
writer has seen cattle suffer from lack of water in Florida. It
might be well to provide a few windmills scattered over the
range, to provide this water during dry spells.
3. The use of improved or purebred bulls will materially
increase the size of cattle. These bulls should increase the size
and quality of cattle from 25% to 50%-mostly 30%.
4. Heifers should never be bred until they are about 18
months old. This will allow them to grow and be more fully
matured before their first calving, and will materially increase
the size of them as cows. These heifers should be about 10%
to 15% larger.
5. The sale of the first calf off of the heifers will allow
her to grow and will protect her during the winter months,
with no calf at her side, thereby increasing materially her


wintering condition, which will automatically increase her
size about 10% ; probably more.
6. Heifers not old enough to be bred should be put into
pastures to themselves. Steers should be kept in pastures to
themselves. Bull pastures should be provided, in which to keep
the bulls when not being used for breeding purposes. There
should be bull pastures, heifer pastures, steer pastures, and
breeding pastures.
7. It is advisable to put heifers in a pasture to themselves
for their first calving.. This will allow practically all of the
veterinary work to be done in one pasture.
8. Culling the herd is an important part of herd manage-
ment and when properly executed will materially increase the
size of the cattle. Generally, the herd should be culled some
each year. Such culling will provide an income from the
cattle. Why allow cattle to die on the range when they might
be converted into an income if culled and sold when they
should be
9. The sale of calves will materially improve the wintering
condition of their mothers. This will allow their mothers to
grow into larger cows. Just in proportion as calves are sold,
just in proportion will the producer increase the size of his
calf crop. The size of the calf crop bears an important rela-
tionship to profits. There are many reasons for selling calves.
10. It might be well in figuring out the location of corrals
or barns to take into consideration their location as related to
their various pastures described above. Make it convenient
to draw the cattle to one central point located with an outlet
for such corrals to the pastures.
11. The size of cattle is tremendously increased by the use
of plenty of feed. Nothing will provide better and more eco-
nomic feeding than plenty of improved pastures. The size of
cattle can be materially increased by the wise use of improved
grasses in our pastures. Plenty of feed throughout the year
will give a material increase in size, probably 10% to 15%.
12. It is best to feed bulls during the winter months, to
put them in good condition for breeding purposes the follow-
ing spring, and in proportion as the breeding herd is main-
tained in better physical condition during the winter, the
larger will be the offspring and the larger the calves will be
the following year.
In analyzing the above suggestions and if cattlemen gen-
erally practiced them, it would easily be possible to increase
the size of the cattle from 33 1/3% to 100%. By combining
all of the above suggestions on how to increase the size of the


cattle, it is easily possible to increase them 50%. If native cows
weigh about 550 pounds, it would, by practicing the above sug-
gestions outlined, be possible to have 825-pound cows as an aver-
age on ranges.


Type of cattle have an important bearing on dressing
percent or yield. Good beef type carcass, if cut in two parts
horizontally, 75 % of the value would be found in the upper
portion, therefore, the reason for good strong backs, loins,
rumps, as well as well-laid shoulders, and well-sprung ribs.
If such cattle were cut in two parts perpendicularly the rear
portion holds 60% of the value of the carcass, therefore, the
necessity of good, strong backs, well developed loins, good
straight rumps, and deep and wide throughout the round,
being well developed to the hock.


Herd improvement that leads to a profitable cattle produc-
tion must give consideration to many factors, some of which
1. Weight of calves at birth and at weaning time.
2. Milking qualities of the cows.
3. Selling value of the calves.
4. Regularity of breeding of the cows.
5. Rate of maturity to breeding age.
6. Feed requirement per 100 pounds gain.
7. Feed lot performance of the cattle.
8. Killing and cutting characteristics on the block.
9. How well the cattle winter.
10. Ability to stand heat.
11. Efficiency with which they use native vegetation.
The consistent effort of every producer should be to im-
prove the quality of his herd; to increase his calf crop; to feed
his herd the necessary amount to make the cows most pro-
ductive, consistent with economical production; to remove
inferior animals, substituting in lieu thereof superior ones;
to remove aged animals, substituting therefore younger, more
desirable types, and at the same time to provide more of the
cheapest kind of feeds in the form of grass and legume pas-
tures, and to so sell his livestock as to fit into best markets
when better prices are prevailing. Culling the herd should


be systematic with the end in view to consistently, year by
year, build a more productive, better adapted herd of cattle
and to help prevent the storing up of a burdensome supply of
inferior animals. The marketing should be so handled as to
sell when generally prices are best. Selling should take place
so as to keep the herd in liquid condition, or to avoid losing
the herd; selling when consumer purchasing power is best
and/or selling when livestock prices are high, keeping only
those animals which can best and most efficiently use feeds-
grasses, hays or grains. Good judgment must, of course, be
used in culling breeding animals for age, for there are a few
old cows that have always produced annually outstanding
calves. Such cows are usually good breeders. To possess a good
breeding cow is a valuable asset, therefore in culling aged
cows, her past, present, and prospective future performance
should be considered, but generally old cows should be culled
from the herd.

A cow herd cannot be successful without a successful calf
crop, or the herd should produce 80 to 100% calf crop an-
nually to be most profitable. This requires good herd manage-
ment practices, to include fencing, improved pastures, care of
breeding herd, corrals, careful and efficient help, use of min-
erals, winter feeds, water, and often shade. It involves sys-
tematic management, timely breeding, timely selling, and many
other vital things as well as conditions. The quality and con-
dition, the acclimation of cattle, the type of cattle, the herd
management practices, do much towards getting a good calf
crop. The following suggestions, if followed, will materially
aid producers in obtaining a good calf crop.
1. On the range, use good, thrifty, acclimated bulls of
desirable type for the breed and not a "breeding stick," using
about 1 bull to 25 or 30 cows, but never less than 3 bulls to
100 cows.
2. The bulls should be fed when necessary to keep them in
good thrifty condition during the winter, as well as during
the breeding season.
3. Remove unprofitable females from the herd, such as
old, worn out, shelly cows, shy-breeders, non-breeders, poor
milkers and poor quality cows producing poor quality calves.
Select cows for such quality and condition as to improve their
quality and condition. These cows should give plenty of milk
and should generally raise a good calf annually.



4. Good, improved pastures are very essential as most eco-
nomical gains are made on pastures.
5. Provide grass and legumes in these pastures and see
that a year-round pasture is provided.
6. Control the breeding season so that cows drop calves
early in the spring when grass is growing. Normally it is
best to breed cows in May, June, July, August and early Sep-
tember for calving during the months of February, March,
April, May and June. The breeding season should be so ad-
justed to fit grass feeding and the best herd management
practices to keep the herd healthy and thrifty.
7. Feeds-grains and hays-not only should be fed the
bulls to keep them in thrifty condition, but weak cows should
be fed through the winter; and see that nothing interferes
with the proper growth and development of the calf. The cow
must give plenty of milk, therefore build up reserve quality
pastures as well as some feed for the winter. Keep those fields
green in the winter. Provide enough feed in the winter to
keep the herd in fair to good condition and prevent the herd
from losing more than 10% of its maximum summer weight
during the winter.
8. See that the cattle have plenty of the right kind of
9. Segregate the different classes of cattle in the pasture.
Keep steers away from the breeding herd; have pastures for
steers, pastures for bulls, pastures for the breeding herd, and
pastures for heifers not old enough to breed. Calves should
never be bred and heifers should not be bred until about 18
months old. Do not expect yearling heifers to give good calves.
Sell the heifer's first calf.
10. Practice selling some calves annually, and if the qual-
ity of the herd is good, one may sell some feeder steers, but
sell at least 25% of the poorest quality heifers' calves as
calves. One should probably sell at least 40% of the calf crop
annually. There are conditions where it might pay to sell 60%
of the calf crop annually as calves. Calves sold generally
should come from the bull calf crop and the poorer end of
the heifer calves, as a calf normally will bring a better price
as a calf than at any other age.
11. Plenty of good, clean, wholesome water is essential. A
1,000-pound cow will drink normally, under average condi-
tions, about 6 to 7 gallons of water per day, but on hot, dry
days she will drink as much as 10 gallons of water per day.
12. See that nothing interferes with the growth and de-
velopment of the calf. A mother that is getting plenty to eat


and gives plenty of milk is a great asset; therefore, do not
neglect the breeding herd. Plenty of feed in the form of
pasture will go a long way toward increasing the profit from
the cow herd as well as increase the calf crop.

If a new born calf does not immediately begin breathing
at birth, any mucus in its mouth or nostrils should be wiped
out. Natural breathing may be induced by forcing air into
the lungs with a bellows or by alternate compression and re-
laxation of the walls of the chest.
Soon after the calf is born the cow should be given all the
lukewarm water she desires. It is well, also, to feed a small
amount of bran mash. If the cow produces more milk than
the calf takes during the first day or two, that remaining in
the udder should be milked out; however, see that the calf
gets the first milk.
Two calves, one of which is motherless, about the same age,
may be suckled by one cow; if not, this calf should be taught
to drink milk, which may be done by allowing the calf to suck
the feeder's fingers and immediately immerse the fingers in
milk while the calf is still nursing the fingers.

Orphan calves, after first being well started on whole milk,
may be raised successfully by:
1. Replacing whole milk with the skim milk.
2. Substituting calf meals for skim milk.
3. Feeding gruel feeds with a minimum amount of whole
The amount of whole milk fed during this period will
depend upon the size of the calf. The following table may be
used as a guide in determining the minimum daily milk re-
quirements for individual calves:
Weight of Calf Amount Whole Milk Daily
Pounds Pounds
50 4.0
60 4.5
70 5.0
80 6.0
90 7.0
100 8.0
110 9.0
120 10.0


During the fourth week skim milk is gradually substituted
for whole milk in the ration, and after about the ninth week
the amount of skim milk is reduced at the rate of one pound
daily. All the skim milk may be discontinued when the calf
is from 70 to 90 days old, depending upon the condition of the
calf and the amount of grain and hay it is consuming daily.
Generally, one pound (dry weight) of a calf meal is a fair
substitute for four and one-half quarts, or about 9 or 10 pounds
of skim milk.
If skim milk is to be discontinued at an earlier date or at the
end of about the sixth week, the following formulas may be
S25 lbs. yellow corn meal
15 lbs. ground oats
100 lbs. hominy feed 10 lbs. ground barley
100 lbs. oilmeal or 22 lbs. flour middlings
100 lbs. red dog flour 15 lbs. corn gluten meal
100 lbs. dried blood meal 10 lbs. soluble blood flour
1 lb. steamed bonemeal
1 lb. salt.

The calf's feed for the first day or two will consist of three
or four pounds of whole milk. Do not force it to drink as the
calf will take the milk at its next feeding time. Slowly increase
the quantity about a pound each day until the calf is getting
8 to 10 pounds daily.


Good quality beef calves gain about 11/2-2 pounds a head
daily, when creep-fed a ration of 4 pounds grain mixture, over
a period of about six months. A mixture of 2 parts of shelled
corn and 1 part of whole oats, by weight, makes a good feed
for the first three months; thereafter, increase the mixture to
5 parts of shelled corn, 2 parts of whole oats, and 1 part of any
of the oil meals.
During the first 30 days, one-fourth of a pound of grain
should be fed to each calf in the creep the first two or three
days, and then gradually increase the amount to average about
1 pound a head daily. The grain may be increased gradually
until by the end of the fifth month of creep-feeding, when the
calves will take about 8 pounds a head daily. The amount of
grain may be reduced to about one-half provided the calf has
had a liberal supply of milk throughout the suckling period,
and the pasture is in best condition.


Breeding or young growing beef cattle may not need a
mineral supplement in addition to salt if they are afforded a
variety of feeds, but they generally require mineral supple-
Pregnant cows, nursing cows, or cows of the dual-purpose
breeds, if fairly heavy milkers, may need a heavier allowance
of minerals than contained in their regular feeds.
A good mineral mixture is made of 2 parts (by weight) of
finely ground limestone (in using ground limestone be sure it
is flourine free), 2 parts of sterilized bone meal, and 1 part of
salt (to make the mixture more palatable).

A few reasons for creep feeding calves are:
1. One can raise more beef more quickly.
2. Calves creep fed utilize feed efficiently while they are
3. They make more gain per pound of feed than at any other
4. They get accustomed early to eating and make better
feeder steers.
5. They can be weaned with less shrink.
6. On the range it makes it possible to sell feeder calves 30
days earlier at weights 50-75 pounds each more per head than
when not "creep fed."
7. Cows can be bred more often for bigger calf crop-that is,
approach getting a calf per cow annually.
8. Cows go into winter stronger.
Mixtures may be hand-fed daily or fed from creep feeders.

It is a mistake to feed the cow heavily on grain soon after
she drops the calf. The calf needs plenty of milk but an over
supply should not be given. When four to six weeks old, feed
the calf some grain.
A calf may be taught to eat grain at the age of 4 to 6 weeks,
by feeding it in a creep. Bran is an excellent feed for this
purpose. A good ration for the first few weeks consist of the
same number of pounds of coarsely ground corn, ground oats,


and wheat bran, to which a small quantity of oil meal is added
every few days. Start the calf on one-fourth of a pound of
grain a day, feeding one-half of the amount night and morning.
After a few weeks weigh out and feed a ration of whole or
ground oats 4 parts, shelled corn 2 parts, and oil meal 1 part
to be substituted for the ground feeds. For every 100 pounds
of live weight, the calf should eat 2 or 3 pounds of grain each
Calves may be weaned gradually when 6-8 months old, and
within 12- to 15-day period.


Spring calves are fed differently from fall calves. The
amount of feed given to a weaned calf may be increased more.
Within 4 to 6 weeks after a calf is weaned it will probably
consume from 4 to 6 pounds of grain with a small amount of
roughages, unless sufficient pasture is available.
Grain rations for the calf may be composed of equal pounds
of corn, oats, and bran, or corn 5 parts and oats or bran 3 parts,
by weight, with 1 part of oil meal added to both unless the
ration proves to be too laxative.


Baby beef is produced from an animal of desirable beef type
conformation and quality. Such animals should not be per-
mitted to lose their baby flesh. These animals are usually under
20 months of age, and should be produced from high grade
beef type cows and pure beef type bulls, for best results. Baby
beef generally weighs on foot from 500 to 1200 pounds, most
often from 500 to 1000 pounds. Such cattle command high
prices when properly finished. Calves grown from good cows
should receive grain along with milk and pasture for best re-
sults, grain should largely supplement the mother's milk dur-
ing the nursing period. Before weaning time these calves should
be fed a grain ration. After weaning they should have a highly
concentrated ration of grain.
When feeding grain, separate the calf from the herd, putting
it in a dry, clean pen. Use plenty of straw, leaves, shavings,
or other litter for bedding. Calves do not thrive if compelled
to sleep on foul-smelling, damp bedding. Keep the water trough
or stream clean. Do not allow mud to accumulate near the drink-


ing place. Foot diseases may be contracted from dirty watering
places or in filthy barns.
A bin that will hold several weeks' supply of mixed and
weighed grain should be provided. Protect the contents against
rats and other animals, and keep it dry. Calves on the range
and in large pasture will make their gains from the mother's
milk and from grass, however they may be "creep fed."
Buildings for cattle should be cool in summer and dry and
comfortable in winter. Open sheds are usually sufficient. They
may be walled to the north.


All male calves not selected for breeding purposes should be
castrated when they are from one to two months old. Young
calves bleed very little and recover sooner after the operation
than older ones.
If the calf is not to be shown, the lower portion of the
scrotum may be removed. The calf should be thrown down. and
the scrotum washed well with an antiseptic solution. The lower
one-third or one-fourth of the scrotum should be cut off with
a clean knife, thereby exposing the lower portion of each testicle.
Then cut through the glistening membranes which enclose the
testicles, and pull the testicles outward, stretching the cord
considerably, but not jerking it loose from its attachment in the
abdominal cavity; scrape the stretched cord with the sharp edge
of the knife until the cord severs. Bleeding is less if the cord
is severed by scraping rather than by cutting it off direct. Good
drainage is provided when the end of the scrotum is cut off.
To leave the scrotum in its entirety, this is done by cutting
through the wall of the scrotum on one side, removing the
testicle through the incision, then making another incision on
the opposite side, to remove the other testicle. The incision
should be long and made directly over the testicles on each
side, but should extend well down to the lower end of the
scrotum to provide good drainage.
Bull calves have a tendency to take on the characteristics
of a bull if castration is delayed. If early castration is prac-
ticed, such calves have the tendency to develop as steers should
develop. Bulls generally show slightly more development in
the fore quarters, while cows, on the other hand, show great
development in the rear quarters. Since bull calves, early cas-
trated, have a tendency to take the shape of a cow, they should
therefore have greater development in the rear quarters by


early castration. Bull calves which are to be converted into
steers should be castrated when from 2 weeks to 3 months of
age. There is a great possibility in Florida for producers to
raise steers for feed lot purposes; such calves should be cas-
trated early and be dehorned so as to make them desirable for
buyers of feeder cattle.
The use of bloodless castrators or emasculators is recom-
mended under screw worm conditions for young bull calves, as
a means of controlling screw worms. For details on their use,
see your County Agent or other persons of experience.


Fig. 21

When cattle are branded, the branding iron should not be
too hot, and the brand should not be burned too deep. If pos-
sible confine the brand marks to the regions of the neck and
shoulders, thereby protecting the hide. The use of a wire brand
in the place of the heavy iron will prevent serious injury to
the hide.
Cattle are marked by identifying cuts in the ears as shown
by the illustration and this system is becoming more general,
in place of splitting the dewlap, etc.

C-^e^------ --^_X


s'CowffRe-a^E-- -- S-^
S5IsY*II/rPo~- -- --^OC3^

-rp-~ -W^-- ---- -a^JC

~AI~fxw----- ---^y[y
JPWC^ -- ---^^C^"
^ ^-----^X3.

^< &0Awe 0* >^e-^f


Removing Horns With Caustic: Horns may be removed on
young calves before they are 20 days old by the use of caustics,
which prevent the growth and development of the horn. Caustic
potash or caustic soda is prepared in stick form and can be
obtained and used easily. When the calf is from three to nine
days old a "button" or thickened area may be felt at the point
where the horn will develop. Clip the hair from over each
"button," leaving each spot about the size of a nickel. Put a
heavy layer of vaseline around the edges of the clipped area.
Take a stick of caustic soda or potash; wrap one end securely
with paper to protect the hands; moisten the other end; rub
very briskly over each "button" three or four times until the
caustic becomes dry. Repeat this operation two or three times.
Be careful that the caustic is not applied too wet. The calves
should be kept out of rain for 12 hours after this treatment.
Use of Sal': In dehorning cattle, two to five years old and
older, it is best to use a saw. since the dehorning clippers are
apt to sliver or crack the bone which forms the horn core.
Treatmentc Following Dcrtoorning: After dehorning, sear the
horn area with a hot iron to remove the smell of blood, then it is
advisable to apply a thin layer of pine-tar oil over the wound
and adjoining areas to repel fles and prevent infection. Cattle
should be dehorned in cool weather when there is less danger
from flies. The opening in the horn may be plugged with clean
gauze or antiseptic cotton covered with pine-tar oil or some stand-
ard fly repellent like smear No. 62.
Should the cavity (frontal sinus) become infected, as indi-
cated by pus being discharged where the horns were removed,
it should be irrigated with boric acid solution or a hypochlorite
solution forced into the cavity with a syringe, turning the head
sidewise to allow the solution to flow out of the cavity.
Should maggots collect in the wound, saturate a piece of
clean cloth with chloroform or gasoline and insert same into
the cavity, or syringe out with a weak carbolic acid solution,
using three tablespoonfuls of carbolic acid to one quart of water.


Horns are expensive, whether on the range, in the feed lot,
or in the slaughter pen; and hornless cattle, if equal in quality
to the horned kinds, have the following advantages:
1. Horns devaluate cattle 25c per hundred pounds live
weight, or more.


2. Fewer horned cattle can be fed together or shipped in
the car or truck. They require about twice the feed-bunk space
as do hornless ones.
3. Horned cattle injure each other in transit and/or in feed
4. Horned cattle more often fight, therefore more bruises,
and apparently are more restless, due to horns.
5. Horned cattle lack uniform well-shaped heads and are
less attractive than hornless ones.
6. Dehorned cattle handle more easily and are safer.


1. Dehorn when the calves are young and easy to handle.
2. On very young calves, remove the buttons with a knife
or a "button buster," or a Barnes or similar bell-shaped calf
dehorner for calves up to 4 or 5 months old, or-
3. For calves over 4 months old, use a scope dehorner or
saw or clippers.
Kill the smell of blood at dehorning time and treat with
some screwworm fly repellent.


1. Less feed in the winter-more dead grass and less green
2. Less vitamins in feeds used for wintering, than in summer
with nutritious grasses and legumes.
3. In cold weather it takes more heat to keep animals warm,
or in cold weather feed must be used up to keep the animal
warm, which,feed in the summer might go for growth.
4. During summer grasses are tender (more sugar and
starch), have higher protein content and better mineral dis-
tribution-higher vitamin content than similar grasses (dead)
consisting of mostly cellulose in the winter.
5. Lice are worse in the winter:
(a) Hair is shorter in the summer and longer and apparently
more dense in the winter.
(b) Perspiring animals (in summer) have a tendency to
rid themselves of lice.
(c) The shedding of hair in the spring and summer tends to
shed lice from cattle.


(d) Lice can be better controlled in the summer, or the
effects of lice are not so noticeable in the summer as in the
(e) Cattle are generally better fed in summer than in winter.
(f) Cattle should be dipped two to three times before frost
to rid them of external parasites.
6. Weakened condition of cattle for lack of minerals and
other feeds in winter shows more markedly the presence of
internal as well as external parasites.
7. The effects of lack of minerals show up more in the winter
than in the summer.
8. Under range conditions, late calves on cows in winter,
under the above conditions, give excessive drain on cows.
9. Florida needs more good feeds for wintering livestock
and now is the time to lay in store of such feeds (summer and
10. Sheds protecting to the north, open to the south, with
some protection to the east and west side, in cold, rainy weather
are instruments of an improved wintering condition.
11. People eat heavier or more feed in the winter than in
the summer and it is reasonable to suppose that livestock (cattle)
need likewise good nutritious, palatable feeds in the winter, but
generally there is less of it, therefore the fields and pastures
should be green in the winter-or plans worked to keep them
green in the winter.

It is a serious thing to be overstocked or to have more cattle
on the range than one has grass for, because an overstocked
range is conducive to poor calf crop, poor wintering conditions,
poor quality cattle, and is a good way to back out of the cattle
business. Some ways in which overstocking can be prevented
1. Intelligent culling of the herd, keeping the most desirable
and productive in the herd, selling the remainder to the best
2. Each year put in some improved pastures or have a
pasture improvement program.
3. Provide plenty of additional supplemental pastures, to
take care of emergencies.
4. Provide some additional extra feed in the form of hays
and grains, or pellets or cake, to be used when shortage of
pasture occurs.
5. Provide feed for the winter.


The following are some of the fundamental problems in-
volved in the production of good calves or feeder steers.
1. The proper selection of good breeding stock, using the
best females on hand and breeding them to a more excellent
type of beef bull.
2. The use of purebred bulls.
3. Better and improved herd management such as segrega-
tion of steers, heifers and yearlings from the breeding herd.
4. The protection of heifers until 20 months old before be-
ing bred.
5. Keeping steers in pastures to themselves. Improved
winter conditions. Dehorning. Water to protect cattle during
short drought periods, etc.
6. Selling quality beef steers not exceeding 21/2 years of
7. The sale of quality calves.
8. The production of some feed for better wintering of the
cattle, etc.


1. They not only eat the pellets or cake but it stimulates
their appetities so they will eat most anything else that ordinarily
they would not eat.
2. They gain faster and sell for higher price (profit) per
pound, even when on grass.
3. The cows have better calves that grow off faster.
4. Most every man who has tried it, has been pleased with
the results by the returns-having obtained about $2.00 for
each $1.00 feed given.
5. It has proven profitable to wintering cows, calves, year-
lings, steers; profitable in the summer while on grass, and in
feeding both cow and calf on grass, summer or winter.
6. It prevents cattle from dying in the winter, due to star-
7. More than 55 different cattlemen of Florida state that
under all conditions: winter, spring, summer and fall, fed to
all classes of cattle and calves, "It has been very satisfactory."
This is further evidence that one can feed profits into livestock
but cannot starve profits into same.


8. In most cases there is a profit over cost by (1) having
cheap gains versus high selling price, therefore one is helping
produce more meat, at less cost, obtaining better calf crop and
solving marketing problems too. (2) Reducing losses from
deaths. (3) Increasing calf crop. (4) Utilizing feeds present
to better advantage. (5) Selling price about 2 to 1 over cost
of feed.
9. Two to 4 pounds per head per day seems to be the answer
to better wintering. Cows, about 2 to 3 pounds; cows with calf
at side, 3 to 4 pounds per day per cow; yearlings, 2 to 3 pounds
per day; bulls, up to 5 pounds per day per head. Excess loss
of weight in the winter makes more expensive gains on grass in
summer. Prevent that winter loss in weight.
The cattle lose, the owner loses when his cattle lose in excess
of 10 % their maximum summer weight in the winter. Produce
a large calf crop, and make those calves more profitable by


Cows. (1) Very thin cows should be fed enough grass or
other feed to gain from 100 to 125 pounds to offset calving
losses. (2) Cows in fair condition need to be fed only enough
to maintain body weight-a maintenance ration. (3) Fleshy
cows may lose considerable weight during the winter without
harm, provided their condition does not go below fair. (4) Thin
cows produce as large calves at birth as fat cows; they produce
as large calves at weaning time as fat cows provided grass
is plentiful enough during the spring and summer to insure
sufficient milk for the calves. (5) Cows fat or in good condi-
tion in the fall, winter much more easily than thin cows. Spe-
cial efforts should be made to keep cows in good flesh as far
into the winter as possible to save feed. (6) When calves have
good size in the fall it is advisable to wean them to save feed
on the cow. (7) Calving time is the hardest time for the cow. If
winter hangs on and the cows are in poor condition, the cow
and calf may both die at calving time. Young cows or heifers
expecting to calf in the winter or early spring should be sep-
arated from the herd and fed liberally.
Steers and Young Stock. Steers can be wintered easier than
cows or calves. They may be fed more sparingly even on the
same feeds. Calves may be brought through the winter in good
thrifty condition by giving them 5 pounds of hay per day plus


oat straw-all they will eat. Young yearlings can be brought
through the winter on even less. Cattle do not need much shelter
in some southern sections other than brush or timber for win-
tering but they need grass, water and salt. Roughage is the
principal feed used in wintering dry cattle. The cost of the
roughage per ton and the amount necessary to get the cattle
through the winter is important. Oat hay makes an excellent
feed for cattle in winter.
Bulls. Bulls may be fed on the same feed as breeding cows
but in larger proportions.


The following should be considered in the beef cattle pro-
gram for West Florida, where crops are grown:
(1) The size of the farm; (2) the proportion of feed crops
that are concentrates and roughages and the proportion of
these feeds high in protein; (3) the amount and quality in
pastures. Can the cattle be grazed on open range or are they
confined to fenced pastures; (4) the regular labor supply avail-
able for tending livestock; (5) the amount of capital available
for fattening livestock; (6) the amount of capital invested in
equipment; (7) and the adaptability of the operator to various
kinds of cattle production, etc.
Where farm herds are kept and the cattle are more or less
confined to the farm, and suitable feeds are raised to ade-
quately feed the herd, and where the steers are fed out on the
farm, it is best to raise a pound of concentrates for each pound
of roughage produced. If one specializes in purchasing feeder
cattle, the feed raised should be about in the proportion of 2
to 21/2 pounds of grain to each pound of roughage raised.
The importance of well bred animals is illustrated by (1)
well bred animals have a higher value at marketing time than
poorly bred; (2) the bull should be of high merit; (3) the bulls
should be of the same breed each year so as to properly color
the calves. Better bred cattle of the same breed bring better
prices than mixed breeds if of equal quality. They are more
The price paid for a purebred bull depends upon the kind
and number of cows to be bred, and the attention given the
bull after he is bought. The bull may be used near his capacity
for service.


To maintain a good herd from 10 to 20% of it should be
replaced annually with good heifers. These heifers may be
raised on the farm or on the range. To build up rapidly a
herd of half-breed cattle, from 50 to 75% of the best heifers
may be retained. With a replacement of 20% to 25 % each year
effective and efficient culling is accomplished with excellent


One can practice better herd management:
1. Control breeding season.
2. Can get the benefit of improvements-keep one's cattle
in, the other fellow's out.
3. Saves labor and time.
4. Can get benefit of good bulls by keeping out scrubs on
open range.
5. Can get triple A benefits by following practices.
6. A definite improved program can be installed, so one can:
(a) Plan for pasture development.
(b) Fertilize and its benefits.
(c) Greater, faster growth of quality livestock to take the
place of scrubs.


The United States Department of Agriculture, in Farmers'
Bulletin 1066 states: "The age of cattle can be approximated
closely by the appearance (development, and subsequent wear)
of their permanent incisor teeth. Cattle have eight incisor
teeth, all in the lower jaw. In the calf at birth two or more
of the temporary or first set of incisor teeth are present. With
the first month the entire eight incisors have appeared.
"As the animal approaches 2 years of age the center pair
of temporary incisor teeth or pinchers is replaced by the per-
manent pinchers, which at 2 years attain full development.
"At from 212 to 3 years the permanent first intermediates
are cut and are usually full developed at 3 years.
"At 31/ years the second intermediates or laterals are cut.
They are on a level with the first intermediates and begin to
wear at 4 years.


"'At 41/2 to 5 years the corner teeth are replaced, the animal
at 5 years having the full complement of incisors with the
corners fully developed.
"At 5 to 6 years there is a leveling of the permanent pinch-
ers, the pinchers usually being leveled at 6 and both pairs of
intermediates partially leveled and the corner incisors showing
''From 7 to 8 the pinchers are noticeably worn; from 8 to 9
the middle pairs, and by 10 years the corner teeth.
"After 6 years the arch gradually loses its rounded contour
and becomes nearly straight by the 12th year. In the mean-
time the teeth have gradually become triangular in shape, dis-
tinctly separated, and show the progressive wearing to stubs."


There are a few simple rules to remember in tattooing for
permanent and positive identification.
1. Have the inside of the ear entirely free from grease and
2. Be sure the letters or numbers are placed in the jaws of
the tattoo pliers correctly.
3. Avoid hair, dark skin, and the cords or ribs in the ear.
4. Be sure that the pins of the tattoo digits are driven deep
into the ear.
5. Use plenty of ink.
6. Rub in well, so the skin will heal over it. Do not tear
the ear.
The tattoo ink should be about the consistency of heavy
cream. Make correct entry of the number and do not use the
same number on two calves, etc.
For one to tattoo, he must have tattooing pliers, sufficient
removable numbers and/or letters, tattooing ink, facilities and
help to work animals, etc.


Florida Needs Feeds
Florida's hay and grain needs to supply the feed to reason-
ably finish and carry Florida's livestock industry (present
cattle, hog, horse, etc.) would take 585,000 tons of hay (grass
and legume) and 30,000,000 bushels of corn or its equivalent in
grain. This is about three times the present hay crop and four
times the present grain crop. Therefore the Florida producer
should become feed conscious to have a thriving livestock in-
dustry. This additional hay and grain is needed to (1) better
winter the livestock, (2) finish out the best livestock, (3) to
give greater calf crop, (4) to increase the profits from the in-
dustry. Florida's livestock industry will expand in proportion
as "Florida's fields are green in the winter." Hay, grain and
green grazing in the winter is the great need.
Oats and rye may be used instead of corn. They should be
ground or rolled before being fed for best results. More oats
and rye should be grown, as they produce about twice the feed
per acre as corn in some cases.
Molasses. Cane molasses (Blackstrap) is relished by beef
cattle, and has been used for fattening steers throughout the
southern states. Blackstrap will replace 25% to 40% of shelled
corn in the ration. The dry matter of molasses is high in nitro-
gen-free extract, comparing very favorably with corn. Black-
strap is exceedingly low in protein, which must be supplied
in other feeds in the ration. Molasses may be used pound for
pound for corn up to 40% of the grain ration. When feeding
molasses the use of a good legume hay or roughage is preferred.
1. Raise more sugarcane and rack same for winter feeding.
2. Produce and save more silage crops-sorghums, napier
grass, sweet potato vine silage, etc.
3. Produce and save more hay crops. More careful attention
to time of cutting and proper curing and handling of hay can
add materially to the value of forage resources. Often value is
lost in tonnage as well as in vitamin A and protein content so
essential to livestock nutrition.
4. In many areas small grains have been overlooked. Georgia
stations point out that small grains generally produce from two
to three times the total digestible nutrients per acre as corn on
the same lands.
5. In some areas crop management practices should be such
as to build up corn yields by (1) crop rotation systems, (2) by
use of barnyard manure.


6. Root crops like sweet potatoes, dasheens and casavas may
be the answer to high yields of carbohydrate feeds per acre,
especially since sweet potato yields are 7 to 10 times as great as
corn yields. These crops, when shredded and dried, will keep.
Work at the Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas,
Tennessee and Belle Glade, Fla., stations indicate sweet potato
meal about equals slip shuck corn, pound for pound, in feed
value for cattle (dairy and beef).

Professors Henry and Morrison, in their "Feeds and Feed-
ing," state:
"Corn is the great energizing, heat-giving, fat-furnishing
food for the animals of the farm. On millions of farms success-
ful animal husbandry rests upon this imperial grain and forage
plant. A possible explanation of the great fondness of farm
animals for corn lies in the considerable amount of oil it carries.
Again on mastication the kernels break into nutty particles
which are more palatable, for example, than meal from the
wheat grain, which on crushing and mingling with the saliva
turns to a sticky dough in the mouth."

Corn Chop, Ground Corn or Cracked Corn is the entire
product made by grinding, cutting or chopping the grain of
sound Indian corn and may be fine, medium or coarse.
Screened Corn Chop, Screened Ground Corn, or Screened
Cracked Corn is the coarse portion of corn chops, ground corn
or cracked corn from which most of the fine particles have been
Ear Corn Chops is corn and cob, without the husk, ground
or chopped with not a greater proportion of cob than occurs
in the ear corn in its natural state.
Corn Meal (feeding) finely ground unbolted corn.
Corn Bran is the outer coating of the corn kernel, with little
or no starchy part or germ.
Corn Feed Meal is the fine siftings obtained in the manu-
facture of screened corn chop, screened ground corn or screened
cracked corn, with or without its aspiration products added.
Corn Grits or Hominy Grits are the fine or medium-sized
hard, flinty portions of Indian corn containing little or no
bran or germ.
Corn Screenings are the small, light grains or corn, parts
of grains or corn and/or other cereals, and other materials


having feeding value, obtained by screening shelled corn, ex-
cluding sand, dirt, and other similar inert materials.
Corn Gluten Meal is that part of commercial shelled corn
that remains after the separation of the larger part of the
starch, the germ and the bran, by the processes employed in
the manufacture of cornstarch and glucose.
Maltose Process Corn Gluten Feed is the dried residue from
degermed corn, after removal of starch in the manufacture of
malt syrup.
Honiny Feed, Homina Meal or Hominy Chop is the kiln-
dried mixture of the mill-run bran coating, the mill-run germ,
with or without a partial extraction of the oil, and a part of
the starchy portion of the white corn kernel obtained in the
manufacture of hominy, hominy grits, and corn meal by the
degerming process.
Yellow Horminy Feed. Yellow IHominy Meal or Yellow Holm-
iny Chop is a kiln-dried mixture of the mill-run bran coating,
the mill-run germ, with or without a partial extraction of the
oil, and a part of the starchy portion of the yellow corn kernel
obtained in the manufacture of yellow hominy grits and yellow
corn meal by the degermiing process.
Corn Oil Cake consists of the corn germ front which part
of the oil has been pressed and is the product obtained in the
wet milling process of manufacture of cornstarch, corn syrup.
and other corn products.
Corn Oil Meal is ground corn oil cake.
Corn Germ Cake consists of corn germ with other parts of
the corn kernel from which part of the oil has been pressed.

1. One producing high yields-usually prolific.
2. Has strong resistance to damage by insects, diseases (dis-
ease free) and adverse weather conditions. Ear hanging down
when mature yet strongly attached to stalk.
3. Has good quality and appearance.
4. One well suited to feeding practices.
5. Long shank, heavy and tight at tip.
6. Stalk medium height but strong.
7. Root system extensive-many branches.
8. Kernels smooth, dent type.
9. Husked ears with 14 to 18 straight rows of kernels, cylin-
drical (not tapering) in shape.


1. Oats generally sell for more through cattle than as oats.
In Oklahoma, feeding oats to choice beef calves gave 212 times
as much per bushel as when sold to elevators.
2. A pound of oats will produce as much gains as a pound
of corn, but not as much finish.
3. Oats can be used for 1/ the corn in a ration fed to calves
without affecting finish or selling price.
4. Oats were superior to corn when fed in combination with
5. Grinding oats is recommended, especially for cattle over
1 year old.
6. Oats are most valuable in winter rations or for wintering
7. The price of oats may be gauged as a protein supplement,
on this basis: 140-150 bushels of oats should buy one ton of high
protein supplement.
8. In a ration where the need for a protein supplement has
been met, oats are equal-pound for pound-to a protein supple-
ment and are better than corn.
9. Rolled oats are inferior to either ground or whole oats.

1. They produce an excellent grain feed, early.
2. When cut in the dough stage they produce good hay that
is harvested at a season when curing is usually surest.
3. They provide the earliest grain feed that can be harvested
with hogs.
4. They provide green grazing for all kinds of livestock on
the farm during winter and spring.
5. They are harvested in the spring, permitting the produc-
tion of another crop on the same land during the year.
6. They prevent excessive soil erosion by winter and spring
rains if planted early on rolling lands.
7. Oats are an excellent feed for all kinds of livestock-as
green grazing, as hay or grain.


The average production of rice for a 10-year period (1930-
1939) for Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, and California was 48.4
bushels per acre; in 1940 the average was 50.9 bushels per acre;
1941 the average was 43.4 bushels per acre. Possibly upland rice
on many acres in Florida would be profitable as a feed for live-
1. Use adaptable varieties.
2. Use plenty of seed 2-31/. bus. of oats, etc.
3. Selection of suitable soils.
4. Thorough and timely preparation of soil.
5. Liberal fertilization.
6. Seeding at the right time.
Some qualities to look for in feeds are-Available protein,
carbohydrates and fats, vitamin content, mineral content, pala-
tability, fiber content, and succulence.

Under normal conditions, to properly winter and/or to main-
tain weights on pasture or range when low grade roughage or
silage is to be fed, some oil meal or cake, high in protein like
cottonseed meal or cake. peanut meal or cake, soybean meal or
cake, etc., should be provided for different classes of cattle as
indicated below, basis daily per head:
Steers 1 to 2 years, about 2 lbs.
Calves and Yearlings 1 lb.
Cows within calf at foot 1% to 21/ lbs.
Cows bred 1 to 2 lbs.
Cows dry 1 lb.
Bulls 2 to 4 lbs.
The above amounts during the winter should cover a period
from 100 to 120 days.
Racked sugarcane, silage, grass hays, or other roughages
should be fed in combination with the above. If good peavine
and/or peanut hay can be had, one may substitute 2 to 3 pounds
of these legume hays per 1 pound up to one-half of the above pro-
tein supplements. It is advisable to feed minerals; if ground
limestone is given as a mineral it should be fluorine free, as
fluorine is detrimental to livestock.



Feeding Cottonseed Meal
Cottonseed meal has a high protein content and possesses
the characteristic of stimulating the appetite of fattening ani-
mals, resulting in an increased consumption of feed and thereby
producing greater gains. It makes a good supplemental feed
for fattening beef cattle on pasture. One pound of good cotton-
seed meal supplies as much digestible protein as 3 pounds of
wheat bran. It also has a good percentage of phosphorus and
potash but is low in calcium. Calcium carbonate may be added.

Composition of Cottonseed Products
Cottonseed products used as feeds are cottonseed, cottonseed
meal, and cake, and cottonseed hulls.
Untreated cottonseed contains a substance called gossypol,
which is poisonous to animals, but becomes inactive by cooking
the seed in water. A method has been devised to remove gossypol.

(Pounds of nutrients in 100 pounds)

Product Water Ash Crude (ether
protein Nitrogen extract)
Fiber free
Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent
Cottonseed ------- 9.1 4.0 19.6 18.9 28.3 20.1
Cottonseed meal and cake:
41 per cent protein _-.. 7.1 5.7 41.7 10.0 28.4 7.1
38.6 per cent protein ---. 6.9 5.9 38.8 12.2 29.4 6.8
36 per cent protein 7.3 5.8 36.8 13.5 30.0 6.6
Cold-pressed cottonseed_ 6.9 4.2 27.5 24.2 30.2 7.0
Cottonseed hulls ---- 8.7 2.6 3.5 46.2 38.0 1.0

Furnished by the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, United States Department
of Agriculture.

Grades and Classes of Cottonseed Products
One pound of good quality cottonseed meal is equal to nearly
2 pounds of cottonseed as a feed for fattening steers. (Rations
over 5 or 6 pounds of cottonseed produce scours.)
Cottonseed contains about 20% each of fat or oil and crude
protein. Compared with a good grade of cottonseed meal it
contains about half as much protein and about three times the
content of oil.
A ton of cottonseed yields approximately the following in
addition to the cotton fiber: hulls, 514 pounds; cake or meal,
954 pounds; crude oil, 303 pounds; dirt and loss in manufac-
ture, 119 pounds. The fiber amounts to about 110 pounds.


Cottonseed cake is made from the residue after the oil has
been extracted from the seed. Cottonseed cake and cottonseed
meal are the same thing; the meal is the cake in ground form.
The grades as classified and described by the Association
of Feed Control Officials of the United States are as follows:
Cottonseed meal is a product of the cottonseed only, com-
posed principally of the kernel with such portion of the hull
as is necessary in the manufacture of oil, provided that nothing
shall be recognized as cottonseed meal that does not conform
to the foregoing definition. Cottonseed meal shall be graded
and classed as follows:
"1. Cottonseed meal, prime quality, must be finely ground,
not necessarily bolted, of sweet odor, reasonably bright in color,
yellowish, not brown or reddish, free from excessive lint, and
shall contain not less than 36 percent of protein. It shall be
designated and sold according to its protein content. Cotton-
seed meal with 36 percent of protein shall be termed '36 per-
cent protein cottonseed meal, prime quality,' and higher grades
similarly designated (as '43 percent protein cottonseed meal,
prime quality'), etc.
"2. Cottonseed meal not fulfilling the above requirements
as to color, odor, and texture shall be graded '36 percent pro-
tein cottonseed meal, off quality,' and higher grades similarly
Cottonseed feed is a mixture of cottonseed meal and cot-
tonseed hulls, containing less than 36 percent of protein.
Cold-pressed cottonseed is the product obtained from the
subjection of the whole undecorticated cottonseed to the cold-
pressure process for the extraction of oil and includes the entire
cottonseed less the oil extracted.
Ground, cold-pressed cottonseed is the product obtained by
grinding cold-pressed cottonseed.
Cottonseed hdlls are the roughage product of cottonseed
oil manufacture. The hulls are removed from the cottonseed
before the oil is extracted. They have a very low protein con-
tent and should be fed only in connection with protein-rich
feeds. As a roughage the hulls have a lower feeding value than
oat straw or corn stover, but are valuable where no other
roughage is available. This product is used extensively in the
South, especially for steer feeding.

Economy of Using High-Grade Cottonseed Products
One pound of cottonseed meal will balance as much corn
as three pounds of bran.


To determine the protein content of cottonseed meal sold
on basis of nitrogen or ammonia content, multiply the nitro-
gen by 6.25. For example, if the analysis is given as 6 per-
cent nitrogen, then the pounds of protein in 100 pounds of the
meal will be 6X6.25, which is 37.50. If the analysis is given
in terms of ammonia, multiply the percent of ammonia by 5.15.
For example, if the analysis is given as 7.5 percent ammonia,
the protein in 100 pounds of the meal will be 7.5X5.15, which
is 38.62.

Pasture Supplemented With Cottonseed Cake
Value of cottonseed products as a supplement to pasture in steer feeding *

Average Daily Selling
Lot Ration daily ration of price of Profit
gain concen- cattle per steer

Pounds Pounds
Lot A-. --.-. Pasture alone 1.52 $3.66 $2.86
Lot B -- -- Pasture plus cot. seed cake 2.32 3.31 4.53 10.42

From Bureau of Animal Industry Bulletin 131.

The addition of 3.31 pounds of cottonseed cake a day as
a supplement to the grass increased the daily gain 0.80 pound,
or from 1.52 to 2.32 pounds.

Results of Feeding Experiments Showing Relative Value
of Cottonseed Meal and Other Concentrates
(U. S. D. A.)


Florida --..--..
Maine ....- ...
Massachusetts ....
Do ....
Mississippi .--....
Do .. ..
Do ... ..
Do------ ----
New Jersey --

Do ..- .. ..
Pennsylvania -

South Carolina -
Do -----...
Tennessee .. ....--
U. S. Dept. of Agri-
culture .-...-
Do .... .....

Feed with which

Velvetbeans in pod ------.
Gluten meal----. -
Do -------
Ground soybeans -----
Cottonseed---- -------.
Do------- .....-
Velvetbeans in pod -
Equal parts wheat bran
& dried brewers' grains
Ground soybeans ---.....
Wheat bran..........------
Velvetbean meal --
Wheat bran --.--------
Ground soybeans ------
Fish meal--
Peanut feed.- ---
Velvetbean meal...........


Cottonseed meal worth from 1.5 to 2.5
times as much.
Cottonseed meal superior.
Practically the same.
Cottonseed meal superior.
1 pound cottonseed meal is equal to
1.71 pounds cottonseed.
3 pounds velvetbeans superior to 2
pounds cottonseed meal.
4.5 lbs. cottonseed meal are practical-
ly equal to 10 lbs. of the other feeds.
Practically the same.
Cottonseed meal increased yield about
20 per cent.
Cottonseed meal slightly superior.
1.5 pounds cottonseed meal slightly
superior to 3 pounds wheat bran.
Practically the same.
1 pound fish meal is equal to 1.24
pounds cottonseed meal.
1 pound cottonseed meal is equal to
1.36 pounds peanut feed.
1 pound cottonseed meal is equal to
1.54 pounds velvetbean meal.


Cottonseed Meal May Be Fed as a Supplement to
Cattle on Grass
A good supplement for cattle on grass is 3 to 4 parts by
weight of corn or other grain and 1 part of cottonseed meal or
cake. Cattle fattened on grass with a supplement should be
allowed all the feed they will eat once a day in addition to
grass. These cattle ordinarily will not eat more than one-half
the feed that would be fed in the dry lot.
Cottonseed meal for stock cattle should be fed in the winter
period in sufficient amounts to supply the necessary protein.
Stock cattle weighing from 500 to 750 pounds should be fed
1 to 2 pounds of the meal per head per day. If legume hays
constitute half or more of the roughage ration, it is not neces-
sary to use cottonseed meal.
A ration of corn silage, racked sugarcane or sorghum silage
and cottonseed meal is one of the most economical combinations
for wintering stock cattle. One to 2 pounds of cottonseed meal
combined with the amount of silage they will eat will produce
satisfactory gains. Straw and other roughages may be fed with
the silage and cottonseed meal.
A good ration for breeding cows is 25 to 30 pounds corn
silage, 1 to 11/% pounds cottonseed meal or cake, and other
roughage, such as stalks in the field, corn stover, hay or straw.
Cows with nursing calves need more protein supplements.
Beef cows raising calves which are fed during the winter
months should have from 1 to 2 pounds of cottonseed meal
and pasture and/or roughage to keep them in thrifty condition.
Peanut meal, soybean meal may be substituted pound
for pound for cottonseed meal, and those general statements
made about cottonseed meal equally apply to peanut and other
oil meals. In feeding oil meals the cost of feed has its relation-
ship to cattle prices, and unless the price relationship between
the two are favorable it may be unwise to feed it.


The Southeast is producing large quantities of proteins from
the different oil meals, like peanut, soybean and cottonseed
meal, as well as peanut and peavine hay; there is also produced
through the meat packing companies large quantities of tank-
age, and a number of fisheries producing fishmeal high in pro-
tein are along Florida's coast. In the South unlimited quan-
tities of protein feeds are available. On the other hand, Florida


needs to produce more energy feeds, that is, increase her corn
yields per acre by improved methods of selection, fertilization
and economical production; also small grains, including oats
and rye, should be increased in areas adapted to same. The
University of Georgia found that small grains like oats, rye
and barley, gave more than twice the feed per acre under sim-
ilar conditions than did corn.
One of the principal group of food crops used in England
and throughout Europe to feed and fatten cattle is the root
crop group. This group includes sweet potatoes, cassava, dash-
eens, carrots, turnips, mangles, rutabagas, etc. Sweet potatoes,
cassava and to some extent carrots, turnips, rutabagas and
dasheens are old crops in Florida. Certain varieties of dasheens
are useable for cattle feed; others cannot be satisfactorily used.
Yields of corn have been low, about 9 bushels per acre average,
and sweet potatoes, 69 bushels average; or some of these root
crops are producing from 7 to 10 times the pounds of roots as
corn. Any crop should be grown on soils adaptable to greatest
yields per acre.
The average yield of corn in the north central states for
12-year period, 1928-1939, was 28.3 bushels per acre. For the
State of Iowa (the crack livestock producing and feed state)
it was 37.8 bushels per acre; for Alabama, Georgia and Florida
it was 10.5 bushels per acre; for Florida it was about 9 bushels
per acre. This is too low a corn yield to permit Florida to
actively compete with Iowa in feed lots.
Improved blood and feeds are interdependent on each other
for an aggressive livestock industry, therefore any safe energy
feeds which can be economically produced in any portion of
Florida, and grown on adaptable lands, have great possibilities.
The sweet potato is an old crop to the South. It has been
grown in a half-hearted fashion on most southern farms since
early colonial days. Sweet potato meal has been produced from
sweet potatoes by shredding and by different drying methods
developed by the Alabama Experiment Station, Auburn, Ala.
It takes from 2.6 to 3 pounds of sweet potatoes to give 1 pound
of sweet potato meal. For information on shredding and drying,
write the Alabama Experiment Station, Auburn, Ala., or the
The following table shows the value of sweet potato meal
compared with corn and similar energy feeds in feeding steers
and dairy cattle at different experiment stations over the South-


Ala. at 1940
Auburn 1941


Ala. at 1941
Atmore 1942

West 1939
at 1941
Jackson 1942

Miss. 1941
State 1942

Georgia 1941
at 1942
Tifton 1943

Cracked Shelled Corn 1791
Sweet Potato Meal 1791
Cracked Shelled Corn 2112
Sweet Potato Meal 2095

C.S.M. 360
C.S.M. 360
C.S.M. 360
C.S.M. 360

C.S.M. 498.5
C.S.M. 498.5

C.S.M. 345
C.S.M. 517.5

C.S.M. 250
C.S.M. 375

C.S.M. 196
C.S.M. 294

C.S.M. 284

C.S.M. 383.4

C.S.M. 299
C.S.M. 299

C.S.M. 352.8
C.S.M. 350.0

Peanut Hay
Peanut Hay

Cane Silage
Cane Silage

Corn Silage
Corn Silage

Corn-Sorghum Silage
Corn-Sorghum Silage

Corn-Sorghum Silage
Corn-Sorghum Silage

Corn-Sorghum Silage
Corn-Sorghum Silage

Sorghum Silage
Johnson Hay
Sorghum Silage
Johnson Hay

Cowpea Hay
Cowpea Hay
Peanut Hay
Peanut Hay

Ground Shelled Corn
Sweet Potato Meal

Ground Shelled Corn
Sweet Potato Meal

Ground Shelled Corn
Sweet Potato Meal

Corn Cob Meal
Sweet Potato Meal

Corn Cob Meal
Sweet Potato Meal

Corn Cob Meal
Sweet Potato Meal

Ground Shelled Corn

Sweet Potato Meal



























Animal (Lbs.)

232.7 1.847
212.7 1.688

183.2 1.53
167.9 1.40

197.5 1.32
250.5 1.67

192 1.28
212 1.41

228 1.90
198 1.65

186 1.55
196 1.63

325 2.29

294 2.07

293 2.09
204 1.46
306 2.18
313 2.23

Texas 1940 Ground Shelled Corn 1016.4 C.S.M. 299.6 Alfalfa Hay 152.6
at Prairie Hay 428.4 Heifer 140 359.3 614 254.7 1.82
College 1941 Sweet Potato Meal 1002.4 C.S.M. 295.4 Alfalfa Hay 152.6 Calves 140 360.4 613.9 253.5 1.81
Prairie Hay 421.4



From the above tabulation it is seen there has been much
variation in the results obtained, but a close study of available
data would indicate that sweet potato meal is approximately
equal, pound for pound to corn-cob meal, and from 90 to 95 %
as efficient as ground shell corn as a fattening feed to beef
Since 2.8 pounds of sweet potatoes produce 1 pound of sweet
potato meal, and assuming sweet potato meal to be 90% as
efficient as shelled corn, the following figures are computed:

Yield of Green Sweet Potato Shelled Corn
Potatoes Weight Meal Equivalent
66 bu. 3960 lbs. 1414.2 lbs. 22.7 bu.
100 6000 2142.8 34.4 "
150 9000 3214.2 51.6 "
200 12000 4285.6 68.9 "
300 18000 6428.4 103.3 "
400 24000 8575.2 137.7 "

From the above calculations can be seen the possibilities of
producing larger amounts of carbohydrate feeds per acre with
sweet potatoes than with corn. It costs, however, more to raise
sweet potatoes than corn. The ability, however, of the program
of this kind is dependent upon one's ability to produce large
yields of sweet potatoes, economically. Some ways of producing
yields of sweet potatoes, economically.
Some ways of producing high yields of sweet potatoes are:
1. Select high yielding varieties.
2. Use only high quality seed which is certified to be disease
3. Bed seed early and treat same for seed-borne diseases before
4. Plant early, harvest late, or provide a long growing season
of 200 to 240 days.
5. Select suitable soils or put on land that has never grown
sweet potatoes, or has not grown sweet potatoes for 3 years or
6. Space rows 31/2 feet, and vary planting space in the row
from 8 inches to 15 inches, according to time of season. Begin
setting immediately after danger of frost. On the average put
the plants about 10 to 12 inches apart in the row.
7. Set plants on high ridges and maintain high beds through-
out the growing season.
8. Use 400 to 800 pounds of fertilizer of high potash content
per acre. Thoroughly mix this fertilizer with the soil. Many


growers will find it advantageous to use up to 1,000 pounds of
fertilizer per acre. The producers should be sure their soils
contain at least 50 pounds of actual nitrogen, 50 pounds of
phosphoric acid, and 60 pounds of potash per acre.
9. Cultivate often to control weeds.
10. Use pure certified stock for seed.
Dasheens, cassavas, and possibly other root crops are high
yielders of carbohydrates and have possibilities. Florida needs
feeds high in carbohydrates to solve feed problems. It will be
interesting to watch some crops that will be developed to supply
these energy feeds. Any feed which can be grown economically
should be pushed to solve the problem of increasing quality
taking place in livestock in this State, and feed is an indis-
pensable part of livestock improvement.
The composition of sweet potato meal varies on different
soil types; muck vs. sand or vs. clay. The composition of sweet
potato meal, as furnished by the Florida State Department of
Agriculture, except corn, which was furnished by Georgia Ex-
periment Station, is found in table below:

Shredded Sweet Shredded Air-
Potato Dried Cassava Corn
W ater .................. 8.75 11.10 10.05
Ash ................... 4.05 2.20 1.50
Crude Protein ........... 3.16 3.70 9.20
Crude Fat .............. 1.05 1.00 3.80
Crude Fiber ............. 3.52 4.75 2.20
Nitrogen-free Extract .... 79.47 77.25 67.00

Sweet potato meal, while not as palatable as corn, at the
beginning of the fattening period proves to be palatable enough
to demonstrate its value in comparison with corn when fed pound
for pound for corn-cob meal.
Feeding. Unshredded Rool Crops, Fed Raw. Wherever
starchy concentrates, such as corn, can be purchased at a lower
cost per unit of dry matter, the value of root crops in livestock
feeding is limited to feeding of small quantities, such as 2 to 4
pounds raw root crops per 100 pounds live weight daily, as a
source of succulence and to make the ration appetizing, or sub-
stituting one-half to the full grain ration with the meal of the
root crop.
Root crops are prized by exhibitors and breeders of pure-
bred stock as they are excellent conditioners. Roots are classed


as highly diluted concentrates rather than as roughages; dried
they may be classed as concentrates.
Roots are deficient in protein, fat, lime, and phosphate, and
with the exception of carrots and sweet potatoes are relatively
deficient in vitamin A, although most roots are fair sources of
vitamins. Leafy, green, or yellow feeds are better sources of
calcium (lime), and iron. Carbohydrates mainly in the form
of sugar are the principal nutrient of roots, and the sugar con-
tent rises considerably during storage.
Preparation of Roots for Feeding. Roots are fed in the
field where grown, whole from storage, or cut into strips, chips,
or squares, when the roots are large, hard, and woody, old ani-
mals with poor teeth or young animals are unable to eat them
unless cut. Remove the dirt before putting them into the cutter.
Chopped roots may be mixed with meal and light roughage,
which will make them more palatable. Cooking or steaming is
of no benefit.
Root Crops for Cattle. With roots as cheap a source of dry
matter as grain, 20 to 50 pounds may be fed raw on the basis
of their live weight. A 1,000-pound steer will consume a ration
of 30 to 40 pounds of roots, 10 pounds of dry roughage (prin-
cipally straw), and 5 to 6 pounds of concentrates, about half
grain and half oil-mill by-products, for a fattening period of
three to four months.
Roots are especially valuable for cows giving milk.

Under average conditions, the vines will weigh from 60 %-
100 % as much as the sweet potatoes grown on the same area;
and sweet potato vine silage is about equal to other good silages,
and sweet potato vine hay is about equal to the best good grass

For economical and maximum use of roughage and minimum
use of grain and protein concentrate, and to offer feeders a wide
choice of time and method of sale, one may find the following
suggestions popular, especially when high protein concentrates
and other concentrate feeds are scarce.
1. Good to choice feeder calves may be wintered by giving
all of the hay, silage, and other roughage they will eat--about


1 pound of protein concentrate, or 2 pounds of oats or corn;
or ground wheat or barley; or 3 pounds of legume hay per head
2. If small grain pasture is available, calves may need only
some dry roughage.
3. If good native grass is available, feed about 1 pound daily
of a protein concentrate such as one of the high protein oil meals
or cake.
4. When corn and velvet beans are interplanted and the corn
has been snapped, these calves may clean up the fields and then
receive roughage and a protein concentrate. Of course a min-
eral mixture should be available to the calves at all times.
Good to choice calves on the above feeds should gain about
200 pounds each and seldom these gains cost over about $6 to $7
per hundred pounds.
The following are some of the advantages of wintering calves
on the above rations:
1. They can be sold as yearling feeders.
2. They may go iunmediately into the drylot for full feeding.
3. They may be grazed on good spring or summer pastures
and after grazing may be sold as feeders, or for slaughter if they
have had sufficient feeding, or they may be full-fed for 80 days
in a drylot for greater finish.
A desirable roughage program includes:
(1) more legume seedlings;
(2) greater use of lime, phosphates and potash on these
(3) more use of nitrogen and mixed fertilizer on hay and
pasture sods;
(4) better use of farm manure;
(5) improved harvesting practices.


Pressed grapefruit and orange by-products in the manufac-
ture of citrus juices have quite a value as a cattle feed and no
doubt more cattlemen in the citrus belt will avail themselves of
this feed in wintering cattle. This citrus by-product may be
fed fresh pressed from nearby canners, or the products may be
dried and fed as citrus pulp. The fresh pressed citrus by-prod-
uct, when put out in the open in large piles, seems to keep, and
the cattle do well on it in the winter.
During the 1942-43 season, there were about 17 million field
boxes of grapefruit and 3,500,000 field boxes of oranges used for
canned juices, therefore much fresh pressed citrus by-product
was made possible and available as a feed for cattle. The ton-
nage of fresh pressed citrus by-product amounted to about 450,-
000 tons, which represents quite an item of feed for possible
wintering of cattle. The citrus producer and cattle producer
may, therefore, help each other solve some of their common
Furthermore, citrus molasses (a product made from pressed
citrus, when further pressed to remove excess moisture in the
manufacture of citrus pulp), when cooked into a syrup, has dem-
onstrated its feed value about equal to that of black strap
molasses. The citrus pulp in steer feeding trials will replace a
portion of corn, but is too bulky to replace the entire corn
content of a ration for cattle on full feed. Citrus pulp can be
used as a portion of a maintenance ration for wintering cattle
when supplemented with a protein like cottonseed meal.

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