Citation
Young Americans in Spain

Material Information

Title:
Young Americans in Spain
Added title page title:
Family flight through Spain
Creator:
Hale, Susan, 1833-1910
Lothrop Publishing Company ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
Boston
Publisher:
Lothrop Publishing Company
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
257 p., 1 leaf of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 24 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Children -- Conduct of life -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Conduct of life -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Rivers -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Family -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Kings and rulers -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Street life -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Juvenile fiction -- Spain ( lcsh )
Family stories -- 1899 ( local )
Travelogue storybooks -- 1899 ( local )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1899 ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1899
Genre:
Family stories ( local )
Travelogue storybooks ( local )
Publishers' advertisements ( rbgenr )
novel ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
An abbreviated edition of the author's A family flight through Spain.
General Note:
Frontispiece printed in colors.
General Note:
Publisher's advertisements tipped in following text.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Susan Hale ; fully illustrated.

Record Information

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University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
026626902 ( ALEPH )
ALG3869 ( NOTIS )
06096810 ( OCLC )
99001690 ( LCCN )

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YOUNG AMERICANS
IN SPAIN

Br sze8

BY

MISS SUSAN HALE

AUTHOR, WITH REV. E, E. HALE, OF “A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH FRANCE,
GERMANY, NORWAY, AND SWITZERLAND,” AND OF {fA FAMILY
FLIGHT. OVER EGYPT AND SYRIA”

FULLY ILLUSTRATED

BOSTON
~ LOTHROP PUBLISHING COMPANY



CopyrIGHT, 1899)

BY

LOTHROP PUBLISHING COMPANY.



YOUNG AMERICANS IN SPAIN.
CHAPTER I.

OVER THE BORDER.

BSOLUTELY nothing, sir, but
wearing apparel, and perhaps a
few drawing materials.”

This statement in French was
made to a mild-looking official
who stood within a long coun-
ter piled with trunks, boxes, port-
manteaux and valises. On the
outer side was an anxious crowd
of travellers pressing and push-
ing to find their own impedi-
ments, in order to have them
passed without delay.

The mild official chalked a
white cross upon the box under
inspection.

“Ts that all, Monsieur?”

“That is all, Bessie, is it not?”
asked the gentleman who was



z conducting the transaction; “one,
two, three and the ship trunk,” he added in the same breath.
“No, papa, I have not found the little black box yet.”
“Here it is!” cried a boy who now appeared, bumping every one
in the crowd with the corners of a small travelling box which @
porter in a blue blouse was struggling to take away.



14 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

“This man cannot speak anything,” cried Tommy, “but he
thinks the trunk belongs to those other people.”

Blue Blouse consented to surrender the box; by this time the mild
offieial was far away on his side of the counter, making white
crosses upon the boxes of other impatient tourists, some of whom
were obliged to open their trunks to satisfy the inspectors. All
the travellers who were to go away by the train which was stand-
ing outside the station, were in a great hurry; all the officials who
were to stay, appeared to be in no sort of haste.

Finally one of them turned his attention to the little trunk.
‘It was a harmless black box, marked T. P. H., but for some reason
‘it appeared suspicious to the Spanish inspector, and he demanded
that it should be opened. Straps were unfastened, the key pro-
duced, and the top thrown back. Soiled linen, slippers, and a
dressing-case appeared upon the surface. The man _ plunged his
‘hand into a corner, fumbled about, punched and squeezed a sponge
in its india-rubber bag, then withdrew satisfied; and the ‘party,
‘now permitted to return to their seats in the train, hurried through
the long room where many other people less fortunate than them-
selves were still searching for their effects, and undergoing the
examination, which, however slight it may. be, is always tedious and
vexing. They passed along the row of carriages, some of them
empty, the doors standing open ready for their occupants who were
still away struggling with the inspectors. In others, placid parties
were reading or chatting together. A lady sitting at the open
door of a compartment, was watching for the party; as they
approached she called out:

' “Here I am! I have guarded our seats like a dragon, and I
‘believe we shall still have the compartment to ourselves. Is every-
thing safe?”

“Yes, aunt Dut,” replied the girl. “And here are your keys.
We did not have to open one of your things, and they only fell
foul of Tommy’s small box.”

“JT don’t care,” said the boy, “they did not find the gee aa
it was too near the bottom.”





A PLACID PARTY. ‘ 4







OVER THE BORDER. . &

“You do not mean to say that any of that is left!” exclaimed
Miss LEJEUNE.

For this was Miss Lejeune who was guarding the carriage, keep-
ing seats for the rest of the party, which consisted of herself and
Mr. Horner, with Bessie Horner and Tommy. These now all entered
the carriage and began tc dispose of the wraps and straps which
they had spread about upon the seats before leaving it, in order
to make the aspect of things as forbidding as possible to passen-
gers searching for seats. A compartment in continental railway car-
riages is built to hold eight, but it is much more comfortable for
four persons only; thus it becomes one of the great arts of travel
to keep out intruders. Four is the most convenient number for a
party travelling in this way. It not infrequently happens that they
can keep a compartment to themselves, and have plenty of room
for putting up feet, leaning comfortably in corners, and above all,
they can control the two windows. There is room for the exhibi-
tion of all grades of good breeding, and bad manners, in this mat-
ter of the compartment. It is perfectly fair for a party to try to keep
the whole for themselves, especially if the train is long, with plenty
of accommodation for all; it is annoying when new-comers persist
in invading the place already taken possession of, and, by trampling
upon toes, crowding the racks, and pushing themselves into the
vacant seats, succeed in making the whole journey uncomfortable,
and their presence disagreeable, instead of seeking elsewhere in the
train an empty carriage. On the other hand, perhaps the intruders
have not been able to find another carriage, or are forced to take
this one by the guard, who does not encourage the exclusive sys-
tem; in this case, it is hard for the late arriving travellers, flus-
‘tered and hurried, with their hands full of rugs and bags, to find
themselves most unwelcome, with no space resigned to them, only’
forbidding glances cast upon them, and even grumbling remarks
which they can guess at weil enough, although the language in
which they are spoken may be foreign.

The Horners were now settling themselves into the best corners
of a first-class carriage of a train which had just crossed the frontier



18 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

re

between France and Spain. The station was Irun, in the Spanisn
Basque Provinces. At Hendaye, their last krench town, they had
crossed the frontier, and there changed carriages, necessary because
the Spanish railways are built with a wider gauge than the French
one, in order to impede invasion, it is said. Judging by the length
of time required to transfer the ordinary travel of a period of peace,
we may imagine that the delay to an impetuous army might be
serious.

The Horners had left Bayonne about noon that day, having come
from Bordeaux the day before. The day was lovely and the scenery
charming, with glimpses of the Bay of Biscay, at intervals, on one







































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































BORDEAUX

side, and on the other the soft line of the receding Pyrénées. It
would have been pleasant to linger at Arcachon, a bright watering-
place near Bordeaux, or to take a branch train to Biarritz, the favorite
resort of the Empress Eugénie, still beautiful, though less frequented
than in its palmier days. As they crossed the little river Bidassoa,
which is the boundary between France and Spain, they saw a small
island Jes Faisans, called also 2’Lle de la conférence, which has served



OVER THE BORDER. 1g

as neutral ground for more than one meeting important in history, as
for instance the exchange of Francis the First, of France, after he had
been the prisonerof Charles the Fifth.

“See!” said Miss Lejeune in a low tone, ancien Bessie, “there
are those people who came from Bayonne. I saw them passing
before. I suppose they have been identifying. their boxes.”

5 They look nice,’ replied Bessie, “but I am glad they are not
coming in here, for they have such quantities of hand-baggage.”

“They must be changing their seats. Perhaps they did not find
good ones at Hendaye.”

The party they were observing consisted of a tall elderly gen-
tleman, and three ladies, of whom the first seemed advanced in
middle age, while the other two, who followed, were much younger,
one of them wearing her long hair in a braid, as Bessie still did,
for convenience in travelling. Each of the party was laden with
shawls, umbrellas, guide-books hastily seized upon at a sudden
signal for flight, and a waterproof of india-rubber trailed on the
ground from one of the overflowing heaps. Tommy jumped out and
ran up to the youngest girl, saying in French:

“ Permettez mot, mademotselle,’ while he tried to take her third
umbrella from her.

“Oh, thank you; don’t trouble yourself,” she replied in very good
English.

They had now reached the door of an empty carriage, and
Tommy’s assistance was by no means superfluous in helping them
in. A little shriek, however, from the engine, startled them all,
and he left them to hurry back to his own party. The guard
pushed him in, banged the door, hurried every one else on the
platform, banged more doors, and waved his hand at other guards
banging other doors.

“Now we are Off,” said Bessie, leaning back in her stuffed and
cushioned corner.

After this, the train stood motionless on the track for more than
twenty minutes; useless to inquire wherefore. Nothing of impor-
tance occurred. The luggage had been all examined and marke‘



20 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

and transferred to the vans. No passengers were missing. The
Horners put their heads out of the window, but saw nothing to
account for the delay. The Spanish passengers in the other depart-
ments were not disturbed, but quietly read their newspapers and
smoked their cigarettes.

Thus it is upon the Spanish railways. Repose and procrastination
pervade the system. Perhaps the officials inherit from Moorish















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































BIARRITZ.

ancestors the Mohammedan belief in “Kismet,” for it is by Faith
and Fate that trains reach their destination, rather than by rule
and time-table. They start sometime, and they arrive somewhere,
and that is pretty much all that can be asserted of their punctu-
ality.

For the rest, the carriages are comfortable and clean, the
officials are civil and obliging, the duffers frequent enough, and the
food good enough for travellers with good digestions, and enterprise,
to risk experiments in strange cakes, fruits and beverages.

After all, there is no hurry! ff you have allowed a certain time
for seeing Spain, you “may as well see it from a railway station as
elsewhere. The Horners, like other Spanish travellers, came to feel



OVER THE BORDER. \ a

more intimate with the two gens d’armes, or alguazils, who stand
at every station, than with any other inhabitants of the country.
They stand immovable, in full uniform, with white hats that have
a sort of flap at the back, watching the train, and awaiting its
start. hey are always on the platform as the train draws up at
each station, and they all look so exactly alike, that it is pleasant
to indulge the belief that they really are the same pair transferred
by some process of swiftness, as yet unknown to the rest of the
Spanis4, from one station to another, to protect with their wooden
vigilance the interests of the travelling public. '





23 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

CHAPTER II.
DIVIDING FORCES.

PAIN is entered perhaps most naturally in

the way the Horners selected, by crossing
the frontier at Irun, in order to pass down
\, through Burgos to Madrid. It was now the
44 first of May, and, although they had made all
ij haste in coming from the East, where they
had been passing a delightful and instructive
winter, the season was somewhat advanced for
making the Spanish trip.

“Spain so late!” exclaimed the Wiseacres.
“You will perish with heat.”

“You never will be able to stand the climate
of Madrid in June.”

“Make haste to get through the southern
part first, or you will miss all the charm of it,”
said others.

In spite of these discouraging warnings, the
Horners continued to feel an interest in their
own plan, which had been made not without



recognition of the phenomena of heat and cold,
as affected by climate. They came from Bor-
deaux to Bayonne through the level, monotonous, but picturesque
Landes, where Bessie from her window had the good luck to see
a shepherd on changues—tall stilts—-which are still worn by the
people to move about upon the soft, marshy ground. The Landes
is a barren stretch of country, covered with turf and moss. Pines



DIVIDING FORCES. 23

are the only trees, and it would look desolate enough, except that
where the railway crosses it, trees lately planted are beginning to
change its aspect of desolation.

Bayonne is a fortified town, enclosed in walls, and entered by
four gates. It is so near the frontier of Spain that it already
begins to have a Spanish look. The streets are lively with a great
variety of faces, costumes and languages; for Basques, Gascons,
and Spaniards, are coming and going continually. The women have
pretty handkerchiefs tied about their heads, and the men wear
beréts and ceintures of bright colors. ,

The Romans constructed a citadel at Bayonne. As early as the







































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































BAYONNE.

twelfth century it was a place of importance for the whale fishery,
tanning of leather, navigation, and traffic with Spain.

The marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine with Henry of England,
gave Bayonne to that country. Richard Coeur de Lion extended
its privileges, which came to be so great that it was almost inde-
pendent. Subsequent rulers had much trouble in restraining its
liberties. The mayor of Bayonne used to be in those days a most
dmportant magnate, executing justice as seemed sieht in his own



24 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

eyes, upon all evildoers, The Bayonne people were always xt odds
with the Basques, their next neighbors, and intimate enemies; leg-
ends remain of endless contests, and of one great battle in
the hall of a town where the Bay-
onne men were surprised by a party
of Basques. They fought with chairs
and tables, as well as sharper weap-
ons, until almost everybody was killed
on each side.

It was at Bayonne that Francis
the First arrived from his prison at
Madrid, and found his mother and
the court awaiting him. Since then
the local history of the place may be said to consist of passages



A BASQUE.

back and forth of princes and princesses; in the present century it
has served often as a place of shelter for Spanish political schemers.

The Basques, into whose province the Horners now passed, are
said to be the descendants of the earliest inhabitants of the Penin-
sula, and to this day they preserve their strongly-marked charac-
teristics of custom and language. Like the Bayonne men of old,
they have a strong sense of independence, and a determination to
maintain laws of their own, which have been respected at all times. -
They are noted for truth and honesty, and for their unbounded
hospitality. They are tall, and often handsome, with fair hair and
blue eyes, like the ideal Norsemen, which comes naturally from
their Celtic origin, different from that of other Spaniards. The
Basque language, wholly different from Spanish, is remarkable, and
difficult. They still wear the national costume, which is highly
picturesque; for the men, short dark velvet jackets, and loose
trousers, with a/fargatas on their feet, and a blue or bright red sash
about the waist.

The Horners at once began to enjoy the novelty of the Spanish
national costumes. Although, as in other parts of Europe, these
are now somewhat superseded by the encroaching black broadcloth
for men, and conventional Parisian fashions for women, much still



ee ee ee eee



DIVIDING FORCES. 25

remains of picturesque attire. Each province of Spain has its
own characteristic ; different colors prevail in different places, with,
however, a general similarity. The short breeches coming only to
the knee, with buttons up the outside of the leg, are so much
more becoming to the manly form than the long, slouchy trousers
enforced by fashion, that it seems strange that man’s vanity
should have been so passive as to allow the change. Alfargatas
are sandals of white hemp, thick and strong, for the sole of the
foot, bound on with a mysterious arrangement of strings, generally
black, crossed over the foot.

It must now be explained why the Horner family is so small as to

occupy only the four corners of their compartment. They have been











seen filling the whole of one without extending the actual limits of
their party. :

Upon leaving the East, Spain was the goal towards which the
minds of the Horners turned, but there was a difference in the
degree of longing with which each regarded that land of romance.

*q sunshine. Mrs. Horner expressed a willingness to do it vicas



26 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

riously, and a preference to settling down somewhere quietly,
while the rest of her family went through Spain; after which
they could come back and tell her all about it. This idea was
only accepted with equanimity by the rest because it seemed rea-
sonable. It was quite unlike the last division of the family, when
the broad Atlantic and the narrow Mediterranean had flowed
between the two parts. A large party is inconvenient for travel-
ling anywhere, and especially in Spain; not only for comfort in
railway carriages, but by diligence, in hotels, indeed, in all manner
of sight-seeing.

Mrs. Horner received the full permission of the council to
“form a nucleus” where she liked, and to select her companions
who were to remain with her, leaving four to undertake the
Spanish campaign. She chose the Pyrénées for her retreat, with
ample advice from the friendly Fords, who knew the region well,
where to select her point of repose. Mr. Horner she appointed
leader of the Spanish expedition, and Miss Lejeune his chief coun-
sellor, keeping Philip as her own protector, escort and_ financier.
Between the two girls it would have been difficult to select, but
that Mary seemed hardly strong enough for the undertaking.
Everybody depicts the condition of Spain as so deplorable, its
roads so bad, its inns so poor, that there is a general impression
that only giants for strength, and lions for courage, should under-
take it. Mary herself hesitated, fearing she should be an encum-
brance; at times not up to the requisite mark. Bessie on the
other hand was now in full health and spirits, with a. tremendous
appetite, and unflagging powers of endurance. She smelled the
battle afar, and champed the bit; it would have been cruel to
have deprived her of it. So Mary stayed behind with her
mother. Tommy became number four, and very joyfully.

Mr. Hervey was out of the reckoning for either branch of the
party. He accompanied them all to Marseilles, and thence to Lourdes,
a way-station on the way to Bordeaux, where the great separation
took place, the Spanish portion going on to Bordeaux, and thence
to Bayonne, as we have seen, while the rest took a branch train



DIVIDING FORCES. 2T

up to fuierrefitte, among the mountains. Mr. Hervey still escorted
them, wishing to see them fairly settled before he left them for
America. .

They had a couple of hours to wait at Lourdes, where is the
famous “Grotto of the Virgin.” A close row of omnibuses waited
at the station to convey people to the Grotto, and small boys way-
laid every one on foot, with voluble offers to escort them thither ;
but the Horners were not even tempted by simple curiosity to
avail themselves of the opportunity of seeing the immense church
which has lately been erected on the spot where, in 1758, the
Virgin Mary is said to have appeared in person to a young girl.
There is a fountain of supposed miraculous powers of healing, and
thousands of pilgrims visit the place. Since the miracle has been
pronounced “authentic” by the Church, it is wholly given over to
their accommodation, and to making money out of them.

A fine drizzling rain made the landscape dull, and the roads
muddy. Mrs. Horner and Mary preferred to remain in the station
reading guide-books and newspapers which they bought at the book-
stall, while Mr. Hervey and Philip, with some difficulty escaping
the attacks of tormentors, determined to take them to the Grotto,
found their way up to an old castle picturesquely placed on top
of a little hill.

“What are you smiling about, Mary?” asked her mother, across
the top of the Vie Moderne which she was looking over.

“Poor Bessie!” replied May. “I was thinking of the last thing
she said while we were standing on the platform before their train
went off. She is so afraid she shall not be up to the mark about
the Spanish galleries. She said: ‘I know I shall not like the
right things, and then aunt Gus will be dissatisfied. She will
miss you all the time she is looking at the pictures,’”

Mrs. Horner laughed, but said:

_ “Bessie has very good taste in pictures. I dare say she will
do very well.”

“But she has heard of the Montpensier collection which came to
Boston long ago, and she fears all Spanish pictures are horrid.”



28 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

CHAPTER III.
TO BURGOS.

T last the train was fairly off, and the Spanish Horners, as

we must call that branch of the family who were to explore

the Peninsula, settled themselves in the four corners of their com-

partment, which was, luckily for them, all their own. They were

such old travellers by this time that everything proceeded with a

certain system. Four neat shawl-straps seemed of themselves to

seek commodious corners of the rack above .their heads. Four

umbrellas fell together behind the straps, There was, besides, a small

straw box containing lunch put up at Bayonne, and a little book-
strap which held the guide-books and time-tables.

It will be observed that each one had an individual shawl-strap
and umbrella. This can hardly be avoided in travelling, and it is
a good plan for each person to consider himself absolutely respon-
sible for these two things of his own. It was the rule with every
Horner, but, for the first time on this trip, Tommy, grown both
strong in arm and chivalric at heart, announced to Miss Lejeune
at the outset that he meant always to carry her strap as well as
his own.

It may seem to tarry-at-home travellers a want of gallantry on
the part of the gentlemen, that the ladies of the party should ever
be allowed to carry their own straps; but experienced tourists
know that the leader of a party must not be burdened with even
the thought of such things. It is the responsibility more than the
dead weight of hand-luggage which makes it a burden; for in
general there is not much carrying to be done; a stout porter is
almost always to be found upon whose broad shoulders portmane



TO BURGOS. 29

teaux may be heaped, and whose hands hold all possible parcels.
He carries everything faithfully and accepts at the end fifty cen-
times, or its equivalent, with contented cheerfulness.

So Miss Lejeune, accepting, for the boy’s sake quite as much as
her own, this gallant knightship, was not encumbered with wraps.
As soon as they were started, Bessie undid the little book-strap.

“Which will you have, aunt Gus?” she inquired.

“ Give me O’Shea, unless your father wants it.”

“Not at all,” replied Mr. Horner. “I am _ going to devote
myself to accounts, for I have not yet accustomed myself to this
Spanish gold.”

At Bayonne Mr. Horner had exchanged his French money for
Spanish without difficulty; nor did he find it difficult to under-
stand the latter, it is so like the French, a fesefa being worth
somewhat, but not much, more than a franc. The sum he received
was given him chiefly in bright gold coins worth twenty-five pesetas
each, looking very much like English sovereigns, and of about the
same value. The reales were rather puzzling to the Horners, because
they heard a great deal about them, but only saw pesetas and
countless small coins of trifling value, which they never came to
clearly understand. Hotel bills are generally reckoned in reales,
and as it takes four reales to make a pese%a (twenty cents), the
number at the bottom of a bill looks formidable with its sum of
figures until it is divided by four, after which it subsides to a
moderate number of pesetas with nothing alarming about it.

A real is about the same as five cents; but it seems a more
important value in Spain, on account of the number of lesser
coins, sometimes very small in size, for one of which may be
bought in the street a handful of carnations, or an immense mag-
nolia blossom ten inches in diameter.

The time passed quickly as the train swept along through scen-
ery sometimes grand and wild, suggesting bandits and brigands.
The guide-books kept our party well posted on the points of inter-
est, historic and romantic, and they would have been glad to pause
often to make a sketch or inspect a castle. Darkness alone gave



30 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

rest to their eager eyes, and minds excited with this first expe-

rience of Spain. They were glad to sit silent for an hour or two.

It was ten o’clock in the evening before they arrived in Burgos.

Here they left the train, with all their little Spanish phrases at

their tongues’ ends, ready to do battle in that language. Passing





SPANISH MULE-BUS.

out of the station, and surrendering their tickets to the man
the gate, they saw a long line of omnibuses, and a long line
porters, all labelled — both men and carriages—with the names
their several hotels. This was quite as it would be elsewhere
Europe, and quite reassuring. Mr Horner, however, endeavored



at
of
of
in
te



TO BURGOS. 81

give a Spanish turn to the way he pronounced the words Fonda det
Norte. The man whose hat was encircled with the same words,
took them to the omnibus of that hotel, took the small piece of
paper, which in Europe corresponds to our bunch of baggage-
checks, and by and by returned with their effects, which were
hoisted up to the top of the omnibus, and plunged down upon it
with the usual thump. All this was all ex régle, except that the
vehicle seemed a little squarer and squalider than some they knew,
and Tommy had perceived that three mules in a row were harnessed
to it. The two or three people who joined them were evidently
not Spaniards, but travellers like themse:ves—a grumbling French-
man, and a very stout German with a curved nose. They started
off with a jerk, and cracking of whips. The three mules kicked
up their heels, as Tommy could see through the darkness from
the little front window, and they were whirled off over a rough
pavement, at a mad pace. The passengers were bumped against
each other, the windows rattled, the little kerosene lamp smoked
and smelt, the thing rocked as if it would tip over. . As they
could not in the least see where they were going, it was a little
alarming.

“Tm glad mamma is not here,” said Bessie, holding on to
the side of the omnibus, “if it is all going to be like this.”

“T like it” —much, Tommy was about to add, but the sudden
jolt of stopping shook his mouth together before he had time to
finish his sentence.

They were ushered into a low, dimly-lighted passage-way. Two
or three proprietors and waiters, both men and women, came out to
receive them, and Mr. Horner bravely began to state his views about
rooms, in words culled from several Spanish conversation-books.
“ Quatro camas y quatros por quatro,’ was what he had learned by
heart, a troublesome collection of q’s and c’s, which means “four
beds, and rooms for four.” He was greatly relieved, though not
flattered, to be answered in English, which, though not of the
best, was more intelligible than his Spanish. They were soon
shown to a wonderful sa/oz, low and large, furnished with dingy



82 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

chairs and furniture, sofas, a shabby carpet, clocks and mirrors
after the manner of France, dimly lighted by two candles. From
this opened at each end a bedroom, so that Miss Lejeune and
Bessie on the one hand, and Mr. Horner and Tommy on the
other, were comfortably established. Two truly Spanish maids came
in, with panuelas round their heads, and bustled about the beds,



OUTSIDE THE STABLE.

Miss Lejeune began trying her Spanish on them, and said, in that
language, that she wished much to learn to speak it.

“Poor lady!” said the girl to her companion. “The Sefiora
wishes to speak our tongue, and she cannot.”

After they were refreshed a little they went up-stairs to supper,
or late dinner. Their own rooms were up one flight from
the street, and were directly over a stable, whence the sounds,
and eke the odors, of animals arose, and in the morning the cheer-
ful hee-haw of a dear donkey. There was no grand entrance or



TO BURGOS. 33

- proad corridor to this hostelry; all the stairs looked like back
stairs, and the passages were dark and narrow. They were placed
at one end of a long table, filled with guests, chiefly men, all
apparently chance travellers. The table was lighted by hanging
lamps (probably kerosene), and ornamented with vases of mature
artificial flowers. The courses were served at the elbow, like any
other fable a@hote.

So much is said and asked about the food in Spain, that per-
haps it will be well, once for all, to give a little account of it.
It is known, by this time, that the Horners were never fastidious
about what they ate, and that they had failed seldom to discover
wholesome food, in some form, wherever they went. They were
prepared to find things pretty bad in Spain, and therefore were
agreeably disappointed in this matter. The fact is that now
almost all hotels in large Spanish cities, are kept either by
French or Italians, and the food is much the same as that fur-
nished in other hotels on the Continent; better or worse, according
to the grade of the hotel. This dingy old Fonda at Burgos
differs from the hotels of Madrid and Seville, in being less like
those of other continental towns; so that the little bit of Spanish
experience which the Horners had had at the outset was not
repeated for some time.

A real Spanish dinner begins with a soup, good or bad,
according to the cook who makes it. Puchero follows inevitably,
the national dish par excellence, and always served. It is not very
different from the “boiled dish” of New England, being boiled
meat, surrounded with vegetables, and garnished with slices of
sausages, lard, and ham, with tomato and saffron, and red peppers,
for even in the food local color glows, as in everything else
Spanish. The chief ingredient is garbanzos, which Gautier describes
as “peas striving to appear to be beans, in which they are only
too successful.” Puchero is not bad; it is eaten with alacrity at
first, but after being served week in and week out every day and
perhaps twice a day, it palls upon the palate, and one reason
for being glad to get out of Spain, is seeing the last of it.



34 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN,

Eggs cooked in oil—good fresh oil—which is used much instead
of butter, or some slight extremet, follows the puchero, and then
comes fish, at this odd point in the meal. After this the inev-
itable roast and salad, sweets and cheese, on this occasion the
excellent gueso de Burgos, a specialty of the place follow, with
delicious fruit, oranges, strawberries, or apricots, according to the
season.







Ze THE CID. 35

CHAPTER IV.
THE CID.

NDER their heads were the omnibus-mules in their stalls, but
nevertheless the Horners slept sound in their first Spanish
bed. Before they slept, they heard the call of the night watch, end-
ing with “All’s well!” at first faint in the distance, then after a
pause, louder, and then dying away again repeated far off. This
reminded them of Alexandria, and made them feel. quite at home.
Next morning instead of coffee, there was brought to their rooms
a tray containing cups of thick chocolate, and bread, with a tumbler full
. of water for each person, and resting across the tumbler a long piece
of crisp white sugar, called azucarillo, This is the national morn-
ing meal, and our party was resolved to adopt the national habit.
The chocolate was good, but very thick. “Too.filling, for this time
in the morning,” said Miss Lejeune, and after this. experiment she
went back to her favorite café au Jait, which can always be had
fairly good. Tommy rejoiced in the chocolate, and in the sweet
azucarillo, which should be eaten after it is dipped in water. A
glass of water inevitably follows a cup of chocolate. It is supposed
to aid the digestion of it. Miss Lejeune thought it would take
more than a glass of water, of which she was not fond, to settle
the rich heavy beverage, especially so early in the morning, and she
seldom tried chocolate after this. This was an exception to her
general rule of always eating in Rome as the Romans do.
When the maids came in to make the beds, the Horners were
still in their salon writing letters. Bessie after careful research in
her conversation-book, asked of one of them at what time would be
almuerzo,— breakfast.



36 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

“ Allassonzas,” replied, apparently, the maid.

“Gracias,” said Bessie, lisping the c with Castilian elegance. She

was half encouraged, half mortified at her Spanish attempt; evi-

A RAGGED HIDALGO.



dently she had been un-
derstood, for she received
a prompt reply, but what
under the sun was it!
“ Allassonzas !”’ she re-
peated as soon as they
were alone. They knew
their numbers pretty
well, but this sounded
not like any of them.
“Tl tell you,” she
herself exclaimed, ‘it
must be eleven! Onza
is eleven, and they prob-
ably say 4 las onzas, at
the elevens!”
“Whereas we were at
sixes and sevens,” mur-
mured her papa, show-
ing that he was in the
best of spirits, since he
permitted himself a poor
pun.
They decided to go
out and explore the
streets until almuerzo,

and reserve the Cathedral for the long afternoon; so they sallied
forth, Miss Lejeune armed with her sketch-book, sighing for Mary
who was always her companion in this pursuit.

Every step brought something amusing before their eyes. The
very beggars in Spain wear their cloaks like hidalgos. They were
constantly meeting Don Cesar de Bazan and all his family.



THE CID. 87

“Tommy! You ought to draw. Stop! I will give you this
extra book and some charcoal. You must!”

“T cannot sketch,” said Tommy sheepishly; but he took the
things, and afterwards made a very good attempt at a dog sitting
down.

They all established themselves in an old arched doorway, look-
ing through at a picturesque court. Mr. Horner kept guard, and
Bessie sat by with a book, though she did not read much, while
Miss Lejeune rapidly washed in effects in water colors.

They were soon surrounded by half the town of Burgos; not

only boys, but women with babies, and grown men, and above all,
- dogs, who pushed in close to them to investigate, and were
recalled by their owners; the crowd behaved very well, and
expressed themselves in half whispers, of which the first word
_ intelligible was “perro;” they said it so often, and the dogs advanced
so often, that the travellers soon put their ideas together. Bessie
pointed at a dog and said inquiringly, “ Perro?” “Si Sefiorina,” re-
plied the ragged boy, and smiled a smile Murillo has often painted,
showing all his Spanish teeth. :

The favorite hero of Spain is the Cid, Rodrigo Diaz de Bivar,
the most prominent figure in Spanish literature. The name is so
obscured by myth and ‘fable as to be almost lost to history. No
doubt such a man lived, but so many impossible deeds have been
ascribed to him, that it is hard to select the true ones. There
are, indeed, a Cid of history and a Cid of romance, very differ-
ent from each other, but both exerting a singular influence
in developing the national genius.

The Cid of history is still the hero of the early period of the
struggle between Christian and Mohammedan, and a good type of
the Spanish Goth of the twelfth century. Rodrigo Diaz, better
known by this Arab title of “the Cid” (el Seid, the lord), was
of a noble family. The date of his birth is uncertain, but it was
probably between 1030 and 1040, during the reign of Fernando the
First, a great and wise prince, under whom the tide of Moslem conquest
was first checked. He possessed a large dominion in Spain, but on



38

A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.



COURTYARD.

his death it was divided
among his five sons. Cas-
tile fell to one, Leon to
another, and other prov-
inces to the rest. Not long
before, the Moorish pos-
sessions had been broken
up into numerous petty
states, and hence there was
quarrelling of every de-
scription, — between brother
and sister, between Cas-
tilian and Galician, as
well as between Christian
and Moslem. No condition
of affairs could be more
favorable to the genius of
a warrior. The Cid first
rose to distinction in a
contest between two San-
chos of Castile and Navarre,
in which he won_ his
name of Campeador, — the
champion, — by slaying the
champion of the enemy in
single combat. After this,
he was entrusted with high
commissions, and fought
many a battle for his king,
then Alphonso the Sixth;
in 1074 he was wedded to
Ximena, a royal princess.
The original deed of the
marriage contract is in
existence. But his great



THE CID. 39

prowess and many successes raised up enemies who found it easy
to kindle the jealousy of the king. He was accused of keeping
back for himself part of the tribute he had won for the king,
who took advantage of his absence on a raid against the Moors,
to banish him from Castile.

Henceforth Rodrigo begun upon the career which has made him
famous, fighting on his own account, sometimes under the Christian
banner, sometimes under Moorish and sometimes against both. Among
his enterprises, the most famous was that against Valencia, which
he took, after a nine months’ siege, in 1094. This was the rich-
est prize snatched from the Moors, for Valencia was then the
most flourishing city on the Peninsula. The Cid took it for his
own kingdom, and ruled it according to his own will, with vigor
and justice, for four years. At length the party of the Moors
most powerful at that time, the Almoravides, whom he had several
times beaten, marched against him in great force, and his army
was crushed. The blow was a fatal one to the now aged and
war-worn Campeador, and he died of grief and anger, in July,
1099. He was buried in a monastery in the neighborhood of
Burgos, with his wife Ximena. There, in the centre of a small
chapel, surrounded by his chief companions in arms, still rest, after
frequent disturbances from friend and foe, the bones of this mighty
warrior, the genuine Spanish hero, the embodiment of the virtues
and vices of his time.

Philip the Second made an effort to have him canonized, but Rome
objected, and not without reason. Whatever were his qualities as
a fighter, the Cid was not of the right material to make a saint,—
a man who battled against Christian and Moslem with equal zeal,
who burnt churches and mosques alike, who ravaged, plundered and
slew for a livelihood as much as for any patriotic or religious
purpose, and who was, in fact, about as much of a Musselman as
_a Christian in his habits and character.

This is the Rodrigo of history. The Cid of romance, of legend
and drama, is a different character, invested with all the attributes
of a grand hero. He is the type of all knightly virtue, the mirror



40 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

of patriotic duty, the flower of all Christian grace. He is Roland
and Bayard in one. From the time of his actual life he has been
the subject of song, and within a. hundred years from his death
he had become the centre of a whole system of myths. The cel-
ebrated poem of the Cid was written in the latter half of the
twelfth century; there are hundreds of ballads relating to him,
some of them full of simplicity and fire. His horse Bavieca, and
his sword La Colada, are’ as famous as himself. ,
Although the glory of the Cid spreads all over Spain, it is at

IN

Jay

ee
i "



By EAN
COFFER OF THE CID.

Burgos that the interest in him centres, since it is there that he
was born, and there that his bones actually repose. When the
Horners were going through the Cathedral, they were shown in a
side chapel a heavy wooden coffer supported high up against the
wall upon iron brackets. It is a worn-out, worm-eaten old box, and
looks like the grandfather of all trunks. This is the celebrated
Cofre del Cid; one of two trunks which he once left as security



THE CID. 41

with a Jewish banker, for a loan of six hundred marks, assuring
them they contained all his jewels and gold, but that they were
not to open them until his return. The true contents of the boxes
were sand and rubbish, heavy enough to deceive the bankers. If
he came back-and paid the sum he had borrowed, this was all
very well; there is no proof that he ever restored principal or
rendered interest, but we will hope that he did so.

Tommy asked why the coffer was thus suspended on high, and
the guide told him it was to keep it out of reach of too eager
tourists and admirers of the Cid, who could not resist splitting off
little bits of the wood as mementos, when it was within their

reach.






>



et GL 1 :
pact agi nash, fy z |
N ASH ESCENE Fea, ATMooRISH C Oe i=!"
oh bikes
















IT ae
Ae







42 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

CHAPTER V.
THE CATHEDRAL

HILE they were eating almuerzo, a merry meal in the dining-

room above stairs, with a mixed collection of travellers from

various countries, all finding fault with the dishes in a variety of
languages, Miss Lejeune said, “If each one of our fellow-guests had

what he wishes to eat set before him, what a mixed menu it would
make! ”

“Yes!” exclaimed Tommy; “liver, sausage and macaroni and
baked beans and edible bird’snests.”

“OQ come, Tommy, there are no Chinese here!” said Bessie.

“No, but very likely some one would order it for a delicacy.”

“Quite raight, my young friend,” said a stout German next
Tommy, who understood a little English, and thought he could
speak it; “most peoples shall tink him own dish what most nasty
to all nations.” :

The sentiment was good, although obscured by its imperfect expres-
sion. Tommy controlled his face, and waited till they had all left
the room before he repeated the sentence to his family.

After very good black coffee, the Horners sallied forth to see
the Cathedral, through the picturesque streets, always admiring the
groups of beggars. They surrendered themselves, though reluctantly,
to a guide, as they had not much time to spare. Such a guide
is at once the stay and torment of sight-seekers. He pesters
them with gabble, drags them to see things they do not want to
see; he makes them stand staring at worthless relics, and tears
them away from the contemplation of a masterpiece. He is igno-
rant of art, history, men and manners, and yet assumes superiority





PATIO OF A SPANISH INN.







THE CATHEDRAL. 45

over travellers because he knows, and they do not, the way around
his one cathedral. It is delightful to dispense with the services of
any guide, and driving off the swarms of them that come buzzing
about, to explore the intricacies of a town, a church, or cathedral,
according to one’s own sweet will; then every new object seems
a discovery, snatched from the whole collection of wonders. The
tourist can make his own decision upon the merits of a work
of art, and follow undisturbed. the thread of thought it awakes.
This course can best be pursued when there are several days to
be spent in one place, and time enough to spare for the loss of
it, which is sure to come from turning the wrong corner, mistak-
ing the point of view, and thus dilating with the wrong emotion.

A wily old valet de place leads his victims straight to head-
quarters. He really does know best what they wish or what they
ought to see, indeed, the thing that makes him so disagreeable is
that he does know more than they do. Then he has keys to
locked-up chapels, or can procure them, and he knows the short-
est way round the building. The quickest way is to surrender to
him entirely, go everywhere he suggests, believe everything he
says, for the moment. This was the Horners’ plan up to a cer-
tain point, when often after a tramp of several hours, they some-
times “bolted” unexpectedly, and, to the astonishment of the
hitherto flattered guide, absolutely refused to stir another step,
demanding to be restored to their hotel.

Matters reached no such extreme at Burgos. They found their
way alone to the Cathedral easily, and there fell into the hands
of a mild, mechanical man who could do a little routine English.
He trotted them round the place, showing everything, and was
neither too loquacious nor too persistent.

The Cathedral of Burgos is undoubtedly one of the finest in
Europe; a grand specimen of the thirteenth-century Gothic. If,
since it is the first Cathedral studied, after entering Spain from
Bayonne, it is overlaid by other impressions in the mind of the
tourist who presses on to Andalusia and the wonder of Seville
and Grenada, yet nevertheless, in the quiet hours of repose when



46 ‘A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

ihe journey is over, the vision of it comes back in all its force
and purity.

The towers and pinnacles are open work, and in the distance
they are seen against the blue sky like filigree work, and at night
stars can be seen through them. The Cathedral is somewhat shut
in, as it is built om uneven ground, surrounded by poor little
“houses ; and the Archbishop’s palace is so close to it, as to form,
‘as it were, a part of the same building; and on the opposite side
a good impression of the inward arrangement can be had from the
outside.

After studying for some time the innumerable statues of angels,
martyrs, warriors and princes which adorn the facade, our little
party entered the immense building, and stood silent before the
grandeur of the interior. It was impossible to do more at first
than to look silently around, following the lines of the columns,
and curves of the arches, while a vague delight and wonder came
filling the mind.

After a little while Mr. Horner came nearer to Miss Lejeune,
and said softly:

' “This is the real thing!”

“Oh, yes!” she replied. “It satisfies all my requirements for a
Spanish cathedral.”

It was many minutes before they felt inclined to do more than
to move about, receiving, without analyzing, the effect of the vast
‘proportions of the whole, graceful at the same time, and harmonious,
until the guide became impatient, and they followed him about to
the different chapels, each itself like a church, in richness and
variety. In each is entombed some great personage, with his
recumbent statue extended in the middle, the head upon a pillow,
and the hands clasped upon his breast,— priests clothed in their
festival robes, warriors in armor, princesses in regal attire; and
all surrounded with a profusion of carvings, gold decorations cover-
ing the walls, altars and ceilings; every chapel contains an army
of. angels and saints cut in marble or wood, painted, gilded,
clothed. oS a Pig ier ghee oe



THE CATHEDRAL. 4%

It is this splendor and richness of decoration which distin-
guishes the cathedrals of Spain; gold, color, carving, and everywhere,
and yet there is nothing either gaudy or tawdry in the effect, for
all at the same
time is sombre
and grand, per-
haps because the
proportions are
so large, but
more because it
is all genuine
work. After the
solemn sincerity
of these cathe-
drals, at the
same time full
of richness and
warmth, that of
Cologne seems
cold and _ bare,
and the decora-
tions of the
modern French
churches flimsy.

Descriptions of
cathedrals are al-
ways tedious to
those who have
not seen them,
and it will not
do to weary the
reader with a detailed account of all the Horners visited. Their
general impression of richness and grandeur lasted all through
their expedition in Spain, It was at Burgos that Bessie first removed
her idea of “doing a cathedral” from the category of idle sight-













INTERIOR OF A SPANISH CATHEDRAL.



48 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

seeing, to that of the most thorough enjoyments of travelling.
They looked with wonder at the celebrated Cristo de Burgos,
which is said by tradition to have been carved by Nicodemus
shortly after the burial of our Lerd. It was found, according to
the legend, inside a box, floating in the sea, and after many
adventures, it finally was brought from this cathedral to a convent.
It is certainly of very early date, and admirably modelled, with a
deep expression of pain; the hair, beard, eyelashes, etc., are all
real. With strange taste, the image is clothed with a_ small
embroidered petticoat.
Even Tommy liked this cathedral better than most he had seen
in his travels, because as he ex-
Nu --- pressed it, “the side-shows were
: all first-rate.” The clocks of the
cathedral are furnished with small
re figures, which come out as the
=~ hour strikes, like the famous one
Ot at Berne. About one of these the
Ty |; sacristan told them this legend, in
pee a broken sort of French, which
—{ s made it more impressive.
It was about a king of Spain,
——p Enrique the Third, who lived in



————

ee NN —— the fifteenth century, and a young
girl who used to see him frequently
in the cathedral, although no word
was ever exchanged between them at their meetings.

One day in leaving the church, the young unknown dropped her
handkerchief. The king picked it up and gave it to her, when the
fair one disappeared and was seen no more. A year after, the
king became lost in the woods one time, and was attacked by six
hungry wolves; he killed three of them with his sword, but after
that he began to feel tired; and he was about to be devoured by
the others, when suddenly he heard the sound of a gun, and a
Strange cry, at which the three wolves fled. He turned round and



ONE OF THE BELLS.



THE CATHEDRAL. ag

beheld the young woman he had seen in the cathedral. He advanced
towards her, when she said with a strange smile, “I love the
memory of the Cid so much that I love all that is great and
noble; thus I have wished to consecrate to you my life. Accept
the sacrifice.”

As she spoke thus she fell dying to the ground, pressing to her
heart the king’s handkerchief.

The king, moved by such devotion, wished to honor the memory
of his preserver, and hit upon the singular plan of putting an image
into a clock in the cathedral, which at every hour should remind
him of the cry of the girl in the forest. He wished the figure to
repeat the very words she used, but the skill of the Moorish artist
of that period was not up to the idea, and he achieved only a
puppet of life-size, which made a kind of shriek when its time
came. It caused so much amusement afterwards to the irreverent,
and disturbance to the faithful, that its springs were broken by the
order of the ruling bishop, and ever since the puppet has been
silent.

Spain is full of legends and romances, which seem worth listening
to on the spot, however absurd they become when transferred from
their natural surroundings. The Cid still lives. Roderick the Goth
is a fact, and as for the Moors, they assert their rightful claim to
the soil everywhere, while Ferdinand and Isabella appear like mon-
sters who drove them from their inheritance. The defects in the
‘Moorish morality are forgotten, and they figure as martyrs to the
imagination.



Bt A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN,

CHAPTER VI.
A LONG NIGHT.

HORTLY before nine p. M., after another meal in the up-
stairs dining-room, the Horners climbed again into the
mule-bus and started off to the station. They had seen the empty
vehicle every time they went in or out of the hotel, for it was



OMNIBUS WITH MULEs.

kept out in the street before the door, hard by the mules in their
stable under the house.

Mr. Horner, and even Miss Lejeune, were a little low in their
minds on account of anticipating the long night journey which
was before them. This is the great drawback of travelling in
Spain. The through trains all fly by night like bats, and turn |
and twist as you may, and thumb your time tables o’er and o’er,
there is no method of evading the discomfort. The party all had
such a passion for looking out of windows at the scenery, wherever
they were, that it was a positive loss to them to pass over so
much ground in the dark, and this regret was added to the dis-



A LONG NIGHT. g_

comfort of a night's journey. However, it was ne& After a little futile inquiry for wagons-lits, which are supposed to
exist, but which are always on some other line than the «oe where
they are wanted, they
settled themselves into
their corners, with
through tickets for
Madrid, facing — the
prospect of eleven
hours and a half shut
tp in their carriage.
They were all so
tired after a day of
busy sight-seeing that
they felt sure of a
good nap to begin
with, «ad so without
their usual lively chat,
they prepared for the
night, opening the
straps and disposing of
rugs and shawls as
best they could in the
way of pillows and
coverings. Luckily
there was no one else
in the carriage, as
Miss Lejeune observed
with thankfulness.
«So I can, make
myself as hidecus as
¥ please,” she added.
This she proceeded
to do by tying 2 bkic



veil tigm: across ner FLOWERING ALOE.



52 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

forehead, and bringing the ends around under her chin, after
which she crammed herself back into a corner with her feet up and
well tucked in. They had drawn the thin silk curtain across the
hole in the top of the carriage through which the gleam came
from a dim lamp, but some little light still made itself felt.

«T ‘love to look at you, aunt Gus,” said Bessie sleepily; “you
look like a mysterious blue sphinx in that corner off there. The
veil is very becoming so.”

“I am glad you are my only admirer just now,” replied Miss
Lejeune gloomily.

Tommy was apparently fast asleep in the position with which he
had first dropped; but he suddenly exclaimed:

“What has become of the H. family! We saw nothing of them
at Burgos!”

“To be sure!” cried Bessie, waked up by the question. ‘“ They
must be lost. We have not seen them since Irun! Papa, have
you seen them?”.

“Hm-m-m,” was the sole reply of her father.

“ Hush, Bessie,” said Miss Lejeune; “your father is asleep already.”

“Valladolid!” he murmured in a thick and sleepy voice.

“Do you suppose,” said Bessie, now in a much lower tone, “that
they went on to Valladolid without stopping at all at Burgos? They
must be idiots!”

“You don’t know, my dear. I believe Valladolid is very inter-
esting, or they may have special reasons.”

“She looked like an artist, the tall one,” said Bessie; “are there
pictures at Valladolid?”

“Do shut up!” barked Tommy; “can’t you let a fellow
sleep?”

The remonstrance though inelegant was just, and Bessie, without
resenting it, closed her lips and eyes at once.

So they all travelled to Madrid through the Land of Nod, for nod
it is, with the jar and jolt of the train. All was silence in every
compartment as the long train swept through the darkness, occa-
sionally stopping with a jerk at a station, then starting off with



A LONG NIGHT. 53

another jerk. The four were not often all asleep at the same
time. Each had his or her periods of misery, when a change of
position was absolutely necessary. There was a twist and a turn,
a thumping of pillows, and then the weary head fell down again
in a new posture, not better, perhaps, but at least different.

Once they were all awake but Tommy, who slept straight through
like a top. They compared watches, and found it was only half-
past twelve. The night seemed endless; and when it came to an
end, the journey did
not. At dawn they
bestirred themselves
and looked out upon
the landscape. It
was raining steadily,
and the country was
wild and barren in
the extreme, without
verdure or vegeta-



tion; huge piles of
irregular rocks were SEAN MTS

tumbled about, with

here and there a scrubby pine. Salvator Rosa might have painteu
a bit anywhere, into which a bandit with his gun would have
come very naturally.

How the Horners felt is well known to those who themselves
have waked up at dawn in a railway carriage with the prospect of
several hours more travel. Their mouths were parched, their cheeks
hot, their heads dishevelled, their limbs all stiff and cramped : and
they were faint for want of coffee or something refreshing. The
lunch-box had chocolate in it, dried ginger and a few sweet biscuit ;
but Tommy was the only one who found these things at all accept-
able. ;

A woman at a station was calling “Leche! leche!” and Mr.
Horner bought from the window in exchange for a very small coin,
a lovely red jug containing goat’s milk. He and Tommy liked it,



a4 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

really, but Miss Lejeune shook her head without trying it, and Bessie
shuddered ater one taste, and took no more.

“How stupid you are not to like milk,” said Tommy crossly.
Tommy was rather cross, but nobody minded it. They were too

2

uncomfortable to mind it.
“Tt is milk that does not like me,’

?

said Bessie meekly. “I have

no objection to it.”
As the light strengthened, their spirits rose somewhat by the

gloomy interest of the wet and dripping landscape. The famous































































































































































MADRID IN THE DISTANCE.

Escorial was passed upon their left, they swept through the last long
tunnel, and saw Madrid in the distance, nearing fast, the royal palace
crowning the height in front ;

The scene at the station was much like any other European
experience. Everything showed that they had reached a large
cosmopolitan centre. Cabs and omnibuses were in attendance, and

they were soon passing through a gateway to ascend the steep



A LONG NIGHT. 55

hill leading to the town. An official stopped them at the entrance-
gate, and fumbled with their hand-bags; but it was only a brief
formality, and soon they found themselves in comfortable rooms at
the Hotel de la Paix, on the beautiful Puerta del Sol.

“Puerta del Sol,’ said Tommy, who had recovered all his anima-

Se ee ee Eee ie









































































































































































ROYAL PALACE, MADRID.

tion and usual politeness.. “I thought it was the name of the
hotel.”

“So did I, to tell the truth,” said his father; “or at least my
ideas were not clear about it.”

“Oh, papa! you must have known that the Puerta del Sol was
a beautiful great square,” said Bessie. :

“My dear,” said he smiling, “I have not been reading up on
Spain as you have. You must remember I have scarcely looked at

@ map. This is your expedition and Augusta’s.”
This conversation was. shouted across the omnibus as they



56 A LONG NIGHT

rattled along the paved street, and Miss Lejeune, who never would
speak in a noise, smiled and nodded, and significantly patted the
little parcel of guide-books and maps which she held firmly in her
hand,

It. was, in. the main, Miss Lejeune who had laid out the plan of
the Spanish excursion. She had long longed for the Peninsula. In
her youth, long ago, the house of a friend who married a Spanish
explorer, was filled with curiosities, which he had brought home,
and the acquaintance with these things thus early planted in
her mind a strong wish to visit the country; there were engrav-

ings from Velasquez, terra cotta images of matadors, mantas of
glowing stripes, and salvers or beaten brass, all of which helped to
make the desire grow. As time went on, she gained an _ under-
lying conviction that sometime she was to go to Spain. She
trifled a little with the language, and even went through a
grammar. The chances which had led her several times over
Europe, and to the East, had not been favorable until now, when
she was really about to visit her long-established Chateaux en
Espagne, with those dear Horners, who now furnished her life
with its chief enjoyment. She was very happy in being thus
able to carry out her dream, and in being allowed to have her
own way about it, too.

Miss Lejeune had omitted Valladolid in her plan, as it was
wise to press on towards the south before the weather should
become too hot. But Valladolid is an interesting place which might
well be used to break the long journey from Burgos to Madrid.

It was for a long time the residence of the kings of Castile,
and later, in the time of Philip the Second, who was born there,
it was the most prosperous city in Spain. It was he, however, who
removed the court to Madrid, and this proved a death blow to
the prosperity of the deserted city.

The Museum and Cathedral contain some interesting pictures
and sculpture. The Cathedral was never finished on the scale
intended by Herrera, the architect of Philip the Second, who made the
designs for it, and began it, because he was called to Madrid in



A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN. 57

order to build the Escorial; and when the court went to Madrid,
no funds were forthcoming to finish the abandoned Cathedral, and
so it was merely put into condition to be used, as it was, for
public service. The libraries contain some rare old books ; and the
streets, like all Spanish towns, are full of picturesque subjects for
sketches,





63 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN













COAT OF ARMS.

CHAPTER VIL

MADRID STREETS.

\ N excellent French ~
G waiter, with a white

cravat, and a napkin under
his arm, came to take their
orders; — so there was no
occasion for Spanish yet, —

‘and soon returned bring-

ing a broad plateau, or tray,
loaded with refreshing coffee,
hot milk, chocolate for Tom-
my, bread and butter and
boiled eggs, for which Mr.
Horner stipulated. Although
his whole family were fond

of the European system of

eating little or nothing early
in the morning, Mr. Hor-
ner retained a secret prej-
udice in favor of something

solid, and, whenever he could, he added veufs a la cogue to the order.
What was more, he generally found that all the eggs were eaten; more
than one, then, must share his secret preference, for Tommy and he
could not eat them all. But Miss Lejeune and Bessie, in Spain, kept
up the theory maintained by all the rest in previous journeys, that
they wished nothing but bread and butter with the coffee. The Hotel

de la Paix is a large French hotel.

Miss Lejeune and Bessie



MADRID STREETS. y

shared a room with two high beds placed end to end, filling up
the whole of one side. Upon a great round table which took up
the middle of the room, coffee was served, and Mr. Horner and
Tommy joined the ladies to partake of it. Their own room was
close at hand, smaller, but with the same view. The large windows all
had projecting balconies, from which they could iook sideways
toward the Puerta del Sol, although the rooms looked upon
‘a narrow side street.

As soon as Bessie had refreshed herself with one cup of cof-
fee, she went to the window and established herself there, roll in
hand, that she might lose none of the wonders of the new city
while she was eating. All the windows had balconies, and many
of them striped awnings. Opposite, and somewhat lower, a barber
had a little bird with a red tuft on its head, hopping about with
a long string to its leg. Within the room Bessie could see the
barber, shaving; but from time to time, he left his customer to
come and see the bird, with his cigarette in his mouth; kissed his
hand to it, puffed a little smoke in its face, to console it for
being tied, and went in again. A hand-organ below was playing
charming Spanish dance-music. A_ still narrower street, a mere
lane, in fact, opened nearly opposite them. It was swarming with
people in strange colors, and a group had collected at the corner
to listen to the announcement of a bull-fight. This was Sunday,
and the great square was filled with people, the women with man-
tillas on their head, and fans in their hands instead of parasols. The
fashionable ladies are giving up the pretty mantilla for Paris bon-
nets, which is a great pity, for a bonnet does not look right on
a Spanish fair one; but it is still the rule to wear the mantilla
to church, so that in the morning the streets of Madrid are filled
with devotional mantillas, while later on in the day only foolish French
hats prevail.

Suddenly Bessie called out, “Oh, come! come quick!” and the
others reached the balcony in time to see the end of a cavalcade
of royal guards in white Jdournous, following the king’s carriages.
Bessie had seen the whole; a string of carriages with outriders,



66 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

postilions, and much gold ornathent, followed by mounted guards,
It was his Majesty going to church.

These excitements, however, could not make the travellers forget
their fatigue. It is the worst part of night travelling, that it unfits
one for much sight-seeing the next day, and thus the time is as
much lost as it would be in the train. While Mr. Horner and
Tommy went out to find their bankers, Miss Lejeune and Bessie
were refreshed with delicious baths, which were to be had in this
hotel. The others returned with their hands full of letters from
America, England, and Luz, the little place in the Pyréneés where
were Mary, Philip and their mother.

“Oh, how splendid!” exclaimed Bessie, as she took her share.
“But I am so sleepy that I must go to bed, and read them
afterward. Is everybody well, papa?” she asked, for she saw the
well-known handwriting of her mother upon the sheet he was
reading.

“Perfectly; and they seem very happy there,” he answered.

“I must write them volumes,’ she continued; “but how hard
it will be when we want to be in the streets all the time!”

“You had better take long naps, both of you,” said Mr. Horner,
“and Tommy, too. Almuerzo is eleven, and after that we can drive
or walk.”

Mr. Horner had letters of introduction to several people in
Madrid, but he did not deliver them at this time. It was their
plan to come back to Madrid later, after taking ee fill of
Andalusia, and the southern wonders of Spain.

Nevertheless, they wished to see all they could of the national
capital this time, and in the afternoon, thoroughly refreshed by
sleep, and almuerzo, and with glowing and grateful hearts, because
of good news in all their letters, hey, took an open carriage to
drive about Madrid.

Their driver was a Madrilefio, but with the help of a few words
of explanation given him by the fortier, who spoke everything,
before starting, they made him understand that they wished to see
the principal points of interest within the city.



Pig
Pz zgpe SGD

ae et, i
Minez LLNS BLT,











rs: =e

Seal











MADRID STREETS. : 63

The Puerta del Sol, the central square of Madrid, is a large
sunny space with a fountain in the middle, wide streets and broad
sidewalks surrounding it, and tall handsome buildings on all sides,
chiefly hotels with gay shops on the street-floor. There are tracks
for the ferro-carril, tramway, or horse-cars, as we call them; besides,
in Madrid, there are large heavy vehicles like horse-cars, which go
where they please; not on any track, The plaza and streets leading
from it are so wide that these cars do not encumber them, nor
interfere materially with the crowds of gay equipages which throng
them, especially on Sunday, when all the world is going to the
Bull Ring.

The Horners were not going to the Bull Ring, but their carriage
joined the gay crowd sweeping in that direction, along the slope of
the Calle de Alcala, passing the Fountain of Cibeles, where they
turned to drive along the Prado, a broad, beautiful avenue planted
with trees and ornamented with fountains, whose plashing water
sparkled in the sun. Iron chairs were placed in rows, which could
be hired for a trifling sum, by any one wishing to rest. Here
first the Horners observed the ‘“cooling-drinks shops,” —- booths where
all sorts of refreshing and not intoxicating drinks are sold. The
Spanish have an extreme fondness for this harmless refreshment.
The number of such places shows the demand for them. The
venders call out, “ Agua fresca como la nieve” (water cool as snow),
and for a very small coin they will furnish a glass of something
cold and sweet, flavored with strange essences. Tommy’s favorite
was horchata de chufas, a very superior beverage of a milky appear-
ance, and a flavor something like orgeat. All these drinks are
very mild, and are but slightly tinged with the flavoring substance.
There has to be a good deal of “ make-believe,” as in the case of
the lemonade of the Marchioness, in order to discover what one is
tasting. It gives a pleasant impression of the moderation in the
taste of a people which contents itself with such mild refreshment,
instead of the heavy lager which the German loves, or the fiery
drinks of all Northern nations. .

The booths where these things are furnished are kept by some



64 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

old woman, very friendly, offering chairs, or perhaps a small girl,
hardly tall enough to reach across her counter. The water used is
in tall jars, porous, to keep the water cool by perspiration, a thing
the Horners had learned to understand on the Nile.

It. was much later that the children became learned in cooling





COOLING DRINKS.

drinks. On that first day they only wondered at the little stalls
where they were sold.

There were so many things to see that they could not fasten
their attention upon any one set of impressions. Their heads were
turning from side to side, to catch glimpses of fine horses dashing
by them ;—ladies in full costume, mantilla and fan, leaning back in
their open carriages, — fountains, monuments, fine buildings, set their
brains in a whirl.



MADRID STREETS. 65

Madrid is said to have little or nothing Spanish about it; to be
a feeble imitation of. Paris; in short, only a second-rate European
metropolis. The Horners did not ‘agree: with, this verdict, for- they
found it marked, on the contrary, with great individuality. The
streets and modern buildings are after the manner of French
models, undoubtedly, but there is a Southern swing in the life and
movement of the sun-bathed city; and though the population has
a European character in its dress, many picturesque costumes are
to be seen. The equipages and horses. exhibit an amount of



EL BUEN RETIRO.

wealth, taste and extravagance at least equal to that of any city of

the same size in Europe. .
They passed the fagade of the Royal Museum, which contains

the famous picture gallery, promising themselves, on their return



66 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

from Andalusia, many visits to its treasures. It is a modern
building with columns, imposing in appearance, though perhaps too
low for its great length. It was fitted up for pictures in the early
part of this century; the collection of splendid works of art it
contains makes it perhaps the finest gallery in the world.

They drove through the Buen Retiro, a pleasant shady promenade
planted with hedges of lilac and other spring flowers, still in bloom.
Their driver brought them back by a turn quite around the town,
that they might see the outside of the handsome Royal Palace,
and through the Plaza del Oriente, where is a fine equestrian statue
of Philip the Fourth on his war charger. The design was by
Velasquez, and Galileo is said to have suggested the means by
which the balance is preserved. The horse is rearing so high that

this is affected only by having the front part hollow, and the back
solid.





HISTORICAL, 67

CHAPTER VIIL
HISTORICAL.

S they were coming. back to their hotel through the steep

and somewhat narrow Calle Mayor, a train of royal carriages

passed them. At first, Bessie and Tommy thought they were to

meet his Majesty face to face, but it was only the royal baby

returning from her airing, in two carriages, with postilions and

outriders. The poor little thing, although wrapped about in rich

robes of soft white, looked as helpless as any other mortal child.

She is an object for sympathy rather than envy, because she is

» princess, when she should have been a prince, heir to the
throne upon which her papa finds his seat somewhat unsteady.

It is now nine years since. Alphonso the Twelfth was proclaimed
\ing at Madrid. He is the eldest son of Isabella the Second, herself
the daughter of King Ferdinand the. Seventh, and of Princess Marie
Christine of the two Sicilies. Isabella was proclaimed queen in 1833,
when she was but three years old. Ten years later, when she was
thirteen, she was declared to be of age by a decree of the Cortes, and
was married not long after to her first cousin, Francisco, a son of
the brother of King Ferdinand the Seventh. It might seem that
the eldest son of parents, both of whom have a claim to the throne,
would have made his way to it, without opposition, in the due
course of events; but this has not been the case. On the contrary,
civil war raged from the time of Isabella’s accession to the throne
up to the moment when her son was placed upon it, and ever
since politicians and patriots have watched with anxiety the doubtful
experiment of a government under the present constitution,— a
monarchy shorn of the splendors which formerly added so muck
to the presence of a king, and closely restricted in its powers



$8 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

The constitution declares Alphonso the Twelfth of Bourbon, «v be
“he legitinate king of Spain. His person is inviolable, but his minis-
.3 are responsible, and all his orders must be countersigned by a
minister. There is a Cortes, which shares tne power of the king,



FOUNTAIN OF NEPTUNE.

zomposed, like our Congress, of two legislative bodies. The Senate
is composed of sons of kings and other personages, and the
Congress of Deputies chosen by the people.

Thus it will be seen, that the plan is to have the government as
free as that of a Republic, while the head of it is called a king, and
he is permitted to be the head on account of his hereditary rights,
instead of being the choice of the people; yet he would not remain
at the head for an instant without the assent of the public. A.
country which from all time has been governed by kings, prebably
feels more at ease under the nominal rule of a monarch; ard this
is the present condition of things in Spain. Repuplican government
has been tried more than once in the tempestuous period since the



HISTORICAL. 69

death of Ferdinand, in 1833; and it is because all lovers of
Spanish prosperity feel that the only hope for Spain is in a period
of peace and tranquility, that there is a general hope for a
continuance of the experiment by which Alphonso and his dynasty
may be firmly established upon the throne. For this reason, a little
prince would be hailed with delight as heir to the throne. The
Spaniards would be kindled to something like enthusiasm for a
future king, born in a peaceful period, of the line of inherited
royalty; so the disappointment was great when 4 little princess
appeared into the world. She should have been a prince, and this
is why the Horners called her the poor little princess, in spite of
her having a duchess for governess, and outriders before and
behind when she takes her little airing.

“How stupid of her not to be a prince!” said Tommy, when
these things were being explained to him.
said Bessie, “and it is a shame that

“She cannot help it,
people should not be just as fond. of her as fifty boys.”

“T dare say her papa aud mamma are fond of her,’ said Miss
Lejeune; “it is only the public that is disappointed. Very likely she
will have a much happier life than a little prince would have done.
In the first place she will not be spoiled,” —

“Nor fussed over about her health,” continued Bessie, “nor made
to wear crowns and carry sceptres. I. dare say she will live to
a peaceful old age, with plenty to eat and drink, and good clothes,
in a comfortable palace all her life.”

“And paint very nicely in water-colors,” added Miss Lejeune.

It is perhaps necessary to touch briefly upon the troubles in
Spain which have brought the nation to this fervent desire for
peace and repose on any terms.

Ferdinand the Seventh was an unworthy, contemptible king; one of
the worst specimens of the Bourbon type. His father, Charles
the Fourth, abdicated the throne in terror, the nineteenth of March,
1808, when Napoleon’s army was marching upon Madrid, and announced
his son Ferdinand as his successor; whom, too, Napoleon forced to
abdicate, for as usual, it was his plan to furnish his own king to



10 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

Spain; and Joseph Bonaparte entered Madrid and took possession
of the throne. But this could not be allowed to last. The
opposition of the Spaniards was enforced by the arrival of ten
thousand English troops in Portugal, under Sir Arthur Wellesley,
who now for the first time began that resistance to Napoleon
which, as Wellington, he crowned at Waterloo. The struggle in
Spain lasted six years, but by
that time the invincible iegions
of Napoleon were defeated. During
this time the Emperor himself
descended upon Madrid; Sir John
Moore was defeated and killed,
the wonderful siege of Saragossa
took place, when the resisting
Spaniards, conducted by Palafox,
and inspired by the maid of Sara-
gossa, held out fifty days against
the French, and many another dis-



aster fell upon one army or the
other; but in the end the French
were driven out, and left the country after the famous battle
of Vittoria, June, 1813, when Wellington, as Sir Arthur Wellesley
had already become, ended the contest.

Joseph was deposed, Ferdinand was reinstated. At the same

FERDINAND VII.

time another Bourbon prince, Louis the Eighteenth returned to rule
in France, for Napoleon’s career was over.

But a worthless prince, like Ferdinand, had no power, if he had
inclination, to heal the wounds of a country bleeding after the
contest of six years. Civil war broke out, and with it came misery,
famine and ruin. Ferdinand was carried off to Cadiz a prisoner
by his subjects, but was again liberated by a foreign army, this
time from France. It was after this that he married his fourth
wife, Maria Christina, 1829, his own niece. In 1830, their daughter
Isabella was born. It will not now appear surprising that this
princess was not at the time regarded with much affection. Her



HISTORICAL 71

chance of reigning was but slight, although at her birth the law
allowed women to succeed; but it was comparatively modern, and
all Spanish prejudice was, and is, in favor of the Salic law,
by which a woman can reign only in default of male heirs. Now
the king bad a brother whose claim was fairly good to the throne;
wko moreover had sons in plenty to furnish heirs, one of whom,
Don Carlos, born in 1788, had an absolute right to the throne in
default of male heirs.

This is the foundation of the so-called Carlist War, which lasted
np to the time of Alphonso’s arrival upon the throne. Ferdinand
died shortly after the
birth of Isabella, but her
mother, Christina, was
very popular as regent,
and in her name the
contest was carried on.

During this time the
state of the country was
so unsettled that travel-
ling. was almost impos-
sible. Lawlessness pre-
vailed, brigands were free



to attack and carry off



people they met, and hold

. ee: me >
UTR Vi Na
them for treason. All fe we Sais

bowl

SS T

internal improvements
were at a standstill, and Sa aa

high-roads and railways were far behind the general standard of
Europe.

All this has greatly changed for the better, and tourists, even
if indifferent to the welfare of the Spanish race, must be grateful
to the present state of order which renders travelling as easy and
comfortable as in any part of Europe, making allowance for certain
drawbacks made inevitable by long distances.

The Carlist contest, after many successes and defeats, came to an end



72 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

in 1840. Isabella the Second came herself to the throne, and there
was again hope of repose for the country, but she was quite
unworthy to govern, being incapable of governing herself; a series
of ministers held the affairs of state. Although some of them were
of the first order of capacity to deal well with difficult matters,
there came a time when Isabella was driven from the throne into
exile; a provisional sovernment was formed, and every plan was
suggested for a permanent one; and finally a new king was elected,
by the Cortes, the Duke of Aosta, Amadeo, son of Victor Emman-
uel. He was invested with the
royal dignities on the second of
January, 1871; but not later than
February, 1873, he abdicated,
having found it impossible to
govern constitutionally in Spain ;
his life had been attempted, his
queen was rudely treated by the
’ grand Spanish ladies, and he was
conspicuously unpopular with the
people. Thus was shown the
strange spectacle of the throne
of Spain, which was once the
seat of the greatest power, and



also the centre of the splendor

ISABELLA II.

_of the world, abandoned vol-
untarily by the occupant chosen for it!

Then came what was called republican government. Almost any
one who was willing to try his hand at playing Presiient might
have a chance. The reaction from this chaotic state of things
brought about the coming of the present king, a thoroughly edu-
cated prince, brought up far away from his ignoble mother, in
France and England.

His life has been a sad one in one respect. He was first married
to his cousin Mercedes, the daughter of the Duke of Montpensier,
a young lady said by all to have been sweet and lovely, and stm-



HISTORICAL. 73

cerely loved by her husband. She died, and he is now married to
an Austrian princess, Maria Christina, who is the mother of the
little girl the Horners saw, and of another princess who was born
afterwards, in the summer of 1882,

It has been for those who have lived through the period we have
just been touching upon, so confusing to follow in brief newspaper
bulletins the ups and downs of the Spanish peninsula, that some out-
siders are, like the Horners, but ill-informed upon the subject. As
they were now in the country, they found it interesting as well as
desirable to study up the subject, and the result of their researches
is what is here given.





4 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.



COAT OF ARMS OF TOLEDO.

CHAPTER IX.

AN INCIDENT.

UST as the Horners drove up to
the door of the hotel, through

the plaza crowded with people, they
had the luck to see the king and
all his suite, driving by on their
return from the bull-fight. The
bull-fight was late, the king was
late, worst of all the Horners were
late, and the zedle ad’hote dinner
nearly over when they entered the
dining-room: only a few _ people
were lingering over dessert, or sip-
ping their coffee. The patient, assid-
uous waiters, however, cheerfully
prepared to begin all over again.
They showed them to their seats,

brought the soup, and resigned themselves to bringing back all the

courses of the long dinner.

“Tt is really too bad we are so late,” said Miss Lejeune. “I

am always sorry for the waiters.”

“Tt is a pity, but they are used to it,’ said Mr. Horner; “ besides,

we could not help it, for the streets were so blocked our driver

had to go slowly.”

“We did not see the king coming back, after all,’ said Tommy.

Just as he was speaking, a waiter who flattered himself he spoke

English, said :

“Look you now here, my master, they come!”



AN INCIDENT, %

And sure enough, the whole royal procession swept by, out-
riders, carriages, and the long train of escorts, in handsome uniforms,
with white burnous thrown on their shoulders, more gorgeous than their
simple morning-array.

_ ©This is doing pretty well, Tommy, to see the king twice
on your first day in Madrid!” said his father.

They went back to their dinner, and devoted themselves to it, for
they all were hungry, and it was very good. As it went on, Bessie
and Tommy began to take notice of a party lower down the table,
who were having, not a regular dinner, but a sort of supper. A
French nurse was superintending the group, which consisted of a
boy about Tommy’s age, a little girl somewhat younger, and a fat and
chubby child which brandished arms and legs in the crude manner
belonging to the age of three years or less.

They had bowls of milk, and were eating bread and butter and
orange marmalade, and talking both French and English with their
mouths full.

“I say, Nana,” said the boy, “you might have taken us to the
bull-fight. That gentleman said at breakfast that it was the noblest
sight in the world.”

The nurse replied in French, though she understood his
English :

“T cannot take you to bull courses. When your papa comes he
can do so, if he sees fit.”

“When papa comes!” the boy exclaimed impatiently. “You are
always saying that. I do not believe he ever will come!”

“Of course he will come, Hubert!” said the little girl, who had
rather a high voice, but a clear-cut English way of speaking. “ We
have only been two days in Madrid, and he does not know
- yet.

“ But T wanted him to be here when we arrived,” he replied.
“It is all very well for you girls to be mewed up with Nana, but
I need the companionship of a man.”

Bessie and Tommy glanced at each other with signs of amuse-
_ment, when the English boy made this speech, Just. then the



76 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

little child, while Nana was looking the other way, made a clutch
at a dish of oranges just out of reach. She lost her balance, having,
in fact, a somewhat insecure seat upon cushions put in a common chair
‘to make it high enough. In falling, she grasped the tablecloth, and
pulled it far enough to overturn the oranges, and to set glasses, finger-

































































































































































































































































































































BRIDGE OF SAINT MARTIN, TOLEDO.

bowls, knives and forks sliding about. Nana turned at once; but
Tommy, who was nearest the party, sprang first to the rescue,
and picked up the baby almost before her head touched the ground.
Of course she was frightened, however, and screamed. The English
children tried to steady the sliding tablecloth; the waiters, who had



















HOSPITAL OF SANTA CRUZ, EARLY I6TH CENTURY. é :







AN INCIDENT. 79

all retired from the scene, hurried back. The commotion mae over
in a few minutes, and nothing serious had happened; a wineglass
had broken in falling to the ground, and a good deal of water was
spilt; but that was all.

The incident served as the beginning of an acquaintance, for not
only Bessie and Tommy, but Mr. Horner and Miss Lejeune, left
their dinner to help the nurse to restore order, and to console the
children who were dismayed.

Miss Lejeune took a napkin and dried the front of the elder
girl’s dress, while Nana carried off the screaming baby, saying as -
she went, to the other children, rather crossly, “Come up, now, and ,
go to bed. This is enough trouble for one day.”

“Go to bed!” said Hubert. “Not I. I shall go out and walk ,
in the Puerta del Sol.”

Seeing the children thus left to themselves, Mr. Horner ventured
to ask them if they were alone. Nj

“Why, yes, all but Nana!” Hubert explained. “We are on the .
way to Gibraltar, and we left mamma at Bordeaux to go up in the.
Pyrénées. And papa was to meet us here, but we arrived first,
and there is no letter. So Nana says we must wait, which is
all very well for girls, but she does not let me go anywhere!”

“You promised mamma, Hubert,” said his sister fretfully, “ that
you would take care of Nana, and me, and baby.”

“Yes; but I did not promise to go to bed before dark!”

The boy was evidently chafed by too much petticoat government.
Tommy pitied him, and Mr. Horner was not surprised at his impa-
tience.

“T'll tell you what you shall do,” said Miss Lejeune. “Fanny,— .
is not your name Fanny?” she paused to ask.

The little girl nodded assent.

“Run and tell Nana that we have invited you both to spend the
evening with us. You can say that Mr. Horner is an American gei-
tleman travelling through Spain ;—she will be sure to let you come.
Then she can put the baby to bed, and rest herself. I do not know
what we shall do, but there is plenty to see from our windows.



80 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

Hubert’s brow cleared. He put on a manly air and bowed very
politely, thanking them all for their kindness, and told Fanny to
take the message.

“My father, Colonel Vaughan, will thank you when he comes,’ he
added.

Bessie went with her to show her afterwards the way to their
room, to which they all adjourned. A box of sugar plums which
Tommy had bought in the morning, served to promote ease and
hilarity. The children were soon talking together freely in the
balcony, and Miss Lejeune and Mr. Horner settled themselves at the
round table to write.

“TI wonder who they are,” said Miss Lejeune in a low voice
when she was quite sure the children would not overhear her. “It
seems strange that they should be alone with the nurse.”

“The father is very likely stationed at Gibraltar,’ said Mr. Horner.
“Hubert called him Co/onel Vaughan, you know. It seems rather
a loose way to look after his children to send them across Spain
with nobody but a French woman to look after them.”

“There must be some special reason for it,” said Miss Lejeune.
“JT wonder they did not take a steamer round to Gibraltar.”

“We shall learn more about it, I dare say,’ said Mr. Horner;
“meanwhile I am glad we can amuse them for this one evening.
I am sorry we must leave them to-morrow. By the way, Augusta,”
—and here Mr. Horner interrupted himself to look for the guide-
books and time-tables,— “I have an idea!”’

“What is it?” asked Miss Augusta with a smile.

“Tt is that we should go to Toledo now, instead of waiting till
we come back from Granada. The season is so backward that I have
no fear of the heat at the South, have you?”

“Not the least,” she replied. “It is a very good plan, for we
shall then have Toledo off our minds when we come back. What
gave you this good idea?”

“Tt was thinking of the Goths, you see,” said Mr. ‘Horner,
laughing, “when: it occurred to me that it would be better to study
their great capital before going down among the Moors.”



AN INCIDENT.

“Well, well! you
Miss Lejeune. “ For
week that he had
of the map of Spain,






















knows the difference
Evidently
ing up!” she added

Moors!

“Not only have I
returned, “but I have
one of the gentle-
He says that Toledo
ful, that
eral days to it, and
ad-
to

and we
given me _ the
pension go

“Very well,” said

to

how about trains?”
“That is what we
They busied them-
and after half an hour
Â¥
ee

"

arranged a plan.

23,-
ERS

KN RELOVERIA |





ZOCODOVER IN TOLEDO.

A see" we
Ds toh
A

81

are improving,” cried
a man who said last
even no knowledge
to now show that he
between Goths and
you have been read-
with a smile.

been reading up,” he
been talking with
the bank.
is perfectly wonder-

men at

ought to devote sev-
he
dress of a sort of
instead of the hotel.”
Miss Lejeune, “and

moreover, has

she continued.

must now look up.”
selves on the subject,
of careful study, had

>



i

rns
_

J ff





82 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

“Children,” said Miss Augusta, advancing to the window where
the new acquaintances were “getting on splendidly,’ as they would
have expressed it, “we are going to Toledo to-morrow.”

“Toledo!” cried Bessie, ‘‘I thought” —

“We have changed the plan,” said her father.

“Oh!” she exclaimed; “then I must go at once and read about
the Goths!” and she jumped into the room.

“T wish we could go to Toledo,” said Hubert mournfully, revert-
ing to his lonely position which these new companions had made
him for a while forget.

“What are your plans?” asked Mr. Horner kindly; “perhaps I
can advise you.”

“We are just waiting here, sir,’ he replied, “for a letter, or
some message from papa, telling us how to go on. I dare say he
has sent it, but Spanish mails are so slow.” Then, as if he thought
Mr. Horner might be wondering why they were stranded at Madrid
in this manner, he added, while the color came into his cheeks,
“We are going to papa, because my mother was too ill to keep us”
with her, and she thought,— she thought I was old enough to bring
them as far as here. But it is too hard,—it is too hard to have
to wait;” and after a struggle, he broke down, and burst into
sobs, with his head on his arm, leaning upon the balcony railing
in the dark.

“It is hard for you, my dear boy,’ said Mr. Horner, putting
his arm kindly round his shoulder, “and I am glad we met you,
because I am sure we can help you. We will see to-morrow about
telegraphing to your father, if no letter comes.”



THE VAUGHANS, 83°

CHAPTER X.
THE VAUGHANS,

EXT morning Miss Lejeune had a little talk with Nana, the
N French nurse of the Vaughan children, who proved to be an
intelligent and faithful woman, fit to be entrusted with the sole
charge of them, on ordinary occasions. She was doing her best,
but the unexpected failure to meet Colonel Vaughan made her task
more difficult than had been intended. She was very grateful for
the interest which Miss Lejeune readily showed, and thankful for
advice as to her course.

“You see, madam,” she said, “the children were to have stayed
with their mother during the summer, but madam became so very
ill the doctor said they must be taken from her. Her disease is
of the nerves. Poor lady! she is very delicate. We wrote to
Gibraltar, and had one letter from the father, and were told to
come here. It was not so very difficult by the train. We left my
lady at Pau.”

“And you have no letter since?” asked Miss Lejeune.

‘‘No letter,” replied the nurse. “Mr. Hubert goes daily to the
banker’s, but there is nothing, and he is growing very impatient.”

Meanwhile Mr. Horner took both the boys out with him, and as
soon as it was late enough for the bank to be open, they went
there ; it was the same place for their own letters and for Hubert’s.

“This is the third time I have been here, and always the same
answer, ‘Nothing for you, sir,” said Hubert, as they climbed the
stairs; “but you will bring me luck, I hope,” he added, smiling.

Mr. Horner liked the boy. His smile was bright, and the look
which came from his eyes frank and direct. He was slightly built,



84. A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

and decidedly smaller than Tommy, who was now a stout, strong
lad, promising soon to be as tall as his brother Philip.

They went into the banking office, and two or three clerks looked
up at their entrance, one of whom rose to meet Mr. Horner with
a bow.

“Mr. Agrazis has not come in, sir; can we do anything for ~
you?”

“Yes;” replied Mr. Horner. “I hardly expect any letters myself
to-day, but I hope you will find one for this young gentleman.”

The clerk turned to another, who seemed to have the charge of
customers’ letters, and they exchanged several words in Spanish.

“TI know perfectly well,’ said Hubert to Tommy, “that they are
saying to each other, ‘There is that everlasting boy bothering us
about his letters.’ They are just determined I shall not have any.”

“No, sir; nothing at all,” said the clerk, running through a
bunch of decrepit old letters which looked as if they had been
in stock since the flood. He took them out of a pigeon-hole in a
set like that in a country post-office, marked with the letters of the
alphabet.

“Pardon me,” said Mr. Horner, “may I look for myself?” He
took the bunch, then said, “ This is not the right bundle; Vaughan
begins with V.”

“Faun, Faun,” repeated the Spanish clerk; “ah, no?”

They all looked for themselves into pigeon-hole V., and there the
solitary letter was lying, a blue envelope directed in a clear, bold
hand, to

Master HuBerT VAUGHAN
Care of Messrs. Agrazis and Brown
Banqueros, Madrid

Hubert pounced on it, too glad to find it to resent the mistake,
but Mr. Horner could not help mildly asking the clerk how long it
had probably been there.

“Oh! last night, last night only. Very positive,” he replied; and;





































































RIA LA BIANCA.

rA MA

SAN’







THE VAUGHANS. 87

Mr. Horner would not press the matter. Hubert was tearing open
the letter, and soon had mastered its contents. It was dated at the
very earliest moment that Colonel Vaughan had news of the plan of
sending the children to him by the way of Madrid. It had probably
been lying in the pigeon-hole at the bank as long as the Vaughans
had been waiting for it; but this did not much signify, as the
contents proved. It was brief, and ran thus:

DEAR HUBERT: '

You will find this on your arrival at Madrid. I am very sorry that you are
obliged to come, but will do my best to meet you, or send some one, before the
end of the month. You will stay, of course, at the Hotel de la Paix, where I am
perfectly well known. Be a good boy and mind Nana.

Your Affectionate Father,
JamMEs VAUGHAN.

Mr. Horner and Tommy stood waiting while Hubert read his |
letter, which to be sure did not take long. Mr. Horner saw at a
glance that he was disappointed and hurt. He hesitated, began to
put the letter in his pocket, squeezing his lips tightly together;
then changing his mind, handed it up to Mr. Horner, with a
helpless movement, as if he surrendered himself, in that movement,
to the guardianship of his new friend.

“The end of the month!” he said in a low voice, as if he
meant the end of the world. It was now only the sixteenth.

Tommy took the liberty of looking over his father's shoulder.
He thought it was an unkind letter ; and, to tell the truth, Mr.
Horner formed no glowing impression of Colonel Vaughan from
reading it; but it was too early to judge his character. He handed
it back, saying briefly:

“Come along, boys; we will go and see what Nana says. Good
morning, gentlemen. Tommy, your umbrella!” And they all went
down into St. Geronimo street, through which they must pass to
their hotel. The street looked changed, to them, though it was as
lively as ever, thronged with well-dressed men, women with mantillas,
dogs, donkey-carts, carriages, hand-organs ; the shop windows were



88 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

as gay, and the gaudy fan which Bessie longed for was flaunting
just as brightly as when they had stopped to look at it the day
before, but Madrid had become hateful to Hubert, and Tommy was
very angry with the unknown father of his new friend, who
could write such a letter as that.

“The end of the month,” re-
peated Mr. Horner; then he asked
abruptly, “ Hubert, should you like
to go with us to Toledo?” :

“To Toledo! Could you take
me? QO,-Mr. Horner!”

“Papa!” exclaimed Tommy, “ oh,
do let him go!”

“Let us see what Nana thinks,”
said Mr. Horner, whereat the two
boys started for the hotel on
the full run across the crowded



plaza, finding their way with great

EMPTY WINE JARS.

skill between the legs of the
horses. Just at the door, they all came luckily upon Miss Lejeune and
Bessie, who were setting forth by themselves for a little stroll.

“Where is Nana? Do you know?”

“She is up there at the balcony of the salon,’ said Bessie,
pointing with her parasol. “She wanted Fanny to stay ‘and help
take care of the baby.” ,

The matter was arranged -sooner and more simply than Mr.
Horner had expected; for it seemed that the head waiter of the
Hotel de la Paix was the husband of Nana’s sister, so that Nana
_was perfectly at home in the hotel, where she had once or twice
before accompanied her mistress, Mrs. Vaughan.

She thought it perfectly proper for Mr. Horner to take Hubert
and Fanny, who was of course included in the scheme, to Toledo
for a few days, while she stayed in the hotel at Madrid looking
after the baby. When she heard of the letter from Colonel
Vaughan, she shook her head and said:



ea

































Ss
os
mB
Z
*
cy
fad



SIX-MULE TEAM, TOLEDO.







THE VAUGHANS. 91

“TI thought as much. Very likely it will be the end of another
month. He is in no hurry, madam,” she added, turning to Miss
Lejeune with a knowing nod, but a smile of sadness, “to take
charge of the children.”

But the children did not hear this. They had scampered off to
get ready for Toledo. Mr. Horner called after them:

“Put up things enough for three days, Hubert!”

“Mon Dieu! mon Dieu!” cried Nana, catching up the baby and
running after them; “with all the ¢imge at the blanchisseuse, shall
there be even a mouchoir between them!”

As the dlanchisseuse was the very sister who had married the
head waiter, this matter was arranged without delay.

“Well!” said Miss Lejeune to Mr. Horner, when they were left
alone in the little balcony.

“Well!” returned Mr. Horner, “this is a pretty high-handed
proceeding !”

“ How exactly like you,” said Miss Lejeune, “to take these wandering
children wholly upon trust, and carry them off with you!”

“As for that, I am not afraid the children will pick our pockets,
or put poison in the soup; but if the stern parent should change
his mind and come after them”—

“And find the birds flown,” said Miss Lejeune, continuing his
thought, “it might be a little awkward. But Nana would be equal
to the occasion. Besides, he will not come. What a letter!”

“T am most anxious about Nana; what if she neglects the baby
in our absence?” said Mr. .Horner.

“My dear, we are not responsible for that baby. Suppose we
had never met them, it would be just the same.”

“In taking the children, we assume the burden of the whole
family, I believe,’ said Mr. Horner, shaking his head. While they
were talking, they had returned to their apartment. Mr, Horner
was walking up and down the room, with his hands in his pockets.
He went on to say:

“Tt is a risk, but I think it will turn out well. I shall set
Hubert to writing to his father at once, before we leave for Toledo,



92 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

and I shall add a postscript, to make it all right with Colonel
Vaughan. So now, we must make all ready for the start this after-
noon. Have you much to do?”

“No,” replied Miss Lejuene; “as we only take the little things,
and leave the trunks here. But you had better send Bessie to me
if you see her.”

He left the room, When Miss Lejeune was alone, she exclaimed
aloud, “ Was there ever’— finishing her thought inwardly thus:
“a man so enlarged and improved as Philip Horner, by marriage
and the intercourse with intelligent women! Twenty years ago, he
would not have taken so much trouble for his own relations, and
here he is going out of his way to give pleasure to some little
stray children. And he born in Boston!”





CALLE ISABEL, 16,' 93

CHAPTER XI,
CALLE ISABEL, 16.

se Nana was left with the baby, and
the young Vaughans, amazed and delighted,
joined the Horners for Toledo. Little Fanny
was shy, and wanted at first to be left with
Nana. Less notice had been taken of her than



of her brother, and she had not the same

BRIDGE OF ALCANTARA.

adaptability that he possessed; still it seemed a
pity to leave her behind, and though Bessie did not care much
about the child yet, she exerted herself to urge her going.

They reached Toledo after dark, and found at the station an
omnibus with mules, like the one at Burgos, only this time the
drive to the town was longer, and the mules were even more ani-
mated. There were eight of them, and they whirled along at a mad
pace, the driver cracking his whip, and the postilion running at
the side, or jumping up on the front animal, who was a horse, by
the way, and not a mule.

Toledo is built on a high rock, almost perpendicular on all sides
but one, It is seen from a great distance above the plain, with
sombre stone buildings rising in terraces one above the other. The
Tagus winds its way beneath the walls in a sort of horseshoe,
through a deep bed with steep, cafionlike sides. They crossed it
by the bridge of Alcantara— or Al Kantarah, which means a bridge
in Arabic — passing under arches and through towers at either end,
and then they began slowly winding up through the town, It had
been light enough to see the river and the bridge, but darkness came
on soon, and they could not tell where they were. The streets
were so narrow that they were close to the windows of shops



94 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

which seemed brilliant in the dimly-lighted streets, and could see
all sorts of Spanish things, tinsel church ornaments, bright silk or
cotton handkerchiefs, and brass work. The omnibus was feebly
lighted by a dim oil lamp, but Bessie managed to make out that
the only person besides themselves in it, who sat in the corner by
the door, was a matador in his bull-fight dress. He had his little
spadas, or swords, with him, under the seat.

‘‘This is the best fun of anything yet in Spain!” cried Tommy



DONKEYS CARRYING WATER JARS.

joyously, between the bumps of the swaying vehicle, and Hubert,
who had come direct from Bayonne to Madrid in the train without
stopping, fully agreed with him.

They stopped before a large wooden door, which reminded them



CALLE ISABEL, 16. 95

of an Eastern Bab, or gate. An unseen cord pulled it open, and
it swung inward, showing by the light of a candle, in a small niche
in a thick wall, a broad flight of stairs, built, as far as they could

&

pet Wis



LOOKING BACK ACROSS THE BRIDGE.

make out, on one side of an open court, or patio. They groped
their way up two sets of stairs, and there were met by two elderly
Spanish sefioras with hospitable manners, like any two ladies await-
ing to receive their guests. The Horners had been prepared for
this, and had got together their best Spanish; and it now came
out, what they had not before thought of, that Hubert, who had
spent most of his life in Gibraltar, could manage the language

pretty well.



96 ' A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

These sweet ladies made them welcome, and led them by a cor:
ridor running round the patio, to a huge room, with small windows,
heavy beams running across the ceiling, and in one corner an
ancient, closed-up door of green corroded. iron, through. which. Bessie
fancied that Roderick the Goth might step into the room at any
moment. There were two little iron beds against the wall, and
there was room in the great chamber for half a dozen more. The
two girls, with Miss Lejeune, were put in possession, while the
sefioras carried of the others. Philip and his father were given a
room whose one window opened upon the corridor, and Hubert’s
room was a little dark place leading from this up three steps, with
a big flowered chintz curtain for a door or portiere.

While one sefiora bustled about making them comfortable, the
other disappeared to superintend their supper. The ladies were soon
restored by fresh water, which was brought in hospitable profusion,
and while Miss Lejeune rested on the bed, the girls leaned upon
the window and looked down into the patio. It was a square win-
dow, with folding sashes, and heavy shutters, all painted a faded
green. Below, through the darkness, they could make out a paved
square court with oleander-trees in green boxes, and in mysterious
corners stood huge jars which might have contained a forty-thief
apiece. A bell rang which they recognized by the sound, as the
door-bell their driver had rung when they came; and then a won-
derful thing happened. The sefiora, who had been bringing them
water and towels, appeared at a window of the corridor, just oppo-
site the one where the children were standing, and pulled at a
cord. They could not see round the corner down below, but they
knew that she must have opened the front door by this process,
from the conversation which ensued in Spanish. Of course they
could not understand it, but they guessed, and probably were
nearly right, that it was something like this:

The sefiora said, “Well! who’s there?”

“Tt is Pepe, sefiora. The butterman has no butter.”

_ What! Then you must run to the milkman.”

“T have done so, and he has none.”



% SF tp
Vy, %
PG
“Wherun
MO ay AT

ery



































PUERTA DEL SOL, TOLEDO.













CALLE ISABEL, 16. 99

“Fetch me, then, some fresh oil, for we have but little; but be
quick, for the strangers are already impatient for their supper.”

The invisible messenger said no more. As the sefiora loosened
the rope, the great door swung to with a bang.

Soon the bell rang again, and the same process took place.
This time there was a scuffling below, and the shadowy form of
Pepe was to be seen hurrying up the stairs which, led from the
patio below, in full view of the children’s post of observation.

Over their heads the stars were shining brightly against the
clear evening sky; pointed dormer windows in the tiled roof which
went around the four sides of the patio, stood out sharply; every
now and then a little bird, which speaks often at night in Spain,
made its plaintive note close at hand. It was wonderfully still
and strange.

Still they were not sorry to be summoned to supper, which was
served to them alone, at a round table lighted by a swinging lamp.
The kind ladies waited on them, and watched to see if they liked the
good chicken and fried eggs which they provided. The Horners
praised everything, to the graceful brown jug that held the water.
Little Fanny, too tired and sleepy to eat much, was an object of
great interest to the hostesses, and one of them offered to put her
to bed before the rest had finished their apricots; but Miss
Lejeune would not allow this. ;

She was afraid Fanny might be frightened in the great room with

the green iron door; but she was a passive little traveller, and in
fact fell asleep as soon as her head was on the pillow.
_“T hope Roderick the Goth will not come in and terrify her,”
said Miss Lejeune, as she resumed her seat at the table, and
began to sip the black coffee, which, late as it was, she had not
feared to accept.

“Who is Roderick the Goth?” demanded Hubert; “you keep:
referring to him.”

“ He was the last of the Goths, so called,” said Miss Lejeune,
“but we. use his name because he was .a famous one, and we have
the Goths upon our minds, because during their rule in. Spain,



wa

100 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

Toledo was their chief place; and while we are here, we expect to
see the traces of their buildings and ways of doing things.”

“TI do not know anything about history,” said Hubert with a
tone partly scornful and partly meek, if such a combination can be
possible.

“Well, you see, you are in Spain because you have. to be, ue
said Tommy; “but as we are here for fun, we want to get all the
fun we can out of a country, by knowing all we can about it.”

“Bravo, Tommy!” exclaimed his father; “these are the true
Horner sentiments.”

“ Well, then, you will have to tell me all you know,” said
Hubert, “for I am rather late to begin.”

“Now, I will tell you very briefly,” said Bessie, “the way I
used to tell Phil, if you will only listen.”

“TI think, Bessie, your general glimpse of the Goths had better
be postponed,” said Mr. Horner, “for it is long after ten o'clock,
and we ought all to go to bed.”

“All right,’ said Hubert, who was struggling with a great yawn,
“but I will listen to-morrow, Bessie.”

The early chroniclers of Toledo say that the city was founded at
least as far back as the creation of the world; without trying to
verify their theories, it is quite probable that the Romans found
something there when they established themselves as early as the
beginning of the third century, a. p. At all events, it was to the
Romans an important centre. The first council of the Church of
Spain was held at Toledo, 400 a. D. Some time later, upon the
irruption of the barbarians of the North, which swept all over the
peninsula, it became the capital of Gothic Spain, and was very
prosperous and important. In Wamba’s reign, the glory of Toledo
reached its climax; but from that time the Gothic name began .to
decline throwgh its own corruption and internal quarrels, all of
which were preparing for the downfail of the monarchy. Secret
intelligence was given to the Moors over in Africa, that there was
a. chance for successful invasion, and they landed at Gibraltar in
great numbers.



CALLE ISABEL, 16. : 101

Roderick, with all his Goths, came out to meet them, and a great
battle was fought, not far from Cadiz, on the banks of the Guade-
lete. Roderick advanced towards the enemy, dressed in gold and
purple, standing in his ivory chariot, with a wonderful headdress,
and two mules splendidly accoutred. These signs of royalty made
him an easy mark, and he was cut down by the weapon of the
Turk. The head of the king was cut off and forwarded to the
court of Damascus. Thus fell the monarchy of the Goths, and thus
began the domination of the Moor, whose rule in Spain lasted
eight hundred years. They, too, at first, made Toledo their chief
place until Cordova became their court and capital.





102 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

CHAPTER XII
TOLEDO.

URING all the centuries, the great races who have appeared
in Spain, lived their life, and vanished, have had some foot-
hold in Toledo. They have all left their traces there, which are
yet to be seen, although the city has now become a place of little
importance other than its many monuments of the past. Old
Roman archways, the traces of the palace ‘of the Gothic kings,
beautiful specimens of Moorish mosques and of Jewish synagogues,
are still visible; for when Toledo was first taken by the Moors it
was filled with Hebrews, who helped the Moors because they had
been persecuted by their previous rulers, the Goths. The Cathedral,
and the Church of San Juan de los Reyes, are monuments of the
Spanish Christians, and the present century is represented by the
destruction wrought by French soldiers in 1810.

The streets are irregular, ill-paved, and steep and winding; but
this intricacy was intentional, for it made them easy to defend when
attacked, and kept them cool in summer. The houses are for the
most part Moorish, built about patios, or courts, over which awnings
are drawn in summer.

In the heart of the city towers the Cathedral, around which cluster
many churches and convents, now silent and deserted. The silence
of the place strikes the ear at once, where no carriages, and but sel-
dom a footfall, disturb the echoes of the narrow streets.

The Horners passed three delightful days there, going back to
Madrid on the evening of the third. The hospitable sisters, who kept
the house, would fain have them stay a month, and they were so
enchanted with their quarters, nothing would have pleased them
better.





















































Fi ‘ PROCESSION OF MONKS.







Full Text




















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YOUNG AMERICANS
IN SPAIN

Br sze8

BY

MISS SUSAN HALE

AUTHOR, WITH REV. E, E. HALE, OF “A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH FRANCE,
GERMANY, NORWAY, AND SWITZERLAND,” AND OF {fA FAMILY
FLIGHT. OVER EGYPT AND SYRIA”

FULLY ILLUSTRATED

BOSTON
~ LOTHROP PUBLISHING COMPANY
CopyrIGHT, 1899)

BY

LOTHROP PUBLISHING COMPANY.
YOUNG AMERICANS IN SPAIN.
CHAPTER I.

OVER THE BORDER.

BSOLUTELY nothing, sir, but
wearing apparel, and perhaps a
few drawing materials.”

This statement in French was
made to a mild-looking official
who stood within a long coun-
ter piled with trunks, boxes, port-
manteaux and valises. On the
outer side was an anxious crowd
of travellers pressing and push-
ing to find their own impedi-
ments, in order to have them
passed without delay.

The mild official chalked a
white cross upon the box under
inspection.

“Ts that all, Monsieur?”

“That is all, Bessie, is it not?”
asked the gentleman who was



z conducting the transaction; “one,
two, three and the ship trunk,” he added in the same breath.
“No, papa, I have not found the little black box yet.”
“Here it is!” cried a boy who now appeared, bumping every one
in the crowd with the corners of a small travelling box which @
porter in a blue blouse was struggling to take away.
14 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

“This man cannot speak anything,” cried Tommy, “but he
thinks the trunk belongs to those other people.”

Blue Blouse consented to surrender the box; by this time the mild
offieial was far away on his side of the counter, making white
crosses upon the boxes of other impatient tourists, some of whom
were obliged to open their trunks to satisfy the inspectors. All
the travellers who were to go away by the train which was stand-
ing outside the station, were in a great hurry; all the officials who
were to stay, appeared to be in no sort of haste.

Finally one of them turned his attention to the little trunk.
‘It was a harmless black box, marked T. P. H., but for some reason
‘it appeared suspicious to the Spanish inspector, and he demanded
that it should be opened. Straps were unfastened, the key pro-
duced, and the top thrown back. Soiled linen, slippers, and a
dressing-case appeared upon the surface. The man _ plunged his
‘hand into a corner, fumbled about, punched and squeezed a sponge
in its india-rubber bag, then withdrew satisfied; and the ‘party,
‘now permitted to return to their seats in the train, hurried through
the long room where many other people less fortunate than them-
selves were still searching for their effects, and undergoing the
examination, which, however slight it may. be, is always tedious and
vexing. They passed along the row of carriages, some of them
empty, the doors standing open ready for their occupants who were
still away struggling with the inspectors. In others, placid parties
were reading or chatting together. A lady sitting at the open
door of a compartment, was watching for the party; as they
approached she called out:

' “Here I am! I have guarded our seats like a dragon, and I
‘believe we shall still have the compartment to ourselves. Is every-
thing safe?”

“Yes, aunt Dut,” replied the girl. “And here are your keys.
We did not have to open one of your things, and they only fell
foul of Tommy’s small box.”

“JT don’t care,” said the boy, “they did not find the gee aa
it was too near the bottom.”


A PLACID PARTY. ‘ 4

OVER THE BORDER. . &

“You do not mean to say that any of that is left!” exclaimed
Miss LEJEUNE.

For this was Miss Lejeune who was guarding the carriage, keep-
ing seats for the rest of the party, which consisted of herself and
Mr. Horner, with Bessie Horner and Tommy. These now all entered
the carriage and began tc dispose of the wraps and straps which
they had spread about upon the seats before leaving it, in order
to make the aspect of things as forbidding as possible to passen-
gers searching for seats. A compartment in continental railway car-
riages is built to hold eight, but it is much more comfortable for
four persons only; thus it becomes one of the great arts of travel
to keep out intruders. Four is the most convenient number for a
party travelling in this way. It not infrequently happens that they
can keep a compartment to themselves, and have plenty of room
for putting up feet, leaning comfortably in corners, and above all,
they can control the two windows. There is room for the exhibi-
tion of all grades of good breeding, and bad manners, in this mat-
ter of the compartment. It is perfectly fair for a party to try to keep
the whole for themselves, especially if the train is long, with plenty
of accommodation for all; it is annoying when new-comers persist
in invading the place already taken possession of, and, by trampling
upon toes, crowding the racks, and pushing themselves into the
vacant seats, succeed in making the whole journey uncomfortable,
and their presence disagreeable, instead of seeking elsewhere in the
train an empty carriage. On the other hand, perhaps the intruders
have not been able to find another carriage, or are forced to take
this one by the guard, who does not encourage the exclusive sys-
tem; in this case, it is hard for the late arriving travellers, flus-
‘tered and hurried, with their hands full of rugs and bags, to find
themselves most unwelcome, with no space resigned to them, only’
forbidding glances cast upon them, and even grumbling remarks
which they can guess at weil enough, although the language in
which they are spoken may be foreign.

The Horners were now settling themselves into the best corners
of a first-class carriage of a train which had just crossed the frontier
18 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

re

between France and Spain. The station was Irun, in the Spanisn
Basque Provinces. At Hendaye, their last krench town, they had
crossed the frontier, and there changed carriages, necessary because
the Spanish railways are built with a wider gauge than the French
one, in order to impede invasion, it is said. Judging by the length
of time required to transfer the ordinary travel of a period of peace,
we may imagine that the delay to an impetuous army might be
serious.

The Horners had left Bayonne about noon that day, having come
from Bordeaux the day before. The day was lovely and the scenery
charming, with glimpses of the Bay of Biscay, at intervals, on one







































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































BORDEAUX

side, and on the other the soft line of the receding Pyrénées. It
would have been pleasant to linger at Arcachon, a bright watering-
place near Bordeaux, or to take a branch train to Biarritz, the favorite
resort of the Empress Eugénie, still beautiful, though less frequented
than in its palmier days. As they crossed the little river Bidassoa,
which is the boundary between France and Spain, they saw a small
island Jes Faisans, called also 2’Lle de la conférence, which has served
OVER THE BORDER. 1g

as neutral ground for more than one meeting important in history, as
for instance the exchange of Francis the First, of France, after he had
been the prisonerof Charles the Fifth.

“See!” said Miss Lejeune in a low tone, ancien Bessie, “there
are those people who came from Bayonne. I saw them passing
before. I suppose they have been identifying. their boxes.”

5 They look nice,’ replied Bessie, “but I am glad they are not
coming in here, for they have such quantities of hand-baggage.”

“They must be changing their seats. Perhaps they did not find
good ones at Hendaye.”

The party they were observing consisted of a tall elderly gen-
tleman, and three ladies, of whom the first seemed advanced in
middle age, while the other two, who followed, were much younger,
one of them wearing her long hair in a braid, as Bessie still did,
for convenience in travelling. Each of the party was laden with
shawls, umbrellas, guide-books hastily seized upon at a sudden
signal for flight, and a waterproof of india-rubber trailed on the
ground from one of the overflowing heaps. Tommy jumped out and
ran up to the youngest girl, saying in French:

“ Permettez mot, mademotselle,’ while he tried to take her third
umbrella from her.

“Oh, thank you; don’t trouble yourself,” she replied in very good
English.

They had now reached the door of an empty carriage, and
Tommy’s assistance was by no means superfluous in helping them
in. A little shriek, however, from the engine, startled them all,
and he left them to hurry back to his own party. The guard
pushed him in, banged the door, hurried every one else on the
platform, banged more doors, and waved his hand at other guards
banging other doors.

“Now we are Off,” said Bessie, leaning back in her stuffed and
cushioned corner.

After this, the train stood motionless on the track for more than
twenty minutes; useless to inquire wherefore. Nothing of impor-
tance occurred. The luggage had been all examined and marke‘
20 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

and transferred to the vans. No passengers were missing. The
Horners put their heads out of the window, but saw nothing to
account for the delay. The Spanish passengers in the other depart-
ments were not disturbed, but quietly read their newspapers and
smoked their cigarettes.

Thus it is upon the Spanish railways. Repose and procrastination
pervade the system. Perhaps the officials inherit from Moorish















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































BIARRITZ.

ancestors the Mohammedan belief in “Kismet,” for it is by Faith
and Fate that trains reach their destination, rather than by rule
and time-table. They start sometime, and they arrive somewhere,
and that is pretty much all that can be asserted of their punctu-
ality.

For the rest, the carriages are comfortable and clean, the
officials are civil and obliging, the duffers frequent enough, and the
food good enough for travellers with good digestions, and enterprise,
to risk experiments in strange cakes, fruits and beverages.

After all, there is no hurry! ff you have allowed a certain time
for seeing Spain, you “may as well see it from a railway station as
elsewhere. The Horners, like other Spanish travellers, came to feel
OVER THE BORDER. \ a

more intimate with the two gens d’armes, or alguazils, who stand
at every station, than with any other inhabitants of the country.
They stand immovable, in full uniform, with white hats that have
a sort of flap at the back, watching the train, and awaiting its
start. hey are always on the platform as the train draws up at
each station, and they all look so exactly alike, that it is pleasant
to indulge the belief that they really are the same pair transferred
by some process of swiftness, as yet unknown to the rest of the
Spanis4, from one station to another, to protect with their wooden
vigilance the interests of the travelling public. '


23 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

CHAPTER II.
DIVIDING FORCES.

PAIN is entered perhaps most naturally in

the way the Horners selected, by crossing
the frontier at Irun, in order to pass down
\, through Burgos to Madrid. It was now the
44 first of May, and, although they had made all
ij haste in coming from the East, where they
had been passing a delightful and instructive
winter, the season was somewhat advanced for
making the Spanish trip.

“Spain so late!” exclaimed the Wiseacres.
“You will perish with heat.”

“You never will be able to stand the climate
of Madrid in June.”

“Make haste to get through the southern
part first, or you will miss all the charm of it,”
said others.

In spite of these discouraging warnings, the
Horners continued to feel an interest in their
own plan, which had been made not without



recognition of the phenomena of heat and cold,
as affected by climate. They came from Bor-
deaux to Bayonne through the level, monotonous, but picturesque
Landes, where Bessie from her window had the good luck to see
a shepherd on changues—tall stilts—-which are still worn by the
people to move about upon the soft, marshy ground. The Landes
is a barren stretch of country, covered with turf and moss. Pines
DIVIDING FORCES. 23

are the only trees, and it would look desolate enough, except that
where the railway crosses it, trees lately planted are beginning to
change its aspect of desolation.

Bayonne is a fortified town, enclosed in walls, and entered by
four gates. It is so near the frontier of Spain that it already
begins to have a Spanish look. The streets are lively with a great
variety of faces, costumes and languages; for Basques, Gascons,
and Spaniards, are coming and going continually. The women have
pretty handkerchiefs tied about their heads, and the men wear
beréts and ceintures of bright colors. ,

The Romans constructed a citadel at Bayonne. As early as the







































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































BAYONNE.

twelfth century it was a place of importance for the whale fishery,
tanning of leather, navigation, and traffic with Spain.

The marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine with Henry of England,
gave Bayonne to that country. Richard Coeur de Lion extended
its privileges, which came to be so great that it was almost inde-
pendent. Subsequent rulers had much trouble in restraining its
liberties. The mayor of Bayonne used to be in those days a most
dmportant magnate, executing justice as seemed sieht in his own
24 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

eyes, upon all evildoers, The Bayonne people were always xt odds
with the Basques, their next neighbors, and intimate enemies; leg-
ends remain of endless contests, and of one great battle in
the hall of a town where the Bay-
onne men were surprised by a party
of Basques. They fought with chairs
and tables, as well as sharper weap-
ons, until almost everybody was killed
on each side.

It was at Bayonne that Francis
the First arrived from his prison at
Madrid, and found his mother and
the court awaiting him. Since then
the local history of the place may be said to consist of passages



A BASQUE.

back and forth of princes and princesses; in the present century it
has served often as a place of shelter for Spanish political schemers.

The Basques, into whose province the Horners now passed, are
said to be the descendants of the earliest inhabitants of the Penin-
sula, and to this day they preserve their strongly-marked charac-
teristics of custom and language. Like the Bayonne men of old,
they have a strong sense of independence, and a determination to
maintain laws of their own, which have been respected at all times. -
They are noted for truth and honesty, and for their unbounded
hospitality. They are tall, and often handsome, with fair hair and
blue eyes, like the ideal Norsemen, which comes naturally from
their Celtic origin, different from that of other Spaniards. The
Basque language, wholly different from Spanish, is remarkable, and
difficult. They still wear the national costume, which is highly
picturesque; for the men, short dark velvet jackets, and loose
trousers, with a/fargatas on their feet, and a blue or bright red sash
about the waist.

The Horners at once began to enjoy the novelty of the Spanish
national costumes. Although, as in other parts of Europe, these
are now somewhat superseded by the encroaching black broadcloth
for men, and conventional Parisian fashions for women, much still
ee ee ee eee



DIVIDING FORCES. 25

remains of picturesque attire. Each province of Spain has its
own characteristic ; different colors prevail in different places, with,
however, a general similarity. The short breeches coming only to
the knee, with buttons up the outside of the leg, are so much
more becoming to the manly form than the long, slouchy trousers
enforced by fashion, that it seems strange that man’s vanity
should have been so passive as to allow the change. Alfargatas
are sandals of white hemp, thick and strong, for the sole of the
foot, bound on with a mysterious arrangement of strings, generally
black, crossed over the foot.

It must now be explained why the Horner family is so small as to

occupy only the four corners of their compartment. They have been











seen filling the whole of one without extending the actual limits of
their party. :

Upon leaving the East, Spain was the goal towards which the
minds of the Horners turned, but there was a difference in the
degree of longing with which each regarded that land of romance.

*q sunshine. Mrs. Horner expressed a willingness to do it vicas
26 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

riously, and a preference to settling down somewhere quietly,
while the rest of her family went through Spain; after which
they could come back and tell her all about it. This idea was
only accepted with equanimity by the rest because it seemed rea-
sonable. It was quite unlike the last division of the family, when
the broad Atlantic and the narrow Mediterranean had flowed
between the two parts. A large party is inconvenient for travel-
ling anywhere, and especially in Spain; not only for comfort in
railway carriages, but by diligence, in hotels, indeed, in all manner
of sight-seeing.

Mrs. Horner received the full permission of the council to
“form a nucleus” where she liked, and to select her companions
who were to remain with her, leaving four to undertake the
Spanish campaign. She chose the Pyrénées for her retreat, with
ample advice from the friendly Fords, who knew the region well,
where to select her point of repose. Mr. Horner she appointed
leader of the Spanish expedition, and Miss Lejeune his chief coun-
sellor, keeping Philip as her own protector, escort and_ financier.
Between the two girls it would have been difficult to select, but
that Mary seemed hardly strong enough for the undertaking.
Everybody depicts the condition of Spain as so deplorable, its
roads so bad, its inns so poor, that there is a general impression
that only giants for strength, and lions for courage, should under-
take it. Mary herself hesitated, fearing she should be an encum-
brance; at times not up to the requisite mark. Bessie on the
other hand was now in full health and spirits, with a. tremendous
appetite, and unflagging powers of endurance. She smelled the
battle afar, and champed the bit; it would have been cruel to
have deprived her of it. So Mary stayed behind with her
mother. Tommy became number four, and very joyfully.

Mr. Hervey was out of the reckoning for either branch of the
party. He accompanied them all to Marseilles, and thence to Lourdes,
a way-station on the way to Bordeaux, where the great separation
took place, the Spanish portion going on to Bordeaux, and thence
to Bayonne, as we have seen, while the rest took a branch train
DIVIDING FORCES. 2T

up to fuierrefitte, among the mountains. Mr. Hervey still escorted
them, wishing to see them fairly settled before he left them for
America. .

They had a couple of hours to wait at Lourdes, where is the
famous “Grotto of the Virgin.” A close row of omnibuses waited
at the station to convey people to the Grotto, and small boys way-
laid every one on foot, with voluble offers to escort them thither ;
but the Horners were not even tempted by simple curiosity to
avail themselves of the opportunity of seeing the immense church
which has lately been erected on the spot where, in 1758, the
Virgin Mary is said to have appeared in person to a young girl.
There is a fountain of supposed miraculous powers of healing, and
thousands of pilgrims visit the place. Since the miracle has been
pronounced “authentic” by the Church, it is wholly given over to
their accommodation, and to making money out of them.

A fine drizzling rain made the landscape dull, and the roads
muddy. Mrs. Horner and Mary preferred to remain in the station
reading guide-books and newspapers which they bought at the book-
stall, while Mr. Hervey and Philip, with some difficulty escaping
the attacks of tormentors, determined to take them to the Grotto,
found their way up to an old castle picturesquely placed on top
of a little hill.

“What are you smiling about, Mary?” asked her mother, across
the top of the Vie Moderne which she was looking over.

“Poor Bessie!” replied May. “I was thinking of the last thing
she said while we were standing on the platform before their train
went off. She is so afraid she shall not be up to the mark about
the Spanish galleries. She said: ‘I know I shall not like the
right things, and then aunt Gus will be dissatisfied. She will
miss you all the time she is looking at the pictures,’”

Mrs. Horner laughed, but said:

_ “Bessie has very good taste in pictures. I dare say she will
do very well.”

“But she has heard of the Montpensier collection which came to
Boston long ago, and she fears all Spanish pictures are horrid.”
28 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

CHAPTER III.
TO BURGOS.

T last the train was fairly off, and the Spanish Horners, as

we must call that branch of the family who were to explore

the Peninsula, settled themselves in the four corners of their com-

partment, which was, luckily for them, all their own. They were

such old travellers by this time that everything proceeded with a

certain system. Four neat shawl-straps seemed of themselves to

seek commodious corners of the rack above .their heads. Four

umbrellas fell together behind the straps, There was, besides, a small

straw box containing lunch put up at Bayonne, and a little book-
strap which held the guide-books and time-tables.

It will be observed that each one had an individual shawl-strap
and umbrella. This can hardly be avoided in travelling, and it is
a good plan for each person to consider himself absolutely respon-
sible for these two things of his own. It was the rule with every
Horner, but, for the first time on this trip, Tommy, grown both
strong in arm and chivalric at heart, announced to Miss Lejeune
at the outset that he meant always to carry her strap as well as
his own.

It may seem to tarry-at-home travellers a want of gallantry on
the part of the gentlemen, that the ladies of the party should ever
be allowed to carry their own straps; but experienced tourists
know that the leader of a party must not be burdened with even
the thought of such things. It is the responsibility more than the
dead weight of hand-luggage which makes it a burden; for in
general there is not much carrying to be done; a stout porter is
almost always to be found upon whose broad shoulders portmane
TO BURGOS. 29

teaux may be heaped, and whose hands hold all possible parcels.
He carries everything faithfully and accepts at the end fifty cen-
times, or its equivalent, with contented cheerfulness.

So Miss Lejeune, accepting, for the boy’s sake quite as much as
her own, this gallant knightship, was not encumbered with wraps.
As soon as they were started, Bessie undid the little book-strap.

“Which will you have, aunt Gus?” she inquired.

“ Give me O’Shea, unless your father wants it.”

“Not at all,” replied Mr. Horner. “I am _ going to devote
myself to accounts, for I have not yet accustomed myself to this
Spanish gold.”

At Bayonne Mr. Horner had exchanged his French money for
Spanish without difficulty; nor did he find it difficult to under-
stand the latter, it is so like the French, a fesefa being worth
somewhat, but not much, more than a franc. The sum he received
was given him chiefly in bright gold coins worth twenty-five pesetas
each, looking very much like English sovereigns, and of about the
same value. The reales were rather puzzling to the Horners, because
they heard a great deal about them, but only saw pesetas and
countless small coins of trifling value, which they never came to
clearly understand. Hotel bills are generally reckoned in reales,
and as it takes four reales to make a pese%a (twenty cents), the
number at the bottom of a bill looks formidable with its sum of
figures until it is divided by four, after which it subsides to a
moderate number of pesetas with nothing alarming about it.

A real is about the same as five cents; but it seems a more
important value in Spain, on account of the number of lesser
coins, sometimes very small in size, for one of which may be
bought in the street a handful of carnations, or an immense mag-
nolia blossom ten inches in diameter.

The time passed quickly as the train swept along through scen-
ery sometimes grand and wild, suggesting bandits and brigands.
The guide-books kept our party well posted on the points of inter-
est, historic and romantic, and they would have been glad to pause
often to make a sketch or inspect a castle. Darkness alone gave
30 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

rest to their eager eyes, and minds excited with this first expe-

rience of Spain. They were glad to sit silent for an hour or two.

It was ten o’clock in the evening before they arrived in Burgos.

Here they left the train, with all their little Spanish phrases at

their tongues’ ends, ready to do battle in that language. Passing





SPANISH MULE-BUS.

out of the station, and surrendering their tickets to the man
the gate, they saw a long line of omnibuses, and a long line
porters, all labelled — both men and carriages—with the names
their several hotels. This was quite as it would be elsewhere
Europe, and quite reassuring. Mr Horner, however, endeavored



at
of
of
in
te
TO BURGOS. 81

give a Spanish turn to the way he pronounced the words Fonda det
Norte. The man whose hat was encircled with the same words,
took them to the omnibus of that hotel, took the small piece of
paper, which in Europe corresponds to our bunch of baggage-
checks, and by and by returned with their effects, which were
hoisted up to the top of the omnibus, and plunged down upon it
with the usual thump. All this was all ex régle, except that the
vehicle seemed a little squarer and squalider than some they knew,
and Tommy had perceived that three mules in a row were harnessed
to it. The two or three people who joined them were evidently
not Spaniards, but travellers like themse:ves—a grumbling French-
man, and a very stout German with a curved nose. They started
off with a jerk, and cracking of whips. The three mules kicked
up their heels, as Tommy could see through the darkness from
the little front window, and they were whirled off over a rough
pavement, at a mad pace. The passengers were bumped against
each other, the windows rattled, the little kerosene lamp smoked
and smelt, the thing rocked as if it would tip over. . As they
could not in the least see where they were going, it was a little
alarming.

“Tm glad mamma is not here,” said Bessie, holding on to
the side of the omnibus, “if it is all going to be like this.”

“T like it” —much, Tommy was about to add, but the sudden
jolt of stopping shook his mouth together before he had time to
finish his sentence.

They were ushered into a low, dimly-lighted passage-way. Two
or three proprietors and waiters, both men and women, came out to
receive them, and Mr. Horner bravely began to state his views about
rooms, in words culled from several Spanish conversation-books.
“ Quatro camas y quatros por quatro,’ was what he had learned by
heart, a troublesome collection of q’s and c’s, which means “four
beds, and rooms for four.” He was greatly relieved, though not
flattered, to be answered in English, which, though not of the
best, was more intelligible than his Spanish. They were soon
shown to a wonderful sa/oz, low and large, furnished with dingy
82 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

chairs and furniture, sofas, a shabby carpet, clocks and mirrors
after the manner of France, dimly lighted by two candles. From
this opened at each end a bedroom, so that Miss Lejeune and
Bessie on the one hand, and Mr. Horner and Tommy on the
other, were comfortably established. Two truly Spanish maids came
in, with panuelas round their heads, and bustled about the beds,



OUTSIDE THE STABLE.

Miss Lejeune began trying her Spanish on them, and said, in that
language, that she wished much to learn to speak it.

“Poor lady!” said the girl to her companion. “The Sefiora
wishes to speak our tongue, and she cannot.”

After they were refreshed a little they went up-stairs to supper,
or late dinner. Their own rooms were up one flight from
the street, and were directly over a stable, whence the sounds,
and eke the odors, of animals arose, and in the morning the cheer-
ful hee-haw of a dear donkey. There was no grand entrance or
TO BURGOS. 33

- proad corridor to this hostelry; all the stairs looked like back
stairs, and the passages were dark and narrow. They were placed
at one end of a long table, filled with guests, chiefly men, all
apparently chance travellers. The table was lighted by hanging
lamps (probably kerosene), and ornamented with vases of mature
artificial flowers. The courses were served at the elbow, like any
other fable a@hote.

So much is said and asked about the food in Spain, that per-
haps it will be well, once for all, to give a little account of it.
It is known, by this time, that the Horners were never fastidious
about what they ate, and that they had failed seldom to discover
wholesome food, in some form, wherever they went. They were
prepared to find things pretty bad in Spain, and therefore were
agreeably disappointed in this matter. The fact is that now
almost all hotels in large Spanish cities, are kept either by
French or Italians, and the food is much the same as that fur-
nished in other hotels on the Continent; better or worse, according
to the grade of the hotel. This dingy old Fonda at Burgos
differs from the hotels of Madrid and Seville, in being less like
those of other continental towns; so that the little bit of Spanish
experience which the Horners had had at the outset was not
repeated for some time.

A real Spanish dinner begins with a soup, good or bad,
according to the cook who makes it. Puchero follows inevitably,
the national dish par excellence, and always served. It is not very
different from the “boiled dish” of New England, being boiled
meat, surrounded with vegetables, and garnished with slices of
sausages, lard, and ham, with tomato and saffron, and red peppers,
for even in the food local color glows, as in everything else
Spanish. The chief ingredient is garbanzos, which Gautier describes
as “peas striving to appear to be beans, in which they are only
too successful.” Puchero is not bad; it is eaten with alacrity at
first, but after being served week in and week out every day and
perhaps twice a day, it palls upon the palate, and one reason
for being glad to get out of Spain, is seeing the last of it.
34 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN,

Eggs cooked in oil—good fresh oil—which is used much instead
of butter, or some slight extremet, follows the puchero, and then
comes fish, at this odd point in the meal. After this the inev-
itable roast and salad, sweets and cheese, on this occasion the
excellent gueso de Burgos, a specialty of the place follow, with
delicious fruit, oranges, strawberries, or apricots, according to the
season.




Ze THE CID. 35

CHAPTER IV.
THE CID.

NDER their heads were the omnibus-mules in their stalls, but
nevertheless the Horners slept sound in their first Spanish
bed. Before they slept, they heard the call of the night watch, end-
ing with “All’s well!” at first faint in the distance, then after a
pause, louder, and then dying away again repeated far off. This
reminded them of Alexandria, and made them feel. quite at home.
Next morning instead of coffee, there was brought to their rooms
a tray containing cups of thick chocolate, and bread, with a tumbler full
. of water for each person, and resting across the tumbler a long piece
of crisp white sugar, called azucarillo, This is the national morn-
ing meal, and our party was resolved to adopt the national habit.
The chocolate was good, but very thick. “Too.filling, for this time
in the morning,” said Miss Lejeune, and after this. experiment she
went back to her favorite café au Jait, which can always be had
fairly good. Tommy rejoiced in the chocolate, and in the sweet
azucarillo, which should be eaten after it is dipped in water. A
glass of water inevitably follows a cup of chocolate. It is supposed
to aid the digestion of it. Miss Lejeune thought it would take
more than a glass of water, of which she was not fond, to settle
the rich heavy beverage, especially so early in the morning, and she
seldom tried chocolate after this. This was an exception to her
general rule of always eating in Rome as the Romans do.
When the maids came in to make the beds, the Horners were
still in their salon writing letters. Bessie after careful research in
her conversation-book, asked of one of them at what time would be
almuerzo,— breakfast.
36 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

“ Allassonzas,” replied, apparently, the maid.

“Gracias,” said Bessie, lisping the c with Castilian elegance. She

was half encouraged, half mortified at her Spanish attempt; evi-

A RAGGED HIDALGO.



dently she had been un-
derstood, for she received
a prompt reply, but what
under the sun was it!
“ Allassonzas !”’ she re-
peated as soon as they
were alone. They knew
their numbers pretty
well, but this sounded
not like any of them.
“Tl tell you,” she
herself exclaimed, ‘it
must be eleven! Onza
is eleven, and they prob-
ably say 4 las onzas, at
the elevens!”
“Whereas we were at
sixes and sevens,” mur-
mured her papa, show-
ing that he was in the
best of spirits, since he
permitted himself a poor
pun.
They decided to go
out and explore the
streets until almuerzo,

and reserve the Cathedral for the long afternoon; so they sallied
forth, Miss Lejeune armed with her sketch-book, sighing for Mary
who was always her companion in this pursuit.

Every step brought something amusing before their eyes. The
very beggars in Spain wear their cloaks like hidalgos. They were
constantly meeting Don Cesar de Bazan and all his family.
THE CID. 87

“Tommy! You ought to draw. Stop! I will give you this
extra book and some charcoal. You must!”

“T cannot sketch,” said Tommy sheepishly; but he took the
things, and afterwards made a very good attempt at a dog sitting
down.

They all established themselves in an old arched doorway, look-
ing through at a picturesque court. Mr. Horner kept guard, and
Bessie sat by with a book, though she did not read much, while
Miss Lejeune rapidly washed in effects in water colors.

They were soon surrounded by half the town of Burgos; not

only boys, but women with babies, and grown men, and above all,
- dogs, who pushed in close to them to investigate, and were
recalled by their owners; the crowd behaved very well, and
expressed themselves in half whispers, of which the first word
_ intelligible was “perro;” they said it so often, and the dogs advanced
so often, that the travellers soon put their ideas together. Bessie
pointed at a dog and said inquiringly, “ Perro?” “Si Sefiorina,” re-
plied the ragged boy, and smiled a smile Murillo has often painted,
showing all his Spanish teeth. :

The favorite hero of Spain is the Cid, Rodrigo Diaz de Bivar,
the most prominent figure in Spanish literature. The name is so
obscured by myth and ‘fable as to be almost lost to history. No
doubt such a man lived, but so many impossible deeds have been
ascribed to him, that it is hard to select the true ones. There
are, indeed, a Cid of history and a Cid of romance, very differ-
ent from each other, but both exerting a singular influence
in developing the national genius.

The Cid of history is still the hero of the early period of the
struggle between Christian and Mohammedan, and a good type of
the Spanish Goth of the twelfth century. Rodrigo Diaz, better
known by this Arab title of “the Cid” (el Seid, the lord), was
of a noble family. The date of his birth is uncertain, but it was
probably between 1030 and 1040, during the reign of Fernando the
First, a great and wise prince, under whom the tide of Moslem conquest
was first checked. He possessed a large dominion in Spain, but on
38

A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.



COURTYARD.

his death it was divided
among his five sons. Cas-
tile fell to one, Leon to
another, and other prov-
inces to the rest. Not long
before, the Moorish pos-
sessions had been broken
up into numerous petty
states, and hence there was
quarrelling of every de-
scription, — between brother
and sister, between Cas-
tilian and Galician, as
well as between Christian
and Moslem. No condition
of affairs could be more
favorable to the genius of
a warrior. The Cid first
rose to distinction in a
contest between two San-
chos of Castile and Navarre,
in which he won_ his
name of Campeador, — the
champion, — by slaying the
champion of the enemy in
single combat. After this,
he was entrusted with high
commissions, and fought
many a battle for his king,
then Alphonso the Sixth;
in 1074 he was wedded to
Ximena, a royal princess.
The original deed of the
marriage contract is in
existence. But his great
THE CID. 39

prowess and many successes raised up enemies who found it easy
to kindle the jealousy of the king. He was accused of keeping
back for himself part of the tribute he had won for the king,
who took advantage of his absence on a raid against the Moors,
to banish him from Castile.

Henceforth Rodrigo begun upon the career which has made him
famous, fighting on his own account, sometimes under the Christian
banner, sometimes under Moorish and sometimes against both. Among
his enterprises, the most famous was that against Valencia, which
he took, after a nine months’ siege, in 1094. This was the rich-
est prize snatched from the Moors, for Valencia was then the
most flourishing city on the Peninsula. The Cid took it for his
own kingdom, and ruled it according to his own will, with vigor
and justice, for four years. At length the party of the Moors
most powerful at that time, the Almoravides, whom he had several
times beaten, marched against him in great force, and his army
was crushed. The blow was a fatal one to the now aged and
war-worn Campeador, and he died of grief and anger, in July,
1099. He was buried in a monastery in the neighborhood of
Burgos, with his wife Ximena. There, in the centre of a small
chapel, surrounded by his chief companions in arms, still rest, after
frequent disturbances from friend and foe, the bones of this mighty
warrior, the genuine Spanish hero, the embodiment of the virtues
and vices of his time.

Philip the Second made an effort to have him canonized, but Rome
objected, and not without reason. Whatever were his qualities as
a fighter, the Cid was not of the right material to make a saint,—
a man who battled against Christian and Moslem with equal zeal,
who burnt churches and mosques alike, who ravaged, plundered and
slew for a livelihood as much as for any patriotic or religious
purpose, and who was, in fact, about as much of a Musselman as
_a Christian in his habits and character.

This is the Rodrigo of history. The Cid of romance, of legend
and drama, is a different character, invested with all the attributes
of a grand hero. He is the type of all knightly virtue, the mirror
40 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

of patriotic duty, the flower of all Christian grace. He is Roland
and Bayard in one. From the time of his actual life he has been
the subject of song, and within a. hundred years from his death
he had become the centre of a whole system of myths. The cel-
ebrated poem of the Cid was written in the latter half of the
twelfth century; there are hundreds of ballads relating to him,
some of them full of simplicity and fire. His horse Bavieca, and
his sword La Colada, are’ as famous as himself. ,
Although the glory of the Cid spreads all over Spain, it is at

IN

Jay

ee
i "



By EAN
COFFER OF THE CID.

Burgos that the interest in him centres, since it is there that he
was born, and there that his bones actually repose. When the
Horners were going through the Cathedral, they were shown in a
side chapel a heavy wooden coffer supported high up against the
wall upon iron brackets. It is a worn-out, worm-eaten old box, and
looks like the grandfather of all trunks. This is the celebrated
Cofre del Cid; one of two trunks which he once left as security
THE CID. 41

with a Jewish banker, for a loan of six hundred marks, assuring
them they contained all his jewels and gold, but that they were
not to open them until his return. The true contents of the boxes
were sand and rubbish, heavy enough to deceive the bankers. If
he came back-and paid the sum he had borrowed, this was all
very well; there is no proof that he ever restored principal or
rendered interest, but we will hope that he did so.

Tommy asked why the coffer was thus suspended on high, and
the guide told him it was to keep it out of reach of too eager
tourists and admirers of the Cid, who could not resist splitting off
little bits of the wood as mementos, when it was within their

reach.






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42 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

CHAPTER V.
THE CATHEDRAL

HILE they were eating almuerzo, a merry meal in the dining-

room above stairs, with a mixed collection of travellers from

various countries, all finding fault with the dishes in a variety of
languages, Miss Lejeune said, “If each one of our fellow-guests had

what he wishes to eat set before him, what a mixed menu it would
make! ”

“Yes!” exclaimed Tommy; “liver, sausage and macaroni and
baked beans and edible bird’snests.”

“OQ come, Tommy, there are no Chinese here!” said Bessie.

“No, but very likely some one would order it for a delicacy.”

“Quite raight, my young friend,” said a stout German next
Tommy, who understood a little English, and thought he could
speak it; “most peoples shall tink him own dish what most nasty
to all nations.” :

The sentiment was good, although obscured by its imperfect expres-
sion. Tommy controlled his face, and waited till they had all left
the room before he repeated the sentence to his family.

After very good black coffee, the Horners sallied forth to see
the Cathedral, through the picturesque streets, always admiring the
groups of beggars. They surrendered themselves, though reluctantly,
to a guide, as they had not much time to spare. Such a guide
is at once the stay and torment of sight-seekers. He pesters
them with gabble, drags them to see things they do not want to
see; he makes them stand staring at worthless relics, and tears
them away from the contemplation of a masterpiece. He is igno-
rant of art, history, men and manners, and yet assumes superiority


PATIO OF A SPANISH INN.

THE CATHEDRAL. 45

over travellers because he knows, and they do not, the way around
his one cathedral. It is delightful to dispense with the services of
any guide, and driving off the swarms of them that come buzzing
about, to explore the intricacies of a town, a church, or cathedral,
according to one’s own sweet will; then every new object seems
a discovery, snatched from the whole collection of wonders. The
tourist can make his own decision upon the merits of a work
of art, and follow undisturbed. the thread of thought it awakes.
This course can best be pursued when there are several days to
be spent in one place, and time enough to spare for the loss of
it, which is sure to come from turning the wrong corner, mistak-
ing the point of view, and thus dilating with the wrong emotion.

A wily old valet de place leads his victims straight to head-
quarters. He really does know best what they wish or what they
ought to see, indeed, the thing that makes him so disagreeable is
that he does know more than they do. Then he has keys to
locked-up chapels, or can procure them, and he knows the short-
est way round the building. The quickest way is to surrender to
him entirely, go everywhere he suggests, believe everything he
says, for the moment. This was the Horners’ plan up to a cer-
tain point, when often after a tramp of several hours, they some-
times “bolted” unexpectedly, and, to the astonishment of the
hitherto flattered guide, absolutely refused to stir another step,
demanding to be restored to their hotel.

Matters reached no such extreme at Burgos. They found their
way alone to the Cathedral easily, and there fell into the hands
of a mild, mechanical man who could do a little routine English.
He trotted them round the place, showing everything, and was
neither too loquacious nor too persistent.

The Cathedral of Burgos is undoubtedly one of the finest in
Europe; a grand specimen of the thirteenth-century Gothic. If,
since it is the first Cathedral studied, after entering Spain from
Bayonne, it is overlaid by other impressions in the mind of the
tourist who presses on to Andalusia and the wonder of Seville
and Grenada, yet nevertheless, in the quiet hours of repose when
46 ‘A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

ihe journey is over, the vision of it comes back in all its force
and purity.

The towers and pinnacles are open work, and in the distance
they are seen against the blue sky like filigree work, and at night
stars can be seen through them. The Cathedral is somewhat shut
in, as it is built om uneven ground, surrounded by poor little
“houses ; and the Archbishop’s palace is so close to it, as to form,
‘as it were, a part of the same building; and on the opposite side
a good impression of the inward arrangement can be had from the
outside.

After studying for some time the innumerable statues of angels,
martyrs, warriors and princes which adorn the facade, our little
party entered the immense building, and stood silent before the
grandeur of the interior. It was impossible to do more at first
than to look silently around, following the lines of the columns,
and curves of the arches, while a vague delight and wonder came
filling the mind.

After a little while Mr. Horner came nearer to Miss Lejeune,
and said softly:

' “This is the real thing!”

“Oh, yes!” she replied. “It satisfies all my requirements for a
Spanish cathedral.”

It was many minutes before they felt inclined to do more than
to move about, receiving, without analyzing, the effect of the vast
‘proportions of the whole, graceful at the same time, and harmonious,
until the guide became impatient, and they followed him about to
the different chapels, each itself like a church, in richness and
variety. In each is entombed some great personage, with his
recumbent statue extended in the middle, the head upon a pillow,
and the hands clasped upon his breast,— priests clothed in their
festival robes, warriors in armor, princesses in regal attire; and
all surrounded with a profusion of carvings, gold decorations cover-
ing the walls, altars and ceilings; every chapel contains an army
of. angels and saints cut in marble or wood, painted, gilded,
clothed. oS a Pig ier ghee oe
THE CATHEDRAL. 4%

It is this splendor and richness of decoration which distin-
guishes the cathedrals of Spain; gold, color, carving, and everywhere,
and yet there is nothing either gaudy or tawdry in the effect, for
all at the same
time is sombre
and grand, per-
haps because the
proportions are
so large, but
more because it
is all genuine
work. After the
solemn sincerity
of these cathe-
drals, at the
same time full
of richness and
warmth, that of
Cologne seems
cold and _ bare,
and the decora-
tions of the
modern French
churches flimsy.

Descriptions of
cathedrals are al-
ways tedious to
those who have
not seen them,
and it will not
do to weary the
reader with a detailed account of all the Horners visited. Their
general impression of richness and grandeur lasted all through
their expedition in Spain, It was at Burgos that Bessie first removed
her idea of “doing a cathedral” from the category of idle sight-













INTERIOR OF A SPANISH CATHEDRAL.
48 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

seeing, to that of the most thorough enjoyments of travelling.
They looked with wonder at the celebrated Cristo de Burgos,
which is said by tradition to have been carved by Nicodemus
shortly after the burial of our Lerd. It was found, according to
the legend, inside a box, floating in the sea, and after many
adventures, it finally was brought from this cathedral to a convent.
It is certainly of very early date, and admirably modelled, with a
deep expression of pain; the hair, beard, eyelashes, etc., are all
real. With strange taste, the image is clothed with a_ small
embroidered petticoat.
Even Tommy liked this cathedral better than most he had seen
in his travels, because as he ex-
Nu --- pressed it, “the side-shows were
: all first-rate.” The clocks of the
cathedral are furnished with small
re figures, which come out as the
=~ hour strikes, like the famous one
Ot at Berne. About one of these the
Ty |; sacristan told them this legend, in
pee a broken sort of French, which
—{ s made it more impressive.
It was about a king of Spain,
——p Enrique the Third, who lived in



————

ee NN —— the fifteenth century, and a young
girl who used to see him frequently
in the cathedral, although no word
was ever exchanged between them at their meetings.

One day in leaving the church, the young unknown dropped her
handkerchief. The king picked it up and gave it to her, when the
fair one disappeared and was seen no more. A year after, the
king became lost in the woods one time, and was attacked by six
hungry wolves; he killed three of them with his sword, but after
that he began to feel tired; and he was about to be devoured by
the others, when suddenly he heard the sound of a gun, and a
Strange cry, at which the three wolves fled. He turned round and



ONE OF THE BELLS.
THE CATHEDRAL. ag

beheld the young woman he had seen in the cathedral. He advanced
towards her, when she said with a strange smile, “I love the
memory of the Cid so much that I love all that is great and
noble; thus I have wished to consecrate to you my life. Accept
the sacrifice.”

As she spoke thus she fell dying to the ground, pressing to her
heart the king’s handkerchief.

The king, moved by such devotion, wished to honor the memory
of his preserver, and hit upon the singular plan of putting an image
into a clock in the cathedral, which at every hour should remind
him of the cry of the girl in the forest. He wished the figure to
repeat the very words she used, but the skill of the Moorish artist
of that period was not up to the idea, and he achieved only a
puppet of life-size, which made a kind of shriek when its time
came. It caused so much amusement afterwards to the irreverent,
and disturbance to the faithful, that its springs were broken by the
order of the ruling bishop, and ever since the puppet has been
silent.

Spain is full of legends and romances, which seem worth listening
to on the spot, however absurd they become when transferred from
their natural surroundings. The Cid still lives. Roderick the Goth
is a fact, and as for the Moors, they assert their rightful claim to
the soil everywhere, while Ferdinand and Isabella appear like mon-
sters who drove them from their inheritance. The defects in the
‘Moorish morality are forgotten, and they figure as martyrs to the
imagination.
Bt A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN,

CHAPTER VI.
A LONG NIGHT.

HORTLY before nine p. M., after another meal in the up-
stairs dining-room, the Horners climbed again into the
mule-bus and started off to the station. They had seen the empty
vehicle every time they went in or out of the hotel, for it was



OMNIBUS WITH MULEs.

kept out in the street before the door, hard by the mules in their
stable under the house.

Mr. Horner, and even Miss Lejeune, were a little low in their
minds on account of anticipating the long night journey which
was before them. This is the great drawback of travelling in
Spain. The through trains all fly by night like bats, and turn |
and twist as you may, and thumb your time tables o’er and o’er,
there is no method of evading the discomfort. The party all had
such a passion for looking out of windows at the scenery, wherever
they were, that it was a positive loss to them to pass over so
much ground in the dark, and this regret was added to the dis-
A LONG NIGHT. g_

comfort of a night's journey. However, it was ne& After a little futile inquiry for wagons-lits, which are supposed to
exist, but which are always on some other line than the «oe where
they are wanted, they
settled themselves into
their corners, with
through tickets for
Madrid, facing — the
prospect of eleven
hours and a half shut
tp in their carriage.
They were all so
tired after a day of
busy sight-seeing that
they felt sure of a
good nap to begin
with, «ad so without
their usual lively chat,
they prepared for the
night, opening the
straps and disposing of
rugs and shawls as
best they could in the
way of pillows and
coverings. Luckily
there was no one else
in the carriage, as
Miss Lejeune observed
with thankfulness.
«So I can, make
myself as hidecus as
¥ please,” she added.
This she proceeded
to do by tying 2 bkic



veil tigm: across ner FLOWERING ALOE.
52 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

forehead, and bringing the ends around under her chin, after
which she crammed herself back into a corner with her feet up and
well tucked in. They had drawn the thin silk curtain across the
hole in the top of the carriage through which the gleam came
from a dim lamp, but some little light still made itself felt.

«T ‘love to look at you, aunt Gus,” said Bessie sleepily; “you
look like a mysterious blue sphinx in that corner off there. The
veil is very becoming so.”

“I am glad you are my only admirer just now,” replied Miss
Lejeune gloomily.

Tommy was apparently fast asleep in the position with which he
had first dropped; but he suddenly exclaimed:

“What has become of the H. family! We saw nothing of them
at Burgos!”

“To be sure!” cried Bessie, waked up by the question. ‘“ They
must be lost. We have not seen them since Irun! Papa, have
you seen them?”.

“Hm-m-m,” was the sole reply of her father.

“ Hush, Bessie,” said Miss Lejeune; “your father is asleep already.”

“Valladolid!” he murmured in a thick and sleepy voice.

“Do you suppose,” said Bessie, now in a much lower tone, “that
they went on to Valladolid without stopping at all at Burgos? They
must be idiots!”

“You don’t know, my dear. I believe Valladolid is very inter-
esting, or they may have special reasons.”

“She looked like an artist, the tall one,” said Bessie; “are there
pictures at Valladolid?”

“Do shut up!” barked Tommy; “can’t you let a fellow
sleep?”

The remonstrance though inelegant was just, and Bessie, without
resenting it, closed her lips and eyes at once.

So they all travelled to Madrid through the Land of Nod, for nod
it is, with the jar and jolt of the train. All was silence in every
compartment as the long train swept through the darkness, occa-
sionally stopping with a jerk at a station, then starting off with
A LONG NIGHT. 53

another jerk. The four were not often all asleep at the same
time. Each had his or her periods of misery, when a change of
position was absolutely necessary. There was a twist and a turn,
a thumping of pillows, and then the weary head fell down again
in a new posture, not better, perhaps, but at least different.

Once they were all awake but Tommy, who slept straight through
like a top. They compared watches, and found it was only half-
past twelve. The night seemed endless; and when it came to an
end, the journey did
not. At dawn they
bestirred themselves
and looked out upon
the landscape. It
was raining steadily,
and the country was
wild and barren in
the extreme, without
verdure or vegeta-



tion; huge piles of
irregular rocks were SEAN MTS

tumbled about, with

here and there a scrubby pine. Salvator Rosa might have painteu
a bit anywhere, into which a bandit with his gun would have
come very naturally.

How the Horners felt is well known to those who themselves
have waked up at dawn in a railway carriage with the prospect of
several hours more travel. Their mouths were parched, their cheeks
hot, their heads dishevelled, their limbs all stiff and cramped : and
they were faint for want of coffee or something refreshing. The
lunch-box had chocolate in it, dried ginger and a few sweet biscuit ;
but Tommy was the only one who found these things at all accept-
able. ;

A woman at a station was calling “Leche! leche!” and Mr.
Horner bought from the window in exchange for a very small coin,
a lovely red jug containing goat’s milk. He and Tommy liked it,
a4 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

really, but Miss Lejeune shook her head without trying it, and Bessie
shuddered ater one taste, and took no more.

“How stupid you are not to like milk,” said Tommy crossly.
Tommy was rather cross, but nobody minded it. They were too

2

uncomfortable to mind it.
“Tt is milk that does not like me,’

?

said Bessie meekly. “I have

no objection to it.”
As the light strengthened, their spirits rose somewhat by the

gloomy interest of the wet and dripping landscape. The famous































































































































































MADRID IN THE DISTANCE.

Escorial was passed upon their left, they swept through the last long
tunnel, and saw Madrid in the distance, nearing fast, the royal palace
crowning the height in front ;

The scene at the station was much like any other European
experience. Everything showed that they had reached a large
cosmopolitan centre. Cabs and omnibuses were in attendance, and

they were soon passing through a gateway to ascend the steep
A LONG NIGHT. 55

hill leading to the town. An official stopped them at the entrance-
gate, and fumbled with their hand-bags; but it was only a brief
formality, and soon they found themselves in comfortable rooms at
the Hotel de la Paix, on the beautiful Puerta del Sol.

“Puerta del Sol,’ said Tommy, who had recovered all his anima-

Se ee ee Eee ie









































































































































































ROYAL PALACE, MADRID.

tion and usual politeness.. “I thought it was the name of the
hotel.”

“So did I, to tell the truth,” said his father; “or at least my
ideas were not clear about it.”

“Oh, papa! you must have known that the Puerta del Sol was
a beautiful great square,” said Bessie. :

“My dear,” said he smiling, “I have not been reading up on
Spain as you have. You must remember I have scarcely looked at

@ map. This is your expedition and Augusta’s.”
This conversation was. shouted across the omnibus as they
56 A LONG NIGHT

rattled along the paved street, and Miss Lejeune, who never would
speak in a noise, smiled and nodded, and significantly patted the
little parcel of guide-books and maps which she held firmly in her
hand,

It. was, in. the main, Miss Lejeune who had laid out the plan of
the Spanish excursion. She had long longed for the Peninsula. In
her youth, long ago, the house of a friend who married a Spanish
explorer, was filled with curiosities, which he had brought home,
and the acquaintance with these things thus early planted in
her mind a strong wish to visit the country; there were engrav-

ings from Velasquez, terra cotta images of matadors, mantas of
glowing stripes, and salvers or beaten brass, all of which helped to
make the desire grow. As time went on, she gained an _ under-
lying conviction that sometime she was to go to Spain. She
trifled a little with the language, and even went through a
grammar. The chances which had led her several times over
Europe, and to the East, had not been favorable until now, when
she was really about to visit her long-established Chateaux en
Espagne, with those dear Horners, who now furnished her life
with its chief enjoyment. She was very happy in being thus
able to carry out her dream, and in being allowed to have her
own way about it, too.

Miss Lejeune had omitted Valladolid in her plan, as it was
wise to press on towards the south before the weather should
become too hot. But Valladolid is an interesting place which might
well be used to break the long journey from Burgos to Madrid.

It was for a long time the residence of the kings of Castile,
and later, in the time of Philip the Second, who was born there,
it was the most prosperous city in Spain. It was he, however, who
removed the court to Madrid, and this proved a death blow to
the prosperity of the deserted city.

The Museum and Cathedral contain some interesting pictures
and sculpture. The Cathedral was never finished on the scale
intended by Herrera, the architect of Philip the Second, who made the
designs for it, and began it, because he was called to Madrid in
A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN. 57

order to build the Escorial; and when the court went to Madrid,
no funds were forthcoming to finish the abandoned Cathedral, and
so it was merely put into condition to be used, as it was, for
public service. The libraries contain some rare old books ; and the
streets, like all Spanish towns, are full of picturesque subjects for
sketches,


63 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN













COAT OF ARMS.

CHAPTER VIL

MADRID STREETS.

\ N excellent French ~
G waiter, with a white

cravat, and a napkin under
his arm, came to take their
orders; — so there was no
occasion for Spanish yet, —

‘and soon returned bring-

ing a broad plateau, or tray,
loaded with refreshing coffee,
hot milk, chocolate for Tom-
my, bread and butter and
boiled eggs, for which Mr.
Horner stipulated. Although
his whole family were fond

of the European system of

eating little or nothing early
in the morning, Mr. Hor-
ner retained a secret prej-
udice in favor of something

solid, and, whenever he could, he added veufs a la cogue to the order.
What was more, he generally found that all the eggs were eaten; more
than one, then, must share his secret preference, for Tommy and he
could not eat them all. But Miss Lejeune and Bessie, in Spain, kept
up the theory maintained by all the rest in previous journeys, that
they wished nothing but bread and butter with the coffee. The Hotel

de la Paix is a large French hotel.

Miss Lejeune and Bessie
MADRID STREETS. y

shared a room with two high beds placed end to end, filling up
the whole of one side. Upon a great round table which took up
the middle of the room, coffee was served, and Mr. Horner and
Tommy joined the ladies to partake of it. Their own room was
close at hand, smaller, but with the same view. The large windows all
had projecting balconies, from which they could iook sideways
toward the Puerta del Sol, although the rooms looked upon
‘a narrow side street.

As soon as Bessie had refreshed herself with one cup of cof-
fee, she went to the window and established herself there, roll in
hand, that she might lose none of the wonders of the new city
while she was eating. All the windows had balconies, and many
of them striped awnings. Opposite, and somewhat lower, a barber
had a little bird with a red tuft on its head, hopping about with
a long string to its leg. Within the room Bessie could see the
barber, shaving; but from time to time, he left his customer to
come and see the bird, with his cigarette in his mouth; kissed his
hand to it, puffed a little smoke in its face, to console it for
being tied, and went in again. A hand-organ below was playing
charming Spanish dance-music. A_ still narrower street, a mere
lane, in fact, opened nearly opposite them. It was swarming with
people in strange colors, and a group had collected at the corner
to listen to the announcement of a bull-fight. This was Sunday,
and the great square was filled with people, the women with man-
tillas on their head, and fans in their hands instead of parasols. The
fashionable ladies are giving up the pretty mantilla for Paris bon-
nets, which is a great pity, for a bonnet does not look right on
a Spanish fair one; but it is still the rule to wear the mantilla
to church, so that in the morning the streets of Madrid are filled
with devotional mantillas, while later on in the day only foolish French
hats prevail.

Suddenly Bessie called out, “Oh, come! come quick!” and the
others reached the balcony in time to see the end of a cavalcade
of royal guards in white Jdournous, following the king’s carriages.
Bessie had seen the whole; a string of carriages with outriders,
66 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

postilions, and much gold ornathent, followed by mounted guards,
It was his Majesty going to church.

These excitements, however, could not make the travellers forget
their fatigue. It is the worst part of night travelling, that it unfits
one for much sight-seeing the next day, and thus the time is as
much lost as it would be in the train. While Mr. Horner and
Tommy went out to find their bankers, Miss Lejeune and Bessie
were refreshed with delicious baths, which were to be had in this
hotel. The others returned with their hands full of letters from
America, England, and Luz, the little place in the Pyréneés where
were Mary, Philip and their mother.

“Oh, how splendid!” exclaimed Bessie, as she took her share.
“But I am so sleepy that I must go to bed, and read them
afterward. Is everybody well, papa?” she asked, for she saw the
well-known handwriting of her mother upon the sheet he was
reading.

“Perfectly; and they seem very happy there,” he answered.

“I must write them volumes,’ she continued; “but how hard
it will be when we want to be in the streets all the time!”

“You had better take long naps, both of you,” said Mr. Horner,
“and Tommy, too. Almuerzo is eleven, and after that we can drive
or walk.”

Mr. Horner had letters of introduction to several people in
Madrid, but he did not deliver them at this time. It was their
plan to come back to Madrid later, after taking ee fill of
Andalusia, and the southern wonders of Spain.

Nevertheless, they wished to see all they could of the national
capital this time, and in the afternoon, thoroughly refreshed by
sleep, and almuerzo, and with glowing and grateful hearts, because
of good news in all their letters, hey, took an open carriage to
drive about Madrid.

Their driver was a Madrilefio, but with the help of a few words
of explanation given him by the fortier, who spoke everything,
before starting, they made him understand that they wished to see
the principal points of interest within the city.
Pig
Pz zgpe SGD

ae et, i
Minez LLNS BLT,











rs: =e

Seal





MADRID STREETS. : 63

The Puerta del Sol, the central square of Madrid, is a large
sunny space with a fountain in the middle, wide streets and broad
sidewalks surrounding it, and tall handsome buildings on all sides,
chiefly hotels with gay shops on the street-floor. There are tracks
for the ferro-carril, tramway, or horse-cars, as we call them; besides,
in Madrid, there are large heavy vehicles like horse-cars, which go
where they please; not on any track, The plaza and streets leading
from it are so wide that these cars do not encumber them, nor
interfere materially with the crowds of gay equipages which throng
them, especially on Sunday, when all the world is going to the
Bull Ring.

The Horners were not going to the Bull Ring, but their carriage
joined the gay crowd sweeping in that direction, along the slope of
the Calle de Alcala, passing the Fountain of Cibeles, where they
turned to drive along the Prado, a broad, beautiful avenue planted
with trees and ornamented with fountains, whose plashing water
sparkled in the sun. Iron chairs were placed in rows, which could
be hired for a trifling sum, by any one wishing to rest. Here
first the Horners observed the ‘“cooling-drinks shops,” —- booths where
all sorts of refreshing and not intoxicating drinks are sold. The
Spanish have an extreme fondness for this harmless refreshment.
The number of such places shows the demand for them. The
venders call out, “ Agua fresca como la nieve” (water cool as snow),
and for a very small coin they will furnish a glass of something
cold and sweet, flavored with strange essences. Tommy’s favorite
was horchata de chufas, a very superior beverage of a milky appear-
ance, and a flavor something like orgeat. All these drinks are
very mild, and are but slightly tinged with the flavoring substance.
There has to be a good deal of “ make-believe,” as in the case of
the lemonade of the Marchioness, in order to discover what one is
tasting. It gives a pleasant impression of the moderation in the
taste of a people which contents itself with such mild refreshment,
instead of the heavy lager which the German loves, or the fiery
drinks of all Northern nations. .

The booths where these things are furnished are kept by some
64 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

old woman, very friendly, offering chairs, or perhaps a small girl,
hardly tall enough to reach across her counter. The water used is
in tall jars, porous, to keep the water cool by perspiration, a thing
the Horners had learned to understand on the Nile.

It. was much later that the children became learned in cooling





COOLING DRINKS.

drinks. On that first day they only wondered at the little stalls
where they were sold.

There were so many things to see that they could not fasten
their attention upon any one set of impressions. Their heads were
turning from side to side, to catch glimpses of fine horses dashing
by them ;—ladies in full costume, mantilla and fan, leaning back in
their open carriages, — fountains, monuments, fine buildings, set their
brains in a whirl.
MADRID STREETS. 65

Madrid is said to have little or nothing Spanish about it; to be
a feeble imitation of. Paris; in short, only a second-rate European
metropolis. The Horners did not ‘agree: with, this verdict, for- they
found it marked, on the contrary, with great individuality. The
streets and modern buildings are after the manner of French
models, undoubtedly, but there is a Southern swing in the life and
movement of the sun-bathed city; and though the population has
a European character in its dress, many picturesque costumes are
to be seen. The equipages and horses. exhibit an amount of



EL BUEN RETIRO.

wealth, taste and extravagance at least equal to that of any city of

the same size in Europe. .
They passed the fagade of the Royal Museum, which contains

the famous picture gallery, promising themselves, on their return
66 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

from Andalusia, many visits to its treasures. It is a modern
building with columns, imposing in appearance, though perhaps too
low for its great length. It was fitted up for pictures in the early
part of this century; the collection of splendid works of art it
contains makes it perhaps the finest gallery in the world.

They drove through the Buen Retiro, a pleasant shady promenade
planted with hedges of lilac and other spring flowers, still in bloom.
Their driver brought them back by a turn quite around the town,
that they might see the outside of the handsome Royal Palace,
and through the Plaza del Oriente, where is a fine equestrian statue
of Philip the Fourth on his war charger. The design was by
Velasquez, and Galileo is said to have suggested the means by
which the balance is preserved. The horse is rearing so high that

this is affected only by having the front part hollow, and the back
solid.


HISTORICAL, 67

CHAPTER VIIL
HISTORICAL.

S they were coming. back to their hotel through the steep

and somewhat narrow Calle Mayor, a train of royal carriages

passed them. At first, Bessie and Tommy thought they were to

meet his Majesty face to face, but it was only the royal baby

returning from her airing, in two carriages, with postilions and

outriders. The poor little thing, although wrapped about in rich

robes of soft white, looked as helpless as any other mortal child.

She is an object for sympathy rather than envy, because she is

» princess, when she should have been a prince, heir to the
throne upon which her papa finds his seat somewhat unsteady.

It is now nine years since. Alphonso the Twelfth was proclaimed
\ing at Madrid. He is the eldest son of Isabella the Second, herself
the daughter of King Ferdinand the. Seventh, and of Princess Marie
Christine of the two Sicilies. Isabella was proclaimed queen in 1833,
when she was but three years old. Ten years later, when she was
thirteen, she was declared to be of age by a decree of the Cortes, and
was married not long after to her first cousin, Francisco, a son of
the brother of King Ferdinand the Seventh. It might seem that
the eldest son of parents, both of whom have a claim to the throne,
would have made his way to it, without opposition, in the due
course of events; but this has not been the case. On the contrary,
civil war raged from the time of Isabella’s accession to the throne
up to the moment when her son was placed upon it, and ever
since politicians and patriots have watched with anxiety the doubtful
experiment of a government under the present constitution,— a
monarchy shorn of the splendors which formerly added so muck
to the presence of a king, and closely restricted in its powers
$8 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

The constitution declares Alphonso the Twelfth of Bourbon, «v be
“he legitinate king of Spain. His person is inviolable, but his minis-
.3 are responsible, and all his orders must be countersigned by a
minister. There is a Cortes, which shares tne power of the king,



FOUNTAIN OF NEPTUNE.

zomposed, like our Congress, of two legislative bodies. The Senate
is composed of sons of kings and other personages, and the
Congress of Deputies chosen by the people.

Thus it will be seen, that the plan is to have the government as
free as that of a Republic, while the head of it is called a king, and
he is permitted to be the head on account of his hereditary rights,
instead of being the choice of the people; yet he would not remain
at the head for an instant without the assent of the public. A.
country which from all time has been governed by kings, prebably
feels more at ease under the nominal rule of a monarch; ard this
is the present condition of things in Spain. Repuplican government
has been tried more than once in the tempestuous period since the
HISTORICAL. 69

death of Ferdinand, in 1833; and it is because all lovers of
Spanish prosperity feel that the only hope for Spain is in a period
of peace and tranquility, that there is a general hope for a
continuance of the experiment by which Alphonso and his dynasty
may be firmly established upon the throne. For this reason, a little
prince would be hailed with delight as heir to the throne. The
Spaniards would be kindled to something like enthusiasm for a
future king, born in a peaceful period, of the line of inherited
royalty; so the disappointment was great when 4 little princess
appeared into the world. She should have been a prince, and this
is why the Horners called her the poor little princess, in spite of
her having a duchess for governess, and outriders before and
behind when she takes her little airing.

“How stupid of her not to be a prince!” said Tommy, when
these things were being explained to him.
said Bessie, “and it is a shame that

“She cannot help it,
people should not be just as fond. of her as fifty boys.”

“T dare say her papa aud mamma are fond of her,’ said Miss
Lejeune; “it is only the public that is disappointed. Very likely she
will have a much happier life than a little prince would have done.
In the first place she will not be spoiled,” —

“Nor fussed over about her health,” continued Bessie, “nor made
to wear crowns and carry sceptres. I. dare say she will live to
a peaceful old age, with plenty to eat and drink, and good clothes,
in a comfortable palace all her life.”

“And paint very nicely in water-colors,” added Miss Lejeune.

It is perhaps necessary to touch briefly upon the troubles in
Spain which have brought the nation to this fervent desire for
peace and repose on any terms.

Ferdinand the Seventh was an unworthy, contemptible king; one of
the worst specimens of the Bourbon type. His father, Charles
the Fourth, abdicated the throne in terror, the nineteenth of March,
1808, when Napoleon’s army was marching upon Madrid, and announced
his son Ferdinand as his successor; whom, too, Napoleon forced to
abdicate, for as usual, it was his plan to furnish his own king to
10 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

Spain; and Joseph Bonaparte entered Madrid and took possession
of the throne. But this could not be allowed to last. The
opposition of the Spaniards was enforced by the arrival of ten
thousand English troops in Portugal, under Sir Arthur Wellesley,
who now for the first time began that resistance to Napoleon
which, as Wellington, he crowned at Waterloo. The struggle in
Spain lasted six years, but by
that time the invincible iegions
of Napoleon were defeated. During
this time the Emperor himself
descended upon Madrid; Sir John
Moore was defeated and killed,
the wonderful siege of Saragossa
took place, when the resisting
Spaniards, conducted by Palafox,
and inspired by the maid of Sara-
gossa, held out fifty days against
the French, and many another dis-



aster fell upon one army or the
other; but in the end the French
were driven out, and left the country after the famous battle
of Vittoria, June, 1813, when Wellington, as Sir Arthur Wellesley
had already become, ended the contest.

Joseph was deposed, Ferdinand was reinstated. At the same

FERDINAND VII.

time another Bourbon prince, Louis the Eighteenth returned to rule
in France, for Napoleon’s career was over.

But a worthless prince, like Ferdinand, had no power, if he had
inclination, to heal the wounds of a country bleeding after the
contest of six years. Civil war broke out, and with it came misery,
famine and ruin. Ferdinand was carried off to Cadiz a prisoner
by his subjects, but was again liberated by a foreign army, this
time from France. It was after this that he married his fourth
wife, Maria Christina, 1829, his own niece. In 1830, their daughter
Isabella was born. It will not now appear surprising that this
princess was not at the time regarded with much affection. Her
HISTORICAL 71

chance of reigning was but slight, although at her birth the law
allowed women to succeed; but it was comparatively modern, and
all Spanish prejudice was, and is, in favor of the Salic law,
by which a woman can reign only in default of male heirs. Now
the king bad a brother whose claim was fairly good to the throne;
wko moreover had sons in plenty to furnish heirs, one of whom,
Don Carlos, born in 1788, had an absolute right to the throne in
default of male heirs.

This is the foundation of the so-called Carlist War, which lasted
np to the time of Alphonso’s arrival upon the throne. Ferdinand
died shortly after the
birth of Isabella, but her
mother, Christina, was
very popular as regent,
and in her name the
contest was carried on.

During this time the
state of the country was
so unsettled that travel-
ling. was almost impos-
sible. Lawlessness pre-
vailed, brigands were free



to attack and carry off



people they met, and hold

. ee: me >
UTR Vi Na
them for treason. All fe we Sais

bowl

SS T

internal improvements
were at a standstill, and Sa aa

high-roads and railways were far behind the general standard of
Europe.

All this has greatly changed for the better, and tourists, even
if indifferent to the welfare of the Spanish race, must be grateful
to the present state of order which renders travelling as easy and
comfortable as in any part of Europe, making allowance for certain
drawbacks made inevitable by long distances.

The Carlist contest, after many successes and defeats, came to an end
72 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

in 1840. Isabella the Second came herself to the throne, and there
was again hope of repose for the country, but she was quite
unworthy to govern, being incapable of governing herself; a series
of ministers held the affairs of state. Although some of them were
of the first order of capacity to deal well with difficult matters,
there came a time when Isabella was driven from the throne into
exile; a provisional sovernment was formed, and every plan was
suggested for a permanent one; and finally a new king was elected,
by the Cortes, the Duke of Aosta, Amadeo, son of Victor Emman-
uel. He was invested with the
royal dignities on the second of
January, 1871; but not later than
February, 1873, he abdicated,
having found it impossible to
govern constitutionally in Spain ;
his life had been attempted, his
queen was rudely treated by the
’ grand Spanish ladies, and he was
conspicuously unpopular with the
people. Thus was shown the
strange spectacle of the throne
of Spain, which was once the
seat of the greatest power, and



also the centre of the splendor

ISABELLA II.

_of the world, abandoned vol-
untarily by the occupant chosen for it!

Then came what was called republican government. Almost any
one who was willing to try his hand at playing Presiient might
have a chance. The reaction from this chaotic state of things
brought about the coming of the present king, a thoroughly edu-
cated prince, brought up far away from his ignoble mother, in
France and England.

His life has been a sad one in one respect. He was first married
to his cousin Mercedes, the daughter of the Duke of Montpensier,
a young lady said by all to have been sweet and lovely, and stm-
HISTORICAL. 73

cerely loved by her husband. She died, and he is now married to
an Austrian princess, Maria Christina, who is the mother of the
little girl the Horners saw, and of another princess who was born
afterwards, in the summer of 1882,

It has been for those who have lived through the period we have
just been touching upon, so confusing to follow in brief newspaper
bulletins the ups and downs of the Spanish peninsula, that some out-
siders are, like the Horners, but ill-informed upon the subject. As
they were now in the country, they found it interesting as well as
desirable to study up the subject, and the result of their researches
is what is here given.


4 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.



COAT OF ARMS OF TOLEDO.

CHAPTER IX.

AN INCIDENT.

UST as the Horners drove up to
the door of the hotel, through

the plaza crowded with people, they
had the luck to see the king and
all his suite, driving by on their
return from the bull-fight. The
bull-fight was late, the king was
late, worst of all the Horners were
late, and the zedle ad’hote dinner
nearly over when they entered the
dining-room: only a few _ people
were lingering over dessert, or sip-
ping their coffee. The patient, assid-
uous waiters, however, cheerfully
prepared to begin all over again.
They showed them to their seats,

brought the soup, and resigned themselves to bringing back all the

courses of the long dinner.

“Tt is really too bad we are so late,” said Miss Lejeune. “I

am always sorry for the waiters.”

“Tt is a pity, but they are used to it,’ said Mr. Horner; “ besides,

we could not help it, for the streets were so blocked our driver

had to go slowly.”

“We did not see the king coming back, after all,’ said Tommy.

Just as he was speaking, a waiter who flattered himself he spoke

English, said :

“Look you now here, my master, they come!”
AN INCIDENT, %

And sure enough, the whole royal procession swept by, out-
riders, carriages, and the long train of escorts, in handsome uniforms,
with white burnous thrown on their shoulders, more gorgeous than their
simple morning-array.

_ ©This is doing pretty well, Tommy, to see the king twice
on your first day in Madrid!” said his father.

They went back to their dinner, and devoted themselves to it, for
they all were hungry, and it was very good. As it went on, Bessie
and Tommy began to take notice of a party lower down the table,
who were having, not a regular dinner, but a sort of supper. A
French nurse was superintending the group, which consisted of a
boy about Tommy’s age, a little girl somewhat younger, and a fat and
chubby child which brandished arms and legs in the crude manner
belonging to the age of three years or less.

They had bowls of milk, and were eating bread and butter and
orange marmalade, and talking both French and English with their
mouths full.

“I say, Nana,” said the boy, “you might have taken us to the
bull-fight. That gentleman said at breakfast that it was the noblest
sight in the world.”

The nurse replied in French, though she understood his
English :

“T cannot take you to bull courses. When your papa comes he
can do so, if he sees fit.”

“When papa comes!” the boy exclaimed impatiently. “You are
always saying that. I do not believe he ever will come!”

“Of course he will come, Hubert!” said the little girl, who had
rather a high voice, but a clear-cut English way of speaking. “ We
have only been two days in Madrid, and he does not know
- yet.

“ But T wanted him to be here when we arrived,” he replied.
“It is all very well for you girls to be mewed up with Nana, but
I need the companionship of a man.”

Bessie and Tommy glanced at each other with signs of amuse-
_ment, when the English boy made this speech, Just. then the
76 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

little child, while Nana was looking the other way, made a clutch
at a dish of oranges just out of reach. She lost her balance, having,
in fact, a somewhat insecure seat upon cushions put in a common chair
‘to make it high enough. In falling, she grasped the tablecloth, and
pulled it far enough to overturn the oranges, and to set glasses, finger-

































































































































































































































































































































BRIDGE OF SAINT MARTIN, TOLEDO.

bowls, knives and forks sliding about. Nana turned at once; but
Tommy, who was nearest the party, sprang first to the rescue,
and picked up the baby almost before her head touched the ground.
Of course she was frightened, however, and screamed. The English
children tried to steady the sliding tablecloth; the waiters, who had
















HOSPITAL OF SANTA CRUZ, EARLY I6TH CENTURY. é :

AN INCIDENT. 79

all retired from the scene, hurried back. The commotion mae over
in a few minutes, and nothing serious had happened; a wineglass
had broken in falling to the ground, and a good deal of water was
spilt; but that was all.

The incident served as the beginning of an acquaintance, for not
only Bessie and Tommy, but Mr. Horner and Miss Lejeune, left
their dinner to help the nurse to restore order, and to console the
children who were dismayed.

Miss Lejeune took a napkin and dried the front of the elder
girl’s dress, while Nana carried off the screaming baby, saying as -
she went, to the other children, rather crossly, “Come up, now, and ,
go to bed. This is enough trouble for one day.”

“Go to bed!” said Hubert. “Not I. I shall go out and walk ,
in the Puerta del Sol.”

Seeing the children thus left to themselves, Mr. Horner ventured
to ask them if they were alone. Nj

“Why, yes, all but Nana!” Hubert explained. “We are on the .
way to Gibraltar, and we left mamma at Bordeaux to go up in the.
Pyrénées. And papa was to meet us here, but we arrived first,
and there is no letter. So Nana says we must wait, which is
all very well for girls, but she does not let me go anywhere!”

“You promised mamma, Hubert,” said his sister fretfully, “ that
you would take care of Nana, and me, and baby.”

“Yes; but I did not promise to go to bed before dark!”

The boy was evidently chafed by too much petticoat government.
Tommy pitied him, and Mr. Horner was not surprised at his impa-
tience.

“T'll tell you what you shall do,” said Miss Lejeune. “Fanny,— .
is not your name Fanny?” she paused to ask.

The little girl nodded assent.

“Run and tell Nana that we have invited you both to spend the
evening with us. You can say that Mr. Horner is an American gei-
tleman travelling through Spain ;—she will be sure to let you come.
Then she can put the baby to bed, and rest herself. I do not know
what we shall do, but there is plenty to see from our windows.
80 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

Hubert’s brow cleared. He put on a manly air and bowed very
politely, thanking them all for their kindness, and told Fanny to
take the message.

“My father, Colonel Vaughan, will thank you when he comes,’ he
added.

Bessie went with her to show her afterwards the way to their
room, to which they all adjourned. A box of sugar plums which
Tommy had bought in the morning, served to promote ease and
hilarity. The children were soon talking together freely in the
balcony, and Miss Lejeune and Mr. Horner settled themselves at the
round table to write.

“TI wonder who they are,” said Miss Lejeune in a low voice
when she was quite sure the children would not overhear her. “It
seems strange that they should be alone with the nurse.”

“The father is very likely stationed at Gibraltar,’ said Mr. Horner.
“Hubert called him Co/onel Vaughan, you know. It seems rather
a loose way to look after his children to send them across Spain
with nobody but a French woman to look after them.”

“There must be some special reason for it,” said Miss Lejeune.
“JT wonder they did not take a steamer round to Gibraltar.”

“We shall learn more about it, I dare say,’ said Mr. Horner;
“meanwhile I am glad we can amuse them for this one evening.
I am sorry we must leave them to-morrow. By the way, Augusta,”
—and here Mr. Horner interrupted himself to look for the guide-
books and time-tables,— “I have an idea!”’

“What is it?” asked Miss Augusta with a smile.

“Tt is that we should go to Toledo now, instead of waiting till
we come back from Granada. The season is so backward that I have
no fear of the heat at the South, have you?”

“Not the least,” she replied. “It is a very good plan, for we
shall then have Toledo off our minds when we come back. What
gave you this good idea?”

“Tt was thinking of the Goths, you see,” said Mr. ‘Horner,
laughing, “when: it occurred to me that it would be better to study
their great capital before going down among the Moors.”
AN INCIDENT.

“Well, well! you
Miss Lejeune. “ For
week that he had
of the map of Spain,






















knows the difference
Evidently
ing up!” she added

Moors!

“Not only have I
returned, “but I have
one of the gentle-
He says that Toledo
ful, that
eral days to it, and
ad-
to

and we
given me _ the
pension go

“Very well,” said

to

how about trains?”
“That is what we
They busied them-
and after half an hour
Â¥
ee

"

arranged a plan.

23,-
ERS

KN RELOVERIA |





ZOCODOVER IN TOLEDO.

A see" we
Ds toh
A

81

are improving,” cried
a man who said last
even no knowledge
to now show that he
between Goths and
you have been read-
with a smile.

been reading up,” he
been talking with
the bank.
is perfectly wonder-

men at

ought to devote sev-
he
dress of a sort of
instead of the hotel.”
Miss Lejeune, “and

moreover, has

she continued.

must now look up.”
selves on the subject,
of careful study, had

>



i

rns
_

J ff


82 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

“Children,” said Miss Augusta, advancing to the window where
the new acquaintances were “getting on splendidly,’ as they would
have expressed it, “we are going to Toledo to-morrow.”

“Toledo!” cried Bessie, ‘‘I thought” —

“We have changed the plan,” said her father.

“Oh!” she exclaimed; “then I must go at once and read about
the Goths!” and she jumped into the room.

“T wish we could go to Toledo,” said Hubert mournfully, revert-
ing to his lonely position which these new companions had made
him for a while forget.

“What are your plans?” asked Mr. Horner kindly; “perhaps I
can advise you.”

“We are just waiting here, sir,’ he replied, “for a letter, or
some message from papa, telling us how to go on. I dare say he
has sent it, but Spanish mails are so slow.” Then, as if he thought
Mr. Horner might be wondering why they were stranded at Madrid
in this manner, he added, while the color came into his cheeks,
“We are going to papa, because my mother was too ill to keep us”
with her, and she thought,— she thought I was old enough to bring
them as far as here. But it is too hard,—it is too hard to have
to wait;” and after a struggle, he broke down, and burst into
sobs, with his head on his arm, leaning upon the balcony railing
in the dark.

“It is hard for you, my dear boy,’ said Mr. Horner, putting
his arm kindly round his shoulder, “and I am glad we met you,
because I am sure we can help you. We will see to-morrow about
telegraphing to your father, if no letter comes.”
THE VAUGHANS, 83°

CHAPTER X.
THE VAUGHANS,

EXT morning Miss Lejeune had a little talk with Nana, the
N French nurse of the Vaughan children, who proved to be an
intelligent and faithful woman, fit to be entrusted with the sole
charge of them, on ordinary occasions. She was doing her best,
but the unexpected failure to meet Colonel Vaughan made her task
more difficult than had been intended. She was very grateful for
the interest which Miss Lejeune readily showed, and thankful for
advice as to her course.

“You see, madam,” she said, “the children were to have stayed
with their mother during the summer, but madam became so very
ill the doctor said they must be taken from her. Her disease is
of the nerves. Poor lady! she is very delicate. We wrote to
Gibraltar, and had one letter from the father, and were told to
come here. It was not so very difficult by the train. We left my
lady at Pau.”

“And you have no letter since?” asked Miss Lejeune.

‘‘No letter,” replied the nurse. “Mr. Hubert goes daily to the
banker’s, but there is nothing, and he is growing very impatient.”

Meanwhile Mr. Horner took both the boys out with him, and as
soon as it was late enough for the bank to be open, they went
there ; it was the same place for their own letters and for Hubert’s.

“This is the third time I have been here, and always the same
answer, ‘Nothing for you, sir,” said Hubert, as they climbed the
stairs; “but you will bring me luck, I hope,” he added, smiling.

Mr. Horner liked the boy. His smile was bright, and the look
which came from his eyes frank and direct. He was slightly built,
84. A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

and decidedly smaller than Tommy, who was now a stout, strong
lad, promising soon to be as tall as his brother Philip.

They went into the banking office, and two or three clerks looked
up at their entrance, one of whom rose to meet Mr. Horner with
a bow.

“Mr. Agrazis has not come in, sir; can we do anything for ~
you?”

“Yes;” replied Mr. Horner. “I hardly expect any letters myself
to-day, but I hope you will find one for this young gentleman.”

The clerk turned to another, who seemed to have the charge of
customers’ letters, and they exchanged several words in Spanish.

“TI know perfectly well,’ said Hubert to Tommy, “that they are
saying to each other, ‘There is that everlasting boy bothering us
about his letters.’ They are just determined I shall not have any.”

“No, sir; nothing at all,” said the clerk, running through a
bunch of decrepit old letters which looked as if they had been
in stock since the flood. He took them out of a pigeon-hole in a
set like that in a country post-office, marked with the letters of the
alphabet.

“Pardon me,” said Mr. Horner, “may I look for myself?” He
took the bunch, then said, “ This is not the right bundle; Vaughan
begins with V.”

“Faun, Faun,” repeated the Spanish clerk; “ah, no?”

They all looked for themselves into pigeon-hole V., and there the
solitary letter was lying, a blue envelope directed in a clear, bold
hand, to

Master HuBerT VAUGHAN
Care of Messrs. Agrazis and Brown
Banqueros, Madrid

Hubert pounced on it, too glad to find it to resent the mistake,
but Mr. Horner could not help mildly asking the clerk how long it
had probably been there.

“Oh! last night, last night only. Very positive,” he replied; and;


































































RIA LA BIANCA.

rA MA

SAN’

THE VAUGHANS. 87

Mr. Horner would not press the matter. Hubert was tearing open
the letter, and soon had mastered its contents. It was dated at the
very earliest moment that Colonel Vaughan had news of the plan of
sending the children to him by the way of Madrid. It had probably
been lying in the pigeon-hole at the bank as long as the Vaughans
had been waiting for it; but this did not much signify, as the
contents proved. It was brief, and ran thus:

DEAR HUBERT: '

You will find this on your arrival at Madrid. I am very sorry that you are
obliged to come, but will do my best to meet you, or send some one, before the
end of the month. You will stay, of course, at the Hotel de la Paix, where I am
perfectly well known. Be a good boy and mind Nana.

Your Affectionate Father,
JamMEs VAUGHAN.

Mr. Horner and Tommy stood waiting while Hubert read his |
letter, which to be sure did not take long. Mr. Horner saw at a
glance that he was disappointed and hurt. He hesitated, began to
put the letter in his pocket, squeezing his lips tightly together;
then changing his mind, handed it up to Mr. Horner, with a
helpless movement, as if he surrendered himself, in that movement,
to the guardianship of his new friend.

“The end of the month!” he said in a low voice, as if he
meant the end of the world. It was now only the sixteenth.

Tommy took the liberty of looking over his father's shoulder.
He thought it was an unkind letter ; and, to tell the truth, Mr.
Horner formed no glowing impression of Colonel Vaughan from
reading it; but it was too early to judge his character. He handed
it back, saying briefly:

“Come along, boys; we will go and see what Nana says. Good
morning, gentlemen. Tommy, your umbrella!” And they all went
down into St. Geronimo street, through which they must pass to
their hotel. The street looked changed, to them, though it was as
lively as ever, thronged with well-dressed men, women with mantillas,
dogs, donkey-carts, carriages, hand-organs ; the shop windows were
88 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

as gay, and the gaudy fan which Bessie longed for was flaunting
just as brightly as when they had stopped to look at it the day
before, but Madrid had become hateful to Hubert, and Tommy was
very angry with the unknown father of his new friend, who
could write such a letter as that.

“The end of the month,” re-
peated Mr. Horner; then he asked
abruptly, “ Hubert, should you like
to go with us to Toledo?” :

“To Toledo! Could you take
me? QO,-Mr. Horner!”

“Papa!” exclaimed Tommy, “ oh,
do let him go!”

“Let us see what Nana thinks,”
said Mr. Horner, whereat the two
boys started for the hotel on
the full run across the crowded



plaza, finding their way with great

EMPTY WINE JARS.

skill between the legs of the
horses. Just at the door, they all came luckily upon Miss Lejeune and
Bessie, who were setting forth by themselves for a little stroll.

“Where is Nana? Do you know?”

“She is up there at the balcony of the salon,’ said Bessie,
pointing with her parasol. “She wanted Fanny to stay ‘and help
take care of the baby.” ,

The matter was arranged -sooner and more simply than Mr.
Horner had expected; for it seemed that the head waiter of the
Hotel de la Paix was the husband of Nana’s sister, so that Nana
_was perfectly at home in the hotel, where she had once or twice
before accompanied her mistress, Mrs. Vaughan.

She thought it perfectly proper for Mr. Horner to take Hubert
and Fanny, who was of course included in the scheme, to Toledo
for a few days, while she stayed in the hotel at Madrid looking
after the baby. When she heard of the letter from Colonel
Vaughan, she shook her head and said:
ea

































Ss
os
mB
Z
*
cy
fad



SIX-MULE TEAM, TOLEDO.

THE VAUGHANS. 91

“TI thought as much. Very likely it will be the end of another
month. He is in no hurry, madam,” she added, turning to Miss
Lejeune with a knowing nod, but a smile of sadness, “to take
charge of the children.”

But the children did not hear this. They had scampered off to
get ready for Toledo. Mr. Horner called after them:

“Put up things enough for three days, Hubert!”

“Mon Dieu! mon Dieu!” cried Nana, catching up the baby and
running after them; “with all the ¢imge at the blanchisseuse, shall
there be even a mouchoir between them!”

As the dlanchisseuse was the very sister who had married the
head waiter, this matter was arranged without delay.

“Well!” said Miss Lejeune to Mr. Horner, when they were left
alone in the little balcony.

“Well!” returned Mr. Horner, “this is a pretty high-handed
proceeding !”

“ How exactly like you,” said Miss Lejeune, “to take these wandering
children wholly upon trust, and carry them off with you!”

“As for that, I am not afraid the children will pick our pockets,
or put poison in the soup; but if the stern parent should change
his mind and come after them”—

“And find the birds flown,” said Miss Lejeune, continuing his
thought, “it might be a little awkward. But Nana would be equal
to the occasion. Besides, he will not come. What a letter!”

“T am most anxious about Nana; what if she neglects the baby
in our absence?” said Mr. .Horner.

“My dear, we are not responsible for that baby. Suppose we
had never met them, it would be just the same.”

“In taking the children, we assume the burden of the whole
family, I believe,’ said Mr. Horner, shaking his head. While they
were talking, they had returned to their apartment. Mr, Horner
was walking up and down the room, with his hands in his pockets.
He went on to say:

“Tt is a risk, but I think it will turn out well. I shall set
Hubert to writing to his father at once, before we leave for Toledo,
92 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

and I shall add a postscript, to make it all right with Colonel
Vaughan. So now, we must make all ready for the start this after-
noon. Have you much to do?”

“No,” replied Miss Lejuene; “as we only take the little things,
and leave the trunks here. But you had better send Bessie to me
if you see her.”

He left the room, When Miss Lejeune was alone, she exclaimed
aloud, “ Was there ever’— finishing her thought inwardly thus:
“a man so enlarged and improved as Philip Horner, by marriage
and the intercourse with intelligent women! Twenty years ago, he
would not have taken so much trouble for his own relations, and
here he is going out of his way to give pleasure to some little
stray children. And he born in Boston!”


CALLE ISABEL, 16,' 93

CHAPTER XI,
CALLE ISABEL, 16.

se Nana was left with the baby, and
the young Vaughans, amazed and delighted,
joined the Horners for Toledo. Little Fanny
was shy, and wanted at first to be left with
Nana. Less notice had been taken of her than



of her brother, and she had not the same

BRIDGE OF ALCANTARA.

adaptability that he possessed; still it seemed a
pity to leave her behind, and though Bessie did not care much
about the child yet, she exerted herself to urge her going.

They reached Toledo after dark, and found at the station an
omnibus with mules, like the one at Burgos, only this time the
drive to the town was longer, and the mules were even more ani-
mated. There were eight of them, and they whirled along at a mad
pace, the driver cracking his whip, and the postilion running at
the side, or jumping up on the front animal, who was a horse, by
the way, and not a mule.

Toledo is built on a high rock, almost perpendicular on all sides
but one, It is seen from a great distance above the plain, with
sombre stone buildings rising in terraces one above the other. The
Tagus winds its way beneath the walls in a sort of horseshoe,
through a deep bed with steep, cafionlike sides. They crossed it
by the bridge of Alcantara— or Al Kantarah, which means a bridge
in Arabic — passing under arches and through towers at either end,
and then they began slowly winding up through the town, It had
been light enough to see the river and the bridge, but darkness came
on soon, and they could not tell where they were. The streets
were so narrow that they were close to the windows of shops
94 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

which seemed brilliant in the dimly-lighted streets, and could see
all sorts of Spanish things, tinsel church ornaments, bright silk or
cotton handkerchiefs, and brass work. The omnibus was feebly
lighted by a dim oil lamp, but Bessie managed to make out that
the only person besides themselves in it, who sat in the corner by
the door, was a matador in his bull-fight dress. He had his little
spadas, or swords, with him, under the seat.

‘‘This is the best fun of anything yet in Spain!” cried Tommy



DONKEYS CARRYING WATER JARS.

joyously, between the bumps of the swaying vehicle, and Hubert,
who had come direct from Bayonne to Madrid in the train without
stopping, fully agreed with him.

They stopped before a large wooden door, which reminded them
CALLE ISABEL, 16. 95

of an Eastern Bab, or gate. An unseen cord pulled it open, and
it swung inward, showing by the light of a candle, in a small niche
in a thick wall, a broad flight of stairs, built, as far as they could

&

pet Wis



LOOKING BACK ACROSS THE BRIDGE.

make out, on one side of an open court, or patio. They groped
their way up two sets of stairs, and there were met by two elderly
Spanish sefioras with hospitable manners, like any two ladies await-
ing to receive their guests. The Horners had been prepared for
this, and had got together their best Spanish; and it now came
out, what they had not before thought of, that Hubert, who had
spent most of his life in Gibraltar, could manage the language

pretty well.
96 ' A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

These sweet ladies made them welcome, and led them by a cor:
ridor running round the patio, to a huge room, with small windows,
heavy beams running across the ceiling, and in one corner an
ancient, closed-up door of green corroded. iron, through. which. Bessie
fancied that Roderick the Goth might step into the room at any
moment. There were two little iron beds against the wall, and
there was room in the great chamber for half a dozen more. The
two girls, with Miss Lejeune, were put in possession, while the
sefioras carried of the others. Philip and his father were given a
room whose one window opened upon the corridor, and Hubert’s
room was a little dark place leading from this up three steps, with
a big flowered chintz curtain for a door or portiere.

While one sefiora bustled about making them comfortable, the
other disappeared to superintend their supper. The ladies were soon
restored by fresh water, which was brought in hospitable profusion,
and while Miss Lejeune rested on the bed, the girls leaned upon
the window and looked down into the patio. It was a square win-
dow, with folding sashes, and heavy shutters, all painted a faded
green. Below, through the darkness, they could make out a paved
square court with oleander-trees in green boxes, and in mysterious
corners stood huge jars which might have contained a forty-thief
apiece. A bell rang which they recognized by the sound, as the
door-bell their driver had rung when they came; and then a won-
derful thing happened. The sefiora, who had been bringing them
water and towels, appeared at a window of the corridor, just oppo-
site the one where the children were standing, and pulled at a
cord. They could not see round the corner down below, but they
knew that she must have opened the front door by this process,
from the conversation which ensued in Spanish. Of course they
could not understand it, but they guessed, and probably were
nearly right, that it was something like this:

The sefiora said, “Well! who’s there?”

“Tt is Pepe, sefiora. The butterman has no butter.”

_ What! Then you must run to the milkman.”

“T have done so, and he has none.”
% SF tp
Vy, %
PG
“Wherun
MO ay AT

ery



































PUERTA DEL SOL, TOLEDO.







CALLE ISABEL, 16. 99

“Fetch me, then, some fresh oil, for we have but little; but be
quick, for the strangers are already impatient for their supper.”

The invisible messenger said no more. As the sefiora loosened
the rope, the great door swung to with a bang.

Soon the bell rang again, and the same process took place.
This time there was a scuffling below, and the shadowy form of
Pepe was to be seen hurrying up the stairs which, led from the
patio below, in full view of the children’s post of observation.

Over their heads the stars were shining brightly against the
clear evening sky; pointed dormer windows in the tiled roof which
went around the four sides of the patio, stood out sharply; every
now and then a little bird, which speaks often at night in Spain,
made its plaintive note close at hand. It was wonderfully still
and strange.

Still they were not sorry to be summoned to supper, which was
served to them alone, at a round table lighted by a swinging lamp.
The kind ladies waited on them, and watched to see if they liked the
good chicken and fried eggs which they provided. The Horners
praised everything, to the graceful brown jug that held the water.
Little Fanny, too tired and sleepy to eat much, was an object of
great interest to the hostesses, and one of them offered to put her
to bed before the rest had finished their apricots; but Miss
Lejeune would not allow this. ;

She was afraid Fanny might be frightened in the great room with

the green iron door; but she was a passive little traveller, and in
fact fell asleep as soon as her head was on the pillow.
_“T hope Roderick the Goth will not come in and terrify her,”
said Miss Lejeune, as she resumed her seat at the table, and
began to sip the black coffee, which, late as it was, she had not
feared to accept.

“Who is Roderick the Goth?” demanded Hubert; “you keep:
referring to him.”

“ He was the last of the Goths, so called,” said Miss Lejeune,
“but we. use his name because he was .a famous one, and we have
the Goths upon our minds, because during their rule in. Spain,
wa

100 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

Toledo was their chief place; and while we are here, we expect to
see the traces of their buildings and ways of doing things.”

“TI do not know anything about history,” said Hubert with a
tone partly scornful and partly meek, if such a combination can be
possible.

“Well, you see, you are in Spain because you have. to be, ue
said Tommy; “but as we are here for fun, we want to get all the
fun we can out of a country, by knowing all we can about it.”

“Bravo, Tommy!” exclaimed his father; “these are the true
Horner sentiments.”

“ Well, then, you will have to tell me all you know,” said
Hubert, “for I am rather late to begin.”

“Now, I will tell you very briefly,” said Bessie, “the way I
used to tell Phil, if you will only listen.”

“TI think, Bessie, your general glimpse of the Goths had better
be postponed,” said Mr. Horner, “for it is long after ten o'clock,
and we ought all to go to bed.”

“All right,’ said Hubert, who was struggling with a great yawn,
“but I will listen to-morrow, Bessie.”

The early chroniclers of Toledo say that the city was founded at
least as far back as the creation of the world; without trying to
verify their theories, it is quite probable that the Romans found
something there when they established themselves as early as the
beginning of the third century, a. p. At all events, it was to the
Romans an important centre. The first council of the Church of
Spain was held at Toledo, 400 a. D. Some time later, upon the
irruption of the barbarians of the North, which swept all over the
peninsula, it became the capital of Gothic Spain, and was very
prosperous and important. In Wamba’s reign, the glory of Toledo
reached its climax; but from that time the Gothic name began .to
decline throwgh its own corruption and internal quarrels, all of
which were preparing for the downfail of the monarchy. Secret
intelligence was given to the Moors over in Africa, that there was
a. chance for successful invasion, and they landed at Gibraltar in
great numbers.
CALLE ISABEL, 16. : 101

Roderick, with all his Goths, came out to meet them, and a great
battle was fought, not far from Cadiz, on the banks of the Guade-
lete. Roderick advanced towards the enemy, dressed in gold and
purple, standing in his ivory chariot, with a wonderful headdress,
and two mules splendidly accoutred. These signs of royalty made
him an easy mark, and he was cut down by the weapon of the
Turk. The head of the king was cut off and forwarded to the
court of Damascus. Thus fell the monarchy of the Goths, and thus
began the domination of the Moor, whose rule in Spain lasted
eight hundred years. They, too, at first, made Toledo their chief
place until Cordova became their court and capital.


102 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

CHAPTER XII
TOLEDO.

URING all the centuries, the great races who have appeared
in Spain, lived their life, and vanished, have had some foot-
hold in Toledo. They have all left their traces there, which are
yet to be seen, although the city has now become a place of little
importance other than its many monuments of the past. Old
Roman archways, the traces of the palace ‘of the Gothic kings,
beautiful specimens of Moorish mosques and of Jewish synagogues,
are still visible; for when Toledo was first taken by the Moors it
was filled with Hebrews, who helped the Moors because they had
been persecuted by their previous rulers, the Goths. The Cathedral,
and the Church of San Juan de los Reyes, are monuments of the
Spanish Christians, and the present century is represented by the
destruction wrought by French soldiers in 1810.

The streets are irregular, ill-paved, and steep and winding; but
this intricacy was intentional, for it made them easy to defend when
attacked, and kept them cool in summer. The houses are for the
most part Moorish, built about patios, or courts, over which awnings
are drawn in summer.

In the heart of the city towers the Cathedral, around which cluster
many churches and convents, now silent and deserted. The silence
of the place strikes the ear at once, where no carriages, and but sel-
dom a footfall, disturb the echoes of the narrow streets.

The Horners passed three delightful days there, going back to
Madrid on the evening of the third. The hospitable sisters, who kept
the house, would fain have them stay a month, and they were so
enchanted with their quarters, nothing would have pleased them
better.


















































Fi ‘ PROCESSION OF MONKS.

TOLEDO. 105

“Tf Mary were only here!” was Miss Lejeune’s exclamation;
“there is sketching enough for weeks!”

When the sefioras learned just how long they could stay, they
planned for them the arrangement of their time, so that they should
see as many as possible of the interesting places, and without doing
too much at a time, so as to be tired, and lose the impression.

Their first excursion was to walk round the picturesque old city,
going down to the Puerta del Sol, not like that of Madrid, changed
to mean a broad square, but really a Moorish gate of granite
horseshoe arches; and thence along an old road to another gate, |
where there are outworks built by Wamba the Goth, the new
Puerta visagra being the work of Philip the Second. Here, there
is an image of St. Eugenio, Bishop of Toledo, who came from
France. Going back there he was murdered at St. Denis, and his
body remained there until another French bishop discovered it and
brought back the right arm to Spain. Philip the Second obtained
the rest from Charles the Ninth, and thus all the parts of the
sacred remains were reunited at Toledo, after a thousand years of
separation, according to the explanation of the guide who went with
them to point out the items of interest. It seemed as if there
was something to see at every step, and after two or three hours,
their heads were turning with the difficulty of following his Spanish
explanation. Goths and Moors were growing hopelessly mixed in
their minds. The cobblestone pavements tired their feet, and they
were hungry, for this was an early start after coffee and before
almuerzo. So they insisted upon going back to the Calle St. Isabel,
No. 16, to the dismay of the worthy man, who had but just got
going on his tour of inspection. They promised to start again after
a rest, in the afternoon, and came back after admiring the remains
of the Palace Castle, built by Wamba in 674, and the bridge of
San Martin, which there completes the picture. This bridge is quite
at the opposite curve of the horseshoe made by the Tagus, from the
one over which they had entered the city.

In the afternoon, to please the guide, they came back to this
point, to inspect the remains of the Franciscan convent, called San
106 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

Juan de los Reyes—of the Kings — because it was dedicated by
Ferdinand and Isabella to their particular saint, John, being erected
by them in 1476, to commemorate a victory over the king of Por-
tugal. The detail of this church is very elaborate, and it is a
specimen of the richest Gothic of the Moorish period, although the
severest critics condemn the taste of the ornaments, such as the
angels with coats of arms, that crowd the walls. On the outside,
in one part of the wall, still hang’ the rusty chains with which
Christians were confined by the Moors, won back at the conquest
_of Grenada. It is said that Ferdinand and Isabella intended to be
buried here, but they changed their idea, and their tombs are in the
Cathedral at Grenada.

Bessie and Miss Lejeune liked best the old cloister of this
church; though it is falling ‘down through neglect and bad usage,
it is the finest portion of the whole work, covered with rich
sculptures of foliage, and animals and saints, in niches. It was
much damaged by French soldiers during the early part of this
century, and is now used in part as a picture gallery. The _
pictures are sad and gloomy, like those in most inferior Spanish
collections; and there are no specimens of the best. The ‘court-
yard of the cloister was overgrown with tall rosetrees, oleander
and other shrubs, whose long neglected sprays twisted about the
broken carvings.

During their absence, the good landladies-had been engaged in
a very serious work, which had occupied their whole day. The
Horners found them busily engaged upon it when they came in to
almuerzo, but by dinner time all traces of it were removed, and
the thing was complete. This was patching and mending the huge
awning of the patio, large enough to stretch all over it, across
from one side of the roof to another, each way. Early in the
morning it was lowered into the court, and there spread out on
the flat stone pavement, an odd sight, for the original brownish
color was already varied by patches of white, where it had been
strengthened from time to time, so that it looked like an immense
patchwork quilt of varied shades of yellow, white, and brown.
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THE CATHEDRAL OF TOLEDO.



TOLEDO. 109

When Bessie in the morning saw the excellent ladies with their
maid about to set to work, she had a great longing to stay
at home and help; but reflecting that she had not come all
the way to Toledo to mend patchwork, she gave it up. In the
evening, the stones of the patio were uncovered, and shining with
cleanliness. The great pots containing the oleanders were set back
in the middle, but the water-jars remained mysterious in their
corner. Overhead, the yellow awning, drawn back for air and light,
hung in folds close on one side of the building. It was worked
with ropes and pulleys, and could be drawn all or partly across the
patio. In fact, the whole establishment was worked with ropes
like a_ sailing-vessel, and the brave sefiora opened the Bab
and hailed the visitors below, like a captain on her quarter
deck.

The third and last day was almost wholly devoted to the
Cathedral, the real glory of Toledo, not only on account of its
religious and historical associations, but from its intrinsic beauty
as an example of the pure ingenious Gothic of the thirteenth cen-
tury. |

The Cathedral is said to have occupied its present site before
the capture of the city by the Moors. They converted it into a
mosque, and in course of time enlarged and adorned it greatly.
At the capitulation of Alonzo the Sixth, in 1085, it was agreed that
the Moors should still retain it; but this agreement was respected
for a few months only, when the Christians took it forcibly from
them and had it consecrated as their Cathedral. But of that
old building nothing remains. The first stone of the new Cathe-
dral was laid with great ceremony by King Ferdinand the Third, on
the fourteenth of August, 1227, and from that time to the end of
the seventeenth century, additions and alterations have been con-
stantly in hand. It was the same king who laid the first stone
at Burgos in 1221.

The plan of the Cathedral is on an enormous scale, those of
Milan and Seville being the only larger churches in Europe.
There is no good general view to be had of it, though the towers
10 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

and dome are very beautiful. The first glimpse of the interior is
very impressive; rich in sculpture, but very simple in its lines.
The chapels are crowded with sculpture and ornament, and contain
often, like those at Burgos, the tombs of important persons. One
of these, the chapel of Santiago, has in the centre a grand high
tomb, with life-size kneeling figures, one at each angle, and angels
holding coats of arms, in panels on the sides. On the tomb repose
the effigies of the Constable Don Alvaro de Luna and his wife
Dofia Juana, who died in the middle of the fifteenth century. Don
Alvaro was the prime minister and favorite of John the Second, of
Castile. He was something like Cardinal Wolsey, and like him, fell
from the favor of his sovereign.

‘There are also many beautiful inns and brass screens as elsewhere
throughout the Spanish churches, and retablos, or large pictures
of great height, rising from floor to roof, filled with scenes from
the life of the Saviour, richly painted and gilded, with canopies
and niches covered with gold. The effect is one of extreme rich-
ness and quietness combined. The large windows are mostly filled
with stained glass, giving the wonderful charm of contrasted lights
and shades, added to that of the colored rays falling through the .
windows. The walls, which originally were colored, have been
sacrificed throughout to the unhappy passion for whitewash, which
disfigures everything in Spain.

Now the Horners had to bid farewell to Toledo. Few cities
can compete with it in interest, for the grandeur of its position,
and the endless picturesqueness of every corner. It gathers up in
a small space the whole strange history of Spain so vividly, that
any one who could visit its old nooks and corners might work out
for himself the whole of it. For here Romans, Goths, Saracens,
and Christians, have in turn held sway, and left their mark.

The Horners found time on the way to the station to stop at
a shop where the beautiful Toledo work is made; steel, inlaid with
gold and copper in lovely arabesque designs. They bought a few
“travel presents” in the way of daggers mounted as shawl-pins.
VISIGOTHS. % 111

CHAPTER XIII.
VISIGOTHS.

PAIN is first known in history about the sixth century before
Christ, as then inhabited by “Iberi” and Kelts. It is more

than probable that both of these races followed previous ones, the
existence of which are traced in the flint stone and bronze instru-





KINGDOM OF THE
WEST GOTHS

vwexker Eurich (408-488)
end AlarichTI (488-507).

‘Beale 112500.000.













ments like those hidden elsewhere in Europe; these were probably
also followed by races who built the dolmens and menhirs which are
found all along from Algeria to the Orkneys. These Iberi and
112 4 FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

Kelts scatscred themselves over the peninsula, constantly shifting
their ground, perhaps on account of petty wars among themselves, or
for now unknown reasons. Both races have left clear traces on
the maps of ancient Spain.

From its geographical position, the peninsula was a natural halt-
ing-place in ancient times for all the masters of the Mediterranean
as they pushed westward. Thus there came successively colonies of
Egyptians, Phoenecians and Greeks; and there Carthagenians and
Romans met to dispute the supremacy of the civilized world. The
Romans occupied Spain for a long period, during which it became
nearly as Latinized as Italy; then the Roman Empire fell, and
successive waves of barbarian destroyers swept across the land,
Sueves, Vandals, Visigoths, wrecking a civilization they could not
understand. The last of these races, the Visigoths, strove hard to
found an empire from 450 to 710, which, upheld by the real power
which in those times kept society together, the Church, lasted,
growing, however, weaker and weaker, till it fell before the attack
of the Mohammedan Arabs.

These Goths retained the provinces, with their local capitals left
from the dominion of the Romans. Their kingdom, in its greatest
time, extended far beyond the present limits of Spain, reaching up
into France. Seville was at first the royal residence of the Goths,
acknowledged not only as the capital of the whole province, but as
the metropolis of the kingdom. This honor, however, was in time
transferred to Toledo.

The Spanish Goths were by no means the wild, uncivilized
people which the expression “Goths and Vandals” conveys. The
old Roman organization of the towns was preserved by tradition
throughout the whole of the Visigothic times, and the charters, or
Jueros, granted to towns and cities by the kings, founded on
recollections of former institutions, are even now in force, and fully
exacted.

The government was, in appearance, an absolute monarchy; yet
the power of the chief was greatly controlled by the influence of
the prelates. The Pope was acknowledged as supreme head of the
























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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VISIGOTHS. “116

Church, but the independence of the Spanish bishops was great,
and they managed affairs pretty much their own way, in things
temporal as well as spiritual, through the national ecclesiastical
councils.

The Arian heresy, differing from the true orthodox of the















































































ALCAZAR IN TOLEDO.

Church, continued about one hundred years in Spain ; the disputes
arising from differences of faith, made much trouble, as in the
following case:

Ermenigild, a certain royal prince, was allowed to share the
royal dignity with his father, after his marriage with the princess
Ingunda, who was orthodox. But Gosnilda, the. second wife of
116 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

the old king, and therefore stepmother to the prince, was a
professor of the Arian sect. The two queens could not agree; the
double connection between stepmother and daughter-in-law was too
much for them, added to a difference in religion; the one was
resolved that her step-daughter should embrace the religion of the
Goths, the other that no force on earth should induce her to do
so. Gosnilda had violent passions. She so far forgot, it is said,
all sense of dignity, as to punish the obstinacy of Ingunda with
blows. She seized her one day, says St. Gregory of Tours, by
the hair of her head, threw her down, and trampled on her, and
afterwards forcibly thrust her into the water to be baptized by an
Arian priest. The two husbands finding that their palace was
scandalized, agreed to have separate courts; while the elder
remained at Toledo, the younger established his at Seville.

Ermenigild soon abjured Arianism, converted by his wife, and
embraced the Catholic religion. Warfare followed between father
and son, and it ended in an order for the execution of the latter,
who had already been thrown into prison; “the ministers of venge-
ance hastened to the dungeon, and with a hatchet, cleft the head
of the prince of the Goths.”

This was one of the tales with which Bessie regaled Hubert and
Tommy, true to her agreement of throwing light on Spanish history
at not too great’a cost to her listeners. She had her own method
of extracting plums from books of information about the places or
people in whom she was interested. She had no strong prejudice
in favor of facts, and loved a legend better than a statistical state-
ment. While her dates and statistics were fairly reliable for accuracy,
she was quite as likely to introduce a giant or a ghost, as a king
and warrior into her narrative, but she had a good memory, and
she gave a certain air of genuineness to her account which justi-
fied her fondness for romance.

“Tt is like Mary’s water-colors, papa,” she pleaded in her own |
defence, when he once criticised her method of statement; “I must
generalize to give a broad effect. Besides, the boys would not
listen if I gave them all the arguments for and against the facts,”
VISIGOTHS. 117

The story which led her father to demur, was the popular one
refuted by serious historians, about the wand of Wamba ; Bessie
loved to believe it. The Gothic crown was offered to him by the
electors, but he was little inclined to accept the dignity. He was
an excellent man, who had already filled honorable posts. Prayers
and tears were vainly employed to move him. At length, one of
the dukes of the palace placed a
dagger at. his breast, and bade
him choose between the sepulchre
and a throne. Such a choice was
simple, and Wamba reigned.

Such are the facts allowed by
historians; but the legend is that
when St. Leo, in compliance with
the earnest wishes of the Goths,
prayed that they might be divine-
ly directed in the choice they
were about to make, he was ad-
monished that they must seek a
laborer named Wamba, whom
they must crown. The soldiers
arriving at his farm found him at the plough, on the confines of
Portugal, and gave him the news of his appointment. Thinking it
only a joke, he said, “Yes, I shall become king about the time
when my staff puts forth leaves again.” To the astonishment of
all present, the dry wood of the pole he held in his hand was
clothed immediately with verdure. Of course they took him away
by force to Toledo, and there crowned him.

Wamba made an excellent king. He found the country at war,
but soon reduced its enemies. He was obliged to go as far as
Nismes, in the south of France, to suppress an ambitious Greek
named Paul, who had made himself crowned there.

Hubert pricked up his ears at this, for he had seen the Roman
amphitheatre at Nismes, that very summer, and he was pleased to
be able to tell them about it. It is an immense building, like the



KING WAMBA.
118 A FAMILY. FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

coliseum at Rome, constructed for the same purposes —of combats
of animals or men. Many historical phases have swept over the
majestic arena, often stained with the blood of human victims. The
crescent floated over its walls during the rule of the Spanish Goths,
before Charles Martel drove them out in 737.

In the course of time, the place became neglected, and a miserable
population which we should call squatters, were allowed to live there.
The walls are smoked by the fires they used to cook by. Until the
beginning of this century, this superb cirque was surrounded by
wretched little houses, and the inside was filled with them; but since
then they have been all removed away, and now the amphitheatre,
like most of the monuments of France, is not only cleared of rub-
bish, but restored in such a manner that the original intention of
every part can be thoroughly understood.

Hubert was proud to tell his friends about something they had
not seen; and Mr. Horner was pleased to note the powers of obser-
vation of the boy, who had picked up these facts from the guide who
accompanied them about the amphitheatre. Hubert could well imagine
just the scene when Wamba came and took possession of the place.
By royal command, Paul, the conspiring Greek, and the other leading
rebels, were dragged by the hair of the head from the vaults of the
amphitheatre, and consigned to prison. The merciful monarch satisfied
himself with condemning them to wear shaven crowns, and to be
shut up within the walls of Toledo.

“Let us enact the scene,” said Bessie. “You and JI, Fanny, will
be leading rebels on account of our long hair, and the boys can be
the myrmidons of Wamba, and drag us about.”

This brief entertainment took place somewhat appropriately in the
room with the green iron door, by which Bessie thought that Roderic
the Goth left for good, on the last day of their short stay. in
Toledo. They had bought their Toledo blades, and taken one last
stroll through the irregular streets. After a hearty meal provided
by the kind sefioras, they were waiting for their guide to carry
them to the station for railway omnibuses. He came, and they
walked to the square, where they had time for some delicious
VISIGOTHS. 119

sherbet in a kind of restaurant, then climbed into a long omnibus
‘which rapidly filled with Spaniards who had been passing the day
at Toledo, and were going home by the train; women in mantillas,
others with bright handkerchiefs tied about their heads, all merrily
chatting together, as a similar crowd might in an American barge.

The Horners arrived at the hotel in Madrid to find Nana and
the baby all right, and a letter from Colonel Vaughan.



OMNIBUS TO THE STATION.
120 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

CHAPTER XIV.
COMBINATION.

OLONEL VAUGHAN’S letter was addressed to Mr. Horner,

with an enclosure for Hubert. He “availed himself gladly,”

he said, of the proposal contained in Mr. Horner’s postscript sent

in Hubert’s last letter, that his family should continue under the
protection of Mr. Horner as far as Gibraltar.

“Well, that is cool!” said Miss Lejeune, when Mr. Horner
handed her the letter.

“Rather brief,’ said Mr. Horner, “but he had a right to put that
construction on my offer. In fact, I expected it.”

“What did you say?” she asked.

“‘T merely said that I was going finally to Gibraltar; and that
although not yet decided as to my route, or how much time it
would take, I should be glad to be a friend to his children, in
whom we had begun to take an interest, and that, therefore, I
hoped he would let me know how I could be of service.”

“That was rather vague,’ said Miss Lejeune. “ What really was
your idea?”

“My idea was rather vague,” replied Mr. Horner. “I wanted to
take them to Tolede; and I thought that would give time for a
letter ‘from the father, and he might find it easier to give his direc-
tions to me than to a mere boy, Besides” —

“Besides,” interrupted Miss Lejeune, “you thought it might come
to this.” 5

“Do you much object?” asked Mr. Horner rather meekly.

“Not at all!” replied Miss Augusta. “I think the addition of the
children is excellent for both Tommy and Bessie. It was a risk,
COMBINATION, 121

because we might not have liked them; but there is good stuff in
Hubert, and Fanny is a harmless little thing. But”— she stopped
and laughed.

“But,” said Mr. Horner, continuing her thought, “it is comic that
we have burdened ourselves with a nurse and child that we know
nothing about!”

“And when,” added Miss Lejeune, “we reduced our own party
because ‘four is enough for travelling in Spain.’”

Mr. Horner assumed a grave expression, although the corners of
his mouth had a smiling tendency.

“What will mamma say?” he sighed.

“She will worry,” returned Miss Augusta promptly. “I think
it will be well. not to dwell on
the details of the plan until we
are fairly out of the scrape.”

“We shall come out of it
well enough!” said Mr. Horner.
“T rely on Nana’s __ intelli-
gence.”

“Of course,” said Miss Le-
jeune cheerfully ; “all the same,
I must say Colonel Vaughan
takes his family remarkably
easy.”

“TI rather long to see’ Colonel
Vaughan,” remarked Mr. Hor-
ner.

Great was the joy of the younger portion of the Combination,
when the news was announced that they were all to travel together,
Nana was full of gratitude. She relieved one serious doubt of Mr.
Horner’s, namely, the money question. She was provided with an
ample letter of credit, and was perfectly sure Colonel Vaughan
would not care how much they spent.

“Nor how long we stay away,” she grumbled in atone not
altogether meant for herself: alone.



ROMAN TOMB.
122 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

Mr. horner fancied that Nana’s heart was full of bitterness
toward her master; but he thought it far the best course not to
press the subject with her. Time would show, little by little, the
true relations of the Vaughans, and meanwhile they were not to be
made the subject of idle curiosity.

Children accept all the events of life without surprise. Even
Bessie, who was the eldest, thought it a very natural and delightful
plan to invite the Vaughans. Tommy and Hubert got on very
well together, although each had begun by half despising the kind
of boy the other was, or seemed to be.

Miss Augusta regarded the position with some amusement. She
soon began to take great comfort in Nana, who, with ready tact, at
once devoted herself to her new lady, and to fulfil the little tasks
belonging to a maid. Miss Lejeune always travelled without one,
but she loved to be waited upon, and she gladly relegated the whole
subject of boots, gloves, ruffles, etc., to Nana, who now looked after
fier wardrobe and Bessie’s, as well as that of Fanny Vaughan.

In fact, the plan worked so well that Miss Augusta after a day
or two was heard to exclaim to Bessie:

“My dear, I don’t know how we ever got on without them!”

But in the beginning it was, a little hard for Mr.’ Horner, whose
burden, the luggage, was now nearly doubled. Nana did what she
could, but the burden must come chiefly upon one person, who must
know how many pieces there are, and. exactly where they are.
Mr. Horner bore up manfully, conscious that he was the author of
the mischief, if mischief there: were.

They were now to confront another night journey, and Miss
Lejeune’s prophetic mind was in gloom at the thought of eight in
the carriage, and one of them a baby! “Too ridiculous!”

But when they went up to the place for ee the tickets,
Hubert said to Mr. Horner:

“Nana always travels second-class.”

“What, and you too?”

“Yes; papa prefers it,’ said Hubert. eee

Mr. Horner was puzzled. He had taken first-class tickets to


















































































PUERTA DE LA INCLUSA.

COMBINATION. 126

Toledo, by which Hubert had found out that it was the habit of the
Horners to travel thus.

It is an excellent plan to go second-class in Germany, and in.
many parts of Europe, and the Horners as a general thing did
so. But in Spain, and especially in night travelling, Mr. Horner
was determined to secure all the comforts possible ; in fact, the first-
class carriages are none too luxurious. He hesitated now, not
liking, at the very start, to separate himself from his charges.

“Why do you doubt?” said Nana. “We go always very safe.
Hubert, do you buy the tickets for us, you have money.”

This was the sensible plan, of course, and this was the method
adopted afterwards. The second-class compartment was very near
the one chosen by the Horners for themselves. They saw the others
safely disposed in their seats, which were comfortable enough, the
only drawback being a row of Spanish hidalgos in mantas, with
cigarettes in their mouths; but the Spanish hidalgo is at present a
very mild one. And thus Miss Lejeune retained her corner unmo-
lested through the weary night.

It was about two A. M. when they were all awakened by the stop-
ping of the train in a huge dark station, dimly lighted. “ Half an
hour for refreshments!” is the translation of the cry passed down
the platform; and the Horners all tumbled out hastily, Miss Lejeune
in her slippers and sphinx-like veil, Bessie more asleep than awake,
Tommy alert, as usual, at the rumor of food. He skipped off to
rouse the rest, but the only recruit he could oa was Fanny ;
the others were too far gone in sleepiness.

They pressed along with the rest of the passengers to the fonda
or buffet, a long dark room thick with cigarette-smoke, and were
shoved by the crowd into seats at one of several long tables, set
with cups, without saucers, of thick crockery, filled with thick choc-
olate. Each cup was covered with a flat, round sponge-cake, to be
broken and dipped into the brown substance which could not be
called liquid. They watched the others, and did what they did, and
strange to say, the food seemed to go to the right spot. A full
glass of water stood by each cup, to be quaffed after it. No
126 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

one spoke much; the dark Spaniards with hats slouched over
their heads, and mantas on their shoulders, sipped their favorite
beverage in silence. Suddenly a wonderful creature, looking like a
ruffian, with a bright waist-band stuck full of weapons, passed down
the room. He had knives to sell, and daggers, with blades of Moorish
curves, and hilts set with jewels, tinsel, in reality, —cheap and gaudy,
but delightfully Spanish. The Horners all provided themselves, for
a few pesetas apiece, and they brought back from Spain nothing
more admired.

Our Americans could not help feeling in a hurry, and they were
almost the first to take their seats in the train. They found
Nana with the baby, and Hubert, the sole occupants of their
. carriage; all the Spaniards had taken
themselves and their mantas to the
fonda,

Hubert sat up and stared at them
with round eyes.

_ “Where have you been?”

“Drinking chocolate, thick as mud!
And see my dagger!” cried Tommy,
brandishing it.

“Oh, I wish I had one! I wish I

1?



had chocolate
“Come with me, Hubert,” said Mr.

CERVANTES.

Horner; “we will go back and you shall have some.”

“Oh! is there time?” asked Miss Augusta.

“Time! millions of time,” replied Mr. Horner. “I dare say they
will not start till to-morrow morning!”

“Manana! Mafiana!” (To-morrow! to-morrow!) murmured Miss
Lejeune.

They were gone sometime, and Bessie said:

“How mamma would worry! but they are sure to be back.”

And so they were, but not until the guards were banging the
doors, and urging the cadalleros to take their places. Mr. Horner.
popped Hubert into his, and sprang to his seat. The door was


































ANCIENT ENTRANCE.



COMBINATION. 329

closed, and the train shook. “Did Hubert get a dagger?” asked

Tommy.
“No; the man had vanished. Perhaps we shall have another

chance.”

It was ten o’clock the next morning before they arrived at Cor-
dova, and they reached their hotei in the stupid and owl-like
condition to which no practice could make them accustomed. All
acknowledged, however, that their nocturnal chocolate had had a good
effect, — even Miss Augusta,— who abominated the stuff.

They had passed during the night over the treeless, stony
Campos de la Mancha, a name associated with Cervantes, and his

hero Don Quixote.



Fe VEER mMAWAY HOMES
A MONTANE ET NG ANUTBy
° 430 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN, ,

CHAPTER XV.

CORDOVA.

OWN with the Goth and up with

the Moor!” cried Bessie, as they
drove to their hotel through the
narrow whitewashed streets of Cor-
dova.

“Why do you say that?” asked
sleepy Hubert.

“Cannot you see for yourself,”
asked Bessie, “that everything is
changed? This is just as different

from Toledo” —
“Different to Toledo, you mean,”

grumbled Hubert.
There were frequent skirmishes
between the children on account of



differences in their English.

“Come, children, do not talk
before breakfast,” said Miss Lejeune. “Luckily we shall have some
soon, for here we are.”

COAT OF ARMS OF CORDOVA.

The hotel was upon a modern square; a minaret of no historic
importance, but in the Moorish style, rose before them, and the
flat-roofed houses were all painted in gay colors, each story a dif-
ferent tint. A few palm-trees showed their heads here and there.

“How Eastern! is it not?” exclaimed Mr. Horner.

“More Eastern than the East!” replied Miss Lejeune.

The Horners had allowed themselves but one day for Cordova,
CORDOVA. 131

as everybody told them the Mosque was the chief thing, and that
it all could be done in a short time. This was true, but these

single days of sight-seeing are very fatiguing, and should be avoided
whenever it is possible.

A good breakfast gave them courage, and after it, they sallied

SRT ice ~~ Se

fat oy



ENTRANCE TO THE ORANGE PATIO.

forth under the escort of a Moor, the only Arab left in Cordova,
by his own account, Nana and the baby, by preference, retiring

to bed for a solid sleep of five hours.
They walked in the middle of the street, over rough cobble-stones,
182 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

sometimes meeting a donkey, but seldom seeing any inhabitants,
Occasionally a glimpse through an iron barred gateway showed
lovely patios with foliage and fountains; but the streets presented
blank whitewashed walls with but few windows. Each frequent turn
of the street, excluding any glimpse of distance, shuts in the way-
farer and prevents his gaining any notion of where he is going.
It is very easy to lose one’s self in. the intricacies of a Spanish
town, of which Cordova seems the most lonely and deserted. It is
as if the inhabitants had vanished, leaving behind them solitude and
the shadow of Moorish splendors past.

Having reached the Mosque, they entered first the Court of
Oranges, a large enclosed patio with orange-trees planted in it, and
at each end a colonnade of marble pillars supporting circular arches.
It was so quiet, so Eastern within this enclosure, that they would
have gladly lingered there; but their Moor hurried them onward, and
in a few minutes they were within the wonderful temple.

The first impression is one of bewilderment and amazement,
produced by the maze of pillars, often compared to a roofed-in
forest. There are nearly a thousand columns, and wherever one
is standing, as in a planted wood of pines, they form receding
aisles. They are all of marbles of different colors and kinds,— green
and red jasper, and porphyry, black, white, red or emerald. The
arches connecting them are in stripes of red and white, which add
to the variegated effect of the whole.

It is wonderful, and wholly differs from the Gothic cathedrals
the Horners had been seeing. The proportions are low, compared
with the lofty aisles of Burgos and Toledo, and the effect new and
strange.

They liked less than ever. to be led about and made to see
details ; but their Moor was at their heels. The Mih-rab, or holiest
place of the Mosque, they found the most beautiful specimen of
Moorish decoration they had seen, not excepting similar places in
the East; the rich coloring and gilding are still free from whitewash,
which has covered so many Arabian splendors in Spain. Here
once was kept the wonderful pulpit of Al-Hakem, of inlaid ivory
CORDOVA. 133

and precious woods and stones, fastened with gold and _ silver
nails. It was kept in a box covered with gold tissue embroidered
with pearls and rubies. This pulpit disappeared not very long ago;
but the beautiful Mosaic ornamentation of the Mih-rab still remains



INTERIOR OF THE MOSQUE OF CORDOVA.

to give an idea of its former splendor. In the festivities of Rhe
madan, the Mosque used to be lighted with more than ten thow

sand lamps.
134 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

When the Moors entered Cordova after their victory over the
Goths, they assured the Christians, as usual, the liberty of their
religion, and allowed them the use of their cathedral, built on the
site of a temple to Janus. This church was extant in 745.

But soon the population of Moors increased so much that they
required more room for their own worship, and they were obliged
to take away from the Christians half of their cathedral and make
a mosque of it. In 784 Abdurrahman the First bought also’ the Chris-
tian half, determined to build a magnificent mosque, on the plan of
that at Damascus, and more splendid than the one at Bagdad.

It must be remembered that this date, of the eighth century of
our Christian era, was not two hundred years after Mohammed.
The Mohammedan religion, therefore, was in great vigor, and new
mosques were being built in the great cities of this faith, with
the greatest splendor and display
of wealth. This at Cordova was
to be the Mecca of the West.
The Caliph in person designed
the plan, and is said to have
worked upon the building himself
for a few hours every day. He
died, however, the year after it
was begun, but his son Hixem
carried it on with the same energy,
and it was finished in 796, ten
years after thé first stone was
laid. In its palmy days, the rocf
glistened with gilding and vivid
colors, and thousands of gold



CHARLES V.

and silver lamps; its walls were
worked like lace, in delicate arabesque, looking like Cashmere shawls,
illuminated from behind, and its arches, studded with emeralds and
rubies rested on the superbly colored columns. Now the precious
stones are stolen, whitewash has obliterated most of the rich color-
ing, and ignorance and neglect have done the rest.
CORDOVA. 136

On the conquest of the Moors by Ferdinand and Isabella, they
had the Mosque purified and dedicated to the Virgin. Several
chapels were added, and Charles the Fifth, ir his time, allowed the
erection of a church within the Mosque, consisting of a transept
and choir in the very middle of the interior, amongst the grove of
pillars, ‘ruining every vista, and destroying the whole effect of the
original plan. It is some comfort to know that when the emperor



































































































































































































































































































































































































































































WALL OF THE MOSQUE OF CORDOVA.

came to Cordova and saw what had been done, he was very indig-

nant, and said he had no idea that the architects had meant to
meddle with the old ‘part.

The Horners were so disgusted with the stupidity of the archi-
tects, which allowed them to deface so wonderful a piece of original
work by putting anything else inside of it, that they could scarcely
look at the elaborately carved pulpits, and stalls, the retablo of |
jasper and gilt ornaments of the emperor’s chapel, all rich and well
executed in the. sixteenth century. Other Spanish churches in
186 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

other places they might admire, but not this misplaced specimen.
After they left the cathedral, the Moor took them to the site of
the Caliph’s palace, of which nothing now remains but a few walls
and orchards, There is a modern house with a garden containing
some trace of the old water-works; they wandered through shady
alleys, overhung with neglected rose-bushes and pomegranates in
blossom. The nespola was ripe, an odd fruit, like a little pear with
a stone in the middle. They sat upon a bench above a large stone
tank in which carp were swimming, and tempted the fish to rise by
throwing in to them little bits of stick and flowers, as they had no
bread, or anything to make crumbs with. Great’ lazy creatures came
and poked up their noses at the bright geranium petals, and whisked



















































BRIDGE OVER THE GUADALQUIVIR.

away contemptuously, but they did not tell the rest, for others kept
coming. The Moor gathered little bunches of flowers for the ladies.
It was very pleasant to sit in the shade, and see the bright sunlight
and sky. Before them rose the walls of the Alcazar Nuevo, now
used as a prison.

This Alcazar was once the palace of the Gothic kings, where
the Caliphs lived afterwards, repairing it and enlarging it. Moor-
ish writers describe its wonderful gardens and halls, and its baths
CORDOVA. 137

provided with water brought from the Guadalquivir through a brick
hydraulic machine. These baths lasted until the end of the fifteenth
century, when the huge wheel which supplied them with water was
destroyed, because its noise kept Queen Isabella awake, when she
was established in the Alcazar.

From an arbor in the terrace of the garden all overhung with
grapevines then in blossom, could be seen the bridge over the
Guadalquivir, of sixteen arches, very picturesque, with a many-
sided tower beyond it. Miss Lejeune made a little pencil sketch
of it in her note book, while the boys and Fanny took a second
excursion around the weedy paths of the rambling, neglected gar-
den. Bessie leaned against the parapet looking off on the hot
midday landscape, and dreamed of the Caliphs of Cordova. The
Moorish guide, awaiting them, sat upon the lowest of the steps
leading to the arbor, and hummed little Arabic ‘songs that reminded
them of the East. This midsummer dream was disturbed by Tommy,
who came running up, saying:

“Fanny don’t feel well. I believe she is too hot. She is sitting
on the steps over there!” :

Miss Lejeune shut up her sketch book at once.

“She has been running about in the heat too much,” she said.
“Where is your father?”

“Papa! papa!” called Bessie and Tommy with one breath.

“He is somewhere in the gardens,” said Bessie, “he will find ws.”

They hastened, the guide following, to the place indicated by
Tommy, and found poor Fanny, now looking very white, sitting on
a stone step, and leaning against the trunk of a palm-tree which
happened to be there. Hubert was wetting her forehead with his
handkerchief which he had dipped in the carp pond.

“T feel so dizzy,’ moaned Fanny.

Mr. Horner now approached from another direction. “ Poor child!
it is the heat,” he said; “we must carry you home.”

He stooped to lift her in his arms, but the guide put him
aside, and bearing the little girl well and firmly, led the way back
to the hotel.
138 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

CHAPTER XVI.

ANDALUSIA.
ESSIE’S letter to Mary will
describe the rest of their day
in Cordova.

“Now you must know that at
breakfast a stout man sat opposite
me with whom we had nothing to
do until I took a piece of cheese
and began to eat it before engag-
ing upon an orange. The man
now accosted me, and said in
French, that it was dangerous to
do that, as the two things did
not join well in the stomach. This
began a friendly conversation, which



was followed up by an invitation

MOORISH KNOCKER.

to see his strawberry garden.
“So after we came back from the Mosque and Alcazar gardens,
although we were most dead, we took a carriage and drove to
his place, on an open sort of boulevard near the railway, modern
built, and quite different from the winding whitewash of the
Moorish streets. He was a most dear man, the Gefe of mechanicians
of the railroad. You must pronounce Gefe as if you were going
to say hay-fever, but stop short of the last syllable. He is
Alsatian, but his wife, from Malaga, speaks only Spanish. Her
mother, however, came originally from Germany, and we tried a
little of that language with the old lady. If you could have seen
us all hobnobbing in these languages, and receiving handsful of
ANDALUSIA. 139

the most delicious fat roses, jasmines, orange blossoms, gilly
flowers, larkspurs, pansies, all the time our radiant host telling us
how he loved to have us see his garden, which owes its luxuriance
to intelligent irrigation. A little fountain was playing in the mid-
dle of it, and little rivers trickled everywhere with bright borders
of grass dipping in them. His strawberry bed bears all the year
round; and a muchacha was set to gather strawberries the minute
we got there; and by and by when it was high time to come
away, we were led into the house where there was a piano they
forced me to play on—me! I played —

*

Way down upon the Swanee River,

and they thought it was beautiful. Anyhow it filled up the time
till a repast of fruit was prepared. The Gefe took great oranges
from his own tree, cut them in-two, squeezed them like a sponge,
and the juice poured out over the strawberries heaped up in a
big dish, with lots of sugar. This is the true way to eat them,
in a land where both fruits are really sweet. But fancy the straw-
berry of commerce, at home, with a sour Valencia orange squeezed
_ over it! Not all the sugar at Park & Tilford’s could sweeten that
combination. He brought out his own wine from his own grapes.
It was not first-class, but the intention was good, as you say
about a bad water-color; we all touched glasses and sipped, and
finally came away with expressions of mutual and undying regard.
You. can’t imagine: what a dear man he was, and he _ behaved
exactly as if we were the only people he had ever loved.”

Bessie and her father were the only Horners who enjoyed this
episode of Cordovan hospitality, for Miss Lejeune was not sorry
for the excuse of staying at home to look after little Fanny, and
the boys declined the formality of a visit. When they heard after-
wards of the feast of strawberries, they all thought perhaps they
had made a mistake:

As for Fanny, a cool dark room, and sound sleep on a comfort-
able bed, soon restored her. Probably the heat had overcome her.
140 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

Nana, refreshed by a quiet morning, was cheerful and active, and

sat by Fanny's bedside during the rest of the day, while the boys

looked after the baby, and amused her with playthings in the

salon of the hotel.

They were glad to go to bed early, after the uneasy night before,

CHURCH OF SAN PABLO, CORDOVA.



and the long sight-
seeing day; moreover,
they were to be called
at four the next morn-
ing, to take the train
at six o'clock for
Seville.

Cordova was the
gem of the South as
long ago as Roman
times. Under the
Goths it lost its im-
portance, but regained
it under the Moors,
who made it the cap-
ital of their part of
Spain. The wealth,
luxury and splendor
it contained at that
time was like the
descriptions in the
Arabian Nights; it
lasted through various
changes of Arabic
rule until the thir-
teenth century, when

it was captured by Saint Ferdinand, and lost all its prosperity,

which it since has never recovered.

In spite of its Moorish attributes, Cordova is now a good Chris-

tian city,and under the especial protection of the Archangel Raphael,
in whose honor
ment was erected
On top of a col-
angel stands, a
with outstretched
with gilding, like
ing over his city.
umn is an arti-
rock-work, about
a lion, and a
grouped in a gro-
less way, with
statues. It is said
gel appeared in
certain priest of

chamber, and.:

swear to you
Angel Raphael,
has given to me
of this city.”
in 1578, and in
of it the monu-
later. The words

ANDALUSIA,





















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































RAPHAEL’S PILLAR,

141

a huge monu-
a century ago.
umn the arch-
sword in hand,
wings, and bright
a sentinel watch-
Below the col-
ficial mound of
which a_ horse,
sea-monster are
tesque and taste-
four allegorical
that the archan-
person before a
Cordova in his
said to him: “I
that I am_ the
and that God
the guardianship
This happened
commemoration
ment was made
of the angel,


142 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN,

in Spanish, are inserted upon its base. In Cordova the Horners first
understood the real patio, which is at its best in Andalusia; other
square courtyards they had seen which bore the name, but they
were not to compare with the brightness of the one into which
their Moor led them from the dull street.

A patio is not merely a court, it is not only a garden, but a
court, garden, and a parlor all in one. Between this one and the
street was a narrow passage, or vestibule, paved with marble,
flanked with columns, surmounted with bas-reliefs, closed with a
grille, or gate, of light iron railings gracefully designed. Opposite
the entrance was a statue; in the middle a fountain was playing
and a palm-tree and orange-trees were growing; chairs and _ tables,
vases of flowers, books and work were scattered about, just left by
the people of the house, who there could enjoy the charms of
ourdoors life with all the seclusion of an interior. Above was an
awning which might be drawn over the top if the sun should
intrude too far. :

Miss Lejeune was delighted with this lovely specimen of a patio.

“We must have them at home,” she exclaimed; “why not? We
might build them in New York just as well as here.”

“Instead of back yards!” said Tommy.

“Tl tell you how we could manage it. The Grillsons and we
could run. our back yards together.”

This was Bessie’s plan.

“Tt would be best,” said Mr. Horner, lending himself to the
project, “for four houses to combine, do not you think so? Two on
each street, whose yards touch as ours does with the Grillsons.
Then instead of that narrow back street which the grocer’s carts
frequent, there would be a series of patios, with houses running
about the four sides.

“Yes,” continued Bessie, “and there could be Moorish arches
underneath the houses for the carts to drive through.”

“It would not be nice,’ objected Miss Lejeune, “to have all
the carts and the rag and bottle men coming. through - our patio
when we were taking our szestas.”
MH)









PATIO OF A PRIVATE HOUSE, CORDOVA.

ANDALUSIA. 145

“And I should not want the Grillson boy to have the same
patio with us,” said Tommy.

“Oh, well!” said his father, “if there is that difficulty, we shall
have to wait until we love our neighbors as ourselves before we
introduce patios in New York.”

The ride from Cordova to Seville was lovely in the early morn-
ing, for they were fresh from a good sound sleep in their beds, and
could enjoy it. The road was bordered with hedges of agave and
cactus, the tall flower stalks of the former shooting up as high as
the telegraph poles, for which they might serve if they were only
permanent. The ones just preparing to blossom looked like huge
asparagus stalks, Fanny said; others more advanced spread out side
shoots like the branches of gigantic candelabra. All the land was
covered with verdure; by the running streams masses of pink ole-
ander bloomed and marked their course; the fluffy blossom of yel-
low acacia perfumed the air, and its sweet scent floated in at the
open window.

In short it was Andalusia! Andalusia, the land of romance and
sunshine, the most beautiful province of beautiful Spain.

Andalusia embraces the whole of Southern Spain, and its farth-
est cape is the extreme southerly point not only of Spain, but of
Europe. One chain of its mountains, the Sierra Nevada, contains
the highest summits of the peninsula, and its river, the Guadal-
quivir, from Seville to the ocean, is the only stream of real ser-
vice for navigation in the country. The wines and olives of An-
dalusia, its grapes, and oranges, and fruits of all kinds, are the finest,
its horses and cattle are the best, its bulls are the fiercest of all
Spain. Its cities are famous for their attractions, and its men and
women for their grace and beauty. All things take on an air of
loveliness in this land of warmth and glow. The Moors left a
deeper mark here than elsewhere, for they kept their beloved realm
of Granada long after they had lost the rest of Spain.

The people of Andalusia partake of the lightness and joy of
their climate; with them all is joy, light, wit, dolce far niente. Life
is pleasure; they puff their cégarito, strike their guitar, and pass
146 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

their days with song and laughter. Their manners are superb; even
the beggars in the street raise their hats with courteous elegance.
If the natural defects accompany this character ; if they lie, and steal,
and are lazy and cowardly, it is a pity; the Horners were inclined
to see the charming side of them, and disbelieve the other. They
are superstitious, but devoted to their religion; the churches are
frequented by devout and earnest worshippers.


HABLY SPAIN. 147

CHAPTER XVII.

BARLY SPAIN.

AJERY early, the Moham-
medans reached in Spain








a higher degree of civil-
ization than in any other
part of the world. . At its,
outset, its successes. were

discipline which it established

we weve among all classes gave to the

eo Pa x“ ¢°* , nations who embraced it the
6

=, - wes :
7 2 ze 4%" appearance of a vast, well-ordered
Sy aopeas -.camp, and the importance it

gave to combat and conquest was peculiarly well adapted to the
character of the wild tribes among. whom they were preached. The
‘successors of Mohammed, called Caliphs, represented both his spiritual
and temporal authority. It was their duty to lead the army in
battle, and on the pilgrimage to Mecca. Their authority had all
the force of divine sanction, and their ordinances, however weak
or wicked they might be, became laws which it was sacrilege to.
disobey.

Within a century after the coming of Mohammed, their ~postle,
they had already set up their religion over vast regions in Asia
and on the northern shores of Africa, and arrived before the
Straits of Gibraltar, ready for the invasion of Spain, led thither
by their love of conauest, their long career of victory, and the
rich spoils offered by the Gothic monarchy.
148 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

After the fatal battle of the Guadalete, fought in the summer
of 711, which ended in the slaughter of King Roderick: and the
flower of his nobility, the Goths never rallied under one head,
though they made enough resistance in various strong positions to
postpone for three years the final conquest. Their conquerors were
liberal. Such Christians as chose, were permitted to remain in the
kingdom and worship in their own way, and to be governed

: mostly by their own laws; in short,
: they were much better treated than
the Moors were afterwards by the



i 7 li i
pe Christians, when their turn came to
have the upper hand,

Having thus made for themselves
a foothold on the Peninsula, the
Moors pressed farther forward into
Europe, with the ambition probably
of carrying the banner of the
prophet to the very shores of the
Baltic. True believers flocked to
the white standard of the house of
Omeya from the farthest parts of
the dominions of the Caliphs; and
the whole Mohammedan world con-
templated the expedition with the
deepest interest. But their progress was checked by the far-famed
defeat at Tours, in 733, where a combined army of Franks, Germans,
and Belgians marched upon them, led by the great Charles Martel,
who here won his title of “The Hammer,’ in memory of the
blows he gave his enemies on that occasion. The contest of that
day was long and biooay; wnen aarkness arrived it was unde-
cided, and all night the Christians remained in their tents under

Cp?
Dearie

ARMS OF SEVILLE.

arms. At dawn they prepared to renew the struggle; the white
tents of the Arabs extending far on every side, were still there,
but not a living creature came out to meet them. The enemy
had abandoned their camp. and silently slipped away. Christendom
EARLY SPAIN. 149

was saved. The churches were filled with people of all ranks,
thanking Heaven for so signal a victory.

Thus cut off from conquest in Euorpe, the Arabs “began to
quarrel among themselves, and their overgrown empire was broken
up. The province of Spain was the first to secede; and
the Omeya family occupied its throne as independent princes
for three centuries, ruling wisely and well. The race of the
Omeyades need not shrink from a comparison with any other
dynasty of equal length in modern Europe. Their long reigns,
peaceful deaths, and the
unbroken line of their suc-
cession, prove the justice and
wisdom of their sway. Their
princes of the blood were
intrusted to the care of
learned men, td be instructed
in the duties of reigning;
they were encouraged to
compete in the academies
of Cordova for the prizes
of poetry and eloquence, and
frequently carried them off.

The splendor of this dy-
nasty was shown in their
palaces, mosques, and hospit-
als, and their admirable
system of irrigation which
still fertilizes the south of
Spain.

Their fountains and aque-
ducts rivalled those of Rome.
These works were scattered all over the country, and devoted to the



MANOLA.

adornment of Cordova, their favorite residence and capital. The
wealth of the Mohammedan princes of that age was immense, and
their superiority in useful arts and industry perfectly well accounts
150 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

for it. The sov-
RS Ne ea ereign had for




























a his .share one
fifth of the spoil
taken in battle,
and one tenth of
= Seat, all the produce
of the country.

He often en-
gaged in commerce on his own
account; and mines belonging to
the crown brought to it a large
income.

But the best mine of the Ca-
liphs was in the industry and
sobriety of their subjects, The
Moors introduced into Southern
Spain various tropical plants and
vegetables whose cultivation has
departed with them. The silk
manufacture was largely carried
on by them, and with fine fabrics
of cotton and woollen, made an
active commerce with the Levant
and Constantinople, spread
by means of caravans all
over Europe. Alhakem the
Second is a



good specimen
of a despotic
sovereign em-
ploying his
power to pro-
mote the hap-

ANDALUSIAN SERENADE.

piness and
EARLY SPAIN. 161

-

intelligence of his race. In his tastes, love of knowledge, and munifi-
cent patronage, he was a kind of Medici among the Moors; he
encouraged literature in every way, and amassed for himself a library
said to contain six hundred thousand volumes. Writers swarmed over
the Peninsula at this period; not only men, but women, devoted
themselves to letters. Scholars from all parts of Europe, Christian
as well as Arabic, came to Cordova; for this period, brilliant for
the Mohammedans, corresponds with that of the deepest barbarism
of Europe, when a library of three or four hundred volumes was a
great thing for the richest monastery.

But this greatest prosperity was followed by sudden decay.
Alhakem died in 821. During the life of his successor, the Empire
of the Omeyades was broken up into a hundred little states, and
the magnificent capital, Cordova, dwindled into a second-rate city.
Now was the chance for those Spanish monarchs to assert themselves,
who, during all the Moorish period, had retained in the North their
titles and successions in a direct line from Roderick the Goth.
By the ninth century they had reached the Douro and the Ebro,
and by the close of the eleventh, under the victorious banner of
the Cid, they had advanced to the Tagus.

With Hixem the Third (a. p. 1031) ended the Caliphate of the West
and the noble race of the Omeyades. From this period to the
establishment of the kingdom of Granada, there was no supreme
chief of Moorish Spain. The part of the country, ever growing
less, which was free from the approach of the Christian armies, was
governed by petty kings; and by the middle of the ‘thirteenth
century, its constantly contracting circle had shrunk into the narrow
limits of the province of Granada, where, however, on a compara-
tively small point of their ancient domain, the Moors erected a new
kingdom of sufficient strength to resist for more than two
centuries, the united forces of the Spanish monarchies.

Meantime, while the Moorish dynasty in Spain was rising to so
great a height to fall so low, Christian Spain, for several hundred
years, had been nothing but a collection of little states, always
quarrelling with each other. At the close of the fifteenth century,
152 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

these various provinces were blended into one great nation, under
one common rule, strong enough to overthrow its enemies, and
eject from the land the race alien to its religion. By this time,
the number of states into which the whole country was divided, was
reduced to four:—three Christian, Castile, Aragon and Navarre,

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FOUNTAIN IN THE ALHAMBRA.
all belonging to a common faith, though not united in government,
and Grenada, the sole remaining Moorish kingdom.
Aragon at that time included Catalonia and Valencia; to the
crown of Castile had fallen all the other provinces except little
Navarre, which, shut within the Pyrénées, continued to maintain its




BALCONY IN SEVILLE.

EARLY SPAIN. 155

independence. when the rest of the smaller states in the Peninsula
had been absorbed in the dominion of either Castile or Aragon.

Castile, from an early time, held the first place over all the
other states, and when at length they were consolidated, the capi-
tal of Castile became the capital of the new empire, and her lan-
guage the language of the court, as of literature.

From the beginning of this period, the nation which had been
corrupted by the long prosperity of the Gothic reigns, experienced
the salutary influence of adversity. Entire reformation of luxurious
habits was necessary when a scanty subsistence only could be
earned by a life of temperance and toil Thus grew up the real
Spaniard, from the stock of the Goth, but with new qualities of
endurance and heroism, a sober, hardy, independent race, prepared
to demand its ancient inheritance, and to lay the foundation of a
better government than that before known.

Their struggles with the Moors, and their own discussions, de-
layed the growth of this people; but at length their long wars
with the Mohammedans kindled in their hearts the glow of a
united patriotism; their ardor for religion became intense, fed by
their aversion to that of the foe.

Thus patriotism, religious loyalty, and a proud sense of independ-
ence, founded upon knowing that they owed their possessions to
their personal prowess, became characteristic traits of the true
Spaniards. The spirit of chivalry kept up by traditional ballads
and legends, possessed in those times Spaniard and Moor alike.
The Spanish knight became a hero of romance, wandering over his
own land, and even into farther climes, in quest of adventures.
This romantic spirit lingered in Castile long after the age of
chivalry had become extinct in other parts of Europe, until its
illusions of fancy were dispelled by the satire of Cervantes, who
makes of his hero, Don Quixote, a burlesque hidalgo in search of
adventures, yet describes him with so charming a style that we
love him while we laugh at him, and do not cease to reverence
the spirit which influenced the age of romance and chivalry.
186 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

“CHAPTER XVIII.
SEVILLA.

ELIGHTFUL weather followed the Horners to Seville, and
justified their choice of May and June for travelling in Spain.
Delightful rooms, also, they had in the Fonda de Europa, in the
Calle Sierpes, which means Serpent street, and well it deserves its
name, from its winding course. They had to descend from the
railway omnibus at the entrance to the street, for it is too narrow
for driving, and posts are put up to prevent vehicles from entering.
So they followed the guide through the narrow street full of foot
passengers and flower-stalls, to the entrance of the hotel, and their
baggage was brought after them on wheelbarrows. The hotel was
a rambling sort of place, a part of which had once been a convent ;
there were convent stairs leading down by a broad sweep to the
patio, where a fountain was playing, with gold fish in it, and banana
trees and oranges were growing.

The patio was surrounded by a sort.of arcade, under which little
tables and sofas were placed, where the guests might have coffee
in the morning, or sip their after-dinner demi-tasse. The dining-room
opened on this patio, a long, low place where thirty or forty people
breakfasted and dined. The Horners enjoyed this table d’hote, for
there every variety of nationality was represented, and the talk
was always animated in several different languages.

A very vivacious Italian, who was evidently an old stager, delighted
in discussions upon the politics and religion of Spain, and he was
equally ready in French, Spanish or German. English he protested
he could not manage, and his efforts to get on in that language
with an English lady who sometimes sat next him, were very
SEVILLA. 157

amusing. The food provided was very good, and now the Horners
were becoming used to a good deal of oil in the cooking, and to
seeing the fish turn up in the middle of dinner.

- It seemed somewhat odd now to have Hubert and Fanny domesti-
cated in the bosom of the Horner family; at first there were some
little hitches in the way of discipline, for the English children,
both of them, were a little inclined to take their own way about
what they ate and where they went; but the Horner rule was so
light that they soon yielded to the gentle sway of Miss Lejeune, and
the controlling glance of Mr. Horner.

“Not a third orange, I think, Fanny,’ Miss Augusta had to say,





































































































































































































































































































once, and Fanny put down the one she was taking from the dish with
a start, surprised that her doing so had been observed. The other.
children considered Fanny to be rather greedy, and probably she did
eat too much, for she looked. thin and pale, and suffered from
indigestion sometimes, a thing unknown to the healthy Horners,

Their rooms overlooked the patio, and across the tops of banana-
trees and the blue striped awnings below, to a kind of terrace with
a carved railing on which stood plaster busts at intervals, rather
158 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

the worse for wear, and flower pots set between them fuli of bright
geraniums and other gay flowers. Upon this terrace the sefioras
came and went, who did the washing on top of the house. Spanish
politeness calls every maid and washerwoman a sefiora, There
were two delightful old hags who performed this function at the
Fonda de Europa, and the children became very intimate with them ;
for this roof, reached by a long flight of shaky steps from the
terrace, was their favorite resort. It was a_ series of flat roofs
rather than one, and a little house was built up on it for washing
purposes. While Miss Lejeune was sketching there, taking advan-
tage of the shade furnished by this little hut, the sefioras stood
at their tubs scrubbing the clothes, and chattering and laughing in
the liveliest Castilian. The younger of them appeared to be about
one hundred and fifty years old; but was probably less, for
women of that class begin to look old early in Spain, as in the East.

The sefioras were very friendly with the boys, and encouraged
their acquaintance with a dark little Spaniard, the son of the pro-
prietor. He had a kite like many other Seville boys, who were to
be seen tending these broad square playthings on other roofs.
The kites soared about above the spires and domes of Seville, and
stood. out dark against the glowing sky where the picturesque
Giraida rose not far off.

Much as they liked their hotel, the top of it was their favorite
part; and, after a day of sight-seeing, they often climbed to the
roof and sat leaning against strong parapets which offered them-
selves most conveniently for their backs, resting and rejoicing in
the lovely Andalusian atmosphere. .

They settled themselves for a week or more in Seville, tired with
the hurry of Cordova, and the crowded impressions of the brief
stay at Toledo. The weather was still so fresh and cool that they
felt safe on that score, and Seville was one of the places which
they had promised themselves to thoroughly explore.

So every one was permitted to take out from trunks and boxes
the little luxuries of life; and before the first day was over, their
large and pleasant salon was littered with everything which could
SEVILLA. 159

make it seem homelike. A large round table in the middle of the
room was heaped with guide-books, novels, dictionaries and writing
materials; the blotting-cases of each member of the party found
a place there, with sketching blocks and paint boxes. A huge



























































CATHEDRAL GATE,

mafiola, ten inches across or more, which Bessie had bought, a bud,
‘at the flower-stall in Serpent street, spread itself over the tumbler
it stood in, and filled the room with its fragrance. The great
160 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

bouquets given them by their kind Gefe at Cordova, adorned the
room, still fresh, for a day, after which they were given to the
sefioras to throw away; but these aged crones, choosing each a
bright, though somewhat faded, carnation, stuck these flowers in their
hair with true Andalusian coquetry. How they laughed and wagged
their old heads when Bessie praised them.

“Oh! would it not be nice,’ exclaimed
Bessie, as they came back to their room
after almuerzo, “if we had not to go out
and see sights. I like this room just as
well as all the rest of Seville. I believe I
will stay here all the time, and look across
the patio and merely go up on the roof
occasionally.”



She was stretching jer feet, out comfort-

GIRALDA.

ably before her, having thrown herself into
a remarkably easy chair, with her hands clasped over her head.

“Very well, my dear,” said her father. “Do as you like. We
will ‘tell you all about it when we come back. But as Juan is
waiting for us below, those who intend to do the Alcazar to-day
must be ready soon.”

“Does Nana know we are going out, Fanny?” asked Miss Lejeune
of the little girl who was leaning over the railing of the wide window,
looking down at the paroquets and other birds in the court below.

“She’s down there with baby,” said Fanny, calling “Nana! Nana!
come up and dress me to go out!”

“Well, I may as well exert myself,” aaid Bessie, who was the
last to be left behind on any occasion. “Where are my boots?”

As often in Spanish hotels, two dark bedrooms, side by side,
opened by glass doors upon the salon. It is not a bad arrange-
ment, as it shuts out bedroom characteristics during the day, and
at night the doors can be thrown open for ventilation; but the
want of light in these places makes the whereabouts of boots, hats,
and gloves, somewhat doubtful, except to the most methodical. Thus
it was some time before the party could be got together. i.
SEVILLA. 161

“Now where are the boys?” asked Mr. Horner, returning from
his room which was on the other side of the corridor, looking on
a mysterious den where turkeys were kept, and hens and chickens,
and where great rats shared the food of these fowls.

“Were they not with you, papa?” asked Bessie.

“No; I have not seen them since breakfast.”

“J will go up on the roof and look for them,” suggested Fanny.

“No; because then you will be lost!” said Mr. Horner, with a
little impatience. ‘Did not they
know we were going out?”

Oh, yes, papa! I dare say they
are down at the door with Juan



already.”

And so it proved; only that when b
they arrived at the door, although
the two boys were there, Juan, tired
of waiting—it was now an_ hour
after the time appointed for him —
had “just stepped round a corner
for a moment.”

Calle Sierpes is all corners; so it
was difficult to follow the guide. A
servant of the hotel being sum-
moned, hunted him up after a further
delay of about five minutes, and
then the party was under way,
crossing the sunny plaza, almost
deserted at this hot time of day.

“Tt js so hot and so sunny,”
said Miss Lejeune, “do not you se sa

think we had better postpone the 5
Alcazar?” she asked, after a little pause.

arly morning would be a better time for



gardens of the
Juan pronounced that e

that.
“Then let us simply take a turn through the Cathedra ,” said
162 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

Mr. Horner; “we can, too, if we like, climb to the top of the
Giralda.”

“Do not count me for going up things!” cried Miss Lejeune,
shaking her head.

“Aunt Dut, they say this is very easy,” said Bessie; “it is made
for horses; you can do it perfectly well.”

“ Are you sure it was not made for donkeys, my dear?” demanded
Miss Augusta.

They had now reached the square of the Cathedral, and the
pretty tower of the Giralda, which serves as its campanile, was
before them. .

It is called La Giralda, from the revolving weathercock on top;
a bronze figure representing Faith, called la Géiraldilla. It is a
vestige of the mosque which once stood where the Cathedral is
now, and was built as a muezzin tower. The warm rose-color of
the brick of which it is built, combined with white stone, and inlaid
tiles of green, gives a light Oriental effect which is very charming.

“Tommy,” said his father, “it is said that this was built by the
man who invented algebra, which was named after him, for his
name was Geber.”’

“I wish he had never invented it,” growled Tommy.


ANOTHER CATHEDRAL, 163

CHAPTER XIX.
ANOTHER CATHEDRAL.

HEN the chapter began the present cathedral in 1402, they

decided to erect a church so large and beautiful, “that

coming ages will say we were mad to attempt it.’ The last stone
was laid in 1508, a century having been devoted to the task.

There are different styles in different parts, but the main body
inside is strictly Gothic. All the styles and all the arts have com-
bined to produce here their first effects. The Moorish Giralda, the
Graeco-Roman exterior, give variety and prepare the eye for the
beautiful Gothic arches within, where the paintings are by some
of the greatest masters, the stained glass among the finest speci-
-mens known, the sculpture beautiful, and the jewelers and_ silver-
smiths’ work is rare and unrivalled. _

The first impression on entering is one of awe and _ reverence.
There is a sublimity in the sombre masses and clusters of spires,
whose proportions and details are somewhat lost in great shadows
which pervade the place, among the lofty naves and countless gilt
altars. Vast proportions, unity of design, severity and simplicity of
ornament, give the Cathedral at Seville a place among works of
real genius in architecture. :

This huge square building is on a platform with a broad paved
terrace running all around, ascended by steps. The pillars belong
to Roman temples and the old mosque. There are nine entrances
of different styles and periods. One of the most remarkable is the
Puerta del Lagarto, so called from the crocodile placed there. This
was sent to Saint Ferdinand by the Sultan of Egypt, amongst other
curious animals, many of which died on the way, and were stuffed
164 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

and placed in the cloisters. The Puerta del Pardon leads to the
Court of Oranges. Its high horseshoe arch and its bronze doors
are Moorish, built as early as 340A. D.

The Court of Oranges is a huge paved patio, with a fountain











INTERIOR OF CATHEDRAL.

in the middle; here are seen the projecting sides of the transept,
and the airy, flying buttresses springing from one nave to another,
with open-work, richly decorated pinnacles, little pillars and domes
ANOTHER CATHEDRAL. | 165

full of variety, movement,
and beauty.

Within, there are nine
naves, aisles supported by
graceful pillars surmounted
by Gothic arches. Like
the Cordova mosque, it
seems a forest, but a differ-
ent one. This might bea
grove of stately maples,
while that suggests a wood
of sturdy pine-trees. The
choir, as usual in Spanish
churches, blocks up the
central portion ; but there
is so much space around
it that it seems but a detail,
for there are so many long
vistas unencumbered — by
any obstacle from one end
of the church to the other.

The first dome of the
Cathedral fell in the night,
December, 1511. Great
was the consternation at
the news; and every town
sent its own architect to
repair the misfortune; to
him of Salamanca’ was
given the glory of replac-
ing it, and thus completing
the Cathedral as it now
stands. | :

The chapels are full of
sculptures and paintings


166 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

enough to tire the eye and brain before the round has half been made.
Over the altar in one of the Chapels there is a mysterious solemn

picture of the Descent from the Cross, ascribed to a pupil of Michael

HOLY MOTHER.



Angelo, It is said that Murillo liked
this picture so much that he desired
to be buried before it. He used to
stand for hours looking at it; and
he once replied to some one who
asked what he was doing:

“T am waiting till those holy men
have taken down our Lord.”

His own works adorn the chapels
of the Cathedral, and nowhere in the
world do they give so fine an effect,
as here among the solemn influences
and grave shadows of the consecrated
pile.

The Conception, by Murillo, in
the Chapter House, Miss Lejeune
considered the most beautiful and
wonderful of his works; it is placed
nobly, hung high above the ground,
and surrounded by a profusion of
delicate carvings. The Virgin’s ex-
pression is exquisite, the coloring
perfect.

One of the chapels contains a
picture with a peculiar and excep-
tional interest. It is one of Murillo’s
grandest paintings, called St. Anthony
of Padua. It is very large, and fills
an immense space on the wall, and

is separated from the spectator by the railing of the chapel, which
is itself dark, while a strong side light falls upon the picture. The
Saint is kneeling and stretching his arms toward the vision of the
ANOTHER CATHEDRAL. 167

infant Jesus, who descends toward him amid cherubs, and flowers,
and sunbeams. Below this bright group of immortals, is seen through
a vista the cloister of the convent, dark and solemn by contrast with
the radiance above. The figure of the Saint occupies about one
quarter of the canvas, which, seen from the first, appears harmonious
and perfect; but a close examination from the side shows that it
has been joined and patched, and that the place occupied by the
principal figure must have been at one time empty. This is the
painting, which, by a bold theft, was deprived of its most important
part. F

One morning when the custodian of that portion of the Cathedral
came to it, Saint Anthony was gone; actually cut out of the can-

a
il |

ib Tp Ut
ll i i i



SEVILLE HOUSETOPS.

| vas, whose ragged edges revealed a barren space. The excitement
was intense, not only in the Cathedral, but all over Spain; in fact,
all over the world which recognizes the value of Murillo’s work, and
the daring of such an attempt to convert it into money. Before
very long the canvas bearing the Saint was presented at the New
York Custom House. It was strictly detained there, and afterwards
168 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN,

returned to its proper owners. Saint Anthony has been restored
to his place in the picture; the edges are so carefully joined that
it cannot be considered injured; and so his unexpected journey to
America and back, lends a new interest to the principal figure.

The Horners could not begin to see all the wonders of painting,
carving, and gilding, at one visit to the Cathedral. Fanny was
soon tired, and pleaded to be left to rest on a bench near one of
the chapels. The others soon joined her, and Bessie said joyfully :

“Come, Fanny, are you rested now? We are all going to the
top of the Giralda.”

Mr. Horner and Miss Lejeune followed, coming away thoughtfully
from the study of Zurbaran’s pictures in a dark chapel. The boys
were hunted up, and they all came forth into the bright sunlight.

“I think the way will be,’ said Miss Lejeune, “to do the interior
in bits. As we are to be here so long, it will be lovely to drop
in quietly and look at the pictures and different chapels.”

They all agreed that this was the best plan, and when Bessie
set herself, in the evening, to read the description in the guide-
books, she found mentioned tombs of kings, and sceptres of mon-
archs, and figures of saints which they had seen nothing of.

As it happened, however, the time in Seville flew by so fast,
and was so divided between sight-seeing and sweet repose upon
their roof or in their convent-patio, that there were but one or two
hurried visits to the Cathedral. ; |

Miss Lejeune found the ascent of the tower easy enough, even
for her. The steps are very low and flat, so that it is like moving
up an inclined plane, turning at each of the four corners of the
square tower. From the windows of the gradual ascent, the but-
tresses and light crenelations of the cathedral wall were seen in
detail. At the top a wonderful view burst upon them. The
crowded, narrow streets, and tiled roofs of Seville were at their
feet. They could trace their way to the square near Serpent street,
and recognize the location of their hotel by a great Churrigueresque
church near it, which formed the attractive foreground of their view
from the hotel roof.
ANOTHER CATHEDRAL.





TORRE DEL ORO.

169

The later archi-

técture of Spain,

beginning with that
of the sixteenth
century, is gener-
ally denounced as
in the decline of
art, an overloaded,
highly-colored style,
combined with fan-
tastic shapes and
ornaments. To give
color, even on the
outside of roofs,
domes and _ spires,
glazed tiles, called
azulejos, of blue, red
and yellow are free-
ly used, whose
glancing: surfaces
reflect the light like
glass. Churriguera,
an architect of the
seventeenth -cent-

_ury, used this style

and made it general,
and his name, which:
is given to it, is
considered the syn-
onym of bad taste.
But in spite of the
bizarre forms and
bright tints of it,

Bessie and Miss

Lejeune both dared .
270 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

to admire it with them, it was equivalent to praise when they
exclaimed :

“ Churrigueresque!” misapplying the name, very likely, to anything
they liked of a florid style.

They looked from the Giralda across the Guadalquivir to the
broad stretching country beyond, and below them, on its bank, they
saw the Torre del Oro, or Tower of Gold, so called from the orange
azulejos which once gave it the appearance of a brazen or gilt tower.



















































ler,

- @ 2k



4

ar



GARDENS OF THE ee
It has, moreover, been used by Moors and Christians as a treasure
house, and they were told that in the time of Columbus, the gold
he brought from the New World was deposited here.

They looked across the square and down upon the formal gardens
of the Alcazar, which they were impatient to visit, and the long gallery
running along one side, now decayed and impassable, but once the
place of many gay and brilliant scenes.

“Oh! let us go to the Alcazar to-morrow!” cried Bessie, and
all the children longed to be running about in the stiff alleys set
ANOTHER CATHEDRAL. Tit

with box and cypress-trees, with here and there a tall palm, which
they saw below them.

“But the picture gallery!” exclaimed Miss Lejeune; “we must
not leave Murillo any longer.”

“Vou saw Murillo enough, aunt Dut,” said Tommy, “to-day in
the Cathedral.”

“Only enough to make me thirst for more,” said Miss Lejeune.

“There is plenty of time,’ said Mr. Horner; “we might” —
“divide,” he was about to say, when all the great bells of the
Giralda, close above their heads, began to ring at once with a tremen-
dous clangor. They fled in haste, and the only question was, which
should first reach the bottom.


172 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

CHAPTER XxX.

JUSTA AND RUFINA.

URING Roman rule, Seville was a magnificent and prosperous
city, as the vestiges of many splendid monuments still show.
Julius Czesar entered the city in August, 45 B.c. Seville was
the centre of a sort of pagan worship, and ‘the only city in the
Western world where there were temples to Venus, whose effigy
used to be borne through the city, in procession on the shoulders
of the noblest ladies. As this imposing statue was one day being
carried along the streets, two Christian sisters, Justa and Rufina,
who were selling earthenware jugs, refused to do reverence to the
idol as it passed; upon which the bearers dropped it right in the
middle of their pots and pans, and instantly determined upon the
death of the girls) Thus they became martyrs, and the patron
saints of Seville, and are so represented. Murillo has painted a
charming picture of them, surrounded by their earthenware, and
holding the Giralda between them. ;

Afterwards the Goths made Seville their court and _ capital,
until they gave this distinction to Toledo, as we have seen. After
the battle of the Guadalete, and the rout of the Goths, Seville kept
out the Moors during a month’s siege, but yielded at last; and
Abdul-Azis, who ruled over it for some time, married the widow of
Roderick.

The family who held the splendid Caliphate of Cordova, con-
trolled Seville until they fell a prey to the feuds which divided
the powerful and alternately successful tribes of Almohades and
Almoravides. Meanwhile Seville was prosperous, and, next to Cor-
dova, the most important city in Spain.
JUSTA AND RUFINA. 178

The treason of rival Moorish races, and the petty jealousies of
their rulers, were paving the way gradually for the Christians. King
Ferdinand, the Saint, in 1247, at the head of the flower and nobility
of Castile and Leon, laid siege to the city, and the Christians
entered it, after fifteen months’ resistance, in 1248.

In the Royal Chapel of the Cathedral, the lower part of the
altar is formed by a silver glazed receptacle containing the almost
perfect body of Saint Ferdinand. It is displayed twice a year, with
the ceremony of military mass, etc. The king is dressed in his royal
robes, with the crown upon his head ; his hands are crossed upon
his breast. Upon his right and left are the sword and sceptre
which he bore.

It is said that upon the usurpation of the Christians, a popula-
tion of four hundred thousand Moors, Jews and Arabs abandoned
the city. Some of these settled in the neighboring towns, but the
greater number hastened to the new kingdom of Granada.

By this time, the Spaniards, once but a little band driven by the
Goths to the mountains, had grown to be a powerful and united
nation. The separate provinces had either given over their mutual
quarrels, or yielded to the superior force of the strongest among
them. Leon and Castile were united under one head. Ferdinand
the Third was lord of Spain from the Bay of Biscay to the Guadalquivir,
and from Portugal to Valencia. At that time the Christian kings
were at peace for the moment. Ferdinand had suppressed conspir-
acies, and subdued all rivals to the throne, of whom the chief was
his own father. The crusade against the Mohammedans was pub-
lished by the archbishop, and the same indulgences granted to those
who assumed the cross in Spain, as to those who visited the Holy
Land. Toledo and Cordova first fell into the hands of the Christians,
and then came the turn of Seville.

This conquest was the last achievement of Ferdinand. He died
in Seville four years after its surrender. He was a just and able
ruler, and a valiant soldier, but cruel and bigoted, like the rest of
the kings of his time, setting fire with his own hands to the fagots
for burning heretics. Nevertheless, it was probably for such acts,
174 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

rather than for his pray-
ers, fastings, and frequent
disciplines, that he was
canonized several centuries
after by the Pope.
Seville now became the
court of the Christian
kings. It was Alphonso,
the son of Ferdinand, who
gave to the city its badge
which is still seen on
many buildings, carved into
the stone-work. The fig-
ure in the centre rep-
resents a hank ‘or skein,
: ; called in Spanish madeja,
& aie oie | so that the whole reads:

NT iz

i®
i
NO MHA DEJA-DO.

which means, “she has
not deserted me.” King
Don Pedro the Cruel, who
held court in Seville about
a century after Saint Fer-
dinand, had left there
many traditions of his
bloody tyranny. From
his accession to the throne
at sixteen, one murder
quickly followed another ;
he killed every one who
interfered with his pleas-



ures, and shut up his queen

FOUNTAIN IN THE ALCAZAR. ° ; :
in a fortress, where she
JUSTA AND RUFINA. 176

was poisoned, or killed, by his orders. This unfortunate queen was
Blanche of Bourbon, of the house which has since furnished many
kings to France. Her great-aunt had married half a century before,
the sixth son of King Louis the Ninth of France. Fair Blanche













































MOORISH ARCHES, ALCAZAR,

was summoned from distant Bourbonnais to be the bride of the
king, Don Pedro, Seville; but he only married her for political

reasons. He scarcely looked at her, and after forty-eight hours, he
176 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

went away, and perhaps she never saw him again. He kept her
shut up in a convent and in prison, and when she died, it was under
great suspicion of poison or dagger.

- Such conduct brought him into difficulty. His cruel treatment
of his queen, and of his halfbrothers, caused revolt and insurrections,
but he lived with his favorite Maria de Padilla in great splendor

and luxury in the Alcazar until the time of his destruction came.







LA SALA DES EMBAJADORES, ALCAZAR.

At last Don Enrique of Trastamara, his half-brother, returned sud-
denly to Spain with a strong band of French adherents, and drove
Pedro out of his kingdom. The general voice was in favor of
Henry, and he took possession of the throne. After such cruelty
to Queen Blanche, Don Pedro could not hope for aid from France,
but Edward the Black Prince, who was then in Gascony, took up
his cause.

“Wasn’t that strange!” exclaimed Bessie, when she was telling
these things to the boys, whom she had succeeded in securing as
“JUSTA AND RUFINA. Tt

listeners. They were all sitting in a row on the roof of the Fonda
de Europa, with their backs against a chimney, watching swallows
and kites soaring about the rosy shaft of the Giralda, which stood
out warm and dark against a glowing sunlight.

“Our splendid bold Black Prince joining with that hateful mur-
derous Don Pedro the Cruel!”

“T know about the Black Prince,” said Hubert, “he was English.”

“Of course,’ said Bessie loftily, “but he had great possessions
in France, and if you English had kept up his prowess you mould
not have lost them all!”

Hubert looked as if he was sorry, but could not very well hee
it; but Tommy put in:

“ Well, tell more about Don Pedro; I rather like him.”

With the splendid army of the Black Prince to help him, Pedro
totally defeated Enrique; but when the Black Prince had gone off,
Enrique returned and finally triumphed. Pedro was captured, and
confronted with his brother; a struggle ensued between them.

Henry and King Pedro clasping,
Hold in straining arms each other ;
Tugging hard and closely grasping,
Brother proves his strength with brother.

All the knights held back and watched the struggle, till one of
Enrique’s followers, seeing his master overthrown, seized Pedro by
the leg, which gave his opponent the upper hand, and he stabbed:
the king to the heart.

This is described by Froissart, and also in the ballad just quoted,
which was translated by Sir Walter Scott for Lockhart’s Spanish:
ballads. 3

No one was left to lament King Pedro but his once proud favorite,
Maria de Padilla.

The utter coldness of neglect that haughty spirit stings,

As if a thousand fiends were there, with all their flapping wings.
She wraps the veil about her head, as if t’were all a dream,

The love, the murder .and the wrath, and that rebellious scream,
1%8 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

For still there’s shouting on the plain, and spurring far and nigh,
“God save the King —amen ! amen !— King Henry!” is the cry,
While Pedro all alone is left upon his bloody bier,

Not one remains to cry to God, “ Our Lord lies murdered here!”

The next day, in consequence of Bessie’s. tales from Froissart,
and quotations from the Spanish ballads, the boys were in a great
hurry to visit the Alcazar. They made an early start after coffee,
to avail themselves of the freshness of the morning.

It is a portion of a Moorish palace, and its style is purely
Moorish, with beautiful horseshoe arches, and surfaces adorned with
arabesque work. The grand fagades glitter with gold and vivid colors,
and the pillars are of precious marbles. Much of this lovely work
had been almost concealed by whitewash, but this has recently been
taken off, and the Alcazar repaired, at the expense of the Duke of
Montpensier.

In the splendid Hall of Ambassadors, there is a series of portraits
of the kings of Spain from Chindasvinthus to Philip the Third.
The next room is the one where Pedro caused another half-brother,
Don Fadrique, who had been invited by him to come to a tourna-
ment, to be murdered. Stains of blood on the marble pavement
are still shown to the traveller, but the Horners had learned not
to shudder at such marks, not likely to be anything but iron-rust.
But they did shudder at the story, and at the strange poem, one
of Lockhart’s Spanish ballads, which makes the unfortunate Fadrique.
in the beginning tell his own story, until the order for his execu-
tion is pronounced, when the sequel is given in another voice.

The party after seeing all the rooms of the palace, scattered them-
selves about the stiff, but charming, alleys of the large. gar-
den, which gave them infinite pleasure. Pomegranates, roses and
jasmine were all in blossom, hedges of box and ivy of great size
testified to their long growth, as well as the large palms and yew-
trees. Stiff rows of myrtles and orange-trees stood in green boxes
along the walks, and made pretty vistas, adorned with trickling
fountains. Miss Lejeune was delighted, and promised herself and the
girls to spend many a morning there.
ITALICA. 19

CHAPTER XXL
ITALICA.

OR the afternoon, Juan, the guide, proposed a drive, and as
no one was tired but Fanny, the plan was approved, and
Fanny was quite willing to be left behind with Nana. The cool
and pleasant patio always recommended itself to the nurse as a
suitable spot for looking after her charge, and there the grave,
industrious French woman, sat willingly for hours, sewing inter-
minably, knitting or darning stockings, while the contented baby,
still so-called, played by her side. The children often brought home
' amusing toys and trifles for the child, who, indeed, had been so accus-
tomed to Nana’s society from her birth, that she required no other.
Fanny now proposed, however, to help Nana amuse the baby, and
Nana announced that she had a letter to write, a serious undertaking
with her limited knowledge of writing and spelling.

The rest started off in the best of spirits, in an open carriage
rather crowded, to be sure, for Juan was on the box with the driver;
but it was large, and held very well Bessie, wedged between the two
boys on the back seat, while Miss Lejeune and Mr. Horner occu-
pied the places of honor.

It is difficult to drive through the narrow streets of Seville, for
they are wide enough only for one set of wheels between wall and
wall, with no allowance of sidewalk for foot-passengers; an arrow
at every corner shows in which direction carriages may pass through
each street, a direction always so faithfully obeyed that no one knows
what would happen if it were not followed ; so that if two carriages
should meet face to°face “one of them would have to drive over
the top of the other,” said Bessie.

?
380 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

“They would both have to turn round,” said Hubert.

“But they could not turn round, either of them,” objected Tommy.
‘‘What would they do, Juan?” he continued, applying to the guide
on the box.

“It never happened,” replied Juan, and with this they had to be
satisfied.

They went first to see a private house belonging to a great duke,

called the Casa de Pilatos, or House of Pilate, because it is said
to have been built in imitation of Pilate’s house in Jerusalem, by
the Marquis of Tarifa, who made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land
in 1578, and erected this palace on his return. The Horners
thought there was no resemblance in the rich Moorish building to
the House of Pilate, so-called, now standing, which they had seen
in Jerusalem; but this did not prevent them from admiring the one
before them.
_ Beyond the Guadalquivir, a pleasant drive along its banks, and
by a palm grove belonging to the ancient Abbey of Santo Ponce,
they came to the only vestige now left of Italica, a ruined amphi-
theatre, in the ancient city, founded by Scipio Africanus, as a home
and resting place for his soldiers wearied after the campaign against
the Carthaginians. Three Roman Emperors were born there, Trajan,
Adrian, and Theodosius. Its palaces, aqueducts and circus were mag-
nificent. The palace of Trajan was partly preserved until 1755,
when an earthquake destroyed their last traces. Coins are still
often dug up, and a beautiful pavement is known to have been
taken up and preserved by a poor monk less than one hundred
years ago, but no one knows now what has become of it.

Very little is left of the amphitheatre but the graded walls which
mark its vast dimensions; but Hubert was more excited over it than
anything else he had seen, as he was familiar with the arena at
Nismes, and he liked to point out to the others how it differs,
and how it must have looked before the massive sides were shaken
by earthquakes and before sand and weeds had encroached upon its
enclosure. As the Horners had never been in Rome, they had never
seen the Coliseum there, which is built on the same principle; but


















































Rey

ey

Sis Sra stot



ROMAN AMPHITHEATRE AT ITALICA.

ITALICA. 183

every one is familiar with its form and plan by seeing photographs
and reading descriptions. The rooms where the gladiators used to
prepare themselves for combat, and the dens which contained the
wild beasts, have been discovered only lately.

The drive through the bright sunny air was delightful as the
party returned to Seville. They were in the best of spirits, for
they had that day received a budget of letters, which had been sent
first to Madrid, so that there had been a delay of a day or two
before they reached Seville.

Mrs. Horner and Mary wrote glowing accounts of their retreat
in the Pyrénées. Philip, who, it had been feared, might find it dull,
was going up all the mountain péaks in the neighborhood, either
on foot, or on the good little donkeys which were always ready to
be hired. Mary was sketching daily, and every day growing visibly
stronger, and Mrs. Horner’s energies were absorbed by an immense
affghan she had begun to knit of Barege wool, a staple of the country,
which is very soft and pretty. They had received long letters
from Mr. Hervey before he sailed from America on the first of May,

“JT must write Mary a long letter wholly about the pictures,” said
Miss Augusta; ‘“‘I have only just hinted at those we have seen in the
different cathedrals ; but as soon as we have been to the gallery here,
I shall give her a full account of it. I do wish she could see it
with us!” ©

“So do I,” said Mr. Horner; “but I think her rosy cheeks and
good appetite are much better for her than a feast of Spanish painting.”

“What sort of a boy is Philip?” asked Hubert. “Is he like you,
Tommy ?” :

“He is bigger than I am,” said Tommy, “and in some respects
superior. I don’t know whether you would like him better or not.”

Hubert too had a brief letter from his father, and one enclosed
in it from his mother, quite old as to date by the time he received
it, as it had been sent to Gibraltar in full faith that the children
would have reached there. It was a short, but sweet, affectionate
letter, written with the feeble hand of an invalid. Nana shook her
head as she looked at it.
184

A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN,







PALACE OF THE DUKE DE MONTPENSIER.

“Pauvre madame,”
said she; ‘‘ elle est trés
malade.” ,

The driver brought
his party back te the
hotel through the gay
Corso de las Delicias,
wide and modern, like

‘the Prado at Madrid,

and they passed the en-
trance of the palace of
the duke de Montpensier,
which, with its gallery of
pictures and beautiful
gardens they did not
have time to see that day

They came back to it,

however, for a long ex-
amination before they
left Seville.

The Duke de Mont-
pensier is the uncle of
the present king; that ,
is, he married the sister
of Isabella, the deposed
queen. Also the sweet
daughter of the duke,
Mercedes, the first wife
of this king, Alphonso,
was the pretty young
queen of whom the peo-
ple were so proud, that
they grieved sincerely
at her early death.

The palace, called San -


GARDEN AT SAN TELMO.

ITALICA. . 187

Telmo, is very handsome, and is surrounded by spacious gardens full
of orange-trees, palms and shrubs, pines, and many rare plants, very
charming to wander in. Long alleys of tall sycamores were crossed
by others of pointed cypress, underneath which, and everywhere,
were lovely flowers, roses, jasmine, and all early summer things.
White peacocks trailed their dainty feathers upon the hard sand
of the walks; they looked like fine ladies with white satin trains.
There was no color, such as we commonly call “peacock color,”
anywhere: upon them; but the eyes of the feathers were indicated
by a different tint of white. There was a real stork sitting on
his nest on top of a pillar, set up on purpose for him, apparently.

The children were delighted with this immense garden; they
passed a whole morning there, Nana sitting in a Moorish sum-
mer house, on an island in a lake, while Miss Lejeune sat by her
side sketching. Nightingales filled the air with their sweet notes,
which all the Horners were too light hearted to consider melan-
choly. The nightingale seems a cheerful bird when he is jug-jug-
ing away in the general feathered chorus on a sunny noon, in
broad sunshine. His note really sounds not in the least like “jug-
jug,’ being sweet and melodious as possible; yet somehow these
words, always used to describe it, seem to do so. With the usual
open hospitality of personages in Europe, the duke allows strangers
to visit the inside of the palace. The rooms are handsome, and in
them are to be seen the pictures of the Montpensier collection
which came to America some years ago.

Miss Lejeune looked at these with great interest, remembering
that they had not pleased the general taste of those who saw them
in Boston where they were shown, and that she herself had found
them severe and unattractive in subject. Now that she had seen
a good many Spanish pictures, and moreover, many fine master-
pieces elsewhere in Europe, she was glad to modify her opinion.
She thoroughly enjoyed the Piedad by Morales, and four subjects
in the life of Christ, by Zurbaran. The pictures are well hung in
rooms whose light and decorative surroundings are in perfect har-
mony with them. However, Mr. Horner and Miss Lejeune had
188 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

a good laugh at the inconsistency of human nature, which allows
itself to be so differently impressed at different times, and under
different influences.

“Consistency is a: poor virtue,’ Miss Lejeune remarked. “I love
to find that I can enjoy those pictures now so much more than
before.”

“Consistency should not, certainly, be allowed to interfere with
progress,” remarked Mr. Horner. 5

The weather was growing decidedly warm; every day as the |
Horners came home frem excursions, they found it agreeable to
stop at a cooling drinks shop, which stood in the plaza near
the end of their narrow Serpent street. Chairs were always offered
them, where they sat, while a small child, who could hardly reach

to the counter, prepared the Horchata, or squeezed the Limon, the
mild beverage beloved of the Spanish.

rf ATA


WPTIO:



poo SOs:
MURILLO. 180

CHAPTER XXII
MURILLO.

LL of one morning was spent in the picture gallery by the
older portion of the party, while the boys and Fanny went
back to the Alcazar gardens under the protection of Juan.

The gallery is small, consisting only of one long room or hall
in a building, formerly a church and convent. It is especially de-
voted to Murillos; and here first may Murillo be studied to advan-
tage. Side by side his beautiful and world-renowned Madonnas
hang, in number, and near them, pictures on other subjects by
him, which have never been copied or produced elsewhere. Photo-
graphs of them are to be bought in Seville and Madrid, but they
are as yet very little known, except to Spanish travellers, and stud-
ents of Spanish art. Murillo is the pride and the true head of
the Seville school of painting; he shares with Velasquez the high-
est honors of Spanish art. He was born in Seville, probably in
1618, on the first of January, nearly twenty years after Velasquez.
As he inclined early towards painting, he was put in the hands
of Juan del Castillo, a painter still celebrated for some fine por-
traits, and for being the teacher of masters greater than himself.

When Murillo was twenty-four years old, a fellow artist returned
from London bringing with him a style of painting learned from
Van Dyck. Murillo, on seeing this, much desired to go to England;
but Van Dyck died about that time; he would have liked to study
in Italy, but money was wanting, even for the shorter journey to
Madrid. The latter place he attained to, by painting and selling
a number of devotional pictures. Arrived at the capital, he pre-
sented himself to Velasquez who received him with great friend-
190 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

ship. He was thus able to study and copy the great works of
Titian, Rubens, and the rest belonging to the royal galleries.
When he returned later to Seville, all wondered at his skill, and



MURILLO.

from that time forward his reputation increased until his death.
In 1674 he finished eight great pictures for the church called La
Caridad, which contains a fine collection of his works.

The coloring of his pictures is extremely soft and lovely, har-
monizing with the same expression in the faces of his Madonnas,
and the beautiful little cherubs he delights to paint.
MURILLO. 191

He died in April, 1662, after falling from a ladder where he
was painting the Marriage of St. Catherine, in a church in Cadiz.
He was not killed, but fatally hurt, and was carried back to
Seville to die.

Bessie found she liked the Murillos much; had she not, she
would have been difficult to please, there is so much variety in
the grouping of the personages he represents, and such pretty
types of children, fine ones of old men, etc. The Virgin of the
Napkin is so called because it is said to have been painted by
Murillo on a dinner napkin, as a gift to the cook at the convent
at Cadiz, when Murillo was at work there. In spite of her fond-
ness for legends and her faith in the marvellous, Bessie did not
believe that they had napkins as big as that picture at the
Capuchinos, a couple of centuries ago.

Seville honors the memory of her great master, and there is ¢
monument to him before the Museum which contains the picture
gallery. ‘

Miss Lejeune found time to describe the Murillo pictures to
Mary in a long letter which she said the rest could skip if they
felt inclined. It also dwelt on the delights and difficulties of water-
color sketching in an atmosphere so brilliant and so different from
our own. Miss Lejeune was an enthusiast for art and sketching,
although she despised the results of her own efforts. She never
expected any praise for her sketches, and rather preferred not to
have them seen, although she was good-natured about showing
them.

Mary, on the other hand, was likely to become a proficient in
the pretty art. She wrote of lessons that she was taking of an
excellent teacher who happened to be staying at their hotel in
Luz; he painted in a wet, broad style that she especially liked,
and was not unwilling to pick up a chance scholar, so apt as
Mary proved herself.

-One day Juan took the children through an old quarter of the
town, where a fair was going on; everything under the sun
set forth for sale on little tables in the middle of the streets —
192 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

pottery, brass work, cheap handkerchiefs, stockings, a collection gay
in color, and arranged not only to show the best effect, but also
to tempt the purchaser. —

Tommy bought a handful of ripe mulberries for Fanny, which
looked to the others a little repulsive, as they were jammed,
though juicy; the only thing at hand to put them in was a
chance piece of torn newspaper. Passing through the market, they
saw lovely ripe figs. The man that owned them was sound asleep
stretched at full length behind his counter, and Juan had to poke
him with his umbrella to rouse him to a_ bargain.

Juan was a Spaniard, but dressed to resemble an Englishman, in
a closely buttoned pepper and salt coat, with trousers to match.
He always carried an umbrella, and invariably smoked a cigar-
ette. His voice was low, and his English was distinct and
grammatical, with some limitations, for his knowledge went no
farther than the range of his duties as valet de place; but he
was honest and intelligent, and always kind to the children, who
" became very fond of him, and amused him much by their views
of things Andalusian.

They went one night to-a theatre, open, though it was summer ;
not the most splendid of Seville, but a bare, barn-like place,
like a town hall in a country town. Every one was smoking
cigarettes. A ferro came and smelt of Bessie, and then sat down
on a seat in front of her for the performance. There was, first
a little play of modern life, and then a pretty ballet, with good
dancing and suitable dresses, the orchestra playing light and
charming dance music, of which the movement and melody become
very dear to travellers.

The Horners had a tiresome time finding, or rather losing, their
way back to the hotel, for Juan was not with them. They
thought they knew it, and went round and round, expecting each
corner would lead them to Serpent street, until their feet were very
tired with walking upon the round stones. At last they reached a
square which they knew to be their square, with the opening to
their little street just opposite to the direction where they had
MURILLO. 193

expected it to be. The next day, tracing as well as they could
their course on the map, it seemed as if they had carefully
avoided Calle de Sierpes at every turn.

This was somewhat mortifying, for they had been there ten days
when it happened, and felt quite at home there. They were all
growing very fond of Seville, and it was hard to think of going
away. They were now beginning to pick up a little Spanish, and
Bessie, especially, could make herself understood in shops and in
the street. .

Mr. Horner was the first to put into words the general feeling
that the party must be moving on.

“T told them at the banker’s in Madrid, to forward our letters



NUNS AT PRAYERS.

to Seville only a week,” said he one morning. “So we must not
expect any more here. There may be a budget. at Granada now,
I think.”

“So soon!” exclaimed Bessie. “ Why, papa, it is only a minute
since we came.”

“Just a week,” said her father; “and ten days since we left

Madrid.” |
194 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN,

“Oh, dear!” she replied; “and every place we have been to
here we want to see over again.”

She was just then writing a long letter to Philip, and Miss
Lejeune and Mr. Horner were engaged in the same way, all
sitting at their large round table, at little oases which each had
made by piling up or pushing away the things that were heaped
upon it.

“JT have been talking with Juan about our course,” resumed
Mr. Horner; “he says the steamers are excellent from Cadiz to
Malaga; indeed, that we could keep on, and go by sea all the
way up the coast of Spain; but of course we do not care to do
that. I wish we might see Palos, and something more of the
traces of Columbus.”

They had, of course, not failed to think of the discoverer of
America in Seville, and where there are many things to recall him.
In the pavement of the Cathedral is a marble slab bearing an
inscription to the memory of the second son of Columbus, a man
of learning, who bequeathed his library, called la Colombina, to the
chapter, and his ashes to the Cathedral. On the slab is written :

A CASTILLA Y A LEON.
MUNDO NUEVO DIO COLON.

“To Leon and Castille Columbus gave a New World.”

It was the great glory of the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella,
that under their auspices America was discovered; the queen
especially undertook the enterprise when it had been declined by
others, and served Columbus in the most acceptable manner by
supplying him with ample resources. _

“Shall we say day after to-morrow, Augusta?” continued Mr.
Horner.

“So soon!” she said with a sigh looking round the room
which, with all its paraphernalia of pleasant living, looked too
attractive to leave. ‘Yes, I suppose so; do you know what time
we start?”
MURILLO. 195

“At noon, Juan says. That is a good thing; and there is no
night travel this time.”

“Not till we are upon your favorite steamer,” said Miss Lejeune,
putting down her pen, and rising.

Mr. Horner shuddered. He did not share the fondness of some
of his family for aquatic excursions.

“But, aunt Dut, you needn’t put on your hat now!” remon-

strated Bessie.

“No, but I want to see Nana about the washing. I think the
sefioras took some this morning, and they must be told ‘to bring
it back in good time.”

So the Seville season came to an end. Their happy establish-
ment was broken up, and they set off for Cadiz one bright morn-

ing after almuerzo.


296 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

CHAPTER XXIII.
CADIZ.

ISS LEJEUNE and Bessie’ were just alike in one respect,
which made them, on the whole, excellent travellers. They
always were very unwilling to leave the place they were in, and
went about packing and breaking up with gloomy energy; but
once in the train, their spirits rose, all regret was cast aside, and
they found it delightful to be moving again. No fatigue disheart-
ened either of them, and they both regarded the arrival at a new
hotel as one of the chief delights of travel.

In this they differed from Mrs. Horner and Mary, who rather
dreaded the worry of being established in new rooms. The mamma
especially always feared beforehand there was going to be a smell,
or that the bed would be hard, or that the view -would not be
satisfactory. She concealed these fears, but was not quite happy
until a new day in a new place proved that they had been unwar-
ranted. The two sanguine ones, Bessie and Miss Augusta, had it
their own way in Spain; for papa’s two anxieties, one about the
baggage, which always came out all right, and the other the boys,
who always turned up in time, were of no account.

Juan escorted them to the station, and there they parted from
him with much regret, for he had been very useful, and had
become a valued friend; but they felt now quite capable of rely-
ing upon their own resources.

They were seated in the train by two o'clock Pp. M., but it did
not start until four, after the usual Spanish fashion, and thus it
was late before they arrived at Cadiz, and they approached the
city in the dim faded lights of after sunset, over a long, very
long causeway, with water on each side. Cadiz has been compared
CADIZ. : 197

to a guitar, connected with the rest of the world by the handle.
The Horners rejoiced at seeing the sea after many weeks, and the
salt fresh air of the Atlantic was delightful to them.

Cadiz is a walled town; the railway station outside. They drove
through an arched gateway, guarded as usual, by the inevitable pair
of alguazils, and, before moving on, had to undergo a parley with
custom-house officials; nothing was examined, however, and they
were free to pass on
to their hotel, through
straight, long streets,
which appeared wide
and modern, after
sinuous Seville.

“Just like Phila-
delphia!” declared
Bessie, who was old
enough to be taken
to the Centennial
there, in 1876.

Cadiz, however, is
not much like Phil-
adelphia. Their hotel
was on a_ pretty
square, planted with



trees, and in the
light of the street
lamps people were flitting about, strolling in groups, or chatting

ALGUAZILS.

on bencnes, for the night was soft and warm.

Miss Lejeune leaned from her balcony and enjoyed the novelty
of the scene, and the tinkling sounds which rose from guitars.
After the shut-in, close walks of Seville, the sense of space was
very agreeable. She looked up at the bright dark sky, full of stars.

The rest of the party were too tired for sentimentalizing. Fanny
was put to bed at once; the others waited for dinner to be ready,
which deserved rather the name of supper, for it was after nine
198 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

before it was served, and then they went directly to bed, defying
digestion, for there was to be an early start in the morning, the
steamer which they were to take, being advertised for six o'clock.

So not much after dawn the sleepy set were roused, and soon
found themselves on the stone pier, bargaining, through the medium
of an interpreter from the hotel, for a row boat to take thet out
into the bay.

“T am so glad mamma is not here!” said Bessie, as they set-
tled themselves into a large boat with ample accommodations. -

“This boat is solid enough to please her,” said Mr. Horner.

“Tt looks,” said Miss Lejeune, “as if it were made of the original
beams left over from the ark.”

Two strong sailors, with sashes round their waists, and panuelas
tied about their heads, pulled the heavy boat over the water with
swift strokes.

“Tmagine Columbus,” exclaimed Miss Augusta, “being brought in
from his caravel !”

“His caravel was not so much larger than this craft, I suppose,”
said Mr. Horner.

The steamer was lying far off from the town, and in the half-
hour’s pull to reach it, they had a pretty view of the receding
city, very white in the morning light, rising from the water with _
graceful domes and spires.

This was all they saw of Cadiz, once the most famous seaport
of the world, under the Romans; less important in the hands of
the Goths, and afterwards of the Moors, its prosperity rose again
with the discovery of America, for it shared with Seville the de-
posits of gold and merchandize from the new country. This made
it a frequent point of attack from pirates and princes coveting its
treasures ; and it has repeatedly been plundered and almost destroyed.
Its wealth and commerce were great, even to the end of the last
century. French invasion and civil war have reduced its import-
ance, and it is now less interesting a place for tourists than many
other places, because its monuments and works of art are fewer.
It contains, however, in the Church of the Capuchins, the fatal pict-
Pages
199 - 200
Missing
From
Original
CADIZ. 201

ture which caused the death of Murillo. It is just as he left it;
not quite finished. Cadiz, like Seville, is famous for the beauty of
its women.

The Cristoforo Colon was a large clean steamer, comfortably arranged.
As there were but few passengers, the Horners had the pleasant
deck pretty much to themselves, and the boys were soon running
all over the ship, exploring its mysteries. Miss Lejeune fell into
conversation with an elderly gentleman who spoke French so fu-
ently, and had such old-fashioned elegance of manner, that she
guessed him to be a Frenchman. He had travelled much in Spain,
and knew all about the pictures, and talked very well about art.

By and by when the boys had come back, the old amateur rose
and soon left her side, and Hubert took his place.
Tommy carried Bessie off to see the live stock. Fanny
was in the cabin with Nana and the baby, and Mr.
Horner was smoking and reading somewhere by him-
self.

Hubert was in a state of excitement natural enough
as he approached the end of his journey. He was
restless, but at the same time he wanted to be quiet, and did
not really care for the sights of the ship, which amused Tommy.

Miss Augusta took his hand and held it a little while, leading
him to talk about home and his mother, and she now learned
more of these matters than at any previous time.

“You cannot think how lovely mamma is,’ said he in a low
tone; “and her voice is so gentle and dear.” His eyes filled with
tears as he went on telling how sweet and patient she was, and



OLD AMATEUR.

how delicate.

“Thave her photograph!” he exclaimed, “and I never showed
it to you. Tommy has seen it. I look at it every evening just
before I go to sleep.”

He brought the little picture up to her. Miss Augusta saw a
very pale wan face, with large eyes looking forth from it, a sweet
expression, and: graceful shoulders and pretty hair drawn back from
the forehead. She sighed as she looked; she could not help it.
202 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

“T know, I know!” cried Hubert; “you think mamma is very
ill. But we thought going home would cure her. To England, I
mean, —to grandmamma’s. That was taken in London to send to
papa. But mamma wanted to come back, and so we started, but
she could not come any farther than Bordeaux, and then they
said —they said” —

He broke down; he could go no further. Miss Lejeune under-
stood the rest.











































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































CADIZ FROM THE SEA,

“Do not try to tell me, dear boy. I know. Has she always
been an invalid?”

“Ever since baby was born. Did you know baby was born in
India?” he asked, his face brightening with the change of idea
and the thought that Miss Lejeune would be interested.

“Papa was in India before he was stationed at Gibraltar,” he went
on, “and mamma went there with him; but we did not go. Fanny
and I. stayed at grandmamma’s. It was ever so long ago that:
CADIZ. 28

they went. I scarcely remember about it. And then I remember
when they came home. It was so funny to know papa and mamma;
and papa was very different then. It is only lately that he has
grown so gloomy” —

He stopped short. Probably he was thinking, as Miss Augusta
was, that it was anxiety about his wife that had changed him.

“Poor Colonel Vaughan!” she murmured to herself.

“Poor papa!” said Hubert, “he has lots of trouble. Mamma’s
sister died only a year or two ago, and she was just the same as
papa’s own sister.”

The tears were coming again. Miss Lejeune was beginning to
feel that she must not let him dwell longer on these sad themes,
when the other children came breathlessly up, crying, “Come and
see Africa; it is just ahead!’’ The whole party assembled at the
very most forward part of the ship, and there, to be sure, were the
blue mountains of Tarifa, and the shore of another continent.
They stood there watching the land on each side of them, for
some time. In one place the width is but twelve miles.

It is a narrow strait,
I see the blue hills over,

sang Bessie.

“Well, Tommy,” exclaimed Miss Lejeune; “ only think of our
being together a second time sailing through the Straits of
Gibraltar!”
204 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

CHAPTER XXIV.
THE NARROW STRAIT.

N fact, Tommy felt important on account of his previous passage
I of the strait, and did the honors not only to his own party,
but to the group generally, pointing out the fort and lighthouse of
Tarifa close at hand, and distant Tangier across the water.

Gradually moving westward, they entered into stiller waters, and ~
before them loomed up, really majestic and grand, and bristling
with cannon, the great rock on which proudly waves the flag
of England.

Hubert now began to feel at home, and could point out to
Tommy many objects which had not come to that young gentle-
man’s knowledge on his short visit of the year before.

Letters and a telegram had been sent to inform Colonel
Vaughan of the approach of his family, and they were full of
excitement at the thought of meeting him. Fanny clung to Nana’s
hand. Hubert stood by Mr. Horner, trying to think of some
proper way to express his sense of the kindness he had received.
“All right, my boy,” said Mr. Horner; “you have behaved
very well, and it has been a great. pleasure to us all to have you
with us.”

He was himself a little anxious, and indeed a little curious to
see the father of these children with whom he had so unexpectedly
come into such close relations.

There are no children who need to be told that Gibraltar is an
English possession, and that the English have held it fast in spite
of every effort to regain it by Spain, who naturally begrudges it
to a foreign power. It has always been a bone of contention, and
THE NARROW STRAIT. 205

between the Moors and Spaniards, had sustained eleven sieges
before the time when, in the course of the war for the Spanish
Succession, it was seized by Sir George Rooke, July 24, 1704, who
took possession of it in the name of Queen Anne.

In June, 1780, a desperate and _ skilful attempt was .made by
the united land and sea forces of France and Spain to destroy
the little English squadron which lay in the harbor. Six great
fireships, laden with combustibles, and connected with iron chains,
were drawn up in the form of a crescent, floated, in the middle of
a dark night, and with a favorable wind, into the bay, and steered
"against the ships in the New Mole, while three others were
directed against other points. Behind them came a long line of
row boats and galleys filled with armed men, and these in turn
were supported by the heavy ships of the Spanish fleet. The first
stage of the enterprise was completely successful, and it was only
at one o'clock in the morning that the British sailors became
aware, by the sudden glare and explosions, of the danger that
was bearing down upon them. With great quickness, daring, and
presence of mind, they sprang into their boats, grappled with
the burning fireships, towed them clear of the English vessels, and
thus not only baffled the design of the enemy, but obtained in
the hulks of the captured ships a supply of fuel for which
the garrison had urgent need.

The siege was brought to a close only by the general pacification
which occurred in 1783. Since then Gibraltar has been left undis-
turbed in the hands of the English; and it is essentially an
English town. A garrison is established there, and martial law
prevails, the whole population, both civil and military, being sub-
jected to stringent rules. The gates are shut at sunset, and a
gun is fired morning and evening.

When first seen from the sea, the great rock, one thousand four
hundred and thirty feet high, seems to rise from under the
waves, for the land about it is so low that it appears to have no
connection with it. It looks like a lion asleep, with its huge head

turned towards Africa.
206 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

The Cvistoforo Colon came to a full stop outside of Algeciras,
and small boats were lowered, and others seen putting forth from
that small towi, which is a straggling little place on the side of
the smooth bay opposite Gibraltar.

The Horners were not going to stay at Gibraltar. Two of the
party had seen the place, and Miss Lejeune, who was one of
them, advised going on to Malaga in the same steamer, to which



THE ROCK OF GIBRALTAR.

Bessie and her father readily agreed. The steamer was to stay
several hours at her moorings, and the best thing for the Vaughans
to do seemed to be waiting until they should be sent for.

And there was not long to wait, for soon a boat approached the
side, rowed by swarthy Spaniards, and bringing a tall gentleman,
looking about fifty years old, with a military bearing, and a grave
countenance,

Alas! as he came towards them, and they all knew he must be
Colonel Vaughan, Miss Lejeune saw at a glance, that his hat was
A NARROW STRAIT. 207

surrounded by black crape. Perhaps Hubert also saw this; perhaps
_ he divined what had happened; for as he darted forward to meet
his father, his only word was:

“Mamma?”

There was no way to soften the blow. Colonel Vaughan bent
down towards his son, and said in a low tone:

“My dear boy, she is dead. The news came yesterday.”

Nana was the only one who began to sob. Miss Lejeune led
Bessie and Tommy away, and Mr. Horner withdrew also, to leave
the little family alone with their grief.

“T cannot bear it!” cried Bessie. “Aunt Dut, it is terrible.”

“Poor Hubert, poor fellow!” said Miss Lejeune, drying her
eyes.

They all felt keenly for the Vaughans. All had feared: from the
accounts of the mother’s health, that she could not live; but so
soon! they had not anticipated hearing the sad message wae they
were still together.

“Only yesterday!” said Mr. Horner. “ Perhaps while we were
so merry coming from Seville.”

After a suitable interval, Mr. Horner rejoined the group, and
now Colonel Vaughan, with a strong grasp of the hand, thanked
him warmly for his kindness to his children.

“T fear I have not expressed myself -well in writing,” he said.
“In fact, I have been almost distracted by my dread —by my
knowledge, indeed —of what was to come. I was shocked to learn
that the children had left their mother. It was unwise. She might
have had the comfort of them, and they’”— He could not
finish his sentence. Miss Lejeune approached, and without any
introduction, said a few words of warm sympathy.

Papa,’ said Hubert, “this is Tommy, ‘and this is Bessie
Horner.”

His father shook hands with both, but Miss Lejeune could not
but observe that he took hardly any notice of them.

“Poor man!” she thought; “I dare say he has not given a
thought to our party, or wondered once what constituted it. How
208 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

severely we judged him; and yet one cannot blame him now.”
Colonel Vaughan, almost as if he had become aware of what
was passing in her mind, made an effort to express his gratitude,
and some interest in the late adventures of his children.





































































































































































































































































































































































































































































ROMAN BRIDGE, RONDA.

“I am glad the poor things have had the pleasure of being
with you. I am sure they have enjoyed it.”

“O, papa, we have!” exclaimed Hubert, his face lighting up.
“You cannot imagine what dear, lovely people they are; and how
kind they have been!”
THE NARROW STRAIT. | 209

He looked round at them all in tnrn, as if wondering what he
should do without these new companions who had become already
such old friends.

“T fear that my children have given you some trouble,
madam,” went on Colonel Vaughan.

Miss. Lejeune assured him that, on. the contrary, Nana had made
the care very light for the rest of them, and then, to cut short
these interchanges of compliment, she looked about for Nana. They.
all saw, then, how the nurse had with-
drawn to a seat apart, and was cry-
ing bitterly with her face in her hands,
Fanny, looking pitiful and bewildered,
was holding close to the baby, the
only one of the group unconscious. of
its loss.

_“T think we had best be going,”
said Colonel Vaughan. ‘We need
not detain you longer.”

In a short time the parting was
over. It was a painful one on all
sides. The Vaughans were packed
into the small boat, and pulled towards
the shore, while the Horners | stood
watching them from the deck of the
steamer, waving handkerchiefs damp
with tears. Miss Lejeune was in
no mood for sketching. She disappeared below to the ladies’ cabin,
and it is believed surrendered herself to a good cry.

Before dark the steamer was unloaded and reloaded, her anchor
up, and steam, and they were off again, gliding by the immense
rock, which stood out in superb relief against a glowing evening
sky. After dinner, the small, sad party of Horners gathered close
together on deck, for it was cold, and tucked themselves tightly

about with wraps and rugs.
As the steamer swept along, new aspects of the rock unfolded



SAFETY BOAT.
210 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

themselves, always dark, against the rich background. They could
half make out the forms of caves and openings in the base of
the cliff, and on top, the flag-staff stood out a fine line against
the glow.

The solemn beauty of the evening, and the sad experience of
the day, made it a memorable occasion which often came back to
them. They talked much of Hubert, and Miss Lejeune told them
all he had said of his mother; and they spoke gently and thought-
fully about her death, and of the sweet, strong influence the
memory of his mother would have upon the boy, to make him
honest, and brave, and true, all his life. Tommy was silent through-
out. His heart was full of sorrow.

It was much later than his usual bed-time when they all with-
drew together for the night. For some reason, there were no
separate staterooms to be had, and Bessie and Miss Lejeune there-
fore shared the general ladies’ cabin, with a Spanish lady who had
a wonderful coiffure, in which she lay down that night and rose
the next morning.

Just as he was going to sleep, Mr. Horner was roused by
Tommy’s voice, in a berth above him.

“Papa!”

“Well!”

“You did not see the monkeys!”

“You are another,” growled his parent; “go to sleep.”

Hubert had described, for all English boys have heard of, the
monkeys who live on the Rock. They are protected by strict
laws, and are much talked of, but seldom seen, inhabiting the
higher and eastern part, unless they are driven down by cold
winds. There is a myth that their ancestors came over from
Africa in days when an isthmus, instead of a strait, was between
the two countries; a theory not impossible to entertain.
MALAGA, 12

CHAPTER XXV.
MALAGA,

ESSIE was awake at dawn,
and looked out of the little
round port-hole, as well as she
could, which was close by her
head, in the hot, stuffy berth of
the ladies’ cabin. The Andalu-
sian lady was still asleep in a
berth below, and so was Miss
Lejeune, and there was no oc-
= casion for stirring yet; but they
POS Fe must have reached Malaga, for
> . dl the ship was at rest, though not
ie) We quiet. Men were trampling about
Oj overhead, tumbling heavy barrows,
and delighting, apparently, in all
those noises least soothing to

Posted ie Nese ACL A



ees pp a
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sleepers below.

Bessie climbed softly down from
her high perch, and as she had slept in her boots, in a very few
minutes was ready to go up on deck, where for half an hour she
had to herself a lovely scene; the glowing day coming slowly
into the sky, and pouring its light over the town, which was close
at hand, for the steamer was tied up to the pier.

When the party was assembled, they left the boat, and walked
across the Alameda to the hotel, baggage following, and were
before long established in comfortable rooms, with baths and break-



fast to follow.
212 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

They were not in good condition for enjoying the sights of
Malaga. The sad scene of the day before was still fresh upon
their hearts. Tommy, especially, missed his companion, and every
moment reminded him of the poor little fellow, and his forlorn
face at parting. Miss Lejeune reported that she had passed a
vile night on the Cyistoforo Colon, and Mr. Horner was always
somewhat knocked up by sea excursions, while Bessie was by ten
o'clock as sleepy as a cat, after her early ascent upon deck.















‘a















































































THE CATHEDRAL AND PORT OF MALAGA.

As they were loitering over coffee at that hour,—for they had
not succeeded in getting it sooner,— Miss Lejeune said:

“Why do we go on to Granada to-day? We do not feel like
going out now to see the town. We might all try the very attract-
ive beds which I have been regarding with longing, and see Malaga
by and by, in the cool part of the day.”

“Very good,” said Mr. Horner; “the only reason for pressing
on is,—letters.” j
MALAGA., 213

“Yes, letters! It is an age since we have had any. Still, it
will make only one day’s difference.”

“Do stay, papa, I am so sleepy!” said Bessie.

So they stayed over twenty-four hours at Malaga, which they























































































































































































BANKS OF THE DARRO.

had not. intended to do, thinking it not an especially attractive
town. They found, however, interesting pictures in the cathedral,
and in the hospitable private house of an American gentleman,
214 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

living in Malaga, the most beautiful Alonzo Cano they had seen.
Miss Lejeune was delighted with it; it fulfilled all her desire to
give this painter a high place among the Spanish masters.

The Alameda, or shady walk, is long and wide, with a hand-
some fountain, said to have been ordered by Charles the Fifth,
the Emperor, for his palace at Granada, then seized by Barbarossa,
but afterward regained by the Spaniards.

“How do you feel, Bessie,” said her father, as they were stroll-
ing along under the trees of the Alameda, “at hearing of your
Barbarossa down here?”

“Ts it not wonderful,’ she replied, “when we thought we left
him sound asleep in his cavern, waiting for the ravens to cease
to fly around the mountain. But,” she added, “I cannot be
thinking of German Emperors now. Only think, papa, to-morrow
we shall be in Granada, and need attend to nothing but our dear
Moors.”

In fact, after the Horners had reached Granada, and were estab-
lished in the Washington Irving Hotel, all their previous impres-
sions of Spain grew pale before the charm of the life they were
now beginning upon.

It was June; the weather was lovely: the roses and pomegranates
and jasmines were in perfection of bloom, perfuming the air, ©
nightingales were singing everywhere, and the sound of fountains
and falling water made a running accompaniment to their music;
in short, everything was in harmony with the romance of the
Alhambra.

North of Granada rises a long ridge of rocky land between two
rivers, the Darro and Xenil; the ridge slopes downwards towards
the town, intersected by a long avenue of elm-trees, but spreading
out near the top into two tablelands, or broad terraces, bordered
by steep ravines. On the western terrace stands the Alhambra, its
base washed by the Darro. On the eastern one stand the Ver-
milion Towers, beyond which the land slopes more gently down
into the precincts of the town of Granada. These two terraces
were formerly girt with walls and towers, and connected together


























































































































































































































































































PUERTA DEL VINO.

MALAGA. 217

with winding lanes; and within the circuit thus fortified, stood the
palaces and villas of the Caliphs of Granada, as well as their chief
fortresses; so many that the enclosure was called a city. There
were other villas and palaces in the neighborhood, but the Hadhira,
or court of the Caliphs, on the western plateau, and within the
walls, constituted the Alhambra proper. The walls and their enclo-
sure occupy the greater part of this terrace; but there is some
level ground outside, and this has been availed of for two hotels,
facing each other upon the road which leads to the grand gate of
entrance —the Siete Suelos, and the Washington Irving. Nothing
could be more charming then their situation, in the leafy avenue,
planted by tall elms, surrounded by their own gardens and those
of neighboring villas, overlooking, on one side, the crumbling orange-
colored walls of the Alhambra, and on the other a view extending
to the snowy slopes of the Sierra Nevada. There is but little to
choose between the two hotels; at present, they are both well kept;
the Horners were advised, in Malaga, to take the Washington Irv-
ing, and a sort of loyalty, as Americans, to the name, perhaps
influenced them in the decision. They had excellent rooms in an
angle commanding all the different views possible. A pleasant
English family were established in the house; opposite, at the Sieta
Suelos, a gay party of artists were coming and going, and in the
evenings they sat before the door, striking the guitar and singing
Malaguefias. This, then, was the culmination of the Spanish tour ;
with everything so enchanting around them, the Horners were con-
tent to let the time slip by as it would, seeing and enjoying all,
without haste, but not without rest. The grounds are open to all,
to wander about at will, and friendly guides are at hand to con-
duct and explain.

First of all, after they had arrived and seen how delightful it
was, came their thirst for letters; and Mr. Horner and Tommy
walked down into the town, along the steep, broad, shaded road,
which reminded them not a little of the descent from Heidelberg
Castle. They returned in several hours, hot, and out of breath with
coming fast up the height, in their desire to share the big budget
218.

A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

from America and Luz, which had been accumulating at the .bank-

er’s. Again good news ;
Atlantic; the Pyrénées party still

“T am so glad mamma







AVN
\ ‘

aN TRS

\\



GYPSY GIRL.

keeps perfectly well!”

everything right on both sides of the

without events, but happy.

said Bessie.
This sentence betrayed a thought
that had possessed them all secretly.
since hearing the death of Mrs.
Vaughan ; dread that
something might be wrong with

a vague

their.own dear ones.
“The usual amount of engage-
ments and marriages in. Amecica,’’.
remarked Miss Lejeune, looking
up from her letters,
“You
Dut,”

received no

always say -that, aunt
said Tommy, who, having
letters of his own,

was hanging round to pick up

intelligence from the rest, while
they, each completely absorbed in
his or her own budget, paid but
little attention to the exclamations
of the ‘others. ©

‘Mary has had a telegram from
Mr. Hervey, to say he had reached
New York!” cried Bessie.

“Extravagant man!’ said Miss
Lejeune, putting down her letter.

“ Only two words, which they had
to mean all right,”
“She don’t say

agreed upon
went on Bessie.
what they were!”

“Well, weil,’ remarked Miss

Lejeune, and once more continued, as she fumbled with the sheets

of the correspondence, “well, well!”
MALAGA. 219

The windows were opened and the air fluttered lightly about the
room. A dish of great oranges stood on the table, with which
Tommy was filling up his time and stomach. A bunch of orange
blossoms, and some full-blown roses, were tumbling about in a
goblet where Bessie had hastily thrust them, as she came in,
hearing the good news that letters had arrived. All Miss Lejeune’s
sketching materials were lying on a chair where she too had
dropped them when Mr. Horner came in. Her sketch was spoiled,
for the orange colored wash over the turrets of the Siete Suelos
would dry before she could finish it. No matter; that was nothing,
since they had such good news.

Bessie finished her letters and went to the window.

“Let us send for mamma and Mary, and then stay here for-
ever!” she said. “I see no reason for going further.”

“And Pnil,” said Tommy.

“Of course I mean Phil! Come here, Tommy, and look down
at this gypsy!”

Their rooms were in the third story, so that they overlooked
the narrow terrace garden belonging to the hotel. They saw a
girl dressed in all the picturesque garments of a Spanish gypsy,
standing with a jug poised on her head in an attitude for a model,
while a young lady was rapidly sketching her in charcoal. The artist
was surrounded by several small children watching her work. The
gypsy beamed all over her face, with vanity and __ satisfaction,
evidently thinking that her personal charms had recommended
her.

Tommy said softly, ‘I do believe that is the American girl we saw
at Irun with all the bags and umbrellas.”

“Where can she have been since!” exclaimed Bessie; “and
where are the rest?”

As the Horners were entering the pleasant dining-room for
almuerzo, the whole force of waiters and maids were engaged in
speeding the parting of some people who were being packed into
an open carriage with their numerous belongings.

“Tt is the other H’s!” cried Miss Lejeune.
220 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

CHAPTER XXVI.
THE CONQUEST OF GRANADA,

FTER the middle of the thirteenth century, the constantly

contracting circle of Moorish dominion in Spain shrank into

the narrow limits of the province of Granada. Yet on this com-

paratively small point of their ancient domain, the Saracens erected

a new kingdom .of sufficient strength to resist for more than two
centuries, the united forces of the Spanish monarchies.

The Moorish territory of Granada contained within a circuit of
about one hundred and eighty leagues, all the physical resources”
of a great empire. Its broad valleys were intersected by mountains
rich in mineral wealth, occupied by a robust and hardy population.
Its pastures were fed by abundant streams, and its coasts com-
manded the commerce of the Mediterranean. In the midst, crown-
ing the whole, rose the beautiful city of Granada, In the days of
the Moors it was encompassed by a wall flanked by a_ thousand
and thirty towers; and above it rose the fortress of the Alhambra,
whose magnificent ruins still manifest the taste, opulence, and
luxury of its proprietors. The streets are represented to have
been narrow, the houses lofty, with turrets of curiously wrought
larch or marble, and with cornices of shining metal, that glittered
like stars through the dark foliage of the orange groves; the whole
is compared to “an enamelled vase, sparkling with hyacinths and
emeralds,” in the florid strains of Arabic writers, describing the
glories of Granada.

At. the foot of this Aladdin’s palace, lies the cultivated plain |
called the vega, so celebrated as the arena for more than two
centuries of the contests between Moor and Christian. The Arabs
Pages
221-222
Missing
From
Original
THE CONQUEST OF GRANADA, 233.

expended upon it all their knowledge of cultivation. The waters
of the Xenil flowed through it in a thousand channels, for its
perfect irrigation, A constant succession of fruits and crops was
obtained throughout the year. Products of opposite latitudes were
transplanted there with success. The hemp of the North flourished
in the shadow of the vine and the olive. The seaports swarmed
with traders from [Europe, Africa, and the Levant, so that
“Granada became the common city of all nations.” Such was the
reputation of its citizens, that “their bare word was more relied
upon than a written contract is now among us,” as a Spamish
writer says.

The sovereigns of Granada were often distinguished by liberal
tastes, and they loved above all the display of a princely pomp.



Each day presented a succession of
fétes and tournaments, in which the
knights displayed their horseman-
ship and their skill in the feats
peculiar to their nation. Life was
with them a long carnival; but the
people were diligent, industrious,
and honest.

The Moorish and _ Christian
knights were in the habit of ex-
changing visits at their respective
courts, for the Spaniards had been
gradually rising in civilization to the
level of their enemies, and the two races were now upon a foot~
ing of equality, and even friendship; and thus the Spanish Arabs
were distinguished by the same qualities as the Christian knights.

This combination of Oriental magnificence and knightly prowess
served to soften the defects common to Mohammedan institutions,
and enabled the reign of the Moors to hold out against the
Christian arms for so long a time. Moreover, its strength lay less
in its own resources, than in the weakness of its enemies, who,
after the death of Saint Ferdinand, in the thirteenth century,



FERDINAND AND ISABELLA,
224 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

became more and more divided by quarrels amongst themselves.
But the union of all the provinces by the marriage of Ferdinand
and Isabella, put an end for the time to such dissensions. No
sooner had these sovereigns restored internal tranquility to their
dominions, and made the strength effective which had _ been
acquired by their union under one government, than they turned
their eyes upon that part of Spain over which the crescent had
reigned for nearly eight centuries. Amicable relations were exist-
ing between the Christian princes, and the rulers of Granada,
until 1466, when the Caliph, who at that time succeeded to the
throne, resisted the payment of the annual tribute imposed on his
predecessors, proudly saying that “the mints of Granada coined no
longer gold, but steel.”

The storm burst upon a small town called Zahara, which was
surprised one night by this Moorish monarch, Muley Abul Hacen ;
who, scaling the walls under the favor of a furious tempest, swept
away the whole population of the place,— men, women and children,—
in slavery to Granada.

The Spaniards soon retaliated by seizing the ancient city of
Alhama, famous for its baths, and the favorite resort of the mon-
archs of Granada, embellished with all the magnificence of a royal
residence. This first conquest by the Christians was achieved
with a gallantry and daring unsurpassed by any other during the
war. The report of the disaster fell like the knell of their own
doom upon the Moors. ;

Ay de mi, Alhama —
Woe is me, Alhama —

is the burden of the melancholy ballad about it. But the intelligence
spread satisfaction throughout Castile, and was especially agreeable
to the sovereigns. After learning the news, a chronicler of the
time says, “During all the while he sat at dinner the prudent
Ferdinand was working in his mind the course best to be adopted.”

The Moors now besieged Alhama in their turn, and for more
than three weeks it was in peril; but the monarch alarmed by
THE CONQUEST OF GRANADA. 225

seeing Christian reinforcements, broke up his encampment and
retreated to his capital; and although he made another attempt to
regain it, the Christians took possession of the city, and entered
it with great ceremony. The mosques were purified and consecrated
as Christian temples. Isabella, the queen, presented bells, crosses
and sumptuous plate to show that she entered into -the war
through zeal for the true faith The army was enlarged, and she
caused a fleet to be manned, to sweep the Mediterranean as far
as the Straits of Gibraltar.

Thus the struggle went on with many feats of daring and
bravery on both sides. The names of the heroes who fought in
this prolonged contest are among the most famous warriors of all
time.

Division among the Moors did more for the Christians than
any successes of their own; quarrels between the women of the
Alhambra led to a war in the streets of Granada. One of the
wives of Abul-Hacen lowered her son in a basket from a tower
of the Alhambra, to save him from the jealousy of another
sultana. This was the beginning. Later, the father was expelled
from his own capital. He sought refuge in Malaga, which still
adhered to him, with some other places of importance, while
Granada, and by far the larger part of the kingdom, proclaimed the
authority of the boy who escaped in the basket— Abu Abdallah, or
Boabdil, as he is usually called.

He was surnamed, by the Spanish writers, “ EZ Chico,” the Little,—
to distinguish him from another Boabdil, his uncle, — and “ AZ Zogoyt,”
the Unfortunate, by the Moors, as the last of his race destined to
wear the crown of Granada. The foolish ambition of the sultana,
his mother, not only destroyed the future of the son she quarrelled
for, but brought ruin upon the Moorish dynasty.

Thus the war went on, and much blood was shed on both
sides. Isabella was the soul of the contest. She sometimes visited
the camp in person, encouraging the soldiers with gifts of clothes
and money. She followed the army from place to place, and was
with the camp in the spring of 1491, when the Spanish army
226 A FAMILY *LIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

‘

finally sat down before Granada, not more than six miles trom the city.
It is sail that one night about the middle of July, the drapery
of Isabella’s tent took fire, and was not extinguished until several



























































































































































MOORISH ARCHES.

of the neighboring ones had been consumed. The queen and every-
body else escaped unhurt; but the accident caused Isabella to
determine upon building a safer town, which was finished in
less than three months. It was called Santa Fé.




















DOS HERMANAS, ALHAMBRA.

THE CONQUEST OF GRANADA. 229

There is a pretty anecdote of Gonsalvo of Cordova, the Gran
Capitan, connected with this event, which relates that when -he
learned how the fire had consumed the royal tent, with the greater
part of the queen’s clothing, he supplied the queen so amply from
the splendid wardrobe of his wife, as ied Isabella to say that the
fire had done more execution in his castle than in her own
quarters.

Every one has read the story of the surrender, in Washington
Irving’s Conquest of Granada. The besieged city was suffering the
distress of famine. Autumn arrived, a rigorous winter was approach
ing; the people sank into deep despondency. They remembered
that Boabdil had been pronounced unfortunate at his birth, and
they recalled that the fall of Granada had been foretold at the
time of the capture of Zahara. The councillors of the monarch
said “Surrender!” they declared that the people could no longer
support their sufferings.

- Boabdil el Chico yielded to the general voice.

“ Allah achbar! God is great,’ he said. “It is in vain to
struggle against the will of Heaven. h

The capitulation for the surrender was signed on the twenty-
fifth of November, 1481.

“It was a night of doleful lamentings within the walls of the
Alhambra, for the household of Boabdil were preparing to take a
last farewell of that delightful abode. Before the dawn of day, a
mournful cavalcade moved obscurely out of a postern gate of the
Alhambra, and departed through one of the most retired quarters
of the city. The mother of Boabdil rode on in silence, with
dejected, yet dignified demeanor; but his wife and all the house-
hold gave way to loud lamentations as they gave a last look at
the mass of gloomy towers behind them. At a hamlet at some
distance from the city, they waited until they should be joined by
the king.

“At dawn the Christian camp was in motion, and a body
of distinguished cavaliers proceeded to take possession of the
Alhambra. The Moorish king came forth from the gate to deliver
280 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN,

up the palace. He passed mournfully on along the same road by
which the cavaliers had come, descending to the Vega to meet the
Catholic sovereigns. The troops entered the Alhambra, the gates



















































































































ARABESQUE, IN THE ALHAMBRA.

of which were wide open, and all its splendid courts and halls
silent and deserted.

“The sovereigns waited below with impatience. At length they saw
the silver cross elevated on the Torre de la Vela, and beside it was
planted the pennon of the glorious apostle St. James.” * * *
THE CONQUEST OF GRANADA. 231

Having surrendered the keys to the sovereigns, the unfortunate
Boabdil joined his family. At two leagues distance the cavalcade
ascended an eminence commanding the last view of Granada. As
they arrived at this spot, the Moors paused to take a farewell
gaze at their beloved city. Never had it, appeared so lovely in
their eyes. While they yet looked, a light cloud of smoke burst
forth from the citadel, and presently a peal of artillery, faintly
heard, told that the city was taken.

The heart of Boabdil could no longer contain itself.

“Allah achbar! God is great,” he said; but he burst into
tears. 5

His mother, indignant, said:

“You do well to weep like a woman for what you failed to
defend like a man.”

The point of view commanding the last prospect of Granada,
is known as E/ ultimo suspiro del Moro; or, the last sigh of the
Moor.



whey te ; AAT Caagaan
232 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

CHAPTER XXVIL.
THE ALHAMBRA.

NDER the Moors, the Alhambra was the scene of many
romantic events, the legends connected with which still
people its courts with phantoms.
The road leading up from the hotel to the entrance is shaded
with tall trees, and water trickles down the side making the







os

“UTZ
\

aN

: EQUA

Soy





aN Ke x
TIS I



PLAN OF THE ALHAMBRA.

grass fresh and green. The walls are of a beautiful red or orange
color, which is shared by the soil; this alone gives a glowing
aspect to the scene. The chief place of entrance (2 on the
plan) is called the Gate of Justice. It is more than a gate,
being a square tower, the upper part of which contains rooms
‘where people live. Their little flower pots filled with bright blossoms,
THE ALHAMBRA. 283

stand on the ledge of the window. The horseshoe arch of
entrance is below; for as the ground is terraced, the level of the

palace is above that of the arch, and is approached by an ascent,
and a staircase within the tower.

Over this arch there is carved an outstretched hand pointing
upward, to avert the evil eye; over the second one a key is
sculptured; a symbol of the power of the prophet to open and
shut the gates of heaven. The passages within the ‘tower wind
about under several arches, until they lead out and up to the
walled-in plateau, on which the Alhambra stands. A little farther
on is another gateway, and building, called the Puerto del Vino (3) ;
it formerly contained a Mihrab, or Moorish chapel.

From the high terrace near these two gates, is a lovely view
across the deep ravine to the Sierra Nevada, always slightly
touched with snow, and taking on beautiful lights, according to the
time of day; dark blue in the morning, and, as evening approaches,
roseate; for in addition to the sunset tints, the natural color of
the soil and stone make the tone of the range warm and rich,
Here opens a large plaza, called the Place of the Cisterns, on one
side of which is the Alcazaba, or fortress, with its dismantled castle (5),
while opposite it appears the palace of Charles the Fifth (6), which
he began to build, but never finished. He destroyed the greater part
of the beautiful winter palace of the Moors, to make room for his
own, and afterward abandoned his plan, leaving the unfinished
ruin, with open arches, staring to the sky. It is said that earth-
quakes discouraged him from going on with his palace. There are
planted garden beds, and walks leading along the side of it, to a
plain, unadorned wall, through which a door leads to the real
glories of the Alhambra.

Here found themselves one morning, Mr. Horner and Miss Le-
. jeune, Bessie and Tommy ; Bessie grumbling, as usual, at Charles the
Fifth, and Ferdinand and Isabella, who have left their traces so often
in the destruction of Moorish ornament.

- &T do believe,” said Bessie, “that Isabella herself rode on a white-

wash. brush!”
234

A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN,



COURT OF MYRTLES.

“Perhaps she was
the old woman —

Old woman, said I, .
To sweep the cobwebs
from the sky!”

said Tommy.

They passed on
through the _ gate.
Charles the Fifth
and Isabella were for-
gotten. The transi-
tion was magical ; they
felt at once trans-
ported into other
times, and were tread-
ing the scenes of the
Arabian Nights. They
were in the Court of
Myrtles, a long, open
patio (7), of which
the floor is taken up
by an immense basin,
more than a hundred
feet long, bordered by
myrtle-trees and roses.
It is surrounded by
a light arcade of
Moorish columns, and
at the upper end
rises the great Tower
of Comares. (8) The
pillars here and else-
where are of extreme
lightness, and the or-
Pages
235 - 236
Missing
From
Original
THE ALHAMBRA, 237

namentation of the capital varies in each; slender arches spring
from the capitals, and bend gracefully till they meet. A dado of
azulejos, or colored tiles, runs along the wall, from the floor, of
brightest colors, with great variety of patterns. The eye is never
tired of following these designs, nor those of the arabesque work
above, into which are woven Arabic sentences, in the graceful let-
tering of that language. Across the water is seen the vista made
by the entrance to the Hall of Ambassadors (9), the chief room of
the Tower of Comares. The tower and its colonnades are reflected
in the clear still water of the pool.

“Oh, how lovely !” exclaimed Miss Lejeune. “This surpasses all
my dreams of it.”

“Let us stay here, and not go any further to-day!” said Bessie.

Tommy was well content to study the goldfish in the clear
water, rather startled, as he leaned over, to catch the perfect reflec-
tion of his own face on the surface of the pool, with behind it
an intensely blue sky studded with woolly white clouds. He looked
up instinctively, and saw above’ the graceful fretwork of the court,
the real bright sky and clouds, just like the mirrored ones _

“Our guide apparently expects us to move on,” remarked Mr.
Horner. “We can let him gallop us through once, and then come
at our leisure as often as we like.”

“Not gallop us, papa,” said Bessie, taking hold of his hand,
“a quiet little trot will satisfy him.”

They were led into the Court of Lions (10), where. Bessie was at
once in love with the somewhat clumsy animals of Arab origin,
that form the group of the fountain in the centre.

“J must embrace this one!” she cried, and did so, to Tommy’s
disgust and mortification. He looked round to see if there were
any observers.

These lions must not be looked at as efforts of sculpture to
represent accurately the king of beasts, but as emblems of strength
and courage. They are of white marble, with manes like the scales
of a griffin, and water comes from their mouths.

The hall of the Abencerrages (11) leads from the Court of Lions.
238 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

Its name comes from the legend that Boabdil, the last king of
Granada, invited the chiefs of this line to a banquet, and had
them taken out, one by one, after the feast, through a _ small
wicket, to the fountain of the Court of Lions, where they were
beheaded ; a massacre which contributed to his ruin, as they were
the main support of his kingdom, and had helped to put him on
his throne. The stains of their blood are still pointed out.

“Does not that shake your faith in Boabdil, Bessie?” asked her
father, when they were listening to this tale of the guide.

“I do not believe a word of it!” said Bessie indignantly.
“Boabdil would not have been such a fool, and I have great —
doubts as to the existence of the Abencerrages!”

The guide, however, to enforce the story, told how there was
often heard at night, in the Court of Lions, a. low, confused
murmur, with the distant clanking of chains. .

The Abencerrages were a family or faction said to hold a_promi+
nent position in the Moorish kingdom of Granada in the thirteenth
century. The name. appears to have been derived from one Yussuf
ben Serragh, the head of the tribe in the time of Mohammed the
Seventh, who did that sovereign good service in his struggles to
retain the crown of which he was three times deprived. Nothing
is known of the family with certainty, but the name is familiar in
romance.

On the opposite side of the Court is the Hall of the Two
Sisters (14), paved with white marble and beautifully incrusted
with tiles. It leads to the Mirador of Lindaraxa, a smaller room,
containing a window with a double Moorish arch which opens upon
a patio full of orange-trees. The bright sunlight glanced upon the
ripe fruit and shining leaves without, and the arabesque work
framed the scene like a picture. This was one of the women’s
apartments. The name is from two marble slabs of equal size in
the pavement, which are called the Two Sisters.

Another room leading from the Court of Lions (12) contained
some strange pictures, painted on the ceiling, which interested both
Bessie and Miss Lejeune. It is a question how they come to be
Pages
239 - 240
Missing

From
Original
THE ALHAMBRA. 241

there, and who painted them, for the Moors were forbidden by the
Koran to represent living subjects. A French writer imagines that
John Van Eyck went to the Alhambra in 1428, and that he
painted for the Moorish kings. The subjects are singular, and
hard to make out, especially as they could only be seen in a
very uncomfortable position for the head.

Bessie liked to imagine that a Caliph had employed some great
Christian artist to come and paint for him; perhaps even a Bel-,
lini, from Venice; but Miss Lejeune pronounced the work to be
of later date, and more likely after the conquest of the Moors.

‘The two stayed so long that they found themselves alone, and
hastened to regain the others, who had retraced their steps through
the Myrtle Court to the Hall of the Ambassadors.

This is the largest in the Alhambra, and occupies all the Tower
of Comares. It is a great square room, high to the centre of the
dome. It was the grand reception room, and the throne of the
Caliph was placed opposite the entrance. Now, like all the other
rooms, it is bare; the imagination has to furnish them all with
thrones, divans, and rich couches and cushions, as well as with little
feminine trifles for the niches, such as vases, and. trinkets.

The walls are so thick that the windows. make deep recesses,
from which are lovely views across the Vega, and towards the
other buildings of the enclosure. It is from one of these windows
that Ayeshah, the mother of Boabdil, is said to have lowered him
in a basket to save his life.

The little group stood in the middle of the hall, listening to the
guide’s explanations. When he turned, however, to lead them
further, Bessie sat resolutely down in the embrasure of a window,
saying:

“I can no more! I have seen enough for. one time; my
head is bewildered, my legs are tired,” —

“And you are hungry!” finished her father, taking out his
watch. “I suspect that is the case with all of us, and that we
have done enough for once. Ah, yes; high noon, and high time .
for almuerzo.”
242 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

And so they explained their wishes to the guide, who, accus-
tomed to driving a swarm of visitors before him, as flies are
urged on by a whisk, was amazed, and fancied they were bored ;
he began a sort of an apology for the nature of the entertain-
ment.

“Tt is because we enjoy it so much that we want to keep the
rest for another time,” said Miss Lejeune, in elegant Castilian.

Either the Castilian, or the sentiment, was not fully understood by
the man, who still appeared downcast; but he understood a peseta
which Mr. Horner put in his hand, and consented to show them
the shortest way out.

The sun glared bright on the plaza, but the shady road
outside the walls was cool and perfumed, and a few steps brought
them to the hotel.


MORE OF THE ALHAMBRA. 243

CHAPTER XXVIII.

MORE OF THE ALHAMBRA,

HE ground the Horners had been over that morning in-

cluded the greater part of the palace of the Alhambra ; there was

still left the suite of rooms devoted to the bath by the Moorish pos-

sessors of the place (13). It contains preparations for every luxury

connected with bathing; raised niches for couches, with cushions,

fountains, balconies for music, which they enjoyed after the bath,
and baths themselves, of white marble.

Day after day the Horners visited the palace. It became their habit
to meet in the Court of Lions after their sketching or exploring in
other places was over. There was nothing to prevent Bessie from
wandering by herself all over the pile of buildings, and this she
greatly enjoyed, though sometimes a little puzzled by the windings
she discovered in the lower regions, underneath the Tower of
Comares, where there are some long dark passages. She loved to
sit in the small garden of Linderaxa, shut in on all sides by col-
umns and walls. It is full of orange-trees, the same that are seen
from the Mirador of Linderaxa, and in the middle of them is a
fountain. Here she liked to bring Irving’s Alhambra; it was
just the place to read his legends of its first inhabitants. She
only wished that he had recorded, or invented, more of them; for
every nook suggests a mystery. Who was Linderaxa for whom the
beautiful mirador was named, and who used to wander in the little
garden, and what was her fate? Did she live and die happy, or
did she pine away?

‘Bessie envied the experiences of Mr. Irving, who lived in rooms
actually within the palace precincts. He had the place all to him-
self, and learned to know it before the great band of tourists had
244 A FaMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

invaded the spot, or guide-books, with their convenient gossip, laid
bare the secrets of the Alhambra. But she had the consolation of
knowing that it is now in far better condition than in Irving's
time.

Early in the century, the Alhambra was in a state of ruin, from
neglect. The governor's wife kept
her donkey in the chapel, and used
one of the patios for a sheep-pen.
‘Afterwards the place was turned
into barracks, and the blue and
white pavements of the courts
were torn up. The French, in
1812, ruined the towers and blew
up several of them, among others
the beautiful Siete Suelos, in order
that the Alhambra might be use-
less thereafter as a fortress, and car-
ried off all that was portable within
the walls,

In those days the Court of Lions
was encumbered with rubbish. The
animals were tumbled down on the
ground. It was a woman named
Tia Antonia, described by Irving,
who restored it. She was permitted
to make a living by showing the
gardens, and she set the lions on
their legs, cleared away the rubbish,
and did her best to make improve- |
ments. In spite of her efforts,
and some trifling restorations by
authorities, neglect ruled. Several
slight earthquakes added to the ruin. At length, in 1862, Queen
Isabella the Second, mother of the present king, who was herself then
on the throne, made a visit to Granada, and shocked, we may suppose,



ENTRANCE TO HALL OF AMBASSADORS.
MORE OF THE ALHAMBRA. 245

at the discreditable condition of the greatest glory of her kingdom,
she commissioned Sefior Contreras, a gentleman of learning and ability,
to repair the palace of the Moorish kings, beginning at her own ex-
pense. He lives on the spot, and is still at work, gradually restor-
ing here and there, with great taste and judgment, the different
halls, reproducing the original design where it was lost, but never
making new innovations. His work has the fault, perhaps, of look-
ing too fresh and modern, but this cannot be avoided; and there is
so much of the old left that the two help each other, and work
together to give a true impression of the ancient Alhambra.

Another of Bessie’s favorite retreats was the Mirador de la Reina
(15), which is reached by a long corridor from the Hall of Am-
bassadors. It contains the prettiest little tocador imaginable, with
arched windows on all sides, as open as a summer house, with
superb views; for here the bluff is very steep, and falls off to the
valley of the river. TZocador means dressing-room; the guide called
it in his rudimentary English, “combing-house,” and Bessie and
Tommy always spoke of it as the combing-house. It is not more
than nine feet square; in one corner is a marble slab drilled with
holes, through which perfumes used to be wafted up from below
during the toilet of the sultana.

This pretty little place is said to have been refitted by Italian
artists in the early part of the last century, when Philip the Fifth,
the Bourbon, brought his queen, Isabella of Parma, to the Alhambra.
This brilliant royal party brought back a transient gayety and
loveliness to the scene; since then its courts have been silent
and deserted by royalty.

From the narrow balcony which: surrounds the combing-house,
the palace and gardens of the Generalife are seen. Between them
and the Alhambra is a narrow gorge. The children found that by
scrambling down from a gate below the tower of Comares, they
reached a path leading along the walls on the outside quite
around the fortifications, by which they could regain the road
leading down from the Generalife to their hotel. The path was
rough, and furrowed by channels, where, in rainy weather, . streams
246



A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

EL MIRADOR DE LA REINA.

oy;
must pour through.

It was chiefly fre-
quented by gypsies
passing up from
their quarter, flocks
of sheep, or little
parties of donkeys ;
but the steep sides
of the gorge were
sprinkled with wild
flowers, and _ the
yellow red walls of
the fortress rose
high, with here and
there a square tower,
overshadowed by
trees growing within
the enclosure, which
at this end is a
deserted, uncultiva-
ted field overrun
with weeds, though
pomegranates strug-
gle up uncared for,
covered with their
gorgeous scarlet
blossoms. One of
these square towers
is the Torre de las
MORE OF THE ALHAMBRA. 247

Infantas, once the residence of Moorish princesses, and the scene
of Irving’s pretty tale about Zohra, Zorayda, and Zorahayda. Sefio
Contreras has recently been restoring its mosaics, arabesques, and
azulejos. He has made a spick and span new little Moorish
retreat of it, which might make one long to be a Mbvoris”
princess, with all the modern improvements.

An arch over the children’s favorite path, built by Charles the Fifth,
is modern, and has not the Moorish curve. It is now overgrown with
ivy, and is crumbling in parts, so that it has as much the air of
antiquity as the rest. It is said that Charles the Fifth abandoned
his palace-on account of the earthquakes which visited it from
time to time.

“Those earthquakes that frightened Charles the Fifth, were only
Boabdil shaking the ground from beneath,” said Bessie, “to drive him
off When the Moors return, they do not wish to find Christian
architecture usurping the place of their palaces.”

The legend says that when the Moors were driven out of Gra-
nada, only phantoms vanished in ships over the sea to Morocco. The
real ones were swallowed up in the mountain upon which the Al-
hambra stands, and there they sit, in silent state, awaiting the
restoration of their kingdom.

“Is it not comforting to think of them down there now?” said
Bessie.

“Is there any telephonic communication, do you think, between
them and Barbarossa in his mountain?” asked her father.

“Communication, but not telephonic,” replied Bessie, readily accept-
ing his question. “The ravens carry messages to the storks, and
so they hear twice a year, when the storks pass over and back.
It is not so swift as the telegraph, but they hear often enough,
as there is nothing much to tell.”

The Siete Suelos, one of the prettiest bits of ruin, has its legend
also, according to which, underneath it sit two Moors guarding a
heavy coffer full of Arabic coins and rich jewels. This tower, as
has been said, is just opposite or behind the two hotels. The
other little towers (17, etc.) upon the battlements, are in process of
248 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

restoration by Sefior Contreras, and contain the same beautiful ara-
besque and mosaics. :

The favorite resort at sunset is the Torre de la Vela, reached by
passing through the gateway of the Alcazaba (5), and along a brick-
laid garden walk upon the lofty terrace called the Adarves, laid
out upon the line of bastions; a sheer descent into the valley be-
low. This narrow terrace is planted with roses, jasamine, magnolia,
and all manner of garden flowers. The platform at the foot of the
Torre de la Vela is a mass of brilliant geraniums; many vines,
one with pale blue blossoms, cling to the walls.

The panorama from the top of this tower is glorious. Below lies
Granada, and beyond it stretches the vega, thirty miles in extent,
and hemmed in by a wall of mountains in every direction. It is
scattered over with villages; every foot of its soil has its battle
and its ballad.

The Torre de la Vela, or Watch Tower, is so called because
here hangs a bell intended to be struck once every five minutes,
from nine in the evening until four in the morning. The bell is
also rung on the second of January, the anniversary of the day,
1492, when the Christian flag was first unfurled by Cardinal
Mendoza, after the surrender of Granada.

At sunset the snowy tops of the Sierra glow with warm tints ;
darkness slowly creeps over the plain, and it the mo n is full, the
effect is wonderful. One evening, careless of dinner, our party
lingered to watch the fading of daylight, and afterwards went back
to the Court of Lions, to get the effect of moonlight among the
arches of the Alhambra. They had to wait a long time for the
moon to be high enough in the heavens to throw any light down
upon the courts. The darkness was vague and mysterious. They
sat. upon the low steps of the courtyard, leaning against the
slender pillars; talked in low ‘voices, of the Moors, and their
shadows, which might be moving about them.

Suddenly a shaft of light shot across the patio. The moon had
climbed the wall, and soon its yellow light flooded the opening,
and made sharp-cut shadows upon the pavement.
THE GENERALIFE, 249

CHAPTER XXIX,
THE GENERALIFE.

URING the rest of their stay, the Horners felt very learned
as to the situation of the different places of interest about
the Alhambra, and could find their way about without any guide,
They had procured a general permission to wander: over the
gardens of the Generalife, and here soon Bessie and Tommy
established a habit of spending the morning. Tommy missed
Hubert so much, that his usual high spirits forsook him for a
time; instead of forming his own plans, and disappearing from
the family to carry them out, as he used to when Hubert was
on hand to share them, he stuck close ta Bessie, who, indeed,
was very glad of the change from Fanny Vaughan, who had
proved a dull and listless child, to Tom, always wide awake,
and an entertaining companion. The brother and sister, in fact,
were now becoming intimate for the first time; for Tom had taken
the sudden jump from a little boy, petted and laughed at, to a
manly fellow with opinions to be respected. The absence of Philip,
like taking a weight off a growing plant, made him shoot up inde-
pendently, He was already almost as tall as Bessie.

A road from the Siete Suelos, turning off near the beautiful
arch of Charles the Fifth, leads to the palace and gardens of the
Generalife. They belong to the Marquis of Campotejar, better
known as one of the Grimaldi Pallavicini of Genoa, a Moorish
race, descended from an uncle of Boabdil, Cidi Aya, who became
a Christian, and was then called Don Pedro; to him the Gener-
alife was given at the time of the conquest of Granada. Thus
it is that Boabdil’s sword is in the possession of the family.
, 250 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

Probably none of the present members of it have ever seen their
lovely estate in Granada. They possess several splendid palaces in
Italy, but none can_ rival, for romantic association and lofty
position, their Spanish castle.

The long garden walks are lined with oleanders, tall cypress-trees,
and hedges of myrtle. .Through these the entrance is reached, a
door in a blank wall, which leads into a patio with a garden,
through which a canal flows under evergreen arches, formed by yews
twisted and cut into odd patterns. A long gallery with slender pil-
lars and arches runs along the left, from which the Alhambra is
seen, close at hand, across the deep ravine. The gardens of the
Generalife are a series of terraces. By broad steps, one plateau
after another is reached, up to the highest point where a mirador
crowns the slopes. The view is very wide. The whole ground-plan
of the Alhambra fortress can here best be seen and understood, and
the marvellous range of the snow-capped Sierra Nevada. The Court
of Cypresses forms a part of one of the terraces. It is square,
with a pond in the centre, surrounded by hedges of roses, and a
row of immensely tall cypresses, one of them called the Cypress of
the Sultana; said to have been two centuries old in the time of
Boabdil. The trellised grapevines also date back to the time of
the Moorish kings, as their stems, thick like a tree, readily suggest.

In the house the ornamentation is almost hidden by whitewash.
There are some pictures in the principal hall, interesting histor-
ically, not as works of art. Among them hangs the portrait of
Boabdil, el Rey Chico, with a fair face and gentle expression. Bessie
looked long at this picture every time she entered the place. His
uncle is much fiercer looking, from whom the present proprietor
is descended. Ferdinand and Isabella are there, and Gonsalvo,
the Gran Capitan.

From this mirador a little gate opens upon the wild hillside,
and the children often scrambled up, still higher, to the Silla del
Moro. It is but a stone’s throw, and there is a kind of path. The
view is magnificent; straight down the valley of the Darro, appar-
ently uninhabited, but in reality peopled with gypsies. They live in


CYPRESS WALK IN THE GENERALIFE.

THE GENERALIFE. ia 258

caves underground, and nothing is visible of their populous suburb
but a luxurious jungle of prickly pears and other shrubs.

The odd name Generalife is Arabic, and means “the garden of
the architect.”

Only one portion of the Alhambra now remained unexplored —
‘the Torres Vermejas, or Vermilion Towers, which are even a little
redder in color than the rest. All the walls and towers take
their color from the ruddy soil; they are made of a combination
of flint, earth and lime, called chinarro, which bakes in the sun to
the hardness of stone.

These towers (1) stand apart from the enclosure of the Alham-
bra, upon a hill of their own, a little lower than the level of the
adawes, from which people can be seen walking about upon the flat
roofs which form a sort of terrace on top. This is the most
ancient portion of Granada. It is mentioned by an Arabian poet of
the middle century, as the Red Castle. Its long line of walls
crown the hill and follow the curves and dips of the ground most
gracefully. :

After all, the wooded slopes of the approach to the Alhambra
lend it one of its chiefest charms. They are kept green by the
flowing channels of water, and kept alive by the song of many
birds.

Wild as the spot may seem, it is yet the result of man’s work,
for it was the Moors who brought the streams, and changed the
barren rock to this verdant retreat. The elm-trees were sent from
England, 1812, to the governor of the Alhambra, as a present.
They flourish well in the richly watered soil, although so unlike
the trees which are native to it.

A couple of weeks slipped away like a flash in the enjoyment
of this wonderful place, and Miss Lejeune and Bessie had not once
descended so far as the Gate of the Entrance to the city of Granada.
Mr. Horner had faithfully gone down at due intervals to visit the
banker for letters, and he reported always on his return, strange
sights he had seen, and hinted that these must not be neglected
by the rest of the party. But Miss Augusta was too comfortable
254 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

to lend an ear to this sort of talk. She was now leading pre-
cisely the life she enjoyed the most.
“What I like best in travelling,’—she began one day to state —
“Is not to travel,” suggested Mr. Horner, who was sitting



GLARING GRANADA.

fanning himself, and looking overwarm after a rapid walk through
the glaring streets of the city. His hands were full of letters and
newspapers, and he had just been saying to his assembled family,
THE GENERALIFE. 255

that they really must go with him the next time, and go through
the Cathedral and other places.

— “is,” resumed Miss Lejeune, scorning the interruption, “to be
somewhere where there is enough to enjoy without going after it.
Some people are chasing continually after the sights in a foreign
town, and they are so tired after about a week of it that they
do not know whether they are looking at a church or a Raphael.”























GYPSY QUARTER.

“Do you think, aunt Dut, that even here we are quite near enough
to the Alhambra?” asked Bessie. “Would it not be better if the
Court of Lions was down below here under your window?”

“I think it would be better if we were actually in the enclos-
ure; in a Casa de Huespedes. It would be lovely to stay there,
and if I ever come again, that is what I shall do.”

“When you and Mary come, you can have rooms in the house
where the crazy man lives,” said Tommy.

He referred to a mild, melancholy man whom they had met
first wandering about the gypsy quarter; an American, who had
accosted them when he heard them speaking English. He said
he had been living there nearly a year, in a room which he
256 A FAMILY FLIGHT THROUGH SPAIN.

hired not far from the palace, and within the walls. It was in a
pretty little house at the end of a garden walk overhung with
grapevine on an arched trellis, and his house-mates were a cat
and a dog, and a friendly old sefiora, his landlady, who made
him comfortable, and chatted with him in Spanish, which he
knew from living many years in South America. Beyond this. his
society was limited to chance acquaintances like the Horners, and
they did not encourage him much, as subjects were few in com-
mon, and he was of a gloomy turn of mind.

When they had nothing better to talk about among themselves,
they speculated upon his probable past, and imagined all sorts of
reasons why he lived all by himself under the shadow of the tower
of Comares.

“Perhaps he is digging for treasure,’ said Tommy.

“Perhaps he is a descendant of the Abencerrages,” said Bessie.

He: looked much more like a descendant of the Puritans, with a
decidedly Yankee build and accent, in spite of a black beard, and
a sombrero and manta such as the Spaniards wear.

Mr. Horner’s private opinion was, that some slight mrealeranie
ing with a parental government made it safer for him to avoid his
native land, and to seek, perhaps, a place of some obscurity; but he
did not think it worth while to express these views.

One day while they were having early coffee in the dining-
room, the waiters told them with some excitement, that a man had
been found dead that morning in the thicket below the Siete
Suelos. A pistol-shot had been heard even at the distance of the
hotel; and as a- pistol was found lying near the body, it was
supposed he had killed himself.

“Tt must be our crazy man!” exclaimed Bessie, “he was trying
to get into the Treasure Vault. of the Moors.”

“Nonsense, Bessie!” said her father, rather sharply. “I must go,
and see about the matter,”

As a fellow citizen, he felt it a point of duty to interest him-
self in the case.

On arriving at the spot where the victim of the accident was
YHE GENERALIFE, 257

still lying, Mr. Horner was relieved to find that he did not
recognize in him their man. He saw the body of a young Span-
iard quite unknown to him. It was soon recognized by the
authorities as that of a vagabond youth who for some time had
been restlessly wandering about the grounds, and who had _proba-
bly shot himself. But oddly enough, their American had disap-
peared. They never saw him again.

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xml record header identifier oai:www.uflib.ufl.edu.ufdc:UF0008901700001datestamp 2008-12-11setSpec [UFDC_OAI_SET]metadata oai_dc:dc xmlns:oai_dc http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc xmlns:dc http:purl.orgdcelements1.1 xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc.xsd dc:title Young Americans in Spain Family flight through Spaindc:creator Hale, Susan, 1833-1910dc:subject Children -- Conduct of life -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )Conduct of life -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )Natural history -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )Rivers -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )Family -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )Kings and rulers -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )Street life -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )Description and travel -- Juvenile fiction -- Spain ( lcsh )Family stories -- 1899 ( local )Travelogue storybooks -- 1899 ( local )Publishers' advertisements -- 1899 ( rbgenr )Bldn -- 1899dc:description b Statement of Responsibility by Susan Hale ; fully illustrated.An abbreviated edition of the author's A family flight through Spain.Frontispiece printed in colors.Publisher's advertisements tipped in following text.dc:publisher Lothrop Publishing Companydc:date c1899dc:type Bookdc:format 257 p., 1 leaf of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 24 cm.dc:identifier http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc/?b=UF00089017&v=00001002223618 (aleph)06096810 (oclc)ALG3869 (notis)99001690 (lccn)dc:source University of Floridadc:language Englishdc:coverage United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston