Through the looking-glass, and what Alice found there


Material Information

Through the looking-glass, and what Alice found there
Uniform Title:
Through the looking-glass
Physical Description:
192 p. : col. ill. ; 17 cm.
Carroll, Lewis, 1832-1898
Tenniel, John, 1820-1914 ( Illustrator )
McKibbin, Gilbert H ( Publisher )
Manhattan Press ( Publisher )
Gilbert H. McKibbin
Place of Publication:
New York
Manhattan Press
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Alice (Fictitious character : Carroll) -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Children -- Conduct of life -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Conduct of life -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Adventure and adventurers -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary places -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Fantasy -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imagination -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Curiosity -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Dreams -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Illusion (Philosophy) -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Wit and humor, Juvenile -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Queens -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Chess -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Animals -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Portmanteau words -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Fantasy literature -- 1899   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1899
Fantasy literature   ( rbgenr )
novel   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- New York -- New York


Statement of Responsibility:
by Lewis Carroll ; with illustrations in colors.
General Note:
With Tenniel's illustrations, in color.
General Note:
Bound in maroon cloth with an illustration of Alice and a deer on front; cover title in silver.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002223500
notis - ALG3749
oclc - 245039308
System ID:

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Full Text

A; 'VI

Wl"I Ilk 1



. . . . .









Printed by the Manhattan Press,
474 '. Broadway, New York


Child of the pure unclouded brow
And dreaming eyes of wonder!
Though time be fleet, and I and thou
Are half a life asunder,
Thy loving smile will surely hail
The love-gift of a fairy-tale.
I have not seen thy sunny face,
Nor heard thy silver laughter;
No thought of me shall find a place
In thy young life's hereafter-
Enough that now thou wilt not fail
To listen to my fairy-tale.

A tale begun in other days,
When summer suns were glowing-
A simple chime, that served to time
The rhythm of our rowing-
Whose echoes live in memory yet,
Though envious years would say "forget."

Come, hearken then, ere voice of dread,
With bitter tidings laden,


Shall summon to unwelcome bed
A melancholy maiden!
We are but older children, dear,
Who fret to find our bedtime near.
Without, the frost, the blinding snow,
The storm-wind's moody madness-
Within, the firelight's ruddy glow
And childhood's nest of gladness,
The magic words shall hold thee fast:
Thou shalt not heed the raving blast.
And though the shadow of a sigh
May tremble through the story,
For "happy summer days" gone by,
And vanish'd summer glory-
It shall not touch with breath of bale,
The pleasance of our fairy-tale.

7. //. .




ONE thing was certain, that the white kitten had
had nothing to do with it:-it was the black kitten's
fault entirely. For the white kitten had been hav-
ing its face washed by the old cat for the last quarter
of an hour (and bearing it pretty well, considering);
so you see that it couldn't have had any hand in
the mischief.


The way Dinah washed her children's faces was
this: first she held the poor thing down by its ear
with one paw, and then with the other paw she
rubbed its face all over, the wrong way, beginning
at the nose: and just now, as I said, she was hard
at work on the white kitten, which was lying quite
still and trying to purr-no doubt feeling that it
was all meant for its good.
But the black kitten had been finished with
earlier in the afternoon, and so, while Alice was
sitting curled up in a corner of the great arm-chair,
half talking to herself and half asleep, the kitten
had been having a grand game of romps with the
ball of worsted Alice had been trying to wind up,
and had been rolling it up and down till it had all
come undone again, and there it was, spread over
the hearth-rug, all knots and tangles, with the
kitten running after its own tail in the middle.
"Oh, you wicked, wicked little thing!" cried
Alice, catching up the kitten and giving it a little
kiss to make it understand that it was in disgrace.
"Really, Dinah ought to have taught you better
manners! You ought, Dinah, you know you
ought!" she added, looking reproachfully at the
old cat, and speaking in as cross a voice as she
could manage-and then she scrambled back into


the arm-chair, taking the kitten and the worsted
with her, and began winding up the ball again.
But she didn't get on very fast, as she was talking
all the time, sometimes to the kitten, and some-
times to herself. Kitty sat very demurely on her
knee, pretending to watch the progress of the wind-
ing, and now and then putting out one paw and
gently touching the ball, as if it would be glad to
help if it might.
"Do you know what to-morrow is, Kitty? Alice
began. You'd have guessed if you'd been up in
the window with me-only Dinah was making you
tidy, so you couldn't. I was watching the boys
getting in sticks for the bonfire-and it wants
plenty of sticks, Kitty! Only it got so cold, and it
snowed so, they had to leave off. Never mind,
Kitty, we'll go and see the bonfire to-morrow."
Here Alice wound two or three turns of the worsted
round the kitten's neck, just to see how it would
look: this led to a scramble, in which the ball rolled
down upon the floor, and yards and yards of it got
unwound again.
"Do you know, I was so angry, Kitty," Alice
went on, as soon as they were comfortably settled
again, "when I saw all the mischief you had been
doing, I was very nearly opening the window and


putting you out into the snow! And you'd have
deserved it, you little mischievous darling! What
have you got to say for yourself? Now don't inter-
rupt me!" she went on, holding up one finger.
"I'm going to tell you all your faults. Number
one: you squeaked twice while Dinah was washing
your face this morning. Now you can't deny it,
Kitty: I heard you! What's that you say? (pre-
tending that the kitten was speaking). "Her paw
went into your eye? Well, that's your fault, for
keeping your eyes open-if you'd shut them tight
up, it wouldn't have happened. Now don't make
any more excuses, but listen! Number two: you
pulled Snowdrop away by the tail just as I had put
down the saucer of milk before her! What, you
were thirsty, were you? How do you know she
wasn't thirsty too? Now for number three: you
unwound every bit of the worsted while I wasn't
"That's three faults, Kitty, and you've not been
punished for any of them yet. You know I'm sav-
ing up all your punishments for Wednesday week.
Suppose they had saved up all my punishments!"
she went on, talking more to herself than the
kitten. What would they do at the end of a year?
I should be sent to prison, I suppose, when the day


came. Or-let me see-suppose each punishment
was to be going without a dinner: then when the
miserable day came, I should have to go without
fifty dinners at once! Well, I shouldn't mind that
much! I'd far rather go without them than eat
"Do you hear the snow against the window-
panes, Kitty? How nice and soft it sounds! Just
as if some one was kissing the window all over out-
side. I wonder if the snow loves the trees and
fields, that it kisses them so gently? .And then it
covers them up snug, you know, with a white quilt;
and perhaps it says, Go to sleep, darlings, till the
summer comes again.' And when they wake up in
the summer, Kitty, they dress themselves all in
green, and dance about-whenever the wind blows
-oh, that's very pretty! cried Alice, dropping the
ball of worsted to clap her hands. "And I do so
wish it was true! I'm sure the woods look sleepy
in the autumn, when the leaves are getting brown.
"Kitty, can you play chess? Now, don't smile,
my dear, I'm asking it seriously. Because, when
we were playing just now, you watched just as if
you understood it: and when I said 'Check!' you
purred! Well, it was a nice check, Kitty, and
really, I might have won, if it hadn't been for that


nasty Knight, that came wriggling down among
my pieces. Kitty, dear, let's pretend--" And
here I wish I could tell you half the things Alice
used to say, beginning with her favorite phrase
"Let's pretend." She had had quite a long argu-
ment with her sister only the day before-all be-
cause Alice had begun with "Let's pretend we're
kings and queens;" and her sister, who liked being
very exact, had argued that they couldn't, because
there were only two of them, and Alice had been
reduced at last to say, "Well, you can be one of
them then, and I'll be all the rest." And once she
had really frightened her old nurse by shouting sud-
denly in her ear: "Nurse! Do let's pretend that
I'm a hungry hyeena, and you're a bone."
But this is taking us away from Alice's speech to
the kitten. "Let's pretend that you're the Red
Queen, Kitty! Do you know, I think if you sat up
and folded your arms, you'd look exactly like her.
Now do try, there's a dear!" And Alice got the
Red Queen off the table, and set it up before the
kitten as a model for it to imitate: however, the
thing didn't succeed, principally, Alice said, because
the kitten wouldn't fold its arms properly. So, to
punish it, she held it up to the Looking-glass that
it might see how sulky it was--"and if you're not


good directly," she added, "I'll put you through
into Looking-glass House. How would you like
"Now, if you'll only attend, Kitty, and not talk
so much, I'll tell you all my ideas about Looking-
glass House. First, there's the room you can see
through the glass-that's just the same as our
drawing-room, only the things go the other way.
I can see all of it when I get upon a chair-all but
the bit just behind the fireplace. Oh! I do so wish
I could see that bit! I want so much to know
whether they've a fire in the winter: you never can
tell, you know, unless our fire smokes, and then
smoke comes up in that room too-but that may be
only pretence, just to make it look as if they had a
fire. Well, then, the books are something like our
books, only the words go the wrong way; I know
that, because I've held up one of our books to the
glass, and then they hold up one in the other room.
"How would you like to live in Looking-glass
House, Kitty? I wonder if they'd give you milk
in there? Perhaps Looking-glass milk isn't good
to drink-But oh, Kitty! now we come to the pas-
sage. You can just see a little peep of the passage
in Looking-glass House, if you leave the door of our
drawing-room wide open: and it's very like our


passage as far as you can see, only you know it
may be quite different on beyond. Oh, Kitty! how
nice it would be if we could only get through into
Looking-glass House! I'm sure it's got, oh! such
beautiful things in it! Let's pretend there's a way
of getting through into it, somehow, Kitty. Let's
pretend the glass has got all soft like gauze, so that
we can get through. Why, it's turning into a sort
of mist now, I declare! It'll be easy enough to get
through--" She was up on the chimney-piece
while she said this, though she hardly knew how
she had got there. And certainly the glass was
beginning to melt away, just like a bright silvery
In another moment Alice was through the glass,
and had jumped lightly down into the Looking-
glass room. The very first thing she did was to
look whether there was a fire in the fireplace, and
she was quite pleased to find that there was a real
one, blazing away as brightly as the one she had
left behind. "So I shall be as warm here as I was
in the old room," thought Alice: "warmer, in fact,
because there'll be no one here to scold me away
from the fire. Oh, what fun it'll be, when they see
me through the glass in here, and can't get at me! "
Then she began looking about, and noticed that


what could be seen from the old room was quite
common and uninteresting, but that all the rest was
as different as possible. For instance, the pictures
on the wall next the fire seemed to be all alive, and
the very clock on the chimney-piece (you know you
can only see the back of it in the Looking-glass)
had got the face of a little old man, and grinned at
"They don't keep this room so tidy as the other,"
Alice thought to herself, as she noticed several of
the chessmen down in the hearth among the cin-
ders: but in another moment, with a little "Oh!"
of surprise, she was down on her hands and knees
watching them. The chessmen were walking about
two and two!
"Here are the Red King and the Red Queen,"
Alice said (in a whisper, for fear of frightening
them), "and there are the White King and the
White Queen sitting on the edge of the shovel-and
here are two Castles walking arm in arm-I don't
think they can hear me," she went on as she put
her head closer down, "and I'm nearly sure they
can't see me. I feel somehow as if I were in-
visible "
Here something began squeaking on the table
behind Alice, and made her turn her head just in


time to see one of the White Pawns roll over and
begin kicking: she watched it with great curiosity
to see what would happen next.
"It is the voice of my child! the White Queen
cried out, as she rushed past the King, so violently
that she knocked him over among the cinders.
"My precious Lily! My imperial kitten! and she
began scrambling wildly up the side of the fender.
"Imperial fiddlestick!" said the King, rubbing
his nose, which had been hurt by the fall. He had
a right to be a little annoyed with the Queen, for
he was covered with ashes from head to foot.
Alice was very anxious to be of use, and, as the
poor little Lily was nearly screaming herself into a
fit, she hastily picked up the Queen and set her on
the table by the side of her noisy little daughter.
The Queen gasped, and sat down: the rapid
journey through the air had quite taken away her
breath, and for a minute or two she could do noth-
ing but hug the little Lily in silence. As soon as
she had recovered her breath a little, she called out
to the White King, who was sitting sulkily among
the ashes, "Mind the volcano! "
What volcano?" said the King, looking up
anxiously into the fire, as if he thought that was
the most likely place to find one.


"Blew-me-up," panted the Queen, who was
still a little out of breath. "Mind you come up-
the regular way-don't get blown up!"

.. J i i,, ) .

S, ....'I -_

,-,.;j ,,/-

Alice watched the White King as he slowly
struggled up from bar to bar, till at last she said:
"Why, you'll be hours and hours getting to the


table, at that rate. I'd far better help you, hadn't
I? But the King took no notice of the question:
it was quite clear that he could neither hear her nor
see her.
So Alice picked him up very gently, and lifted
him across more slowly than she had lifted the
Queen, that she mightn't take his breath away:
but, before she put him on the table, she thought
she might as well dust him a little, he was so cov-
ered with ashes.
She said afterwards that she had never seen in all
her life such a face as the King made, when he
found himself held in the air by an invisible hand,
and being dusted: he was far too much astonished
to cry out, but his eyes and his mouth went on get-
ting larger and larger, and rounder and rounder,
till her hand shook so with laughing that she nearly
let him drop upon the floor.
"Oh! please don't make such faces, my dear!"
she cried out, quite forgetting that the King
couldn't hear her. "You make me laugh so that
I can hardly hold you! And don't keep your mouth
so wide open! All the ashes will get into it-there,
now I think you're tidy enough!" she added, as
she smoothed his hair, and set him upon the table
near the Queen.


The King immediately fell flat on his back, and
lay perfectly still: and Alice was a little alarmed
at what she had done, and went round the room to
see if she could find any water to throw over him.
However, she could find nothing but a bottle of ink,
and when she got back with it she found he had
recovered, and he and the Queen were talking to-
gether in a frightened whisper-so low, that Alice
could hardly hear what they said.
The King was saying, "I assure you, my dear, I
turned cold to the very ends of my whiskers!"
To which the Queen replied: "You haven't got
any whiskers."
"The horror of that moment," the King went on,
"I shall never, never forget! "
"You will though," the Queen said, "if you don't
make a memorandum of it."
Alice looked on with great interest as the King
took an enormous memorandum-book out of his
pocket, and began writing. A sudden thought
struck her, and she took hold of the end of the
pencil, which came some way over his shoulder, and
began writing for him.
The poor King looked puzzled and unhappy, and
struggled with the pencil for some time without
saying anything; but Alice was too strong for him,


and at last he panted out: "My dear! I really must
get a thinner pencil. I can't manage this one a
bit; it writes all manner of things that I don't
What manner of things? said the Queen, look-
ing over the book (in which Alice had put "The
White Knight is sliding down the poker. He bal-
ances very badly"). "That's not a memorandum
of your feelings! "
There was a book lying near Alice on the table,
and while she sat watching the White King (for
she was still a little anxious about him, and had the
ink all ready to throw over him, in case he fainted
again), she turned over the leaves to find some part
that she could read, "-for it's all in some language
I don't know," she said to herself.
It was like this:

.0mou ra dws Omm ,A%' Smk

9;3.11s 0 07 w3&w & SwhL
She puzzled over this for some time, but at last a
bright thought struck her. Why, it's a Looking-


glass book, of course! And if I hold it up to a
glass, the words will all go the right way again."
This was the poem that Alice read:

'Twas brillig, and the slithy toves
Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;

,i rj


', ",;'.. .. -: "

All mimsy were the borogoves,
And the mome raths outgrabe.


"Beware the Jabberwock, my son!
The jaws that bite, the claws that catch!
Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun
The frumious Bandersnatch! "

He took his vorpal sword in hand:
Long time the manxome foe he sought-
So rested he by the Tumtum tree,
And stood a while in thought.

And as in uffish thought he stood,
The Jabberwock, with eyes of flame,
Came whiffling through the tulgey wood,
And burbled as it came!

One, two! One, two! And through and through
The vorpal blade went snicker-snack!
He left it dead, and with its head
He went galumphing back.

"And hast thou slain the Jabberwock?
Come to my arms, my beamish boy!
O frabjous day! Callooh! Callay!"
He chortled in his joy.

'Twas brillig, and the slithy toves
Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;
All mimsy were the borogoves,
And the mome raths outgrabe.


"It seems very pretty," she said when she had
finished it, "but it's rather hard to understand!"
(You see she didn't like to confess, even to herself,
that she couldn't make it out at all.) "Somehow
it seems to fill my head with ideas-only I don't
exactly know what they are! However, somebody
killed something: that's clear, at any rate--"
"But oh! thought Alice, suddenly jumping up,
"if I don't make haste I shall have to go back
through the Looking-glass, before I've seen what
the rest of the house is like! Let's have a look at
the garden first!" She was out of the room in a
moment, and ran down-stairs-or, at least, it wasn't
exactly running, but a new invention for getting
down-stairs quickly and easily, as Alice said to her-
self. She just kept the tips of her fingers on the
hand-rail, and floated gently down without even
touching the stairs with her feet; then she floated
on through the hall, and would have gone straight
out at the door in the same way, if she hadn't
caught hold of the door-post. She was getting a
little giddy too with so much floating in the air, and
was rather glad to find herself walking again in the
natural way.




"I SHOULD see the garden far better," said Alice
to herself, "if I could get to the top of that hill:
and here's a path that leads straight to it-at least,
no it doesn't do that-" (after going a few yards
along the path, and turning several sharp corners),
"but I suppose it will at last. But how curiously
it twists! It's more like a corkscrew than a path!
Well, this turn goes to the hill, I suppose-no, it
doesn't! This goes straight back to the house!
Well then, I'll try it the other way."
And so she did: wandering up and down, and
trying turn after turn, but always coming back to
the house, do what she would. Indeed, once, when
she turned a corner rather more quickly than usual,
she ran against it before she could stop herself.
"It's no use talking about it," Alice said, looking
up at the house and pretending it was arguing with
her. "I'm not going in again, yet. I know I
should have to get through the Looking glass again
-back into the old room-and there would be an
end of all my adventures! "


So, resolutely turning her back upon the house,
she set out once more down the path, determined to
keep straight on till she got to the hill. For a few
minutes all went on well, and she was just saying,
"I really shall do it this time--" when the path
gave a sudden twist and shook itself (as she de-
scribed it afterwards), and the next moment she
found herself actually walking in at the door.
Oh, it's too bad she cried. I never saw such
a house for getting in the way! Never! "
However, there was the hill full in sight, so there
was nothing to be done but start again. This
time she came upon a large flower-bed, with a
border of daisies, and a willow-tree growing in the
"O Tiger-lily," said Alice, addressing herself to
one that was waving gracefully about in the wind,
"I wish you could talk!"
We can talk," said the Tiger-lily: "when there's
anybody worth talking to."
Alice was so astonished that she couldn't speak
for a minute: it quite seemed to take her breath
away. At length, as the Tiger-lily only went on
waving about, she spoke again, in a timid voice-
almost in a whisper. "And can all the flowers


"As well as you can," said the Tiger-lily, "and a
great deal louder."
"It isn't manners for us to begin, you know,"
said the Rose, "and I really was wondering when
you'd speak! Said I to myself, Her face has got
some sense in it, though it's not a clever one!'
Still, you're the right color, and that goes a long
"I don't care about the color," the Tiger-lily re-
marked. "If only her petals curled up a little
more, she'd be all right."
Alice didn't like being criticised, so she began ask-
ing questions. "Aren't you sometimes frightened
at being planted out here, with nobody to take care
of you?"
"There's the tree in the middle," said the Rose:
"what else is it good for?"
"But what could it do, if any danger came?"
Alice asked.
"It could bark," said the Rose.
"It says 'Bough-wough! '" cried a Daisy,
"that's why its branches are called boughs!"
"Didn't you know that?" cried another Daisy,
and here they all began shouting together, till the
air seemed quite full of little shrill voices. "Si-
lence, every one of you! cried the Tiger-lily, way-


ing itself passionately from side to side, and trem-
bling with excitement. They know I can't get at
them!" it panted, bending its quivering head
towards Alice, "or they wouldn't dare to do it!"
"Never mind! Alice said in a soothing tone, and
stooping down to the daisies, who were just begin-
ning again, she whispered, "If you don't hold your
tongues, I'll pick you! "
There was silence in a moment, and several of
the pink daisies turned white.
"That's right! said the Tiger-lily. "The daisies
are worst of all. When one speaks, they all begin
together, and it's enough to make one wither to
hear the way they go on! "
"How is it you can all talk so nicely?" Alice
said, hoping to get it into a better temper by a com-
pliment. "I've been in many gardens before, but
none of the flowers could talk."
"Put your hand down, and feel the ground," said
the Tiger-lily. "Then you'll know why."
Alice did so. "It's very hard," she said, "but I
don't see what that has to do with it."
"In most gardens," the Tiger-lily said, "they
make the beds too soft--so that the flowers are
always asleep."
This sounded a very good reason, and Alice was


quite pleased to know it. "I never thought of that
before! she said.
"It's my opinion that you never think at all,"
the Rose said in a rather severe tone.
"I never saw anybody that looked stupider," a
Violet said, so suddenly, that Alice quite jumped;
for it hadn't spoken before.
"Hold your tongue! cried the Tiger-lily. "As
if you ever saw anybody! You keep your head
under the leaves, and snore away there, till you
know no more what's going on in the world, than
if you were a bud! "
"Are there any more people in the garden besides
me?" Alice said, not choosing to notice the Rose's
last remark.
"There's one other flower in the garden that
can move about like you," said the Rose. "I
wonder how you do it--" (" You're always won-
dering," said the Tiger-lily), "but she's more bushy
than you are."
"Is she like me?" Alice asked eagerly, for the
thought crossed her mind, "There's another little
girl in the garden somewhere! "
"Well, she has the same awkward shape as you,"
the Rose said, "but she's redder-and her petals are
shorter, I think."


"Her petals are done up close, almost like a
dahlia," the Tiger-lily interrupted: "not tumbled
about anyhow, like yours."
"But that's not your fault," the Rose added
kindly: "you're beginning to fade, you know-and
then one can't help one's petals getting a little
Alice didn't like this idea at all: so, to change
the subject, she asked, "Does she ever come out
"I daresay you'll see her soon," said the Rose.
"She's one of the thorny kind."
Where does she wear the thorns?" Alice asked
with some curiosity.
Why, all round her head, of course," the Rose
replied. "I was wondering you hadn't got some
too. I thought it was the regular rule."
"She's coming!" cried the Larkspur. "I hear
her footstep, thump, thump, along the gravel-
walk! "
Alice looked round eagerly, and found that it was
the Red Queen. "She's grown a good deal! was
her first remark. She had indeed: when Alice first
found her in the ashes, she had been only three
inches high-and here she was, half a head taller
than Alice herself.


"It's the fresh air that does it," said the Rose:
"wonderfully fine air it is out here."
"I think I'll go and meet her," said Alice, for,
though the flowers were interesting enough, she
felt that it would be far grander to have a talk with
a real Queen.
You can't possibly do that," said the Rose: "I
should advise you to walk the other way."
This sounded nonsense to Alice, so she said noth-
ing, but set off at once towards the Red Queen. To
her surprise, she lost sight of her in a moment,
and found herself walking in at the front door
A little provoked, she drew back, and after look-
ing everywhere for the Queen (whom she spied out
at last a long way off), she thought she would
try the plan, this time, of walking in the opposite
It succeeded beautifully. She had not been walk-
ing a minute before she found herself face to face
with the Red Queen, and full in sight of the hill she
had been so long aiming at.
"Where do you come from?" said the Red
Queen. "And where are you going? Look up,
speak nicely, and don't twiddle your fingers all
the time."


Alice attended to all these directions, and ex-
plained, as well as she could, that she had lost her
"I don't know what you mean by your way,"
said the Queen: "all the ways about here belong to
me-but why did you come out here at all?" she
added in a kinder tone. "Curtsey while you're
thinking what to say. It saves time."
Alice wondered a little at this, but she was too
much in awe of the Queen to disbelieve it. "I'll
try it when I go home," she thought to herself,
"the next time I'm a little late for dinner."
"It's time for you to answer now," the Queen
said, looking at her watch: "open your mouth a
little wider when you speak, and always say, your
Majesty.' "
"I only wanted to see what the garden was like,
your Majesty--"
"That's right," said the Queen, patting her on
the head, which Alice didn't like at all; "though,
when you say 'garden,'-I've seen gardens, com-
pared with which this would be a wilderness."
Alice didn't dare to argue the point, but went
on: "-and I thought I'd try and find my way to
the top of that hill--"
"When you say 'hill,'" the Queen interrupted,


"I could show you hills, in comparison with which
you'd call that a valley."
"No, I shouldn't," said Alice, surprised into con-
tradicting her at last: "a hill can't be a valley, you
know. That would be nonsense--"
The Red Queen shook her head. "You may call
it nonsense if you like," she said, but I've heard
nonsense, compared with which that would be as
sensible as a dictionary!"
Alice curtseyed again, as she was afraid from the
Queen's tone that she was a little offended, and they
walked on in silence till they got to the top of the hill.
For some minutes Alice stood without speaking,
looking out in all directions over the country-and
a most curious country it was. There were a num-
ber of tiny little brooks running straight across it
from side to side, and the ground between was
divided up into squares by a number of little green
hedges, that reached from brook to brook.
"I declare it's marked out just like a large chess-
board Alice said at last. "There ought to be some
men moving about somewhere-and so there are!"
she added in a tone of delight, and her heart began
to beat quick with excitement as she went on. "It's
a great huge game of chess that's being played-
all over the world-if this is the world at all, you


know. Oh, what fun it is! How I wish I was one
of them! I wouldn't mind being a Pawn, if only I
might join-though of course I should like to be a
Queen, best."
She glanced rather shyly at the real Queen as she
said this, but her companion only smiled pleasantly,
and said, "That's easily managed. You can be the
White Queen's Pawn, if you like, as Lily's too young
to play; and you're in the Second Square to begin
with: when you get to the Eighth Square you'll be
a Queen--" Just at this moment, somehow or
other, they began to run.
Alice never could quite make out, in thinking it
over afterwards, how it was that they began: all
she remembers is, that they were running hand in
hand, and the Queen went so fast that it was all she
could do to keep up with her: and still the Queen kept
crying "Faster! Faster! but Alice felt she could
not go faster, though she had no breath left to say
The most curious part of the thing was, that the
trees and other things round them never changed
their places at all: however fast they went, they
never seemed to pass anything. "I wonder if all
the things move along with us? thought poor puz-
zled Alice.


And the Queen seemed to guess her thoughts, for
she cried: "Faster! Don't try to talk!"
Not that Alice had any idea of doing that. She
felt as if she would never be able to talk again, she

was getting so much out of breath: and still the
Queen cried "Faster! Faster!" and dragged her
along. "Are we nearly there? Alice managed to
pant out at last.
"Nearly there? the Queen repeated. Why, we
passed it ten minutes ago! Faster!" And they


ran on for a time in silence, with the wind whist-
ling in Alice's ears, and almost blowing her hair off
her head, she fancied.
"Now! Now cried the Queen.' "Faster! Fas-
ter !" And they went so fast that at last they
seemed to skim through the air, hardly touching
the ground with their feet, till suddenly, just as
Alice was getting quite exhausted, they stopped,
and she found herself sitting on the ground, breath-
less and giddy.
The Queen propped her up against a tree and said
kindly, "You may rest a little now."
Alice looked round her in great surprise. Why,
I do believe we've been under this tree the whole
time! Everything's just as it was! "
"Of course it is," said the Queen: "what would
you have it? "
"Well, in our country," said Alice, still panting
a little, "you'd generally get to somewhere else-
if you ran very fast for a long time, as we've been
"A slow sort of country!" said the Queen.
"Now, here, you see, it takes all the running you
can do to keep in the same place. If you want to
get somewhere else, you must run at least twice as
fast as that! "


"I'd rather not try, please! said Alice. "I'm
quite content to stay here-only I am so hot and
thirsty! "
"I know what you'd like! the Queen said good-
naturedly, taking a little box out of her pocket.
"Have a biscuit?"
Alice thought it would not be civil to say "No,"
though it wasn't at all what she wanted. So she
took it, and ate it as well as she could: and it was
very dry: and she thought she had never been so
nearly choked in all her life.
"While you're refreshing yourself," said the
Queen, "I'll just take the measurements." And
she took a ribbon out of her pocket, marked in
inches, and began measuring the ground, and stick-
ing little pegs in here and there.
"At the end of two yards," she said, putting in a
peg to mark the distance, "I shall give you your
directions-have another biscuit?"
"No, thank you," said Alice: "one's quite
"Thirst quenched, I hope?" said the Queen.
Alice did not know what to say to this, but
luckily the Queen did not wait for an answer, but
went on. "At the end of three yards I shall repeat
them-for fear of your forgetting them. At the


end of four, I shall say good-bye. And at the end
of five, I shall go! "
She had got all the pegs put in by this time, and
Alice looked on with great interest as she returned
to the tree, and then began slowly walking down
the row.
At the two-yard peg she faced round, and said,
"A pawn goes two squares in its first move, you
know. So you'll go very quickly through the Third
Square-by railway, I should think-and you'll find
yourself in the Fourth Square in no time. Well,
that square belongs to Tweedledum and Tweedledee
-the Fifth is mostly water-the Sixth belongs to
Humpty Dumpty. But you make no remark?"
"I-I didn't know I had to make one-just then,"
Alice faltered out.
"You should have said," the Queen went on in a
tone of grave reproof, "' It's extremely kind of you
to.tell me all this '-however, we'll suppose it said
-the Seventh Square is all forest-however, one
of the Knights will show you the way-and in the
Eighth Square we shall be Queens together, and it's
all feasting and fun! Alice got up and curtseyed,
and sat down again.
At the next peg the Queen turned again, and this
time she said, "Speak in French when you can't


think of the English for a thing-turn out your
toes when you walk-and remember who you are! "
She did not wait for Alice to curtsey this time, but
walked on quickly to the next peg, where she

turned for a moment to say "good-bye," and then
hurried on to the last.
How it happened, Alice never knew, but exactly
as she came to the last peg, she was gone. Whether
she vanished into the air, or whether she ran quickly
into the wood (" and she can run very fast! thought
Alice), there was no way of guessing, but she was


gone, and Alice began to remember that she was a
Pawn, and that it would soon be time for her to



OF course the first thing to do was to make a
grand survey of the country she was going to travel
through. "It's something very like learning geog-
raphy," thought Alice, as she stood on tiptoe in
hopes of being able to see a little further. "Prin-
cipal rivers-there are none. Principal mountains
-I'm on the only one, but I don't think it's got
any name. Principal towns-why, what are those
creatures, making honey down there? They can't
be bees-nobody ever saw bees a mile off, you
know--" and for some time she stood silent,
watching one of them that was bustling about
among the flowers, poking its proboscis into them,
"just as if it was a regular bee," thought Alice.
However, this was anything but a regular bee:
in fact, it was an elephant-as Alice soon found out,
though the idea quite took her breath away at first.
"And what enormous flowers they must be! was


her next idea. "Something like cottages with the
roofs taken off, and stalks put to them-and what
quantities of honey they must make! I think I'll
go down and-no, I won't go just yet," she went
on, checking herself just as she was beginning to
run down the hill, and trying to find some excuse
for turning shy so suddenly. "It'll never do to go
down among them without a good long branch to
brush them away-and what fun it'll be when they
ask me how I liked my walk. I shall say-' Oh, I
liked it well enough-' (here came the favorite little
toss of the head), 'only it was so dusty and hot,
and the elephants did tease so! "
"I think I'll go down the other way," she said
after a pause: "and perhaps I may visit the ele-
phants later on. Besides, I do so want to get into
the Third Square! "
So with this excuse she ran down the hill and
jumped over the first of the six little brooks.
*- *
-* *i

"Tickets, please!" said the Guard, putting his
head in at the window. In a moment everybody
was holding out a ticket: they were about the same


size as the people, and quite seemed to fill the car-
"Now then! Show your ticket, child!" the
Guard went on, looking angrily at Alice. And a
great many voices all said together (" like the chorus
of a song," thought Alice), "Don't keep him wait-
ing, child! Why, his time is worth a thousand
pounds a minute!"
"I'm afraid I haven't got one," Alice said in a
frightened tone: there wasn't a ticket-office where
I came from." And again the chorus of voices
went on: "There wasn't room for one where she
came from. The land there is worth a thousand
pounds an inch! "
"Don't make excuses," said the Guard: "you
should have bought one from the engine-driver."
And once more the chorus of voices went on with
"The man that drives the engine. Why, the smoke
alone is worth a thousand pounds a puff! "
Alice thought to herself, "Then there's no use in
speaking." The voices didn't join in this time, as
she hadn't spoken, but, to her great surprise, they
all thought in chorus (I hope you understand what
thinking in chorus means-for I must confess that
I don't), "Better say nothing at all. Language is
worth a thousand pounds a word !"


"I shall dream about a thousand pounds to-night,
I know I shall! thought Alice.
All this time the Guard was looking at her, first
through a telescope, then through a microscope, and
then through an opera-glass. At last he said,
"You're travelling the wrong way," and shut up
the window and went away.
"So young a child," said the gentleman sitting
opposite to her (he was dressed in white paper),
"ought to know which way she's going, even if she
doesn't know her own name! "
A Goat, that was sitting next to the gentle-
man in white, shut his eyes and said in a
loud voice, "She ought to know her way to the
ticket-office, even if she doesn't know her alpha-
There was a Beetle sitting next the Goat (it was
a very queer carriage-full of passengers altogether),
and, as the rule seemed to be that they should all
speak in turn, he went on with "She'll have to go
back from here as luggage! "
Alice couldn't see who was sitting beyond the
Beetle, but a hoarse voice spoke next. "Change
engines--" it said, and there it choked and was
obliged to leave off.
"It sounds like a horse," Alice thought to her-


self; And an extremely small voice, close to her
ear, said, "You might make a joke on that-something about 'horse' and
'hoarse,' you know."
Then a very gentle voice in the distance said,
"' She must be labelled Lass, with care,' you know."
And after that other voices went on (" What a
number of people there are in the carriage!"
thought Alice), saying "She must go by post, as
she's got a head on her." "She must be sent as a
message by the telegraph." "She must draw the
train herself the rest of the way," and so on.
But the gentleman dressed in white paper leaned
forwards and whispered in her ear, "Never mind
what they all say, my dear, but take a return-ticket
every time the train stops."
Indeed I shan't! Alice said rather impatiently.
"I don't belong to this railway journey at all-I
was in a wood just now-and I wish I could get
back there! "
"You might make a joke on that," said the little voice close
to her ear : something about 'you would if you could,' you know."
"Don't tease so," said Alice, looking about in
vain to see where the voice came from: "if you're
so anxious to have a joke made, why don't you
make one yourself?"
The little voice sighed deeply: it was very un-


happy, evidently, and Alice would have said some-
thing pitying to comfort it, "if it would only sigh
like other people! she thought. But this was such
a wonderfully small sigh, that she wouldn't have
heard it at all, if it hadn't come quite close to her
ear. The consequence of this was that it tickled
her ear very much, and quite took off her thoughts
from the unhappiness of the poor little creature.
"I know you are a friend," the little voice went on ; "adear
friend, and an old friend. And you won't hurt me, though I am an insect."
What kind of insect?" Alice inquired a little
anxiously. What she really wanted to know was,
whether it could sting or not, but she thought this
wouldn't be quite a civil question to ask.
"What, thenyou don't-" the little voice began, when
it was drowned by a shrill scream from the engine,
and everybody jumped up in alarm, Alice among
the rest.
The Horse, who had put his head out of the win-
dow, quietly drew it in and said, "it's only a brook
we have to jump over." Everybody seemed satis-
fied with this, though Alice felt a little nervous at
the idea of trains jumping at all. "However, it'll
take us into the Fourth Square, that's some com-
fort! she said to herself. In another moment she
felt the carriage rise straight up into the air, and


in her fright she caught at the thing nearest to her
hand, which happened to be the Goat's beard.

But the beard seemed to melt away as she touched
it, and she found herself sitting quietly under some
tree-while the Gnat (for that was the insect she
had been talking to) was balancing itself on a
twig just over her head, and fanning her with
its wings.
It certainly was a very large Gnat: "about the
size of a chicken," Alice thought. Still, she couldn't
feel nervous with it, after they had been talking to-
gether so long.
"- then you don't like all insects? the Gnat
went on, as quietly as if nothing had happened.
"I like them when they can talk," Alice said.
"None of them ever talk, where I come.from."
What sort of insects do you rejoice in where you
come from? the Gnat inquired.
"I don't rejoice in insects at all," Alice explained,
"because I'm rather afraid of them-at least the
large kinds. But I can tell you the names of some
of them."


"Of course they answer to their names?" the
Gnat remarked carelessly.
"I never knew T:hem do it."
S"What's the use of their having names," the
Gnat said, "if they won't answer to them?"

"No use to them," said Alice; "but it's useful to
the people that name them, I suppose. If not, why
do things have names at all?"

z 1



"I can't say," the Gnat replied. "Further on,
in the wood down there, they've got no names-
however, go on with your list of insects; you're
wasting time."
Well, there's the Horse-fly," Alice began, count-
ing off the names on her fingers.
"All right," said the Gnat: "half way up that
bush, you'll see a Rocking-horse-fly, if you look.
It's made entirely of wood, and gets about by
swinging itself from branch to branch."
What does it live on?" Alice asked, with great
Sap and sawdust," said the Gnat. Go on with
the list."
Alice looked at the Rocking-horse-fly with great
interest, and made up her mind that it must have
been just repainted, it looked so bright and sticky;
and then she went on.
"And there's the Dragon-fly."
"Look on the branch above your head," said the
Gnat, "and there you'll find a Snap-dragon-fly.
Its body is made of plum-pudding, its wings of
holly-leaves, and its head is a raisin burning in
"And what does it live on?" Alice asked, as


"Frumenty and mince-pie," the Gnat replied;
"and it makes its nest in a Christmas-box."
"And then there's the Butterfly," Alice went on,
after she had taken a good look at the insect with
its head on fire, and had thought to herself, "I
wonder if that's the reason insects are so fond of fly-
ing into candles-because they want to turn into
"Crawling at your feet," said the Gnat (Alice
drew her feet back in some alarm), "you may ob-
serve a Bread-and-butter-fly. Its wings are thin
slices of bread-and-butter, its body is a crust, and
its head is a lump of sugar."
"And what does it live on?"
Weak tea with cream in it."
A new difficulty came into Alice's head. ."Sup-
posing it couldn't find any?" she suggested.
"Then it would die, of course."
"But that must happen very often," Alice re-
marked thoughtfully.
"It always happens," said the Gnat.
After this, Alice was silent for a minute or two,
pondering. The Gnat amused itself meanwhile by
humming round and round her head: at last it
settled again and remarked, "I suppose you don't
want to lose your name?"


"No, indeed," Alice said, a little anxiously.
"And yet I don't know," the Gnat went on in a
careless tone: "only think how convenient it would
be if you could manage to go home without it! For
instance, if the governess wanted to call you to your
lessons, she would call out 'Come here--,' and
there she would have to leave off, because there
wouldn't be any name for her to call, and of course
you wouldn't have to go, you know."
"That would never do, I'm sure," said Alice:
"the governess would never think of excusing me
lessons for that. If she couldn't remember my
name, she'd call me 'Miss! as the servants do."
"Well, if she said 'Miss,' and didn't say any-
thing more," the Gnat remarked, "of course you'd
miss your lessons. That's a joke. I wish you had
made it."
Why do you wish I had made it? Alice asked.
"It's a very bad one."
But the Gnat only sighed deeply, while two large
tears came rolling down its cheeks.
"You shouldn't make jokes," Alice said, "if it
makes you so unhappy."
Then came another of those melancholy little
sighs, and this time the poor Gnat really seemed to
have sighed itself away, for, when Alice looked up,


there was nothing whatever to be seen on the twig,
and, as she was getting quite chilly with sitting
still so long, she got up and walked on.
She very soon came to an open field, with a wood
on the other side of it: it looked much darker than

the last wood, and Alice felt a little timid about
going into it. However, on second thoughts, she
made up her mind to go on: "for I certainly won't
go back," she thought to herself, and this was the
only way to the Eighth Square.
"This must be the wood," she said thoughtfully


to herself, "where things have no names. I won-
der what'll become of my name when I go in? I
shouldn't like to lose it at all-because they'd have
to give me another, and it would be almost certain
to be an ugly one. But then the fun would be, try-
ing to find the creature that had got my old name!
That's just like the advertisements, you know, when
people lose dogs-' answers to the name of "Dash: "
had on a brass collar'-just fancy calling every-
thing you met 'Alice,' till one of them answered!
If they were wise, they wouldn't answer at all."
She was rambling on in this way when she
reached the wood: it looked very cool and shady.
"Well, it's a great comfort, after being so hot, to
get into the-into the-into what?" she went on,
rather surprised at not being able to think of the
word. "I mean to get under the--under the-
under this, you know!" putting her hand on the
trunk of the tree. What does it call itself, I won-
der? I do believe it's got no name-why, to be
sure it hasn't!"
She stood silent for a minute, thinking: then she
suddenly began again. "Then it really has hap-
pened, after all! And now, who am I? I will re-
member, if I can! I'm determined to do it! But
being determined didn't help her much, and all she


could say, after a great deal of puzzling, was, "L,
I know it begins with L! "
Just then a Fawn came wandering by: it looked
at Alice with its large gentle eyes, but didn't seem
at all frightened. "Here then! Here then!"
Alice said as she held out her hand and tried to
stroke it; but it only started back a little, and then
stood looking at her again.
"What do you call yourself?" the Fawn said.
"I wish I knew!" thought poor Alice. She
answered, rather sadly, "Nothing, just now."
"Think again," it said: "that won't do."
Alice thought, but nothing came of it. "Please,
would you tell me what you call yourself?" she
said timidly. "I think that might help a little."
"I'll tell you, if you'll come a little further on,"
the Fawn said. "I can't remember here."
So they walked on together through the wood,
Alice with her arms clasped lovingly round the soft
neck of the Fawn, till they came out into another
open field, and here the Fawn gave a sudden bound
into the air, and shook itself free from Alice's arms.
"I'm a Fawn!" it cried out in a voice of delight,
"and, dear me! you're a human child!" A sudden
look of alarm came into its beautiful eyes, and in
another moment it had darted away at full speed.


Well, I know my name now," she said, "that's
some comfort. Alice-Alice-I won't forget it
again. And now, which of these finger-posts
ought I to follow, I wonder?"
It was not a very difficult question to answer, as
there was only one road through the wood, and the
two finger-posts both pointed along it. "I'll settle
it," Alice said to herself, "when the road divides
and they point different ways."
But this did not seem likely to happen. She
went on and on, a long way, but wherever the road
divided there were sure to be two finger-posts point-
ing the same way, one marked "TO TWEEDLE-
DUM'S HOUSE," and the other "TO THE HOUSE
"I do believe," said Alice at last, "that they live
in the same house! I wonder I never thought of
that before-But I can't stay there long. I'll just
call and say How d'ye do? and ask them the way
out of the wood. If I could only get to the Eighth
Square before it gets dark! So she wandered on,
talking to herself as she went, till, on turning a
sharp corner, she came upon two fat little men, so
suddenly that she could not help starting back, but
in another moment she recovered herself, feeling
sure that they must be




THEY were standing under a tree, each with an
arm round the other's neck, and Alice knew which
was which in a moment, because one of them had
"DUM" embroidered on his collar, and the other
"DEE." "I suppose they've each got TWEEDLE '
round at the back of the collar," she said to her-
They stood so still that she quite forgot they were
alive, and she was just looking round to see if the
word "T WEEDLE was written at the back of each
collar, when she was startled by a voice coming
from the one marked DUM."
"If you think we're wax-works," he said, "you
ought to pay, you know. Wax-works weren't made
to be looked at for nothing. Nohow! "
"Contrariwise," added the one marked "DEE,"
"if you think we're alive, you ought to speak."
"I'm sure I'm very sorry," was all Alice could
say; for the words of the old song kept ringing
through her head like the ticking of a clock, and
she could hardly help saying them out loud:


"Tweedledum and Tweedledee
Agreed to have a battle;
For Tweedledum said Tweedledee
Had spoiled his nice new rattle.

"Just then flew down a monstrous crow
As black as a tar barrel,
Which frightened both the heroes so,
They quite forgot their quarrel."

"I know what you're thinking about," said
Tweedledum: "but it isn't so, rohow."
"Contrariwise," continued Tweedledee, "if it was
so, it might be; and if it were so, it would be; but
as it isn't, it ain't. That's logic."
"I was thinking," Alice said very politely,
"which is the best way out of this wood: it's get-
ting so dark. Would you tell me please? "
But the fat little men only looked at each other
and grinned.
They looked so exactly like a couple of great
school boys, that Alice couldn't help pointing
her finger at Tweedledum, and saying "First
Boy! "
"Nohow!" Tweedledum cried out briskly, and
shut his mouth up again with a snap.
"Next Boy!" said Alice, passing on to Tweedle-


dee, though she felt quite certain he would only
shout out, "Contrariwise! and so he did.
"You've begun wrong!" cried Tweedledum.
"The first thing in a visit is to say 'How d'ye do?'
and shake hands!" And here the two brothers
gave each other a hug, and then they held out the
two hands that were free, to shake hands with her.
Alice did not like shaking hands with either of
them first, for fear of hurting the other one's feel-
ings; so, as the best way out of the difficulty, she
took hold of both hands at once: the next moment
they were dancing round in a ring. This seemed
quite natural (she remembered afterwards), and
she was not even surprised to hear music playing:
it seemed to come from the tree under which they
were dancing, and it was done (as well as she could
make it out) by the branches rubbing one across the
other, like fiddles and fiddle-sticks.
"But it certainly was funny" (Alice said after-
wards, when she was telling her sister the history
of all this), "to find myself singing 'Here we go
round the mulberry bush.' I don't know when I
began it, but somehow I felt as if I'd been singing
it a long, long time!"
The other two dancers were fat, and very soon
out of breath. "Four times round is enough for


one dance," Tweedledum panted out, and they left
off dancing as suddenly as they had begun: the
music stopped at the same moment.
Then they-let go of Alice's hands, and stood look-

- ---~-- --*= T.-~

ing at her for a minute: there was a rather awk-
ward pause, as Alice didn't know how to begin a
conversation with people she had just been dancing


with. "It would never do to say 'How d'ye do?'
now," she said to herself: "we seem to have got
beyond that, somehow!"
"I hope you're not much tired? she said at last.
"Nohow. And thank you very much for ask-
ing," said Tweedledum.
"So much obliged!" added Tweedledee. "You
like poetry? "
"Ye-es pretty well-some poetry," Alice said
doubtfully. Would you tell me which road leads
out of the wood? "
What shall I repeat to her? said Tweedledee,
looking round at Tweedledum with great solemn
eyes, and not noticing Alice's question.
"' The Walrus and the Carpenter is the longest,"
Tweedledum replied, giving his brother an affec-
tionate hug.
Tweedledee began instantly:
The sun was shining- "
Here Alice ventured to interrupt him. "If it's
very long," she said, as politely as she could, would
you please tell me first which road-"
Tweedledee smiled gently, and began again:

"The sun was shining on the sea,
Shining with all his might:


"He did his very best to make
The billows smooth and bright-
And this was odd, because it was
The middle of the night.

"The moon was shining sulkily,
Because she thought the sun
Had got no business to be there
After the day was done-
SIt's very rude of him,' she said,
'To come and spoil the fun! '

"The sea was wet as wet could be,
The sands were dry as dry.
You could not see a cloud, because
No cloud was in the sky:
No birds were flying overhead-
There were no birds to fly.

"The Walrus and the Carpenter
Were walking close at hand;
They wept like anything to see
Such quantities of sand:
SIf this were only cleared away,'
They said, it would be grand!'

"' If seven maids with seven mops
Swept it for half a year,
Do you suppose,' the Walrus said,
That they could get it clear?'


"' I doubt it,' said the Carpenter,
And shed a bitter tear.

"' Oysters, come and walk with us!'
The Walrus did beseech.
'A pleasant walk, a pleasant talk,
Along the briny beach:
We cannot do with more than four,
To give a hand to each.'

"The eldest Oyster looked at him,
But never a word he said:


"The eldest Oyster winked his eye,
And shook his heavy head-
Meaning to say he did not choose
To leave the oyster-bed.

"But four young Oysters hurried up,
All eager for the treat:
Their coats were brushed, their faces washed,
Their shoes were clean and neat-
And this was odd, because, you know,
They hadn't any feet.


"Four other Oysters followed them,
And yet another four;
And thick and fast they came at last,
And more, and more, and more-
All hopping through the frothy waves,
And scrambling to the shore.

"The Walrus and the Carpenter
Walked on a mile or so,
And then they rested on a rock
Conveniently low:
And all the little Oysters stood,
And waited in a row.

"' The time has come,' the Walrus said,
'To talk of many things:
Of shoes-and ships-and sealing wax-
Of cabbages-and kings-
And why the sea is boiling hot-
And whether pigs have wings.'

"' But wait a bit,' the Oysters cried,
Before we have our chat;
For some of us are out of breath,
And all of us are fat!'
'No hurry!' said the Carpenter.
They thanked him much for that.
"' A loaf of bread,' the Walrus said,
Is what we chiefly need:


"Pepper and vinegar besides
Are very good indeed-
Now if you're ready, Oysters dear,
We can begin to feed.'

"' But not on us! the Oysters cried,
Turning a little blue.
'After such kindness, that would be
A dismal thing to do!'
'The night is fine,' the Walrus said,
'Do you admire the view?'

"' It was so kind of you to come!
And you are very nice!'
The Carpenter said nothing but
Cut us another slice:
I wish you were not quite so deaf-
I've had to ask you twice!'
"' It seems a shame,' the Walrus said,
'To play them such a trick,
After we've brought them out so far,
And made them trot so quick!'
The Carpenter said nothing out
The butter's spread too thick!'

"' I weep for you,' the Walrus said:
'I deeply sympathize.'
With sobs and tears he sorted out
Those of the largest size,

"Holding his pocket-handkerchief
Before his streaming eyes.

"'0 Oysters,' said the Carpenter,
You've had a pleasant run!
Shall we be trotting home again?'
But answer came there none-
And this was scarcely odd, because
They'd eaten every one."

"I like the Walrus best," said Alice: "because
you see he was a little sorry for the poor oysters."
"He ate more than the Carpenter, though," said
Tweedledee. "You see he held his handkerchief in
front, so that the carpenter couldn't count how
many he took: contrariwise."
"That was mean!" Alice said indignantly.
"Then I like the Carpenter best-if he didn't eat
so many as the Walrus."
"But he ate as many as he could get," said
This was a puzzler. After a pause, Alice began,
"Well! They were both very unpleasant charac-
ters-" Here she checked herself in some alarm,
at hearing something that sounded to her like the
puffing of a large steam-engine in the wood near
them, though she feared it was more likely to be a


wild beast. "Are there any lions or tigers about
here?" she asked timidly.
"It's only the Red King snoring," said Tweedle-
"Come and look at him! the brothers cried, and


they each took one of Alice's hands, and led her up
to where the King was sleeping.
"Isn't he a lovely sight?" said Tweedledum.


Alice couldn't say honestly that he was. He had
a tall red night-cap on, with a tassel, and he was
lying crumpled up into a sort of untidy heap, and
snoring loud-" fit to snore his head off! as Twee-
dledum remarked.
"I'm afraid he'll catch cold with lying on the
damp grass," said Alice, who was a very thought-
ful little girl.
"He's dreaming now," said Tweedledee: "and
what do you think he's dreaming about?"
Alice said, "Nobody can guess that."
Why, about you! Tweedledee exclaimed, clap-
ping his hands triumphantly. "And if he left off
dreaming about you, where do you suppose you'd
be? "
Where I am now, of course," said Alice.
"Not you!" Tweedledee retorted contemptu-
ously. "You'd be nowhere. Why, you're only a
sort of thing in his dream "
"If that there King was to wake," added Twee-
dledum, "you'd go out-bang!-just like a
"I shouldn't!" Alice exclaimed indignantly.
"Besides, if I'm only a sort of thing in his dream,
what are you, I should like to know? "
"Ditto," said Tweedledum.


"Ditto, ditto!" cried Tweedledee.
He shouted this so loud that Alice couldn't help
saying: "Hush! You'll be waking him, I'm afraid,
if you make so much noise."
Well, it's no use your talking about waking
him," said Tweedledum, "when you're only one of
the things in his dream. You know very well
you're not real."
"I am real! said Alice, and began to cry.
"You won't make yourself a bit realler by cry-
ing," Tweedledee remarked: "there's nothing to cry
"If I wasn't real," Alice said-half-laughing
through her tears, it all seemed so ridiculous-"I
shouldn't be able to cry."
"I hope you don't suppose those are real tears?"
Tweedledum interrupted in a tone of great con-
"I know they're talking nonsense," Alice thought
to herself: "and it's foolish to cry about it." So
she brushed away her tears, and went on as cheer-
fully as she could, "At any rate I'd better be get-
ting out of the wood, for really it's coming on very
dark. Do you think it's going to rain?"
Tweedledum spread a large umbrella over him-
self and his brother, and looked up into it. "No, I


don't think it is," he said: "at least-not under
here. Nohow."
"But it may rain outside? "
"It may-if it chooses," said Tweedledee: "we've
no objection. Contrariwise."
"Selfish things!" thought Alice, and she was
just going to say "Good-night" and leave them,
when Tweediedum sprang out from under the um-
brella, and seized her by the wrist.
"Do you see that?" he said, in a voice choking
with passion, and his eyes grew large and yellow
all in a moment, as he pointed with a trembling
finger at a small white thing lying under the tree.
"It's only a rattle," Alice said, after a careful
examination of the little white thing. "Not a
rattle-snake, you know," she added hastily, think-
ing that he was frightened: "only an old rattle-
quite old and broken."
"I knew it was!" cried Tweedledum, beginning
to stamp about wildly and tear his hair. "It's
spoilt, of course! Here he looked at Tweedledee,
who immediately sat down on the ground and tried
to hide himself under the umbrella.
Alice laid her hand upon his arm, and said in a
soothing tone, "You needn't be so angry about an
old rattle."

"But it isn't old!" Tweedledum cried, in a
greater fury than ever. "It's new, I tell you-I
bought it yesterday-my nice NEW RATTLE! and
his voice rose to a perfect scream.

fold up the umbrella, with himself in it: which was

,such an extraordinary thing to do, that it quite took
offAlice's attention from the angry brother. But

All this time Tweedledee was trying his best to
fold up the umbrella, with himself in it: which was
such an extraordinary thing to do, that it quite took
off Alice's attention from the angry brother. But
he couldn't quite succeed, and it ended in his rolling
over, bundled up in the umbrella, with only his
head out: and there he lay, opening and shutting


his mouth and his large eyes-"looking more like
a fish than anything else," Alice thought.
Of course you agree to have a battle? Tweedle-
dum said in a calmer tone.
"I suppose so," the other sulkily replied, as he
crawled out of the umbrella: "only she must help
us to dress up, you know."
So the two brothers went off hand-in-hand into
the wood, and returned in a minute with their arms
full of things-such as bolster, blankets, hearth-
rugs, table-cloths, dish-covers, and coal-scuttles.
"I hope you're a good hand at pinning and tying
strings?" Tweedledum remarked. "Every one of
these things has got to go on, somehow or other."
Alice said afterwards she had never seen such a
fuss made about anything in all her life-the way
those two bustled about-and the quantity of things
they put on-and the trouble they gave her in tying
strings and fastening buttons-"Really they'll be
more like bundles of old clothes than anything else,
by the time they're ready! she said to herself, as
she arranged a bolster round the neck of Tweedle-
dee, "to keep his head from being cut off," as he said.
You know," he added very gravely, "it's one of
the most serious things that can possibly happen to
one in a battle-to get one's head cut off."


Alice laughed loud: but she managed to turn it
into a cough, for fear of hurting his feelings. "Do
I look very pale? said Tweedledum, coming up to
have his helmet tied on. (He called it a helmet,
though it certainly looked much more like a sauce-
"Well-yes-a little," Alice replied gently.
"I'm very brave generally," he went on in a
low voice: "only to-day I happen to have a head-
"And I've got a toothache!" said Tweedledee.
who had overheard the remark. "I'm far worse
than you! "
"Then you'd better not fight to-day," said Alice,
thinking it a good opportunity to make peace.
We must have a bit of a fight, but I don't care
about going on long," said Tweedledum. "What's
the time now? "
Tweedledee looked at his watch, and said, "Half-
past four."
"Let's fight till six, and then have dinner," said
"Very well," the other said, rather sadly: "and
she can watch us-only you'd better not come very
close," he added: "I generally hit everything I can
see-when I get really excited."


"And I hit everything within reach," cried
Tweedledum, "whether I can see it or not!"
Alice laughed. "You must hit the trees pretty
often, I should think," she said.
Tweedledum looked round him with a satisfied
smile. "I don't suppose," he said, "there'll be a
tree left standing, for ever so far round, by the
time we've finished! "


"And all about a rattle!" said Alice, still hoping
to make them a little ashamed of fighting for such
a trifle.
"I shouldn't have minded it so much," said Twee-
dledum, "if it hadn't been a new one."
"I wish the monstrous crow would come!"
thought Alice.
"There's only one sword, you know," Tweedle-

al~~~-~f~~c' '^ ~'''~~-~


dum said to his brother: "but you can have the
umbrella-it's quite as sharp. Only we must begin
quick. It's getting as dark as it can."
"And darker," said Tweedledee.
It was getting dark so suddenly that Alice thought
there must be a thunder-storm coming on. "What
a thick black cloud that is! she said. "And how
fast it comes! Why, I do believe it's got wings! "
"It's the crow!" Tweedledum cried out in a
shrill voice of alarm: and the two brothers took to
their heels and were out of sight in a moment.
Alice ran a little way into the wood, and stopped
under a large tree. "It can never get at me here,"
she thought: "it's far too large to squeeze itself in
among the trees. But I wish it wouldn't flap its
wings so-it makes quite a hurricane in the wood-
here's somebody's shawl being blown away! "

SHE caught the shawl as she spoke, and looked
about for the owner: in another moment the White
Queen came running wildly through the wood, with
both arms stretched out wide, as if she were fly-


ing, and Alice very civilly went to meet her with the
"I'm very glad I happened to be in the way,"
Alice said, as she helped her to put on her shawl
The White Queen only looked at her in a helpless
frightened sort of way, and kept repeating some-
thing in a whisper to herself that sounded like
"Bread-and-butter, bread-and-butter," and Alice
felt that if there was to be any conversation at all,
she must manage it herself. So she began rather
timidly: "Am I addressing the White Queen?"
Well, yes, if you call that a-dressing," the Queen
said. "It isn't my notion of the thing, at all."
Alice thought it would never do to have an argu-
ment at the very beginning of their conversation,
so she smiled and said, "If your Majesty will only
tell me the right way to begin, I'll do it as well as
I can."
"But I don't want it done at all!" groaned the
poor Queen. "I've been a-dressing myself for the
last two hours."
It would have been all the better, as it seemed to
Alice, if she had got some one else to dress her, she
was so dreadfully untidy. "Every single thing's
crooked," Alice thought to herself, "and she's all


over pins!-May I put your shawl straight for
you?" she added aloud.
"I don't know what's the matter with it!" the
Queen said in a melancholy voice. "It's out of
temper, I think. I've pinned it here, and I've
pinned it there, but there's no pleasing it!"
"It can't go straight, you know, if you pin it all
on one side," Alice said, as she gently put it right
for her; "and, dear me, what a state your hair is
"The brush has got entangled in it!" the Queen
said with a sigh. "And I lost the comb yesterday."
Alice carefully released the brush, and did her
best to get the hair into order. "Come, you look
rather better now! she said after altering most of
the pins. "But really you should have a lady's-
maid !"
"I'm sure I'll take you with pleasure!" the
Queen said. "Twopence a week, and jam every
other day."
Alice couldn't help laughing, as she said, "I
don't want you to hire me-and I don't care for
"It's very good jam," said the Queen.
"Well, I don't want any to-day, at any rate."
You couldn't have it if you did want it," the


Queen said. "The rule is, jam to-morrow and jam
yesterday-but never jam to-day."
"It must come sometimes to jam to-day,'" Alice

Y4 .:
... ,.. . .. :

"No, it can't," said the Queen. "It's jam
every other day: to-day isn't any other day, you


"I don't understand you," said Alice. "It's
dreadfully confusing! "
"That's the effect of living backwards," the
Queen said kindly: "it always makes one a little
giddy first-"
"Living backwards!" Alice repeated in great
astonishment. "I never heard of such a thing!"
"-but there's one great advantage in it, that
one's memory works both ways."
"I'm sure mine only works one way," Alice re-
marked. "I can't remember things before they
"It's a poor sort of memory that only works back-
wards," the Queen remarked.
"What sort of things do you remember best?"
Alice ventured to ask.
"Oh, things that happen the week after next,"
the Queen replied in a careless tone. "For in-
stance, now," she went on, sticking a large piece of
plaster on her finger as she spoke, "there's the
King's Messenger. He's in prison now, being pun-
ished: and the trial doesn't even begin till next
Wednesday: and of course the crime comes last of
"Suppose he never commits the crime?" said


"That would be all the better, wouldn't it? the
Queen said, as she bound the plaster round her
finger with a bit of ribbon.
Alice felt there was no denying that. Of course
it would be all the better," she said: "but it
wouldn't be all the better his being punished."
"You're wrong there, at any rate," said the
Queen: "were you ever punished? "
"Only for faults," said Alice.
"And you were all the better for it, I know!"
the Queen said triumphantly.
"Yes, but then I had done the things I was pun-
ished for," said Alice: "that makes all the differ-
"But if you hadn't done them," the Queen said,
"that would have been better still; better, and
better, and better!" Her voice went higher with
each "better," till it got quite to a squeak at
Alice was just beginning to say "There's a mis-
take somewhere-," when the Queen began scream-
ing, so loud that she had to leave the sentence un-
finished. "Oh, oh, oh !" shouted the Queen, shak-
ing her hand about as if she wanted to shake it off.
"My finger's bleeding! Oh, oh, oh, oh! "
Her screams were so exactly like the whistle of a


steam-engine, that Alice had to hold both her hands
over her ears.
What is the matter? she said, as soon as there
was a chance of making herself heard. Have you
pricked your finger?"
"I haven't pricked it yet," the Queen said, "but
I soon shall-oh, oh, oh! "
"When do you expect to do it?" Alice asked,
feeling very much inclined to laugh.
When I fasten my shawl again," the poor Queen
groaned out: the brooch will come undone directly.
Oh, oh!" As she said the words the brooch flew
open, and the Queen clutched wildly at it, and tried
to clasp it again.
"Take care!" cried Alice. "You're holding it
all crooked! And she caught at the brooch; but
it was too late: the pin had slipped, and the Queen
had pricked her finger.
"That accounts for the bleeding, you see," she
said to Alice with a smile. "Now you understand
the way things happen here."
"But why don't you scream now? Alice asked,
holding her hands ready to put over her ears again.
Why, I've done all the screaming already," said
the Queen. What would be the good of having it
all over again? "


By this time it was getting light. "The crow
must have flown away, I think," said Alice: "I'm
so glad it's gone. I thought it was the night com-
ing on."
"I wish I could manage to be glad the Queen

said. "Only I never can remember the rule. You
must be very happy, living in this wood, and being
glad whenever you like! "
"Only it is so very lonely here! Alice said in a

' '


melancholy voice; and at the thought of her loneli-
ness two large tears came rolling down her cheeks.
"Oh, don't go on like that!" cried the poor
Queen, wringing her hands in despair. "Consider
what a great girl you are. Consider what a long
way you've come to-day. Consider what o'clock it
is. Consider anything, only don't cry!" Alice
could not help laughing at this, even in the midst
of her tears. "Can you keep from crying by con-
sidering things? she asked.
"That's the way it's done," the Queen said with
great decision: "nobody can do two things at once,
you know. Let's consider your age to begin with
-how old are you? "
"I'm seven and a half exactly."
"You needn't say 'exactually,'" the Queen re-
marked: "I can believe it without that. Now I'll
give you something to believe. I'm just one hun-
dred and one, five months and a day."
"I can't believe that! said Alice.
"Can't you?" the Queen said in a pitying tone.
"Try again: draw a long breath, and shut your
Alice laughed. "There's no use trying," she
said: "one can't believe impossible things."
"I daresay you haven't had much practice," said


the Queen. When I was your age, I always did
it for half-an-hour a day. Why, sometimes I've
believed as many as six impossible things before
breakfast. There goes the shawl again! "
The brooch had come undone as she spoke, and a
sudden gust of wind blew the Queen's shawl across
a little brook. The Queen spread out her arms
again, and went flying after it, and this time she
succeeded in catching it for herself. "I've got it! "
she cried in a triumphant tone. "Now you shall
see me pin it on again, all by myself! "
"Then I hope your finger is better now?" Alice
said very politely, as she crossed the little brook
after the Queen.

"Oh, much better!" cried the Queen, her voice
rising into a squeak as she went on. "Much
be-etter! Be-etter! Be-e-e-etter! Be-e-ehh!" The
last word ended in a long bleat, so like a sheep that
Alice quite started.
She looked at the Queen, who seemed to have
suddenly wrapped herself up in wool. Alice rubbed


her eyes, and looked again. She couldn't make out
what had happened at all. Was she in a shop?
And was that really-was it really a sheep that was
sitting on the other side of the counter? Rub as
she would, she could make nothing more of it: she
was in a little dark shop, leaning with her elbows
on the counter, and opposite to her was an old
Sheep, sitting in an arm-chair knitting, and every
now and then leaving off to look at her through a
great pair of spectacles.
What is it you want to buy? the Sheep said
at last, looking up for a moment from her knitting.
"I don't quite know yet," Alice said very gently.
"I should like to look all round me first, if I
"You may look in front of you, and on both sides,
if you like," said the Sheep; "but you can't look all
round you-unless you've got eyes at the back of
your head."
But these, as it happened, Alice had not got: so
she contented herself with turning round, looking
at the shelves as she came to them.
SThe shop seemed to be full of all manner of curi-
ous things-but the oddest part of it all was, that
whenever she looked hard at any shelf, to make out
exactly what it had on it, that particular shelf was


always quite empty: though the others round it
were crowded as full as they could hold.
"Things flow about so here! she said at last in
a plaintive tone, after she had spent a minute or so
in vainly pursuing a large bright thing, that looked
sometimes like a doll and sometimes like a work-
box, and was always in the shelf next above the one
she was looking at. "And this one is the most pro-
voking of all-but I'll tell you what-" she added,
as a sudden thought struck her, "I'll follow it up
to the very top shelf of all. It'll puzzle it to go
through the ceiling, I expect! "
But even this plan failed: "the thing" went
through the ceiling as quietly as possible, as if it
were quite used to it.
Are you a child or a teetotum? the Sheep said,
as she took up another pair of needles. "You'll
make me giddy soon, if you go on turning round
like that." She was now working with fourteen
pairs at once, and Alice couldn't help looking at her
in great astonishment.
"How can she knit with so many?" the puzzled
child thought to herself. She gets more and more
like a porcupine every minute! "
"Can you row?" the Sheep asked, handing her a
pair of knitting-needles as she spoke.


"Yes, a little-but not on land-and not with
needles--" Alice was beginning to say, when sud-
denly the needles turned into oars in her hands, and
she found they were in a little boat, gliding along
between banks: so there was nothing for it but to
do her best.
"Feather!" cried the Sheep, as she took up an-
other pair of needles.
This didn't sound like a remark that needed any
answer, so Alice said nothing, but pulled away.
There was something very queer about the water,
she thought, as every now and then the oars got
fast in it, and would hardly come out again.
"Feather! Feather!" the Sheep cried again,
taking more needles. "You'll be catching a crab
"A dear little crab! thought Alice. "I should
like that."
"Didn't you hear me say 'Feather'? the Sheep
cried angrily, taking up quite a bunch of needles.
"Indeed I did," said Alice: "you've said it very
often-and very loud. Please, where are the
"In the water, of course!" said the Sheep, stick-
ing some of the needles into her hair, as her hands
were full. "Feather, I say! "


"Why do you say 'Feather' so often?" Alice
asked at last, rather vexed. "I'm not a bird!"
"You are," said the Sheep: "you're a little
This offended Alice a little, so there was no more
conversation for a minute or two, while the boat
glided gently on, sometimes among beds of weeds
(which made the oars stick fast in the water, worse
than ever), and sometimes under trees, but always
with the same tall river-banks frowning over their
"Oh, please! There are some scented rushes!"
Alice cried in a sudden transport of delight. "There
really are-and such beauties! "
"You needn't say please to me about 'em," the
Sheep said, without looking up from her knitting:
"I didn't put 'em there, and I'm not going to take
'em away."
"No, but I meant-please, may we wait and pick
some?" Alice pleaded. "If you don't mind stop-
ping the boat for a minute."
How am I to stop it? said the Sheep. If you
leave off rowing, it'll stop of itself."
So the boat was left to drift down the stream as
it would, till it glided gently in among the rushes.
And then the little sleeves were carefully rolled up,


and the little arms were plunged in elbow-deep, to
get hold of the rushes a good long way down before
breaking them off-and for a while Alice forgot all
about the Sheep and the knitting, as she bent over
the side of the boat, with just the ends of her
tangled hair dipping into the water-while with
bright eager eyes she caught at one bunch 'after an-
other of the darling scented rushes.
"I only hope the boat won't tipple over!" she
said to herself. Oh, what a lovely one! Only I
couldn't quite reach it." And it certainly did seem
a little provoking ("almost as if it happened on pur-
pose," she thought) that, though she managed to
pick plenty of beautiful rushes as the boat glided
by, there was always a more lovely one that she
couldn't reach.
"The prettiest are always further!" she said at
last, with a sigh at the obstinacy of the rushes in
growing so far off, as with flushed cheeks and drip-
ping hair and hands, she scrambled back into her
place, and began to arrange her new-found treasures.
What mattered it to her just then that the rushes
had begun to fade, and to lose all their scent and
beauty, from the very moment that she picked
them? Even real scented rushes, you know, last
only a very little while-and these, being dream-


rushes, melted away almost like snow, as they lay in
heaps at her feet-but Alice hardly noticed this,
there were so many other curious things to think
They hadn't gone much farther before the blade
of one of the oars got fast in the water and wouldn't
come out again (so Alice explained it afterwards),
and the consequence was that the handle of it caught
her under the chin, and, in spite of a series of shrieks
of "Oh, oh, oh!" from poor Alice, it swept her
straight off the seat, and down among the heap of
However, she wasn't a bit hurt, and was soon up
again: the Sheep went on with her knitting all the
while, just as if nothing had happened. "That
was a nice crab you caught!" she remarked, as
Alice got back into her place, very much relieved
to find herself still in the boat.
"Was it? I didn't see it," said Alice, peeping
cautiously over the side of the boat into the dark
water. "I wish it hadn't let go-I should so like a
little crab to take home with me! But the sheep
only laughed scornfully, and went on with her
"Are there many crabs here? said Alice.
"Crabs, and all sorts of things," said the Sheep:

"plenty of choice, only make up your mind. Now,
what do you want to buy? "
"To buy," Alice echoed in a tone that was half
astonished and half frightened-for the oars, and
the boat, and the river, had vanished all in a mo-
ment, and she was back again in the little dark
"I should like to buy an egg, please," she said
timidly. "How do you sell them?"
"Fivepence farthing for one-twopence for two,"
the Sheep replied.
"Then two are cheaper than one? Alice said in
a surprised tone, taking out her purse.
"Only you must eat them both, if you buy two,"
said the Sheep.
"Then I'll have one, please," said Alice, as she
put the money down on the counter. For she
thought to herself, "They mightn't be at all nice,
you know."
The Sheep took the money, and put it away in a
box: then she said: "I never put things into peo-
ple's hands-that would never do-you must get it
for yourself." And so saying, she went off to the
other end of the shop, and set the egg upright on a
"I wonder why it wouldn't do? thought Alice,