Citation
The story of Magellan

Material Information

Title:
The story of Magellan and the discovery of the Philippines
Creator:
Butterworth, Hezekiah, 1839-1905
Merrill, Frank T ( Frank Thayer ), b. 1848 ( Illustrator )
D. Appleton and Company ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
New York
Publisher:
D. Appleton and Company
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
235 8 p., 8 leaves or plates : ill., col. map ; 21 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Explorers -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Sailors -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
NOVELAS ( renib )
Discovery and exploration -- Juvenile literature -- Philippines ( lcsh )
DESCUBRIMIENTO Y EXPLORACIONES -- NOVELA -- FILIPINAS ( renib )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1899 ( rbgenr )
Biographies -- 1899 ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1899
Genre:
Publishers' catalogues ( rbgenr )
Biographies ( rbgenr )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
individual biography ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- New York -- New York
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Publisher's catalogue precedes and follows text.
General Note:
Bound in green cloth; stamped in gold, black, white and brown; blue-green coated endpapers.
General Note:
Purchased from Gilman, Crompond, N.Y.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Hezekiah Butterworth ; illustrated by Frank T. Merrill and others.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
024488083 ( ALEPH )
ALG3459 ( NOTIS )
02026773 ( OCLC )
99004525 ( LCCN )

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ak STORY, OF MAGEELAN AND Toe
DISCOVERY OF [he PaInIPRINES







BY HEZEKIAH BUTTERWORTH.
Uniform Edition. Each, 12mo, cloth, $1.50.

The Story of Magellan. A Tale of the Discovery
of the Philippines. Illustrated by F. T. Merrill and
Others.

The Treasure Ship. A Story of Sir William Phipps
and the Inter-Charter Period in Massachusetts. Illus-
trated by B. West Clinedinst and Others.

The Pilot of the Mayflower. Illustrated by H.
Winthrop Peirce and Others.

True to his Home. A Tale of the Boyhood of
Franklin. Illustrated by H. Winthrop Peirce.

The Wampum Belt; or, The Fatrest Page of
ffistory. A Tale of William Penn’s Treaty with
the Indians. With 6 full-page Illustrations.

The Knight of Liberty. A Tale of the Fortunes of
Lafayette. With 6 full-page Illustrations,

The Patriot Schoolmaster. A Tale of the Minute-
men and the Sons of Liberty. With 6 full-page
Illustrations by H. Winthrop Peirce.

In the Boyhood of Lincoln. A Story of the Black
Hawk War and the Tunker Schoolmaster. With 12
Illustrations and colored Frontispiece.

The Boys of Greenway Court. A Story of the
Early Years of Washington. With ro full-page
Illustrations.

The Log School-House on the Columbia. With
13 full-page Illustrations by J. Carter Beard, E, J.
Austen, and Others.

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, NEW YORK.











Magellan planting the Cross in the Philippine Islands.

(See page 128.)



THE STORY OF MAGELLAN

AND

THE DISCOVERY OF THE PHILIPPINES

BY
HEZEKIAH BUTTERWORTH

AUTHOR OF
THE TREASURE SHIP, THE PILOT OF THE MAYFLOWER,
TRUE TO HIS HOME, THE WAMPUM BELT,
IN THE BOYHOOD OF LINCOLN, ETC.

ILLUSTRATED BY FRANK T. MERRILL
AND OTHERS



NEW YORK
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY

1899



CopyricuHt, 1899,
By D. APPLETON AND COMPANY.



“Fired by thy fame,* and with his King in ire
To match thy deed, shall Magalhaes aspire.

“ Along the regions of the burning zone,
To deepest South he dares the course unknown.

“A land of giants shall his eyes behold,
Of camel strength, surpassing human mould.

‘‘Beneath the Southern star’s cold gleam he braves
And stems the whirl of land-surrounded waves.

“Forever movéd to the hero’s fame,
Those foaming straits shall bear his deathless name.”
CamoENs.

* Vasco da Gama.



PREFACE.

I HAVE been asked to write a story of Ferdi-
nand Magellan, the value of whose discoveries has
received a new interpretation in the development of
the South Temperate Zone of America, and in the
ceding of the Philippine Islands to the United States.
The works of Lord Stanley and of Guillemard fur-
nish comprehensive histories of the intrepid discov-
erer of the South Pacific Ocean and the Philippine
Islands; but there would seem to be room for a
short, picturesque story of Magellan’s adventures,
such as might be read by family lamps and in
schools.

To attempt to write such a story is more than
a pleasure, for the study of Magellan reveals a char-
acter high above-his age; a man unselfish and true,
who was filled with a passion for discovery, and who
sought the welfare of humanity and the glory of

the Cross rather than wealth or fame. Among
vii



viii THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

great discoverers he has left a character wellnigh
ideal. The incidents of his life are not only honor-
able, but usually have the color of chivalry.

His voyages, as pictured by his companion Piga-
fetta, the historian, give us our first view of the
interesting native inhabitants of the South Tem-
perate Zone and of the Pacific archipelagoes, and his
adventures with the giants of Patagonia and with
the natives of the Ladrone Islands, read almost like
stories of Sinbad the Sailor. The simple record of
his adventures is in itself a storybook.

Magellan, from his usually high and unselfish
character, as well as for the lasting influence of
what he did as shown in the new developments of
civilization, merits a place among household heroes;
and it is in this purpose and spirit I have under-
taken a simple sympathetic interpretation of his
most noble and fruitful life. I have tried to put into
the form of a story the events whose harvests now
appear after’nearly four hundred years, and to pic-
ture truthfully a beautiful and inspiring character.
To the narrative of his lone lantern I have added
some tales of the Philippines.

H. BUTTERWORTH.

28 WorceEstTER STREET, Boston, Mass.



CONTENTS.

CHAPTER PAGE
I—A STRANGE ROYAL ORDER : : : A : z : 1
II.—FRIENDS WITH A PURPOSE, : : : : : a 9

TII.—Princze Henry raz Navicator anp Vasco pa GAMA .- 15
IV.—THE ENTHUSIASTS CARRY THEIR PLANS To THE Kine . 224

V.—ABOUT THE HAPPY ITALIAN WHO WISHED T0 SEE THE

WORLD.—BEAUTIFUL SEVILLE! . , fi 7 : . 88
VI.—Enemies.—Hstepan GorMez . : ; A : f . 48
VII.—* Maroonep” . A i z : : : : 5 . 82

VIUIL—* THe wonDERS or NEW LANDS.”—PIGAFETTA’S TALES OF

HIS ADVENTURES WITH MAGELLAN.—THE STORY OF “THE
FOUNTAIN TREE.”—“ Sr, Etmo’s Fire” , : c . 60
IX.—PINEAPPLES, POTATOES, VERY OLD PROPLE , : : EO)

X.—THE FIRST GIANT.—THE ISLANDS OF GEESE AND GOSLINGS.—

THE DANCING GIANTS . z ss . : : ‘i . 6
XI.—CaprurRING A GIANT.—MAGELLAN’s DECISION ; : . 84
XTI.—Tue mutiny at Port Junray.—Tue Srrairs.—1519 . 7 OL

XTIT.—* THe ADMIRAL WAS MAD!” , : ; : : : . 99
XIV.—Tue Pactric.--TuE DEATH OF THE GIANTS . . ; . 108
XV.—WELcomE to THE Puinipprnes! : . : : . 108

XVIL—Tue visrr or rue Kinc.—PIGarEerra VISITS THE Kine. 116
ix



x THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

CHAPTER
XVII.—Eastrer SunpDAY.—MAGELLAN PLANTS THE CROSS - :

XVIII.—CuRISTIANITY AND TRADE ESTABLISHED.—THE BAPTISM OF
THE QUEEN . . : a : : 7 : : :
XIX.—Haucyon Days . ‘ : 3 i . , z 3
XX.—THE DEATH OF MAGELLAN . . : : : : :
XXI.—TueE Spice Istanps.—WoNDERFUL BIRDS.—CLOVES, CINNA-
MON, NUTMEGS, GINGER.—THE SHIPS OVERLOADED .
XXII.—MeEsquiTa IN PRISON. . : ; : : ; :
XXIIL—SrrancE stoRies.—THE WISE OLD WOMEN.—THE WALKING
LEAVES.—THE HAUNTED SANDALWOOD TREES.—THE Em-
PEROR OF CHINA.—THE LITTLE BOY AND THE GIANT BIRD
XXIV.—THE LosT DAY ‘i i : : : 5 : : 4
XXV.—In tHE CHuRcH oF OuR Lapy or Vicrory.—PIGAFETTA .

SUPPLEMENTAL : ‘ _ : : ‘ - 3 :

PAGE

122

129
136
139

144
157

161
173
176
182



LIST OF FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS.

FACING

Magellan planting the Cross in the Philippine Islands #vontispiece

Lisbon, from the south bank of the Tagus

Ferdinand Magellan .

“He is a renegade. His arms must come down!”

Barcelona .

Night after night the ships followed Magellan’s lantern

Interior of the Aledzar of Seville

The dancing giant

Mount Mayon, on the Island of Luzon .

The death of Magellan

Pigafetta presenting the history of the voyage to the King of
Spain .

Map of the Philippine Islands

Native houses in Manila .

Hong Kong

Tloilo .

Boats on the River Pasig

PAGE



THE STORY OF MAGELLAN,

CHAPTER I.
A STRANGE ROYAL ORDER.

I Am to tell the story of a man who had faith in
himself.

The clouds and the ocean bear his name. Lord
Stanley has called him “the greatest of ancient and
modern navigators.”

That was a strange royal order, indeed, which
Dom Manoel, King of Portugal, issued in the early
part of the fifteenth century. It was in effect: “Go
to the house of Hernando de Magallanes, in Sabrosa,
and tear from it the coat of arms. Hernando de
Magallanes (Ferdinand Magellan) has transferred
his allegiance to the King of Spain.”

The people of the mountain district must have
been very much astonished when the cavaliers, if
such they were, appeared to execute this order.

As the arms were torn away from the ancient
house, we may imagine the alcalde of the place in-
quiring:

1



9 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

“What has our townsman done? Did he not
serve our country well in the East?”

“He is a renegade!” answers the commander.

“But he carried his plans for discovery to our
own King first before he went to the court of Spain.”

“Say no more! Spain is reaping the fruits of
his brain, and under his lead is planting her colo-
nies in the new seas, to the detriment of our country
and the shame of the throne. His arms must come
down. Portugal rejects his name forever!”

The officers of the King tore down the arms.
They thought they had consigned the name for
which the arms stood to oblivion. As the Jewish
hierarchy said of Spinoza: “Let his name be cast
out under the whole heavens!” That name rose
again.

Years passed and a nephew of Magellan inherited
one of the family estates. He was stoned in the
streets on account of his name. This man fled in
exile from Portugal to Brazil. He died there, and
said: “Let no heir or descendant of mine ever re-
store the arms of my family.”

In his will he wrote:

“J desire that the arms of my family (Magellan)
should remain forever obliterated, as was done by
order of my Lord and King, as @ punishment for the
crime of Ferdinand Magellan, because he entered
the service of Castile to the injury of our kingdom.”

It is the history of this same Ferdinand Magellan,



A STRANGE ROYAL ORDER. 3

whom Portugal and his own family sought to crush |
out from the world, that we are now about to
trace.

Following his highest inspiration, he shut his
eyes to the present, and followed the light of the
star of destiny in his soul. His discovery seems
to open to the West the doors of China.

He was filled from boyhood with a passion for
finding unknown lands and waters; he was haunted
by ideals and visions of noble exploits for the good
of mankind. His own country, Portugal, would
not listen to his projects at the time that he
offered them to the court; so, like Columbus, Ves-
pucci, and Cabot, he sought the favor of another
country. Nothing could stand before the high pur-
pose of his soul. “If not by Portugal, then by
Spain,” he said to an intimate friend; meaning that,
if his own country denied him the favor of giving
him an opportunity for exploration, he would pre-
Sent his cause to the court of Spain, which he
did.

This man, whose real name was Fernao de Ma-
galhaes, was born about the year 1480, at Sabrosa,
in Portugal, a wintry district where the hardy soil
and the “ gloomy grandeur ” of the mountain scenery
produced men of strong bodies and lofty spirit. He
belonged to a noble family, “one of the noblest in
the kingdom.” His boyhood was passed in the
Sierras. He had a love of works of geography and



4 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN. .

travel, and he dreamed even then of sunny zones,
undiscovered waters, and unknown regions of the
world. Henry the Navigator and his school of
pilots, astronomers, and explorers, had left the
country full of the spirit of new discoveries which
yet lived.

He went to the capital of Portugal to be edu-
cated, and was made a page to the Queen. He was
yet a boy when Columbus returned, bringing the.
enthralling news of a new world. Spain was filled
with excitement at the event; her cities rang with
jubilees by day and fiared with torches at night.
Portugal caught the new spirit of her late King,
Henry the Navigator, and was ambitious to rival
the discoveries of Spain. She had already estab-
lished herself in the glowing realms of India.

In 1509 Magellan went to the West Indies in the
service of the Portuguese Government. He joined
the expedition that discovered the Spice Islands of
Banda, and it became his conviction that these
islands could be reached by a new ocean way.

A great vision arose in his mind. It was a sug-
gestion that never left him until he saw its fulfill-
ment in an unexpected way on seas of which he
never had dreamed.

This view was that he could sail around the
world and reach the Spice Islands by the way of
the West.

In the service of the King against the Moors in one



bo





















































































































































































































































































































































































































































dts MAAN

Lisbon, from the south bank



of the Tagus,



6 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN,

of the Portuguese wars, he received a wound which
healed, but left him lame for life. He, like other
officers, sent in his claim for the pension due to
such service. He received answer from the parsi-
monious King (Dom Manoel):

“Your claim is not good. Your wound has
healed.”

He was wounded more deeply by this insult than
he could have been by any poisoned dart from the
Moors. That he should have been refused the recog-
nition of those who had shed blood in his country’s
cause rankled in his heart, especially as he saw his
comrades paraded in honor and pensioned for lesser
disabilities. He left Portugal, as an exile, and went
to Spain.

Here the high aspirations of the lame soldier met
with recognition, and it was this service that caused
the Portuguese King to issue the strange order
which has introduced the young and high-spirited
grandee to the readers of this story.

If he had faults—as far as history records he
had no vices—his high aim overcame them. He
had caught the spirit of Portuguese Henry the Navi-
gator, and his soul had glowed when the fame of
Columbus first thrilled Spain. He had learned the
history of Vasco da Gama, whose name was the
glory of Portugal. He had educated himself for
action.

It was the age of opportunity. He saw it; he












Lo



Ferdinand Magellan.
After a painting by Velasquez.



8 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

could not know the way, but he knew the guide
that was in him. As a son of the Church, which he
then was, he consecrated all he had to her glory.
What was fame, what was wealth, what was any-
thing to becoming a benefactor of the world, and
living forever in the heart of all mankind?

So his deserted house crumbed in Sabrosa, and
his coat of arms did not there reappear until centu-
ries had followed the course of his genius, and the
whole world came to know his worth.

In view of recent events his character becomes
one of the most interesting of past history.

After nearly four hundred years that cast-out
name rises like a star!

Why, in the view of to-day, was that name cast
out?

Because Magellan saw his duty in a larger life
than in the restrictions of a provincial court. The
lesson has its significance. He who sinks self and
policy, and follows his highest duty and enters the
widest field, will in the final judgment of man re-
ceive the noblest and best reward.

We love a lover of mankind, and it strengthens
faith and hope to follow the keel of such a sailor on
any sea.



CHAPTER II.
FRIENDS WITH A PURPOSE.

Sous kindle kindred souls, and the inspirations
of friendship commonly form a part of the early his-
tory of beneficent lives.

One of Magellan’s early friends was Francisco
Serrao, who sailed with him for Malacca, a great
mart of merchandise in the East. It was to him
that Magellan wrote that he would meet him again
in the East, “if not by the way of Portugal, by that
of Spain;” words of signal import, which we have
already quoted.

Serrao had a very curious, romantic, and pathetic
history. He lived in the times of the Portuguese
Viceroys of India. He was made captain of a ship
which sought to explore the Spice Islands, which
were then held to be the paradise of the East.
Cloves and nutmegs then were luxuries, and when
brought to Portugal bore the flavor of the sun lands
of the far-off mysterious seas.

At Banda ships were loaded with spices. On
sailing there Serrao suffered shipwreck and was cast

9



10 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

upon a reef and found refuge on a deserted island.
The place was a resort of pirates or wreckers. Some
pirates sighted the wreck of the ship and sought to
plunder the wreckage.

“We have no ship, and the island is without food
or water,” said Serrao to his men. “ Hide under the
rock and obey me, and we will soon have a ship and
water and food.”

The men hid among the caverns of the reef. The
pirates landed, and left their ship for the wreckage.

Serrao rushed through the surf, followed by his
men, and boarded the pirates’ vessel.

The wreckers were filled with terror when they
saw what would be their fate if left there, and they
begged to be taken on board, and were received by
Serrao as prisoners.

Serrao traded for many years among the Spice
Islands and was advanced to high positions, but was
poisoned at last, as is supposed, by an intrigue of the
King of Tidor.

One of the most inspiring of Magellan’s friends
was Ruy Faleiro, who had wonderful instincts and
a wide vision, but who became a madman. Faleiro
was a Portuguese who, like Magellan, was out of
favor with the court. He was an astronomer, a geog-
rapher, and an astrologer. He had a fiery and impul-
sive temper, but with it a passion for discovery, and
so was drawn into Magellan’s heart by gravitation.
The two journeyed together, studied together, and



FRIENDS WITH A PURPOSE. . 11

started at about the same time for Spain. At Seville
they met in a club of famous discoverers, students,
and refugees.

They had one vision in common, that there was
a short route to the Moluccas by the way of the
West. The route was not what they dreamed it
to be; but there was a new way to the Spice Islands
by the West and East, a way that probably no
voyager from Europe had ever seen, and their
vision was decisive of one of the greatest events
—the circumnavigation of the world. The angle of
vision was not true in their private meetings, nor
had Magellan’s been before they met; but another
angle leading from it was true, and would cause
a change of the conception of the world when poor
Ruy Faleiro’s brain was losing its hold on such
entrancing hopes.

“ We can reach Molucca by a short voyage to the
West,” said Ruy Faleiro.

“JT am sure that I'can do this, if I can have an
expedition such as the King of Spain can give me,”
said Magellan.

_ “You must never communicate this secret to any
man,” said Ruy.

“J will never mention the subject to any but
you,” said Magellan, “until we can act together.”

The vision of finding the East by a short passage
to the West, involved so great a prospect of human
progress and glory that it would not let Magellan



12 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

rest at any time. It haunted him wherever he went.
He began to talk about it under restraint, and

friends came to see what was on his mind and to
take advantage of it.



The earliest map of the world.
By Hecateus of Miletus (sixth century B. c.). Probably copied in part from
Anaximander, inventor of map drawing.

The fiery Ruy Faleiro, when he found that his
friend had opened their confidential secret, partly
broke friendship with him. Magellan could only



FRIENDS WITH A PURPOSE. 13

acknowledge his error, and say that he never meant
in his heart to betray the secrets of his friend, the
cosmographer.

Faleiro dreamed on, but his mind weakened.

The popular legend about this unhappy man was,
that being an astrologer he cast his own horoscope,
and found that the expedition that he hoped to com-
mand would be lost, and so feigned madness. This
is only a story.

Faleiro died in Seville about 1523.

It would be interesting to know if he lived to
hear of the great discovery of his old friend Ma-
gellan, and if he joined in the general rejoicing
over it. It is probable that he lived to see
the strange ways by which his countryman had
been led, not over a short passage, but over far-
distant seas. His was a pitiable fate; but his
name merits honorable mention among men, who,
like Miranda in South America, have inspired
great deeds which they themselves could not ac-
complish.

Men of vision and men of action are essential to
each other; for many men can see what only a few
others can perform.

Magellan married Beatriz Barbosa about the year
1518. He was the father of one son. His wife
died shortly after hearing the news of his great dis-
covery of the Pacific and the new way to the East.

He was now prepared to go to Charles V, King



14 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

of Spain, son of the demented Queen Joanna, the
daughter of Isabella, and to lay before him a plan
of opening a short way to the East by sailing West.
This purpose more and more absorbed his soul—he
himself was nothing, discovery was everything. The
frown of Portugal no longer cast any deep shadow
over his life; it was his mission to find. He heard in
the acclaim of Columbus a prophecy of what his
own name would one day be.



CHAPTER III.

PRINCE HENRY THE NAVIGATOR AND VASCO
DA GAMA.

ALL things follow suggestion and inspiration,
and the discovery of the Western World owes much
to the heart and brain of Prince Henry, called the
Navigator. Although the son of a King, he felt that
he was more than that—a son of Humanity. He took
up his residence far from the pomp of courts on
the bleak, bare, solitary promontory of Sagres, the
sharp angle of Western Europe. Here he could see
the sun go down on the western sea, day by day.
Some inward genius like a haunting spirit seemed to
beckon his thoughts toward the West.

In view of his abode on a tall headland were the
ruins of a Druidical temple, where’ Strabo tells us
the gods used to assemble at night under the moon
and stars. So the place was called the Sacrum
Promontorium, and it was in this region that Prince
Henry schooled his soul in navigation and sought
to inspire all adventurers upon the sea. “ Farther”

was his motto, and “T"arther yet!” In his solitude
15 :



16 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN,

he called to him a company of restless spirits with
a passion for discovery, and said to them all, “ Far-
ther,” and “ Farther yet!”

The night of the dark ages was passing, and in
the new dawn of civilization, Prince Henry had vi-
sions of new ways to India, the magnificent; the
land of gold, gems, and spices, where the sun shone
on gardens of palms and seas of glory.

There were no lighthouses then on the African
coast; there were no sea charts, and the compass
was but little known. But there were eternal stars,
and under them were the living instincts that
awaken genius.

Prince Henry the Navigator was the fourth son
of King Joao I, or John the Great, and of Queen
Philippa, of the Roses. He was a great-grandson
of Edward III, of England.

Prince Henry’s motto was “ Talent de bien faire”
—“talent of good faculty.” The motto furnishes in
brief a history of his life.

The first fruit of Prince Henry’s geographical
studies was the discovery of the islands of Ma-
deira; but there were islands beyond Madeira, and
his restless spirit cried out in the night: “ Farther!”
and “Tarther yet!”

Cape Bojador, farther “ than the farthest point
of the earth,” rose just before the supposed regions
of sea monsters, fire, and darkness. Prince John sent
a navigator there, and found serene seas.



PROGRESS _OF PORTUGUESE DISCOVERY



S‘ Helena
01°







18 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN,

“ Farther! ”

In 1446 the Prince obtained a charter of the
Canary Islands. His ships next discovered the
Azores. But there were lands and islands and seas
“farther yet.”

Prince Henry died in 1463, about thirty years
before the triumph of Columbus.

He was the father of modern discovery, the spirit
of which rested not
until the map of the
whole world could
be drawn. He was
buried in a splendid
tomb, and the pupils
of his school of cos-
mography and navi-
gation continued to
penetrate the ocean
farther and farther to
the South and West.
Vasco da Gama i i,
opened the ocean Prince Henry the Navigatoy.
ways to India, and From a drawing by Allegra Eggleston,

, in The Story of Columbus,
the two great navi-
gators, Columbus and Magellan, owed much to the
spirit of the Prince who left courts that he might
found a school amid the sea desolations of St. Vin-
cent, in order to inspire young sailors to venture
always “ Farther!” and “ Farther yet!”







“He is a renegade. His arms must come down!”

(See page 2.)



PRINCE HENRY THE NAVIGATOR. 19

We must here tell you something of Vasco da

Gama, in order that you may better understand the
plan and purpose of Magellan.
Take your map of the world. Before the passage
to India was discovered by sailing around the Cape
of Good Hope, Africa, the trade between Asia and
Europe was carried on in this manner: There was
a great commercial city on the southern coast of
Arabia (Arabia Felix) called Alda, or Port Alda. It
was a city of merchants. To this port came the ships
from the East—China, Japan, India—laden with
gold, silk, and spices. The merchants of Alda
carried these goods to the Port of Suez on the
Red Sea. Thence the merchandise was conveyed
on camels to the Nile and to Alexandria, Egypt,
and thence by ships to the ports of the Mediterra-
nean.

Vasco da Gama discovered a new way to India
by doubling the Cape of Good Hope, and when he
returned from that voyage all Europe rang with his
praise. His discovery of the way to India from the
Mediterranean by rounding Africa was one of the
most momentous ever made. Wasco da Gama holds
rank with Columbus in the unveiling of the mys-
teries of the ocean world.

King John the Navigator had heard such won-
derful tales of India that he wished to find a way
there by water. He accordingly sent one Bartholo-
meu Diaz on an expedition with this end in view.



920 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

Diaz did not find India, but he found a cape on the
southernmost point of Africa, which he doubled.

So fearful were the tempests there that he called
it the Cape of Storms.

But King John saw that the islands of India
lay in that direction, and he exclaimed in delight
on hearing Diaz’s narrative of the tempestuous
place:

“Tis the Cape of Good Hope!” This gave the
cape its name.

A Jewish astrologer told Dom Manoel, King of
Portugal, that the riches of India could yet be found
by way of the sea. Of such a discovery the new
King dreamed. Who should he get to undertake a
voyage with such a purpose?

One day, as he sat in his halls among his courtiers
and grandees studying maps, a man of about thirty
years, who had a noble bearing, entered an outer
apartment. A sword hung by his side.

The King, who had been thinking of his great
mariners, lifted his face and said:

“Thank God! I have found my man. Bring to
me Vasco da Gama.”

He it was that stood in the outer hall.

“Vasco,” said the King, “I know your soul. For
the glory of Portugal you must find India by the
way of the sea!”

“J am at your service, sire, while life shall last.”

“ Depart in all haste.”





PRINCE HENRY THE NAVIGATOR, 21

It was March, 1497. Vasco da Gama raised his
sails and departed from Lisbon.

He passed the “Cape of Good Hope,” and met
with many adventures,
the narratives of which
would fill a book.

He crossed the India
Ocean, blown pleasant-
ly on by the _ trade-
winds.

One day a loud cry
arose:

“Land! land!”

The pilot came run-
ning to Vasco da Gama,
and fell at his feet.

“Captain, behold India!”

The shores of India rose in the burning light of
the tropic seas. Vasco da Gama saw them and fell
upon his knees.

Mountain rose above mountain, and hill over hill;
then green palms and shining beaches came into
view like scenes of enchantment.

“That is Cananor,” said the Moorish pilot; “the
great city of Calicat is twelve leagues distant.”

They sailed over those twelve leagues of clear
resplendent waters and came to Calicat, or Malabar.
That day of discovery was Portugal’s glory.

Calicat was a merchant city of the East, and one
3

bu iy

U
i

3y p=
al Oy):

J
))



Vasco da Gama.



PORTUGUESE INDIES









Philippin

(SPANISH)





















PRINCE HENRY THE NAVIGATOR. 93

of the most famous of India. Here came Arabian
and Egyptian merchants. It was a Mohammedan
city, and the princes of Calicat encouraged trade
between the Arabs and Hindoos. The city was now
to become an emporium for the Western World.

After many adventures in Malabar, Vasco da
Gama cruised along the coast of India. Everything
was wonderful, and the wonders grew.

In September, 1499, he returned, and was re-
ceived like a sovereign by the Portuguese King. His
arrival was a holiday, the glory of which has lived
in all Portuguese holidays until now.

He was given titles of distinction He was made
a Viceroy of India.

Twenty years after these events Magellan was
destined to discover another way to India.



CHAPTER IV.

THE ENTHUSIASTS CARRY THEIR PLANS TO THE
KING.

MAGELLAN, full of his project of finding a short
way to the rich spicery by sailing West, now sought
the favor of the Spanish court. Gold has ever been
the royal want, and nobles have always had open
ears to schemes that promised to fill the public
treasury.

Magellan’s interesting friend Francisco Serrao,
who had remained in the Indian possessions of the
Portuguese, after Magellan’s return, had discovered
resources of the tropical seas of the Orient that were
almost boundless. He had written to Magellan:

“Tf you would become rich return to the Mo-
luccas.”

This letter would be a sufficient passport to the
nobles who had the ear of the King. He showed the
letter to the King’s ministers.

He thought that the point of South America
turned westward, as the Cape of Good Hope toward

the East. He had an imaginary map in his mind of
24







ne

ENTHUSIASTS CARRY THEIR PLANS TO THE KING. 95

an ocean world whose shape had no real existence,
but that answered well as a theory.

Magellan had brought a globe from Portugal on
which he had drawn the undiscovered world as he
thought it existed. The strait which he had hoped
to find was omitted on this globe in his drawings
that no navigator might anticipate his discovery.

Some of the ministers listened to the project with
indifference, a few with ridicule; but as a rule Ma-
gellan appealed to willing ears. The ministers as a
body agreed to commend the enterprise to the King.
The Haros of Antwerp, the Rothschilds of the time,
favored the expedition. So Magellan and Faleiro
made out a petition of formal proposals which they
desired to present to the King, and awaited the
opportunity.

That opportunity soon came. Charles V, son of
Joanna, who was passing her days in solitude and
grief on account of the loss of her husband, was on
his way to Aragon. He was Emperor of Germany
and King of Spain. He was a youth now; having
been born in Ghent, February 24, 1500. He came to
the throne of Spain in 1516, as the disordered intel-
lect of his mother made her incapable of reigning.
He was elected German Emperor in 1519.

In his youth he had been dissolute. Seeing the
responsibilities that he owed to the world and the
age, he suddenly received new moral impulses and
conquered himself, and his moral life was followed



26 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

by a religious disposition. He received from the
Pope the title of Roman Emperor. His powerful in-

i a i
Ape ~~

a) Ke

a on Es “ey





os

























Charles V.
After a painting by Titian.
tellect subdued a great part of continental Hurope
to his will; but he became weary of the cares of



ENTHUSIASTS CARRY THEIR PLANS TO THE KING. 97

state, retired from the world, and ended his life as
a religious recluse.

The young King entered Spain in triumph, but
amid the glare of receptions his ears were not dull
to projects for acquiring gold.

Magellan and Faleiro, under the commendation
of the ministry, were soon able to lay their project
before the young grandson of the great Isabella. He
received them in the spirit that Isabella had met
Columbus. He approved their plans, and charged
them to make preparations for the expedition.

Charles entered Zaragoza in May, 1518, a youth
of eighteen, and Magellan and Faleiro followed the
royal train on its triumphal march in the blooming
days of the year. They were happy men, and their
glowing visions added to the joy of the court on its
journey amid singing nightingales and pealing bells.

The royal name signed to Magellan’s commission
was “Juana,” who had been the favorite daughter
of Queen Isabella, who had signed the commission
of Columbus.* This royal daughter of Aragon and
Castile was born at Toledo, November 6, 1479. She



* Donna Juana and Don Carlos, her son, by the grace of God, Queen
and King of Castile, Leon, Aragon, the two Sicilies, and Jerusalem, of Na-
varra, Granada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, the Mallorcas, Seville, Sardinia,.
Cordova, Corsica, Murcia, Jaen, the Algarves, of Aljazira, Gibraltar, of the
Canary Isles, of the Indies, isles and mainland of the Ocean-sea, Counts of
Barcelona, Lords of Biscay and Molina, Dukes of Athens and Neopatria,
Counts of Roussillon and Cerdana, Marquises of Euristan and Gociano,
Archdukes of Austria, Dukes of Bergona and Brabant, Counts of Flan-
ders and Tirol, ete.



28 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

was in the bloom of her girlhood when the news of
the return of Columbus thrilled Spain.

She was a girl of ardent affections; a lover of
music; not beautiful, but charming in manner; and
at the age of eighteen was betrothed to Philip of
the Low Countries, called Philip the Handsome.

The wedding of this daughter of Isabella was to
be celebrated in Flanders by fétes of unusual splen-
dor. A fleet of one hundred and thirty vessels pre-
pared to bear the bride to her handsome Prince.
The ships were under the command of the chival-
rous admiral of Castile.

Juana took leave of her mother at the end of
August, 1496, and embarked at the port of Laredo.
A more interesting bride under more joyous cir-
cumstances had seldom gone forth to meet a bride-
groom.

The sails covered the sea under the flags of the
glory of Spain. They drifted away amid music and
shoutings, but the salvos of the guns had hardly
died away before terrible storms arose. The fleet
was shattered, and many of the vessels were lost.

The young bride herself arrived in Flanders
safely, and her marriage with the archduke fol-
lowed at Lille.

When Queen Isabella heard of the birth of
Charles, she recalled that it fell on the day of Mat-
thias, and exclaimed, “ Sors cecidit super Mathiam’”
—‘the lot fell upon Matthias.”



. Flemish nobles, and

ENTHUSIASTS CARRY THEIR PLANS TO THE KING. 29

She predicted that the infant would become the
King of Spain.

Philip and Juana were summoned to Spain to.
meet the people over whom it then seemed probable
that they would soon
be called to reign.
They entered France
in 1501, attended by

wherever they went
was a holiday. There
were weeks of splen-
did fétes in honor
of the progress.

When Ferdinand
and Isabella heard
of the arrival of
Philip and Juana in
Spain they hastened Ferdinand and Isabella.
to Toledo to meet oe eon
them. Here Philip and his Queen received the alle-
giance of the Cortes.

But Philip was a gay Prince, and he loved the
dissipations of Flanders more than his wife or the
interests of his prospective Spanish possessions. So
he left his wife, and returned to Flanders.

The conduct of the handsome Prince drove Juana
mad. She loved him so fondly that she thought only
of him, and sat in silence day after day with her







380 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

eyes fixed on the ground, as an historian says, “ equal-
ly regardless of herself, her future subjects, and her
afflicted parents.”

She subsequently joined Philip at Burgos. Here
Philip died of fever after overexertion at a game of
ball. Juana never left his bedside, or shed a tear.
Her grief obliterated nearly all things in life, and
she was dumb. Her only happiness now, except in
music, was to be with his dead body.

She removed her husband’s remains to Santa
Clara.

The body was placed on a magnificent car, and
was accompanied in the long way to the tomb by a
train of nobles and priests. Juana never left it.
She would not allow it to be moved by day. She
said:

“A widow who has lost the sun of her soul
should never expose herself to the light of day!”

Wherever the procession halted, she ordered new
funeral ceremonies. She forbade nuns to approach
the body. Finding the coffin had been carried to a
nunnery at a stage of the journey, she had it re-
moved to the open fields, where she watched by
it, and caused the embalmed body to be revealed to
her by torches. She had a tomb made for the re-
mains in sight of her palace windows in Santa
Clara, and she watched over it in silence for forty-
seven years, taking little interest in any other thing.

But as she survived Ferdinand and Isabella, her



ENTHUSIASTS CARRY THEIR PLANS TO THE KING. 31

name for a time was affixed to royal commissions,
and so Magellan sailed in the service of Charles
under the signature of Juana, who was silently
watching over her husband’s tomb, in the hope that
the Prince would one day rise again.

We relate this narrative to give a view of the
events of the period, and for the same reason we
must speak of an-
other eminent per-
son who acted in the
place of the Queen in
her unhapy state of
mind.

This was the great
political genius of
the time, the virtu-
ous and benevolent
Cardinal Ximenes,
statesman, archbish-
op, the heart of the
people and the con-
science of the Church. Cardinal Ximenes.

He was born of a After a painting by Velasquez.
humble family in Castile in 1487. He was educated
in Rome. His character and learning were such
that Queen Isabella chose him for her confessor, and
made him Archbishop of Toledo, with the approval
of the Pope.

On the death of Philip in 1505, he was made









32 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

regent for Juana. IJerdinand named Ximenes re-
gent of Spain on his deathbed, until Charles V
should return from Flanders to Spain.

The regency of Ximenes was one of honor and
glory. He himself lived humbly and simply amid
all his associations of pomp and power.

He maintained thirty poor persons daily at ne
own cost, and gave half of his income to charity.
He excited the jealousy of Charles V at last, and
lost his power in consequence. He lived to extreme
age, and left a character that Ee pan has ever loved
to hold in honor.

Such was the political condition of Spain in the
early days of Magellan.



CHAPTER V.

ABOUT THE HAPPY ITALIAN WHO WISHED TO SEE
THE WORLD.—BEAUTIFUL SEVILLE!

WE should have known but little of the adven-
tures of Magellan, but for Antonia Pigafetta, Cheva-
lier, and Knight of Rhodes.

He was a young Italian of a susceptible heart and
happy imagination.

He came wandering to Barcelona, Spain, in the
generation that remembered Columbus, and the
splendid scenes that welcomed the return of Colum-
bus on the field of Sante Fé. He must have heard
the enthralling description of those golden days—
he could not be a Columbus; but, if he could win
the good will of Magellan, he might go after Colum-
bus and see what no Europeans had seen.

So he wandered the streets of Barcelona and
heard the tales of the events that occurred when
the “Viceroy of the Isles” was received there by
Isabella.

What days those had been! The march of Colum-

bus through Spain to meet Isabella at Sante Fé, was
33



84 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

such as had a demigod appeared on earth. Spain
was thrilled. The world knew no night. The trum-
pets of heralds rent the air, and men’s hearts swelled
high at the tales of the golden empires that Colon
had added to Aragon and Castile. Alas! they did
not know that there are riches which do not enrich,
and that it is only the gold that does good that
ennobles.

As Columbus approached with his glittering
cavaliers songs rent the air, whose words have been
interpreted—

«Thy name, O Fernando!
Through all earth shall be sounded,

Columbus has triumphed,
His foes are confounded

! ”
or
““Thy name, Isabella,
Through all earth shall be sounded,
Columbus has triumphed,

His foes are confounded!”

»

To Aragon and Castile Columbus had “ given a
new world.” Peals of golden horns shook the
delighted cities, where balconies overflowed with
flowers.

His reception at Barcelona by the King and
Queen had been made inconceivably splendid:

“That was a glorious day
That dawned on Barcelona. Banners filled
The thronging towers, the old bells rung, and blasts
Of lordly trumpets seemed to reach the sky

Cerulean. All Spain had gathered there,
And waited there his coming; Castilian knights,





















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Barcelona,



386 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

Gay cavaliers, hidalgos young, and e’en the old
Puissant grandees of far Aragon,
With glittering mail and waving plumes and all
The peasant multitude with bannerets
And charms and flowers.

“ Beneath pavilions
Of brocades of gold, the Court had met.
The dual crowns of Leon old and proud Castile
There waited him, the peasant mariner.

“The heralds waited
Near the open gates; the minstrels young and fair
Upon the tapestries and arrased walls,
And everywhere from all the happy provinces
The wandering troubadours.

« Afar was heard
Acry, along acclaim. Afar was seen
A proud and stately steed with nodding plumes,
Bridled with gold, whose rider stately rode,
And still afar a long and sinuous train
Of silvery cavaliers. A shout arose,
And all the city, all the vales and hills,
With acclamations rung.

“He came, the Genoese,
With reverent look and calm and lofty mien,
And saw the wondering eyes and heard the cries,
And trumpet peals, as one who followed still
Some Guide unseen.

“Before his steed
Crowned Indians marched with lowly faces,
And wondered at the new world that they saw;
Gay parrots screamed from their gold-circled arms,
And from their crests swept airy plumes. The sun
Shone full in splendor on the scene, and here
The old and new world met!”

The young Italian Chevalier, Pigafetta, Knight of
Rhodes, visited the scenes that his own countryman
had made immortal by his voyage.

He thought of the plumed Indians and of the



THE ITALIAN WHO WISHED TO SEE THE WORLD. 37

birds of splendid plumage that. Columbus had
brought back.

He heard much of Magellan, the “new Colum-
bus.” Why might he not go out upon unknown seas
with him and discover new races, and bring back
with him tropic spices, birds, and flowers?

He journeyed to Seville and there met Magellan.
He entered into the dreams of the new navigator.
He asked Magellan to let him sail with him.

“Why do you wish to enter upon such a hazard-
ous undertaking?” _

“T am desirous of seeing the wonderful things of
the ocean!”

Magellan saw it was so. The Spaniards might
distrust him, the Portuguese be jealous of him, but
here was a man who would have no race preju-
dices—a man after his own heart, whom he could
trust.

“You wish to see the wonders of the ocean
world?” he asked.

“Yes, and I can write, and whatever I may do,
and wherever I may go, I will always be true to
you—the heart of Pigafetta will always be loyal to
the Admiral!”

“My Italian Chevalier, you may embark with me
to see the wonders of the ocean world. You shall
follow my lantern.”

From that hour the young Italian lived in antici-
pation. What new lands would he see, what palm

4



88 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

islands, what gigantic men and strange birds, and
inhabitants of the sea?

The young Knight of Rhodes had spoken truly,
whatever light might fail, his heart would ever be
true to the Admiral.

So the Knight embarked with the rude crew to
follow, in the silences of uncharted seas, the lantern
of Magellan.

He composed on the voyage a narrative for Vil-
liers de ’Isle Adams, Grand Master of Rhodes. By
this narrative we are still able to follow in fancy
the lantern of Magellan through the straits that
now bear the name of Magellan, to the newly dis-
covered Pacific, and around the world.

His character was as spirited as Magellan’s was
noble.

We will sail with him in our voyage around the
world, for he went all the way and bore the news
of Magellan’s triumphs to Seville again.

Beautiful Seville! We must glance at the city
here. She was the pride of Spain in those times
when Spain dazzled the world. The Hispal of the
Phoenicians, the Hispales of the Roman conquest,
and the Seville of the Moors! Her glory had arisen
in the twilight of history, and had grown with the
advancement of the race.

She was indeed beautiful at the time when Ma-
gellan was preparing for the sea. The Moorish



BEAUTIFUL SEVILLE! 39

period had passed leaving her rich in arts and treas-
ures, and splendid architecture.

Situated on the banks of the Guadalquivir, circu-
lar in shape and surrounded with more than a hun-
dred Moorish towers, and about ten miles in circum-
ference, she ri-
valed the cities
of Europe and of
the Orient.

The great ca-
thedral was be-
ing completed at
that time, a moun-
tain of art, aris-
ing from its plain
of marble. It was
four hundred and
thirty-one feet
long, and three
hundred and fif-
teen feet wide,
with solemn and
grand arches
lighted by the
finest windows in Spain, perhaps the most en-
chanting lights through which the sun ever shone.
The altars were enriched by the wealth of dis-
covery.

Over this mountain of gold, marbles, and gems

















The Giralda.



40 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN. —

gleamed the Giralda, or weather vane, in the form
of a statue, three hundred and fifty feet high.

Seville at this time was a city of churches. To
these, sailors resorted while waiting for an expedi-
tion to complete its preparations for the sea, for most
of them were good Catholics, and such as hoped for
God’s favor in the enterprise upon which they were
about to enter.

Here, too, was the old Moorish palace, the Al-
cazar, with its delicate lacework like the walls of
the Alhambra, but richer in color. In this -palace
was the Hall of the Ambassadors, one of the most
enchanting apartments ever created by the genius
of man.

In the latter dream of Moorish fancy have passed
aching hearts, as well as those filled with wonder
and delight. Here Pedro the Cruel received one of
the kings of Granada, and murdered him with his
own hand, to rob him of the jewels that adorned his
person.

The tales of Pedro the Cruel haunted the city at
this time.

We are told that this monarch used to go about
the city in disguise.

One night he went out thus to serenade a beau-
tiful lady. As he approached the balcony with his
guitar where the lady lived, he saw another man
there, who had come for the same purpose. The
rival musician filled him with rage, and the King



BEAUTIFUL SEVILLE! 41

rushed upon him and struck him down and killed
him.

He fled away. He reasoned that as he was in
disguise no one could know him.

There was an old woman who kept a bakery
across the way from the house where the noble lady
lived. She was looking out of her window at the
time of the murder. She saw the act, and got a
view of the terrible face of the royal musician as
he was fleeing away.

“That was the King himself,” said the old bake
woman. “ By my soul, that was the King!”

The next day the news of the murder filled the
city. The murdered man was a person of rank and
importance. The people were alarmed and indig-
nant.

“Who did the deed?” was a question that arose
to every lip.

The King, cruel as he was, did not wish to be
suspected of being a street assassin. So he issued
a proclamation in this form:

“Unless the alcalde (judge) of Seville shall
discover the murderer of the gallant musician
within three days, the alcalde shall lose his
head.”

The city judge began to make great exertions
to discover the murderer.

The old bake woman came to him and said:

“T know who did the deed. But silence, silence!



49 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN,

I saw it with my own eyes, but we must be still. It
was the King himself!”

The alcalde dared not accuse the King, and yet
he must save his own head. What was he to do?

He made an image of the King. He then went to
the palace.

“QO King! I have found the murderer. I have
brought him here to receive sentence.”

The King was glad that a suspected person had
been found, so that the public thought might be
directed to the suspect.

“What shall be done with him?” asked the
alcalde.

“What! He who would slay a musician about to
serenade a noble lady?”

“Yes, your Majesty.”

“What shall be done with him? I condemn him
to death. Bring him before me.”

The alcalde brought in the image of the King,
and uncovered it.

The King beheld himself.

“T will save your head,” said the King, and the
alcalde went thoughtfully away.



CHAPTER VI.
ENEMIES.—ESTEBAN GORMEZ.

No man living could better know what he needed
for such a stupendous and unprecedented undertak-
ing than Magellan, who had already been to the
spicery of the Orient in the service of Albuquerque,
the Portuguese Viceroy. Under the royal sanction,
the dockyards of Seville were at his command. He
repaired to Seville, and was there looked upon as
one destined to harvest the wealth of the Indies.

But as soon as it became known in Portugal that
Magellan was to lead a new expedition of discovery,
the mistake that the King had made in rejecting
the proposal of the lame soldier, to whom he had re-
fused pension honors, became apparent. The court
saw what this rejected man of positive purpose and
invaluable knowledge of navigation might accom-
plish. Should his dreams be prophetic and his proj-
ects prove successful, the glory would go to Spain,
and the King would be held responsible for another
mistake like that which his predecessor had made

in the case of Columbus.
43



44 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

What must the court of Portugal do? The ham-
mers were flying in Seville on the ships loading for
the voyage. Magellan was making up his crews.
Spain had faith in him, and he had faith in himself 3
never a man had more.

Portugal must prevent the expedition. The
Crown must appeal to Magellan to withdraw from
it. The King must ask young King Charles to dis-
miss Magellan as an act of royal courtesy. If these
efforts were not successful, -it was argued that the
expedition must be arrested by force, or Magellan
must be murdered by secret spies of the court.

The fleet preparing was to consist of five ships
with ample equipment. These were named the
Trinidad, the San Antonio, of one hundred and
twenty Spanish tons each; the Concepcion, of ninety
Spanish tons; the Victoria, of eighty-five tons; and
the Santiago, of seventy-five. The Victoria, the ship
of destiny, was to circumnavigate the globe.

And now while the hammers were at work, the
dull King of Portugal began to arouse himself to
arrest the plan, and the court, seeing his spirit,
acted with him.

In the bright days in Zaragoza Magellan had
been warned that he was in danger of being assas-
sinated. But he did not take alarm. As his project
rose into public view at Seville he must have known
that he was surrounded by spies, but he did not heed
them; he kept right on, marching forward as it





















A6 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

were after the inspiration that had taken posses-
sion of his soul.

There was an India House in Seville, composed
of merchants, and these were favorable to the ex-
pedition. In Spain everything favored Magellan.

Aluaro da Costa was the Portuguese minister to
the court of Spain. He plotted against Magellan, and
sought an interview with young Charles in order to
induce him to eliminate the Portuguese from the ex-
pedition. Charles was about to become a brother-
in-law to Dom Manoel, and Aluaro da Costa could
appeal to the King in this cause in many ways.

Full of diplomacy and craft, he met the King
who had to weigh the prospect of gold and glory
against this personal argument. Gold outweighed
the family considerations, for Charles in his young
days was a man of powerful ambitions.

Aluaro da Costa wrote to Dom Manoel a graphic
account of this interview. It shows how politic
ministers of state were in those days. We can not
give the reader a clearer view of some of the ob-
stacles against which Magellan had to contend in
those perilous days in Spain than by citing Aluaro’s
account to Dom Manoel of his interview with young
Charles V in his intrigue against Magellan:

“Srre: Concerning Ferdinand Magellan’s affair,
how much I have done and how I have labored,
God knows, as I have written you at length; and
now I have spoken upon the subject very strongly



ENEMIES.—ESTEBAN GORMEZ. 47

to the King, putting before him all the inconven-
iences that in this case may arise, and also rep-
resenting to him what an ugly matter it was, and
how unusual for one King to receive the subjects
of another King, his friend, contrary to his wish,
a thing unheard of among cavaliers, and ac-
counted both ill-judged and ill-seeming. Yet I had
just put your Highness and your Highness’s posses-
sions at his service in Valladolid at the moment
that he was harboring these persons against your
will. I begged him to consider that this was not
the time to offend your Highness, the more so in an
affair which was of so little importance and so un-
certain; and that he would have plenty of subjects
of his own and men to make discoveries when the
time came, without availing himself of those mal-
contents of your Highness, whom your Highness
could not fail to believe likely to labor more for
your disservice than for anything else; also that
his Highness had had until now so much to do in
discovering his own kingdoms and dominions, and in
settling them, that he ought not to turn his atten-
tion to these new affairs, from which dissensions and
other matters, which may well be dispensed with,
may result.

“T also presented to him the bad appearance
that this would have at the very moment of the
marriage—the ratification of friendship and affec-
tion. And also that it seemed to me that your
Highness would much regret to learn that these
men asked leave of him to return,* and that he did



* This statement there is every reason to believe was a pure fiction of
Da Costa,



48 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

not grant it, the which are two faults—the receiv-
ing them contrary to your desire, and the retain-
ing them contrary to their own. And I begged of
him, both for his own and for your Highness’s sake,
that he would do one of two things: either permit
them to go, or put off the affair for this year, by
which he would not lose much; and means might
be taken whereby he might be obliged, and your
Highness might not be offended, as you would be
were this scheme carried out.

“He was so surprised, sire, at what I told him,
that I also was surprised; but he replied to me with
the best words in the world, saying that on no
account did he wish to offend your Highness, and
many other good words; and he suggested that I
should speak to the Cardinal, and confide the whole
matter to him.

“May the Lord increase the life and dominions
of your Highness to his holy service. From Sa-
ragoca, Tuesday night, the 28th day of September.

“J kiss the hands of your Highness,
“ ALUARO DA COSTA.”

Court intrigue against Magellan did not avail.
There was one thing statecraft could do. It could
set spies on Magellan on board his own ships. This
it succeeded in doing.

There was in Spain at this time a Portuguese
adventurer and navigator by the name of Estevan
or Esteban Gormez—Stephen Gormez.

He was a student of navigation, and was rest-
less to follow the examples of Columbus and Vasco



ENEMIES.—ESTEBAN GORMEZ. 49

da Gama. He had applied to the court of Spain—
probably to Cardinal Ximenes, for a commission to
go on a voyage of discovery and he had received a
favorable answer, and was preparing to embark,
when Magellan appeared at court and promised to
find the Spice Islands by way of South America.

Magellan’s scheme was so much larger and defi-
nite than that of Gormez that the court canceled
its favors to the lesser plans, and Gormez had to
abandon his prospects of sailing under the royal
favors of Spain.

The eyes of Spain were now fixed on Magellan.

“T will find a way to the Spice Islands by South
America or by the West,” said Magellan to the min-
isters of the King, “or you may have my head.”

These were bold words. Magellan had not only
been to the Spice Islands, but he had gone out on
the very voyage that discovered some of them. He
had behaved heroically on the voyage. So his appli-
cation to the court superseded the plan of Gormez
and the latter sunk out of sight.

In his despondency at the failure of his plans,
Gormez came to Magellan.

“My countryman,” said Gormez, “your schemes
have supplanted mine and turned my ships into air.
I was the first to plan a voyage to the Moluccas out
of the wake of hurricanes and monsoons. I do not
feel that I have been treated rightly. Something
surely is due to me.”



50 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

Magellan was a man of generous impulses. He
saw that Gormez had a case for moral appeal.

“My friend,” said he, “you shall have a place in
my expedition.”

He could but think that the inspiration and
knowledge of navigation of his countryman would
be useful to him, and he pitied him for his disap-
pointment, knowing how he himself would feel were
his plans to be set aside.

So Gormez, the Portuguese, was made the pilot
of the Antonio.

Magellan, had he reflected, must have seen that
this man would carry with him envy and jealousy,
passions that are poisons. But Estefano, or Es-
teban, or Stephen Gormez, took his place at the
pilot house of the Antonio to follow the lantern of
Magellan, but the hurt in his heart at being super-
seded never healed.

On the ships also was one Juan de Carthagena,
captain of the Concepcion, a spy, and one of the
“malapots” of the expedition. He was called the
veedor, or inspector. He inspected Magellan, and
Magellan inspected him, as we shall see.

And now the flags arose in the clear air, and the
joyful fleet cleared the Guadalquivir and leaped into
the arms of the open sea, amid the acclamations of
gay grandees and a happy people.

It was September 20th when the anchors were
lifted, of which probably one was destined to come



ENEMIES.—ESTEBAN GORMEZ. 51

back in triumph after an immortal voyage that en-
compassed the earth, and gave to Spain a new
ocean.

And the King of Portugal ordered the coat of
arms to be torn down from the house of Magellan,
as we have pictured at the beginning of our nar-
rative.



CHAPTER VII.
“ MAROONED.”

THE expedition moved down its western way,
over the track of Columbus. It had left poor Ruy
Faleiro behind—he who had seen the progress of it
all in the fitful light of a disordered vision. He had
not relinquished his own high aims. He hoped to
follow Magellan with an expedition of his own.

The ships were furnished wth “ castles,” fore and
aft; they carried gay pennons and were richly stored.
The artillery comprised sixty-two culverins and
smaller ordnance. Five thousand or more pounds
of powder were shut up in the magazines, and a
large provision was made for trading with the
natives—looking glasses for women, velvets, knives,
and ivory ornaments, and twenty thousand bells.

Magellan’s ship bore a lantern, swung high in
the air amid the thickly corded rigging, which the
other ships were to keep in view in the night. What
a history had this lantern! It gleamed out on the
night track of a new world, a pillar of fire that

encompassed the earth as in the orbit of a star.
52



“ MAROONED.” 53

The fleet had fifteen days of good weather and
passed Cape Verde Islands, running along the Afri-
can coast.

But the fleet carried with it disloyal hearts. The
Portuguese prejudice against Magellan sailed with
it. The Spanish sailors distrusted the loyalty of Ma-
gellan to Spain.

The commander was a man of great heart, chival-
rous, and noble, but be could be firm when there
arose an occasion for it.

After leaving Teneriffe Magellan altered his
course.

Juan de Carthagena, captain of the San Antonio,
“the inspector” and a spy, demanded of Magellan
why he had done so.

“ Sir,” said Magellan, “ you are to follow my flag
by day and my lantern by night, and to ask me no
further questions.” |

Carthagena demanded that Magellan should re-
port his plans to him. Finding that the Admiral
was bent on conducting his own expedition, he
began to act sullenly, and to disobey orders.

Again the ‘captain of the San Antonio demanded
of Magellan that he should communicate his orders
in regard to the course of steerage to him. He did
this by virtue of his office as inspector. He showed
a very haughty and disloyal spirit, and if this were
not to be checked, the success of the expedition

would be imperiled. He was abetted by Pedro
5



54 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

Sanches, a priest. Magellan saw treason already
brewing, and he determined to stamp it out at once.

He went to Carthagena, and laid his hands
on him.

“Captain, you are my prisoner.”

The astonished captain cried out to his men:

“Unhand me—seize Magellan!”

Carthagena had been a priest, and he had great
personal influence, but the men did not obey him.

“Lead him to the stocks and secure him there,”
_ ordered Magellan.

The order was obeyed. The fallen inspector was
committed to the charge of the Captain of the Vic-
toria, and another officer was given charge of the
San Antonio.

“When we reach land Juan de Carthagena shall
be marooned,” was the sentence imposed upon the
inspector. A like sentence was imposed upon San-
ches.

It touched the hearts of the crews to hear this
sentence. What would become of the two priests,
were it to be executed? Would they fall prey to
the natives, or perhaps win the hearts of the people
and be made chiefs among them?

There was a pilot on board the ship who sym-
pathized with the mutineers, but who had close lips,
Esteban Gormez, of whom we have spoken. Were
the two mutineers to be marooned he would be glad
to rescue them.





Night after night the ships followed Magellan’s lantern.



““MAROONED.” 5D

He had been discontented since the day that his
own plans for an expedition had been superseded by
those of Magellan.

His discontentment had grown. He became criti-
cal as the fleet sailed on. Every day reminded him
of what he might have done, if he could have only
secured the opportunity.

A disloyal heart in any enterprise is a very peril-
ous influence. A wooden horse in Troy is more dan-
gerous than an army outside.

_ Magellan in Gormez had a subtle foe, and that
foe was his own countryman.

This man probably could not brook to see his
rival add the domains of the sea to the crowns of
Juana and of Charles, though he himself had sought
to do the same thing. Magnanimous he could not be.
Discovery for the sake of discovery had little mean-
ing for him, but only discovery for his own advance-
ment and glory.

He became jealous of Mesquita, Magellan’s
cousin, now master of the Antonio, who is thought
to have advised severe measures to. suppress con-
spiracy.

Night after night he sat down under the moon
and stars, and brooded over his fancied neglect, and
dreamed. Night after night the ships followed the
lantern of Magellan, and the wonders of the sea
grew; but to him it were better that no discoveries
should be made than that such achievements were



56 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

to go to the glory of Spain through the pilotage of
Magellan.

Discontent grows; jealousy grows as one broods
over fancied wrongs, and sees the prospects of a
rival’s success. So it was with Gormez. In his
heart he did not wish the expedition to succeed. He |
was ambitious to lead such an enterprise himself,
which he also did, at last, sailing along Massachu-
‘setts Bay and giving it its first name.

When Gormez had heard that the two disloyal
men were to be marooned, his feelings rose against
Magellan. That they deserved their sentence he
well knew, but they were opposed to Magellan, as
was his own heart. He would have been glad to
have saved them from the execution of their sen-
tence, but he did not know how to do it.

“J will rescue them if ever I can,” he thought.
“This expedition is not for the glory of Portugal.”

The ships sailed on, bearing the two conspirators
to some place where they could be marooned.

Let us turn from this dark scene to one of a more
hopeful spirit.

One day, as we may picture the scene, the
sea lay unruffled like a mirror. The ships drifted
near each other, and night came on after a sudden
twilight, and the stars seemed like liquid lights shot
forth or let down from some ethereal fountain. The
Southern Cross shone so clearly as to uplift the eyes
of the sailors. The ships were becalmed.



“MAROONED.” 57

Boats began to ply between the ships, and the
officers of the Trinity, Santiago, Victoria, and Con-
cepcion assembled under the awning of the San
Antonio, Mesquita’s ship, of one hundred and
twenty tons.

Mesquita, as we have said, was a cousin of
Magellan, and so the Antonio seemed a friendly
ship. .

Magellan sat down by his cousin. The lantern
was going out; its force was spent.

“We must get a new kind of lantern,” said Ma-
gellan to his cousin, “and a code of signal lights.
We need a lantern that is something more steady
and durable than a faggot of wood.”

“T have here a new farol,” he continued, the men
listening with intent ears. “Here it is, and I
wonder, my sailors, how far your eyes will fol-
low it.”

“ All loyal hearts will follow it,” said Mesquita,
“ wherever it may go.”

Gormez frowned. His heart was bitter.

There rose up an officer named Del Cano, and
stood hat in hand. All eyes were fixed upon him.

“May it please you, Admiral,” he said, “to re-
ceive a word from me. I will follow the new farol
wherever it may lead me. I have ceased to count
my own life in this cause.”

Gormez frowned again.

“Del Cano,” said the Admiral, “I believe in you.



58 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

You have a true heart. If I should fall see that
this farol goes back to Spain!”

Del Cano bowed.

Magellan showed the new lantern to the officers.

It was’ made of
beaten reeds that had
been soaked in water,
and dried in the sun. It
would hold light long,
and carry it strongly
and steadily.

“ All the ships must
have these new farols,”
said he, “and I must
teach you how to signal
by them.”

He stood up. The
moon jas rising, and
Arms granted to Sebastian Del Cano, the dusky, purple air be-

Captain of the Victoria, the firsts c¢ame luminous.

a that circumnavigated the Hee weld the far ola

his hand.

“Two lights,” he said, “shall mean for the ship
to tack.

“Three lights that the sails shall be lowered.
Four, that they shall stop.

“Tive lights, or more, that we have discovered
land, when the fiagship shall discharge a bom-
bard. Follow my lantern always; you can trust it





““MAROONED.” 59

wherever it may fare. My farol shall be my
star!”

The men sat there long. There Sprung up a
breeze at last, and the sea began to ripple in the
moon.

Most expeditions that have made successful
achievements have carried men of great hope. Such
aman was Del Cano. He was loyal to the heart of
Magellan; and happy is any leader who has such a
companion, whose steel rings true.

Magellan hung out the farol. The sails were
spread, and the fleet passed on over the solitary
ocean.

Whither?



CHAPTER VIII.

“THE WONDERS OF NEW LANDS.”—PIGAFETTA’S
TALES OF HIS ADVENTURES WITH MAGELLAN.—
THE STORY OF “THE FOUNTAIN TRER.’”’— ST.
ELMO’S FIRE.”

THE ships moved on, bearing the hopeful Del
Cano, the frowning Gormez, the two ener, and
the happy Italian Pigafetta.

Our next chapters will be a series of wonder tales
which reveal the South Temperate Zone and its in-
habitants as they appeared to the young and suscep-
tible Italian, Pigafetta, nearly four hundred years
“ago.

Pigafetta, as we have shown, desired to accom-
pany Magellan that he might “see the wonders of
the new lands.” He saw them indeed, and he
painted them with his pen so vividly that they will
always live. We get our first views of the strange
inhabitants of the Southern regions of the New
World from him. We are to follow his narratives, as
printed for the Hakluyt Society, London, making

some omissions, and changing its form in part, hop-
60















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= | \ re a OC TTT

















Interior of the Alcdzar of Seville.



62 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

ing thereby to render the text more clear. We
closely follow the spirit of events. Pigafetta ad-
dresses his narrative “To the very illustrious and
very excellent Lord Philip de Villiers Lisleaden,
Grand Master of Rhodes,” of whom we have spoken.

He says, by way of introduction:

“Finding myself in Spain in the year of the
nativity of our Lord, 1519, at the court of the most
serene King of the Romans (Charles V), and learning
there of the great and awful things of the ocean
world, I desired to make a voyage to unknown seas,
and to see with my own eyes some of the wonder-
ful things of which I had heard.

“TI heard that there was in the city of Seville
an armada (armade) of five ships, which were ready
to perform a long voyage in order to find the short-
est way to the Islands of Moluco (Moluceca) from
whence came the spices. The Captain General of
this armada was Ferdinand de Magagleanes (Ma-
gellan), a Portuguese gentleman, who had made sey-
eral voyages on the ocean. He was an honorable
man. So I set out from Barcelona, where the Em-
peror was, and traveled by land to the said city of
Seville, and secured a place in the expedition.

“The Captain General published ordinances for
the guidance of the voyage. |

“He willed that the vessel on which he himself
was should go before the other vessels, and that the
others should keep in sight of it. Therefore he hung



“THE WONDERS OF NEW LANDS.” 63

by night over the deck a torch or faggot of burn-
ing wood which he called a farol (lantern), which
burned all night, so that the ships might not lose
sight of his own.

“ He arranged to set other lights as signals in the
night. When he wished to make a tack on account
of a change of weather he set two lights. Three
lights signified “faster.” Four lights signified to
stop and turn. When he discovered a rock or land,
it was to be signaled by other lights.

“He ordered that three watches should be kept
at night.

“On Monday, St. Lawrence Day, August 10th,
the five ships with the crews to the number of two
hundred and thirty-seven * set sail from the noble
city of Seville, amid the firing of artillery and came
to the end of the river Guadalcavir (Guadalquivir).
We stopped near the Cape St. Vinconet to make
further provisions for the voyage.

“We went to hear mass on shore. There the Cap-
tain commanded that all the men should confess
before going any further.

“On Tuesday, September 20th, we set sail from
St. Lucar.

“We came to Canaria (Canaries).”

This account repeats in a different way a part
of the facts we have given.

* The number was larger, about 270.



64 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

Here the young Italian relates his first story,
which is substantially as follows:

THE FOUNTAIN TREE.

“ Among the isles of the Canaria there is one
which is very wonderful. There is not to be found
a single drop of water which flows from any fountain
or river.

“But in this rainless land at the hour of mid-
day, every day, there descends a cloud from the sky
which envelops a large tree which grows on this
island.

“The cloud falls upon the leaves of the tree, when
a great abundance of water distills from the leaves.
The tree flows, and soon at the foot of it there
gathers a fountain.

“The people of the island come to drink of the
water. The animals and the birds refresh them-
selves there.”

The story is true so far as relates to the fountain
tree. But that a cloud comes down from Heaven
at midday to refresh it, is not an exact statement
of the manner in which this tree furnishes water to
the sterile island. The young Italian writer describes
the tree as he saw it, and as it seemed to be. The tree
that supplies water as from a natural fountain may
still be found.

With such a tree to begin his researches on the sea,
Pigafetta must have been impatient to proceed along



“THE WONDERS OF NEW LANDS.” 65

the marvelous ocean way. All the world was to him
as he saw it; he seldom stopped to inquire if appear-
ances were true.

With men like Del Cano on board, who had ears
for a marvelous story, his life in the early part of
the voyage must have been a very happy one.
Wonder followed wonder..

“Monday, the 3d of October,” says the interest-
ing Italian, “we set sail making the course auster,
which the Levantine mariners call siroc (southeast)
entering into the ocean sea. We passed Cape Verde
and navigated by the coast of Guinea of Ethiopia,
where there is a mountain called Sierra Leona. A
rain fell, and the storm lasted sixty days.”

They came to waters full of sharks, which had
terrible teeth, and which ate all the people whom
they found in the sea, alive or dead. These were

caught by a hook of iron.

ST. ELMO’S FIRE. :

Here good St. Anseline met the ships; in the
fancy of the mariners of the time, this airy saint
appeared to favored ships in the night, and fair
weather always followed the saintly apparition. He
came in a robe of fire, and stood and shone on the
top of the high masts or on the spars. The sailors
hailed him with joy, as one sent from Heaven.
Happy was the ship on the tropic sea upon whose
rigging the form of good St. Anseline appeared in



66 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

the night, and especially in the night of cloud and
storm!

To the joy of all the ships good St. Anseline came
down one night to the fleet of Magellan. The poeti-
cal Italian tells the story in this way:

“During these storms, the body of St. Anseline
appeared to us several times.

“One night among others he came when it was
very dark on account of bad weather. He came in
the form of a fire lighted at the summit of the main
mast, and remained there near two hours and a half.

“This comforted us greatly, for we were in tears,
looking for the hour when we should perish.

“When the holy light was going away from us
it shed forth so great a brilliancy in our eyes that
we were like people blinded for near a quarter of an
hour. We called out for mercy.

“Nobody expected to escape from the storm.

“It is to be noted that all and as many times as
the light which represents St. Anseline shows itself
upon a vessel which is in a storm at ‘sea, that vessel
never is lost.

“ As soon as this light had departed the sea grew
calmer and the wings of divers kinds of birds ap-
peared.”

Beneficent St. Anseline who manifested his pres-
ence by illuminations in the mast and spars in
equatorial waters! The beautiful illusion has long
been explained and dispelled. It is but an electric



“THE WONDERS OF NEW LANDS.” 67

fire at the end of atmospheric disturbances. But
it is usually a correct prophecy of fair skies and
smooth seas. It is now called St. Elmo’s Fire.

If ever there was an expedition that the saint of
the mariners might favor it would seem to be this.

One can almost envy the pious Italian his imagi-
nation in the clearing tropic night.

His next wonders were the sea birds, of which
there were flocks and clouds, and with them ap-
peared flying fish.

The ships were now off the coasts of Brazil and
stopped at Verzim.

The people of the Brazilian Verzim were accus-
tomed to paint themselves “by fire.’ We do not
clearly understand how this painting “ by fire” was
done. The art of scorching has perished with them.
But besides these indelible marks, the men had three
holes in their lower lips, and hung in them, after the
manner of earrings, small round ornamental stones,
about a finger in length. The men did not shave,
for they plucked out their beard.

Their only clothing was a circle of parrot
feathers. How terribly gay they must have looked!
And yet such customs were hardly more ridiculous
than those of later times, and more civilized coun-
tries—earrings, beauty patches, plume, and snuft-
boxes.

It was the land of parrots. The most beautiful
and intelligent parrots still come from Brazil. Co-



68 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN,

lumbus saw parrots in “clouds ” over the islands of
the Antilles.

Parrots were not expensive in these equatorial
forests at this time. “The natives,” says Pigafetta,
“ give eight or ten parrots for a looking glass,” and
as a looking glass would multiply the picture of par-
rots indefinitely the Verzimans must have thought
the exchange a marvelous bargain.

If Brazilian parrots were cheap and so charming
as likely to become an embarrassment of riches, so
were the little cat monkeys which delighted the men.
These little creatures, which looked like miniature
lions, still delight the visitors to the coast of Brazil,
but they shiver up when brought to the northern
atmospheres and piteously cry for the home lands
of the sun again.

Very curious birds began to excite the surprise of
the voyagers, among such as had a “beak like a
spoon,” and “no tongue.”

The markets of the new land displayed another
commodity far more surprising than birds or ani-
mals, young slaves, which were offered for sale by
their own families. So a family who had many chil-
dren was rich. It cost a hatchet to buy one of these,
and for a hatchet and a knife one might buy two.

The people made bread of the “ marrow of trees,”
and carried victuals in baskets on their heads.

Masses were said for the crews on shore, and the
natives knelt down with the men.



“THE WONDERS OF NEW LANDS.” 69

The people were so pleased with their visitors
that they built a common house for them.

A pleasing illusion had made the sailors most
welcome here.

It had not rained in Verzim for two months
when the expedition landed. The people were look-
ing to the heavens for mercy day by day. But the
copper sun rose as often in a clear sky.

At last Magellan’s sails appeared in the burn-
ing air. The sight of the sails was followed by that
of clouds.

The people thought that the fleet had brought
the clouds with them. .

“They come from Heaven,” said they of the ad-
venturers.

So when they were exhorted to accept Christian-
ity, they at once fell down before the uplifted crosses
and believed the teachings of the sea heroes who
could command the clouds and bring rain to the
parched land.

They thought the ships were gods and the small
boats the children of such beings, and when the
latter approached the ships they imagined that they
were children come home to their fathers or
mothers.

The ships remained in this delightful country of
Verzim thirteen weeks. Pigafetta and Del Cano
must have thought that life here was ideal. What
scenes wand follow?



CHAPTER IX.
PINEAPPLES, POTATOES, VERY OLD PEOPLE.

OTHER things were there on the wonderful Bra-
zilian coast. There the mariners traded in them
and were refreshed with a delicious fruit, called
pique—pineapples. ;

They came to the knowledge here of a nutritious
ground fruit called battate. “This,” says our
Italian, “has the taste of a chestnut and is the
length of a shuttle.” These ground fruits were
potatoes.

The people here seem to have been very liberal in
trading.

They would give six fowls for a knife—well they
might do so, as they used stone implements.

They gave two geese for a comb—here they were
both generous and wise.

They gave as great a quantity of fish as ten men
could eat for a pair of scissors.

And for a bell, they gave a whole basket full of
potatoes (battate).

Marvelous indeed as was this same country of
70



PINEAPPLES, POTATOES, VERY OLD PEOPLE. - 1

Verzim, it also abounded in the conditions and at-
mospheres of long life.

“Some of these people,” says our Italian chroni-
cler, “live to be a hundred or a hundred and twenty,
or a hundred and forty or more. They wear little
clothing.”

Which speaks well for pineapples, potatoes, and
easy dress.

“They sleep on cotton nets, which are fastened
on large timbers, and stretch from one end of the
house to another.”

It is good to sleep in ample ventilation. We do
not wonder that many of the people passed a hun-
dred years.

The boats of these people were as simple as their
open houses.

“These are not made with iron instruments, for
there are none, but with stones.”

The canoes were dug out of one long tree—some
giant growth of the forest which would convey from
thirty to forty men. The paddles for these canoes
resembled shovels. The rowers were usually black
men.

The people ate human flesh, but only at feasts of
triumph. They then served up their enemies.

Pigafetta draws the following grewsome picture:

“They do not eat up the whole body of a man
whom they take prisoner; they eat him bit by bit,
and for fear that he should be spoiled, they cut him



12 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

up into pieces, which they set to dry before the
chimney. They eat this day by day, so as to keep in
mind the memory of their enemy.”

This was indeed the sweet food of revenge, and
as barbarous as it seems, the spirit of revenge secret-
ly cherished is hardly less unworthy when it finds
expression in words that are bitter, if not carnal.

The region abounded with bright birds, yet with
all these delights, and pineapples and _ potatoes,
there fell great rains. So there were shadows in
the sunlands.

We can fancy Pigafetta relating his discoveries
on the shore to a susceptible spirit, like Del Cano,
and writing an account of them day by day in his
immortal journal.

These strange adventures by sea and on land
which so greatly interested the Italian Knight Piga-
fetta, our historian, do not seem to have greatly
impressed the mind of Magellan. The lands had
been sighted before. His whole soul was bent on
one purpose—not on rediscovery, but on discovery.
He was sailing now where other keels had been. It
was his purpose to find new ways for the world to
follow over unknown seas. His heart could find no
full satisfaction but in water courses that sails had
never swept; a new way to the Moluccas that no
ship had ever broken.

Notwithstanding the friendly spirit and liberal
patronage of the Emperor, he still stood against the



PINEAPPLES, POTATOES, VERY OLD PEOPLE. "3

world. He represented a cast-out name. His own
countrymen, on his own ships in the long delays on
the voyage to unknown seas, were plotting against
him.

Let us recall in fancy a night scene as the ships
lay on the waters of the meridional world. Magellan
sits alone in one of the castles of the ship and looks
out on the phosphorescent sea. The stars above
him shine in a clear splendor, and are reflected in
the sea. The sky seems to be in the waters; the
waters are a mirror of the sky. Among the clear
stars the Southern Cross, always vivid, here rises
high. Magellan lifts to it his eye, and feels the re-
ligious inspiration of the suggestion. He is a son
of the Church, and he holds that all discoveries are
to be made for the glory of the Cross.

On the distant shores palms rise in armies in
the dusky air. The shores are silent. When arose
the tall people that inhabited them?

Magellan dreams: he wonders at himself, at his
inward commission; at his cast-out name and great
opportunity.

One of his trusty friends comes to him; he is a
Spaniard and his disquieting words break the seren-
ity of the scene.

“Captain General, it hurts my soul to say it,
but there is disloyalty on the ships—it is every-
where.”

“T seem to feel the atmospheres of it,” said Ma-



44 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

gellan. “Why should it be? The sea and the sky
promise us success. Who are disloyal?”

“Captain General, they are your own country-
men!”

“ And why do they plot treason under the Cross
of discovery?”

“Captain General, if the ocean open new ways
before you, and you should achieve all of which you
dream, they will have little share in the glory; you
are facing stormy waters and perils unknown, not
for Portugal, but for Spain.”

“Not for Spain alone, nor for Portugal, but for
the glory of the Cross, and the good of all the world.
A divine will leads me, and sustains me, and directs
me. Iam not seeking gold or fame or any personal
advantage; my soul goes forth to reveal the wonders
and the benevolence of Providence to the heart of
the whole world. I go alone, and feel the loneliness
of my lot. I left all that I had to make this expedi-
tion. It is my purpose to discover unknown seas.
Joy, rapture, and recompense would come to me,
beyond wealth or fame, could my eyes be the first
to see a new ocean world, and to carry back the
knowledge of it to all nations. What happiness
would it be to me to ride on uncharted tides! My
friend, you are loyal to me?”

“Captain General, I am loyal, and the Spanish
sailors are loyal; it is your own men who plot in
dark corners to bring your plans to naught.”



PINEAPPLES, POTATOES, VERY OLD PEOPLE. q5

In the shadow of one of the tall castles of another
ship sit a band of idle men. They are Portuguese.

One of them, who seems to lead the minds of the
others, is whittling, and after a long silence says:

“We do not know where we are going, and
wherever we are going, we are Portuguese and are
slaves to Spain.”

“Ay, ay,” returned an old Portuguese sailor,
“and when we go back again, should that ever be,
the profit to us will be little at the India House.”

“Right,” answered a number of voices, and one
ventured to say:

“Magellan, after all, may be mad, like his old
companion, the astronomer. Both came from the
same place in Portugal.”

Some of the officers had schemes of their own.

But the ships crept on and on, along the Brazilian
coast, where the flag of Spain and the farol guided
them in the track of the Admiral they followed.
Night after night the lantern of the flagship gleamed
in the air, moving toward cooler waters under the
Southern Cross.

And in Magellan’s heart was a single purpose,
and he anticipated the joy of a great discovery, as
a revelation that would answer the prophetic light
that shone like a star in his own spiritual vision.
On, and on!



CHAPTER X.

THE FIRST GIANT.—THE ISLANDS OF GEESE AND
GOSLINGS.—THE DANCING GIANTS.



Tu narrative of Pigafetta, the Knight of Rhodes,
has much curious lore in regard to giants. At a
place on the coast, formerly called Cape St. Mary,
the first of these giants appeared.

He was a leader of a tribe “who ate human
flesh.” The lively Knight of Rhodes informs us
that this man, who towered above his fellows, “ had
a voice like a bull.”

He came to one of the captains’ ships and asked
—of course in sign language; for a man may have a
“voice like a bull” and yet fail to be understood in
cannibal tongues—if he might come on board the
ship and bring his fellows with him.

He left a quantity of goods on the shore. While
he was negotiating at the ships, his people on the
shore, who seem to have been unusally wise and
prudent, began to remove the stores of goods from
exposure to danger to a kind of castle at some dis-

tance.
76



THE FIRST GIANT. a

The officers of the ships grew inpatient when
they saw the tempting goods being thus removed.
So they landed a hundred men to recover the goods,
which they seemed to have deemed theirs after the
“right of discovery.”

The men began to run after the provident natives,
when they became greatly surprised. The natives
seemed to fly over the ground, and leave them behind
at a humiliating distance.

“They did more in one step than we could do at
a bound,” says Pigafetta, Knight of Rhodes.

The giant people here showed that there was
need to approach them with caution. Some time
before, these “Canibali” had captured a Spanish
sea captain and sixty men, who had landed and pas-
tured inland to make discoveries. They ate them
all—a fearful feast!

Our voyagers probably had no desire to go too
far inland in view of such a warning; so they re-
turned .and proceeded on their course toward the
antarctic pole.

They discovered two small islands, which had
more agreeable inhabitants than the land of Cape
St. Mary. “These islands,” says our good Knight
Pigafetta, “were full of geese and goslings and sea
wolves.” He adds: “ We loaded five ships with them
for an hour.”

The Knight has also left us the following
curious picture of the birds, which must have



q8 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

been very much surprised at being so rudely dis-
turbed:

“The geese are black, and have feathers all over
the body of the same size and shape; and they do not
fly but live on fish, and they were so fat that we
did not pluck them, but skinned them. They have
beaks like that of a crow.

“The sea wolves of these islands are of many
colors and of the size and thickness of a calf, and
have a head like a calf, and ears small and round.
They have teeth but no legs, but feet joining close
to the body, which resemble a human hand. They
have small nails to their feet, and skin between the
fingers like geese.

“Tf these animals could run they would be very
bad and cruel, but they do not stir from the waters,
and swim and live upon fish.”

This seems to be a very admirable description of
a sea wolf, O Knight of Rhodes!

A great storm came down upon the ships here.
But, marvelous to relate, the fiery body of good St.
Anselmo or Anseline “appeared to us, and immedi-
ately the storm ceased.”

The fleet sailed away again and came to Port St.
Julian, the true land of the giants, of which place our
Knight has some very interesting stories to tell.

The fleet entered the Port of St. Julian. It was
winter, and for a long time no human beings ap-
peared.



THE FIRST GIANT. 9

Suddenly one day a most extraordinary sight met
the eyes of some of the adventurers. Our Knight's
description of this being is very vivid. He says:

“One day, without any one’s expecting it, we saw
a giant who was on the shore of the sea, quite naked,



Indta fuperror

Commyo R-





and was dancing and leaping and singing, and, while
singing, he put sand and dust on his head.”
The Captain of one of the ships, who first saw this
extraordinary creature, said to one of the sailors:
“Go and meet him. He dances and sings as a
sien of friendship. You must do the same. Beckon
him to me.”



80 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

The Captain himself was on a little island.

The scene that followed must have been comical
indeed.

The giant danced and sung and sprinkled his
head with sand. The sailor did the same, danced
and sang, and the two approached each other.

So the giant was made to think that he was
among friends. The sailor led him on to the island,
where he met the Captain.

But the lively giant now began to be afraid in
the presence of a new people. He seemed to wish
to ask them who they were and whence they came.
Then an answer to this question came to him. He
looked up to the sky and pointed upward with one
finger, saying by signs:

“Did you come down from Heaven?”

“He was so tall,” says our descriptive Knight,
“that the tallest of us only came up to his waist.”
ile was probably hardly taller than many of his
race. Falkner, in his account of Patagonia (1774),
says that he saw men there seven feet and a half
high.

Of this dancing giant our historian gives a fur-
ther description in lively and interesting colors:

“He had a large face painted red all around, and
around his eyes were rings of yellow, and he had
two hearts painted on his cheeks. He had but little
hair on the top of his head, which was painted white.

“When he was brought before the Captain, he





t

ing gian

The dance



THE FIRST GIANT. 81

had thrown over him the skin of a certain beast,
which skin was very carefully sewed.”

The skin was that of a guanaco, a kind of llama.

Our historian thus describes the guanaco:

“This beast has its head and ears of the size of
a mule, and the neck and body of the fashion of a
camel, the legs of a deer, and the tail of a horse,
and it neighs like a horse. There are great num-
bers of these animals in the same place.”

Patagonia is the land of these strange animals,
which are still found there, and are hunted by In-
dians who lie upon the ground with drawn bows.
The animal has great curiosity, and he draws near
this living snare and is killed. When tame he is an
interesting companion, but if angered he suddenly
emits a great quantity of offensive liquid from his
nose, like a half bucket of water, which he throws
upon the offender. He is the South American
camel.

This giant when he made himself ready to meet
the adventurers had shoes of leather or skins, and
carried a bow made of the “ gut of a beast” and a
bundle of cane arrows feathered, at the end of
which were small white stones.

“The Captain caused food and drink to be given
to him.

“Then the crew began to show him some of the
presents they had brought, among them a looking-
glass.”



89 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

When the giant saw himself in the glass he was
filled with wonder. It was as though his own ghost
had appeared to him. There were men behind him
curious to see how he would be affected. He leaped
back with such force as to tumble them over. They
were but pigmies to him.

The Captain now gave the giant two bells, a mir-
ror, a comb, and beads, and sent him back to the
shore.

One of the giants of the country saw him com-
ing back, ran to the habitation of the giants, and
summoned the giant people to the shore to meet
him. They came, almost naked, leaping and sing-
ing, and pointing upward to Heaven. What a sight
it must have been! ;

The women were laden with goods. The sailors
beckoned them to the ships to trade.

Queerly enough, the women brought with them
a baby or little guanaco, which they led by a string.
Our historian learned that when these giants wished
to capture the old guanacos or camels they fastened
one of the little guanacos to a bush, and the old ones
came to the bush to play with it, and so became an
easy prey.

“Six days afterward, our people going to cut
wood,” writes the Knight, “saw another giant, who
raised his hands toward Heaven.

“ When the Captain General came to know of it,
he sent to fetch him with his ship’s boat, and brought



THE FIRST GIANT. ~ 88

him to one of the little islands in the port. This
giant was of a better disposition than the other, and
was a gracious and amiable person. He loved to
dance and leap. When he leaped, he caused the
earth to sink to a palm’s depth at the place where
his feet touched.”

The good giant remained for a time with the
adventurers. They gave him the name of John.
They learned him to pronounce the name of Jesus.

“Say Pater Noster,” said they.

“Pater Noster,” said the giant.

“Say Ave Maria,” said the men.

“Ave Maria,” said the susceptible giant.

They made him presents when he went away,
among them some of the many tinkling bells.

“We must capture some of these people,” said
the Captain, “and take them to Spain for wonders.”

So the explorers began to study how to secure
some interesting specimens of these tall people, to
excite the wonder of the people of Spain.



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ak STORY, OF MAGEELAN AND Toe
DISCOVERY OF [he PaInIPRINES




BY HEZEKIAH BUTTERWORTH.
Uniform Edition. Each, 12mo, cloth, $1.50.

The Story of Magellan. A Tale of the Discovery
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D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, NEW YORK.








Magellan planting the Cross in the Philippine Islands.

(See page 128.)
THE STORY OF MAGELLAN

AND

THE DISCOVERY OF THE PHILIPPINES

BY
HEZEKIAH BUTTERWORTH

AUTHOR OF
THE TREASURE SHIP, THE PILOT OF THE MAYFLOWER,
TRUE TO HIS HOME, THE WAMPUM BELT,
IN THE BOYHOOD OF LINCOLN, ETC.

ILLUSTRATED BY FRANK T. MERRILL
AND OTHERS



NEW YORK
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY

1899
CopyricuHt, 1899,
By D. APPLETON AND COMPANY.
“Fired by thy fame,* and with his King in ire
To match thy deed, shall Magalhaes aspire.

“ Along the regions of the burning zone,
To deepest South he dares the course unknown.

“A land of giants shall his eyes behold,
Of camel strength, surpassing human mould.

‘‘Beneath the Southern star’s cold gleam he braves
And stems the whirl of land-surrounded waves.

“Forever movéd to the hero’s fame,
Those foaming straits shall bear his deathless name.”
CamoENs.

* Vasco da Gama.
PREFACE.

I HAVE been asked to write a story of Ferdi-
nand Magellan, the value of whose discoveries has
received a new interpretation in the development of
the South Temperate Zone of America, and in the
ceding of the Philippine Islands to the United States.
The works of Lord Stanley and of Guillemard fur-
nish comprehensive histories of the intrepid discov-
erer of the South Pacific Ocean and the Philippine
Islands; but there would seem to be room for a
short, picturesque story of Magellan’s adventures,
such as might be read by family lamps and in
schools.

To attempt to write such a story is more than
a pleasure, for the study of Magellan reveals a char-
acter high above-his age; a man unselfish and true,
who was filled with a passion for discovery, and who
sought the welfare of humanity and the glory of

the Cross rather than wealth or fame. Among
vii
viii THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

great discoverers he has left a character wellnigh
ideal. The incidents of his life are not only honor-
able, but usually have the color of chivalry.

His voyages, as pictured by his companion Piga-
fetta, the historian, give us our first view of the
interesting native inhabitants of the South Tem-
perate Zone and of the Pacific archipelagoes, and his
adventures with the giants of Patagonia and with
the natives of the Ladrone Islands, read almost like
stories of Sinbad the Sailor. The simple record of
his adventures is in itself a storybook.

Magellan, from his usually high and unselfish
character, as well as for the lasting influence of
what he did as shown in the new developments of
civilization, merits a place among household heroes;
and it is in this purpose and spirit I have under-
taken a simple sympathetic interpretation of his
most noble and fruitful life. I have tried to put into
the form of a story the events whose harvests now
appear after’nearly four hundred years, and to pic-
ture truthfully a beautiful and inspiring character.
To the narrative of his lone lantern I have added
some tales of the Philippines.

H. BUTTERWORTH.

28 WorceEstTER STREET, Boston, Mass.
CONTENTS.

CHAPTER PAGE
I—A STRANGE ROYAL ORDER : : : A : z : 1
II.—FRIENDS WITH A PURPOSE, : : : : : a 9

TII.—Princze Henry raz Navicator anp Vasco pa GAMA .- 15
IV.—THE ENTHUSIASTS CARRY THEIR PLANS To THE Kine . 224

V.—ABOUT THE HAPPY ITALIAN WHO WISHED T0 SEE THE

WORLD.—BEAUTIFUL SEVILLE! . , fi 7 : . 88
VI.—Enemies.—Hstepan GorMez . : ; A : f . 48
VII.—* Maroonep” . A i z : : : : 5 . 82

VIUIL—* THe wonDERS or NEW LANDS.”—PIGAFETTA’S TALES OF

HIS ADVENTURES WITH MAGELLAN.—THE STORY OF “THE
FOUNTAIN TREE.”—“ Sr, Etmo’s Fire” , : c . 60
IX.—PINEAPPLES, POTATOES, VERY OLD PROPLE , : : EO)

X.—THE FIRST GIANT.—THE ISLANDS OF GEESE AND GOSLINGS.—

THE DANCING GIANTS . z ss . : : ‘i . 6
XI.—CaprurRING A GIANT.—MAGELLAN’s DECISION ; : . 84
XTI.—Tue mutiny at Port Junray.—Tue Srrairs.—1519 . 7 OL

XTIT.—* THe ADMIRAL WAS MAD!” , : ; : : : . 99
XIV.—Tue Pactric.--TuE DEATH OF THE GIANTS . . ; . 108
XV.—WELcomE to THE Puinipprnes! : . : : . 108

XVIL—Tue visrr or rue Kinc.—PIGarEerra VISITS THE Kine. 116
ix
x THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

CHAPTER
XVII.—Eastrer SunpDAY.—MAGELLAN PLANTS THE CROSS - :

XVIII.—CuRISTIANITY AND TRADE ESTABLISHED.—THE BAPTISM OF
THE QUEEN . . : a : : 7 : : :
XIX.—Haucyon Days . ‘ : 3 i . , z 3
XX.—THE DEATH OF MAGELLAN . . : : : : :
XXI.—TueE Spice Istanps.—WoNDERFUL BIRDS.—CLOVES, CINNA-
MON, NUTMEGS, GINGER.—THE SHIPS OVERLOADED .
XXII.—MeEsquiTa IN PRISON. . : ; : : ; :
XXIIL—SrrancE stoRies.—THE WISE OLD WOMEN.—THE WALKING
LEAVES.—THE HAUNTED SANDALWOOD TREES.—THE Em-
PEROR OF CHINA.—THE LITTLE BOY AND THE GIANT BIRD
XXIV.—THE LosT DAY ‘i i : : : 5 : : 4
XXV.—In tHE CHuRcH oF OuR Lapy or Vicrory.—PIGAFETTA .

SUPPLEMENTAL : ‘ _ : : ‘ - 3 :

PAGE

122

129
136
139

144
157

161
173
176
182
LIST OF FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS.

FACING

Magellan planting the Cross in the Philippine Islands #vontispiece

Lisbon, from the south bank of the Tagus

Ferdinand Magellan .

“He is a renegade. His arms must come down!”

Barcelona .

Night after night the ships followed Magellan’s lantern

Interior of the Aledzar of Seville

The dancing giant

Mount Mayon, on the Island of Luzon .

The death of Magellan

Pigafetta presenting the history of the voyage to the King of
Spain .

Map of the Philippine Islands

Native houses in Manila .

Hong Kong

Tloilo .

Boats on the River Pasig

PAGE
THE STORY OF MAGELLAN,

CHAPTER I.
A STRANGE ROYAL ORDER.

I Am to tell the story of a man who had faith in
himself.

The clouds and the ocean bear his name. Lord
Stanley has called him “the greatest of ancient and
modern navigators.”

That was a strange royal order, indeed, which
Dom Manoel, King of Portugal, issued in the early
part of the fifteenth century. It was in effect: “Go
to the house of Hernando de Magallanes, in Sabrosa,
and tear from it the coat of arms. Hernando de
Magallanes (Ferdinand Magellan) has transferred
his allegiance to the King of Spain.”

The people of the mountain district must have
been very much astonished when the cavaliers, if
such they were, appeared to execute this order.

As the arms were torn away from the ancient
house, we may imagine the alcalde of the place in-
quiring:

1
9 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

“What has our townsman done? Did he not
serve our country well in the East?”

“He is a renegade!” answers the commander.

“But he carried his plans for discovery to our
own King first before he went to the court of Spain.”

“Say no more! Spain is reaping the fruits of
his brain, and under his lead is planting her colo-
nies in the new seas, to the detriment of our country
and the shame of the throne. His arms must come
down. Portugal rejects his name forever!”

The officers of the King tore down the arms.
They thought they had consigned the name for
which the arms stood to oblivion. As the Jewish
hierarchy said of Spinoza: “Let his name be cast
out under the whole heavens!” That name rose
again.

Years passed and a nephew of Magellan inherited
one of the family estates. He was stoned in the
streets on account of his name. This man fled in
exile from Portugal to Brazil. He died there, and
said: “Let no heir or descendant of mine ever re-
store the arms of my family.”

In his will he wrote:

“J desire that the arms of my family (Magellan)
should remain forever obliterated, as was done by
order of my Lord and King, as @ punishment for the
crime of Ferdinand Magellan, because he entered
the service of Castile to the injury of our kingdom.”

It is the history of this same Ferdinand Magellan,
A STRANGE ROYAL ORDER. 3

whom Portugal and his own family sought to crush |
out from the world, that we are now about to
trace.

Following his highest inspiration, he shut his
eyes to the present, and followed the light of the
star of destiny in his soul. His discovery seems
to open to the West the doors of China.

He was filled from boyhood with a passion for
finding unknown lands and waters; he was haunted
by ideals and visions of noble exploits for the good
of mankind. His own country, Portugal, would
not listen to his projects at the time that he
offered them to the court; so, like Columbus, Ves-
pucci, and Cabot, he sought the favor of another
country. Nothing could stand before the high pur-
pose of his soul. “If not by Portugal, then by
Spain,” he said to an intimate friend; meaning that,
if his own country denied him the favor of giving
him an opportunity for exploration, he would pre-
Sent his cause to the court of Spain, which he
did.

This man, whose real name was Fernao de Ma-
galhaes, was born about the year 1480, at Sabrosa,
in Portugal, a wintry district where the hardy soil
and the “ gloomy grandeur ” of the mountain scenery
produced men of strong bodies and lofty spirit. He
belonged to a noble family, “one of the noblest in
the kingdom.” His boyhood was passed in the
Sierras. He had a love of works of geography and
4 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN. .

travel, and he dreamed even then of sunny zones,
undiscovered waters, and unknown regions of the
world. Henry the Navigator and his school of
pilots, astronomers, and explorers, had left the
country full of the spirit of new discoveries which
yet lived.

He went to the capital of Portugal to be edu-
cated, and was made a page to the Queen. He was
yet a boy when Columbus returned, bringing the.
enthralling news of a new world. Spain was filled
with excitement at the event; her cities rang with
jubilees by day and fiared with torches at night.
Portugal caught the new spirit of her late King,
Henry the Navigator, and was ambitious to rival
the discoveries of Spain. She had already estab-
lished herself in the glowing realms of India.

In 1509 Magellan went to the West Indies in the
service of the Portuguese Government. He joined
the expedition that discovered the Spice Islands of
Banda, and it became his conviction that these
islands could be reached by a new ocean way.

A great vision arose in his mind. It was a sug-
gestion that never left him until he saw its fulfill-
ment in an unexpected way on seas of which he
never had dreamed.

This view was that he could sail around the
world and reach the Spice Islands by the way of
the West.

In the service of the King against the Moors in one
bo





















































































































































































































































































































































































































































dts MAAN

Lisbon, from the south bank



of the Tagus,
6 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN,

of the Portuguese wars, he received a wound which
healed, but left him lame for life. He, like other
officers, sent in his claim for the pension due to
such service. He received answer from the parsi-
monious King (Dom Manoel):

“Your claim is not good. Your wound has
healed.”

He was wounded more deeply by this insult than
he could have been by any poisoned dart from the
Moors. That he should have been refused the recog-
nition of those who had shed blood in his country’s
cause rankled in his heart, especially as he saw his
comrades paraded in honor and pensioned for lesser
disabilities. He left Portugal, as an exile, and went
to Spain.

Here the high aspirations of the lame soldier met
with recognition, and it was this service that caused
the Portuguese King to issue the strange order
which has introduced the young and high-spirited
grandee to the readers of this story.

If he had faults—as far as history records he
had no vices—his high aim overcame them. He
had caught the spirit of Portuguese Henry the Navi-
gator, and his soul had glowed when the fame of
Columbus first thrilled Spain. He had learned the
history of Vasco da Gama, whose name was the
glory of Portugal. He had educated himself for
action.

It was the age of opportunity. He saw it; he









Lo



Ferdinand Magellan.
After a painting by Velasquez.
8 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

could not know the way, but he knew the guide
that was in him. As a son of the Church, which he
then was, he consecrated all he had to her glory.
What was fame, what was wealth, what was any-
thing to becoming a benefactor of the world, and
living forever in the heart of all mankind?

So his deserted house crumbed in Sabrosa, and
his coat of arms did not there reappear until centu-
ries had followed the course of his genius, and the
whole world came to know his worth.

In view of recent events his character becomes
one of the most interesting of past history.

After nearly four hundred years that cast-out
name rises like a star!

Why, in the view of to-day, was that name cast
out?

Because Magellan saw his duty in a larger life
than in the restrictions of a provincial court. The
lesson has its significance. He who sinks self and
policy, and follows his highest duty and enters the
widest field, will in the final judgment of man re-
ceive the noblest and best reward.

We love a lover of mankind, and it strengthens
faith and hope to follow the keel of such a sailor on
any sea.
CHAPTER II.
FRIENDS WITH A PURPOSE.

Sous kindle kindred souls, and the inspirations
of friendship commonly form a part of the early his-
tory of beneficent lives.

One of Magellan’s early friends was Francisco
Serrao, who sailed with him for Malacca, a great
mart of merchandise in the East. It was to him
that Magellan wrote that he would meet him again
in the East, “if not by the way of Portugal, by that
of Spain;” words of signal import, which we have
already quoted.

Serrao had a very curious, romantic, and pathetic
history. He lived in the times of the Portuguese
Viceroys of India. He was made captain of a ship
which sought to explore the Spice Islands, which
were then held to be the paradise of the East.
Cloves and nutmegs then were luxuries, and when
brought to Portugal bore the flavor of the sun lands
of the far-off mysterious seas.

At Banda ships were loaded with spices. On
sailing there Serrao suffered shipwreck and was cast

9
10 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

upon a reef and found refuge on a deserted island.
The place was a resort of pirates or wreckers. Some
pirates sighted the wreck of the ship and sought to
plunder the wreckage.

“We have no ship, and the island is without food
or water,” said Serrao to his men. “ Hide under the
rock and obey me, and we will soon have a ship and
water and food.”

The men hid among the caverns of the reef. The
pirates landed, and left their ship for the wreckage.

Serrao rushed through the surf, followed by his
men, and boarded the pirates’ vessel.

The wreckers were filled with terror when they
saw what would be their fate if left there, and they
begged to be taken on board, and were received by
Serrao as prisoners.

Serrao traded for many years among the Spice
Islands and was advanced to high positions, but was
poisoned at last, as is supposed, by an intrigue of the
King of Tidor.

One of the most inspiring of Magellan’s friends
was Ruy Faleiro, who had wonderful instincts and
a wide vision, but who became a madman. Faleiro
was a Portuguese who, like Magellan, was out of
favor with the court. He was an astronomer, a geog-
rapher, and an astrologer. He had a fiery and impul-
sive temper, but with it a passion for discovery, and
so was drawn into Magellan’s heart by gravitation.
The two journeyed together, studied together, and
FRIENDS WITH A PURPOSE. . 11

started at about the same time for Spain. At Seville
they met in a club of famous discoverers, students,
and refugees.

They had one vision in common, that there was
a short route to the Moluccas by the way of the
West. The route was not what they dreamed it
to be; but there was a new way to the Spice Islands
by the West and East, a way that probably no
voyager from Europe had ever seen, and their
vision was decisive of one of the greatest events
—the circumnavigation of the world. The angle of
vision was not true in their private meetings, nor
had Magellan’s been before they met; but another
angle leading from it was true, and would cause
a change of the conception of the world when poor
Ruy Faleiro’s brain was losing its hold on such
entrancing hopes.

“ We can reach Molucca by a short voyage to the
West,” said Ruy Faleiro.

“JT am sure that I'can do this, if I can have an
expedition such as the King of Spain can give me,”
said Magellan.

_ “You must never communicate this secret to any
man,” said Ruy.

“J will never mention the subject to any but
you,” said Magellan, “until we can act together.”

The vision of finding the East by a short passage
to the West, involved so great a prospect of human
progress and glory that it would not let Magellan
12 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

rest at any time. It haunted him wherever he went.
He began to talk about it under restraint, and

friends came to see what was on his mind and to
take advantage of it.



The earliest map of the world.
By Hecateus of Miletus (sixth century B. c.). Probably copied in part from
Anaximander, inventor of map drawing.

The fiery Ruy Faleiro, when he found that his
friend had opened their confidential secret, partly
broke friendship with him. Magellan could only
FRIENDS WITH A PURPOSE. 13

acknowledge his error, and say that he never meant
in his heart to betray the secrets of his friend, the
cosmographer.

Faleiro dreamed on, but his mind weakened.

The popular legend about this unhappy man was,
that being an astrologer he cast his own horoscope,
and found that the expedition that he hoped to com-
mand would be lost, and so feigned madness. This
is only a story.

Faleiro died in Seville about 1523.

It would be interesting to know if he lived to
hear of the great discovery of his old friend Ma-
gellan, and if he joined in the general rejoicing
over it. It is probable that he lived to see
the strange ways by which his countryman had
been led, not over a short passage, but over far-
distant seas. His was a pitiable fate; but his
name merits honorable mention among men, who,
like Miranda in South America, have inspired
great deeds which they themselves could not ac-
complish.

Men of vision and men of action are essential to
each other; for many men can see what only a few
others can perform.

Magellan married Beatriz Barbosa about the year
1518. He was the father of one son. His wife
died shortly after hearing the news of his great dis-
covery of the Pacific and the new way to the East.

He was now prepared to go to Charles V, King
14 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

of Spain, son of the demented Queen Joanna, the
daughter of Isabella, and to lay before him a plan
of opening a short way to the East by sailing West.
This purpose more and more absorbed his soul—he
himself was nothing, discovery was everything. The
frown of Portugal no longer cast any deep shadow
over his life; it was his mission to find. He heard in
the acclaim of Columbus a prophecy of what his
own name would one day be.
CHAPTER III.

PRINCE HENRY THE NAVIGATOR AND VASCO
DA GAMA.

ALL things follow suggestion and inspiration,
and the discovery of the Western World owes much
to the heart and brain of Prince Henry, called the
Navigator. Although the son of a King, he felt that
he was more than that—a son of Humanity. He took
up his residence far from the pomp of courts on
the bleak, bare, solitary promontory of Sagres, the
sharp angle of Western Europe. Here he could see
the sun go down on the western sea, day by day.
Some inward genius like a haunting spirit seemed to
beckon his thoughts toward the West.

In view of his abode on a tall headland were the
ruins of a Druidical temple, where’ Strabo tells us
the gods used to assemble at night under the moon
and stars. So the place was called the Sacrum
Promontorium, and it was in this region that Prince
Henry schooled his soul in navigation and sought
to inspire all adventurers upon the sea. “ Farther”

was his motto, and “T"arther yet!” In his solitude
15 :
16 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN,

he called to him a company of restless spirits with
a passion for discovery, and said to them all, “ Far-
ther,” and “ Farther yet!”

The night of the dark ages was passing, and in
the new dawn of civilization, Prince Henry had vi-
sions of new ways to India, the magnificent; the
land of gold, gems, and spices, where the sun shone
on gardens of palms and seas of glory.

There were no lighthouses then on the African
coast; there were no sea charts, and the compass
was but little known. But there were eternal stars,
and under them were the living instincts that
awaken genius.

Prince Henry the Navigator was the fourth son
of King Joao I, or John the Great, and of Queen
Philippa, of the Roses. He was a great-grandson
of Edward III, of England.

Prince Henry’s motto was “ Talent de bien faire”
—“talent of good faculty.” The motto furnishes in
brief a history of his life.

The first fruit of Prince Henry’s geographical
studies was the discovery of the islands of Ma-
deira; but there were islands beyond Madeira, and
his restless spirit cried out in the night: “ Farther!”
and “Tarther yet!”

Cape Bojador, farther “ than the farthest point
of the earth,” rose just before the supposed regions
of sea monsters, fire, and darkness. Prince John sent
a navigator there, and found serene seas.
PROGRESS _OF PORTUGUESE DISCOVERY



S‘ Helena
01°




18 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN,

“ Farther! ”

In 1446 the Prince obtained a charter of the
Canary Islands. His ships next discovered the
Azores. But there were lands and islands and seas
“farther yet.”

Prince Henry died in 1463, about thirty years
before the triumph of Columbus.

He was the father of modern discovery, the spirit
of which rested not
until the map of the
whole world could
be drawn. He was
buried in a splendid
tomb, and the pupils
of his school of cos-
mography and navi-
gation continued to
penetrate the ocean
farther and farther to
the South and West.
Vasco da Gama i i,
opened the ocean Prince Henry the Navigatoy.
ways to India, and From a drawing by Allegra Eggleston,

, in The Story of Columbus,
the two great navi-
gators, Columbus and Magellan, owed much to the
spirit of the Prince who left courts that he might
found a school amid the sea desolations of St. Vin-
cent, in order to inspire young sailors to venture
always “ Farther!” and “ Farther yet!”




“He is a renegade. His arms must come down!”

(See page 2.)
PRINCE HENRY THE NAVIGATOR. 19

We must here tell you something of Vasco da

Gama, in order that you may better understand the
plan and purpose of Magellan.
Take your map of the world. Before the passage
to India was discovered by sailing around the Cape
of Good Hope, Africa, the trade between Asia and
Europe was carried on in this manner: There was
a great commercial city on the southern coast of
Arabia (Arabia Felix) called Alda, or Port Alda. It
was a city of merchants. To this port came the ships
from the East—China, Japan, India—laden with
gold, silk, and spices. The merchants of Alda
carried these goods to the Port of Suez on the
Red Sea. Thence the merchandise was conveyed
on camels to the Nile and to Alexandria, Egypt,
and thence by ships to the ports of the Mediterra-
nean.

Vasco da Gama discovered a new way to India
by doubling the Cape of Good Hope, and when he
returned from that voyage all Europe rang with his
praise. His discovery of the way to India from the
Mediterranean by rounding Africa was one of the
most momentous ever made. Wasco da Gama holds
rank with Columbus in the unveiling of the mys-
teries of the ocean world.

King John the Navigator had heard such won-
derful tales of India that he wished to find a way
there by water. He accordingly sent one Bartholo-
meu Diaz on an expedition with this end in view.
920 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

Diaz did not find India, but he found a cape on the
southernmost point of Africa, which he doubled.

So fearful were the tempests there that he called
it the Cape of Storms.

But King John saw that the islands of India
lay in that direction, and he exclaimed in delight
on hearing Diaz’s narrative of the tempestuous
place:

“Tis the Cape of Good Hope!” This gave the
cape its name.

A Jewish astrologer told Dom Manoel, King of
Portugal, that the riches of India could yet be found
by way of the sea. Of such a discovery the new
King dreamed. Who should he get to undertake a
voyage with such a purpose?

One day, as he sat in his halls among his courtiers
and grandees studying maps, a man of about thirty
years, who had a noble bearing, entered an outer
apartment. A sword hung by his side.

The King, who had been thinking of his great
mariners, lifted his face and said:

“Thank God! I have found my man. Bring to
me Vasco da Gama.”

He it was that stood in the outer hall.

“Vasco,” said the King, “I know your soul. For
the glory of Portugal you must find India by the
way of the sea!”

“J am at your service, sire, while life shall last.”

“ Depart in all haste.”


PRINCE HENRY THE NAVIGATOR, 21

It was March, 1497. Vasco da Gama raised his
sails and departed from Lisbon.

He passed the “Cape of Good Hope,” and met
with many adventures,
the narratives of which
would fill a book.

He crossed the India
Ocean, blown pleasant-
ly on by the _ trade-
winds.

One day a loud cry
arose:

“Land! land!”

The pilot came run-
ning to Vasco da Gama,
and fell at his feet.

“Captain, behold India!”

The shores of India rose in the burning light of
the tropic seas. Vasco da Gama saw them and fell
upon his knees.

Mountain rose above mountain, and hill over hill;
then green palms and shining beaches came into
view like scenes of enchantment.

“That is Cananor,” said the Moorish pilot; “the
great city of Calicat is twelve leagues distant.”

They sailed over those twelve leagues of clear
resplendent waters and came to Calicat, or Malabar.
That day of discovery was Portugal’s glory.

Calicat was a merchant city of the East, and one
3

bu iy

U
i

3y p=
al Oy):

J
))



Vasco da Gama.
PORTUGUESE INDIES









Philippin

(SPANISH)


















PRINCE HENRY THE NAVIGATOR. 93

of the most famous of India. Here came Arabian
and Egyptian merchants. It was a Mohammedan
city, and the princes of Calicat encouraged trade
between the Arabs and Hindoos. The city was now
to become an emporium for the Western World.

After many adventures in Malabar, Vasco da
Gama cruised along the coast of India. Everything
was wonderful, and the wonders grew.

In September, 1499, he returned, and was re-
ceived like a sovereign by the Portuguese King. His
arrival was a holiday, the glory of which has lived
in all Portuguese holidays until now.

He was given titles of distinction He was made
a Viceroy of India.

Twenty years after these events Magellan was
destined to discover another way to India.
CHAPTER IV.

THE ENTHUSIASTS CARRY THEIR PLANS TO THE
KING.

MAGELLAN, full of his project of finding a short
way to the rich spicery by sailing West, now sought
the favor of the Spanish court. Gold has ever been
the royal want, and nobles have always had open
ears to schemes that promised to fill the public
treasury.

Magellan’s interesting friend Francisco Serrao,
who had remained in the Indian possessions of the
Portuguese, after Magellan’s return, had discovered
resources of the tropical seas of the Orient that were
almost boundless. He had written to Magellan:

“Tf you would become rich return to the Mo-
luccas.”

This letter would be a sufficient passport to the
nobles who had the ear of the King. He showed the
letter to the King’s ministers.

He thought that the point of South America
turned westward, as the Cape of Good Hope toward

the East. He had an imaginary map in his mind of
24




ne

ENTHUSIASTS CARRY THEIR PLANS TO THE KING. 95

an ocean world whose shape had no real existence,
but that answered well as a theory.

Magellan had brought a globe from Portugal on
which he had drawn the undiscovered world as he
thought it existed. The strait which he had hoped
to find was omitted on this globe in his drawings
that no navigator might anticipate his discovery.

Some of the ministers listened to the project with
indifference, a few with ridicule; but as a rule Ma-
gellan appealed to willing ears. The ministers as a
body agreed to commend the enterprise to the King.
The Haros of Antwerp, the Rothschilds of the time,
favored the expedition. So Magellan and Faleiro
made out a petition of formal proposals which they
desired to present to the King, and awaited the
opportunity.

That opportunity soon came. Charles V, son of
Joanna, who was passing her days in solitude and
grief on account of the loss of her husband, was on
his way to Aragon. He was Emperor of Germany
and King of Spain. He was a youth now; having
been born in Ghent, February 24, 1500. He came to
the throne of Spain in 1516, as the disordered intel-
lect of his mother made her incapable of reigning.
He was elected German Emperor in 1519.

In his youth he had been dissolute. Seeing the
responsibilities that he owed to the world and the
age, he suddenly received new moral impulses and
conquered himself, and his moral life was followed
26 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

by a religious disposition. He received from the
Pope the title of Roman Emperor. His powerful in-

i a i
Ape ~~

a) Ke

a on Es “ey





os

























Charles V.
After a painting by Titian.
tellect subdued a great part of continental Hurope
to his will; but he became weary of the cares of
ENTHUSIASTS CARRY THEIR PLANS TO THE KING. 97

state, retired from the world, and ended his life as
a religious recluse.

The young King entered Spain in triumph, but
amid the glare of receptions his ears were not dull
to projects for acquiring gold.

Magellan and Faleiro, under the commendation
of the ministry, were soon able to lay their project
before the young grandson of the great Isabella. He
received them in the spirit that Isabella had met
Columbus. He approved their plans, and charged
them to make preparations for the expedition.

Charles entered Zaragoza in May, 1518, a youth
of eighteen, and Magellan and Faleiro followed the
royal train on its triumphal march in the blooming
days of the year. They were happy men, and their
glowing visions added to the joy of the court on its
journey amid singing nightingales and pealing bells.

The royal name signed to Magellan’s commission
was “Juana,” who had been the favorite daughter
of Queen Isabella, who had signed the commission
of Columbus.* This royal daughter of Aragon and
Castile was born at Toledo, November 6, 1479. She



* Donna Juana and Don Carlos, her son, by the grace of God, Queen
and King of Castile, Leon, Aragon, the two Sicilies, and Jerusalem, of Na-
varra, Granada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, the Mallorcas, Seville, Sardinia,.
Cordova, Corsica, Murcia, Jaen, the Algarves, of Aljazira, Gibraltar, of the
Canary Isles, of the Indies, isles and mainland of the Ocean-sea, Counts of
Barcelona, Lords of Biscay and Molina, Dukes of Athens and Neopatria,
Counts of Roussillon and Cerdana, Marquises of Euristan and Gociano,
Archdukes of Austria, Dukes of Bergona and Brabant, Counts of Flan-
ders and Tirol, ete.
28 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

was in the bloom of her girlhood when the news of
the return of Columbus thrilled Spain.

She was a girl of ardent affections; a lover of
music; not beautiful, but charming in manner; and
at the age of eighteen was betrothed to Philip of
the Low Countries, called Philip the Handsome.

The wedding of this daughter of Isabella was to
be celebrated in Flanders by fétes of unusual splen-
dor. A fleet of one hundred and thirty vessels pre-
pared to bear the bride to her handsome Prince.
The ships were under the command of the chival-
rous admiral of Castile.

Juana took leave of her mother at the end of
August, 1496, and embarked at the port of Laredo.
A more interesting bride under more joyous cir-
cumstances had seldom gone forth to meet a bride-
groom.

The sails covered the sea under the flags of the
glory of Spain. They drifted away amid music and
shoutings, but the salvos of the guns had hardly
died away before terrible storms arose. The fleet
was shattered, and many of the vessels were lost.

The young bride herself arrived in Flanders
safely, and her marriage with the archduke fol-
lowed at Lille.

When Queen Isabella heard of the birth of
Charles, she recalled that it fell on the day of Mat-
thias, and exclaimed, “ Sors cecidit super Mathiam’”
—‘the lot fell upon Matthias.”
. Flemish nobles, and

ENTHUSIASTS CARRY THEIR PLANS TO THE KING. 29

She predicted that the infant would become the
King of Spain.

Philip and Juana were summoned to Spain to.
meet the people over whom it then seemed probable
that they would soon
be called to reign.
They entered France
in 1501, attended by

wherever they went
was a holiday. There
were weeks of splen-
did fétes in honor
of the progress.

When Ferdinand
and Isabella heard
of the arrival of
Philip and Juana in
Spain they hastened Ferdinand and Isabella.
to Toledo to meet oe eon
them. Here Philip and his Queen received the alle-
giance of the Cortes.

But Philip was a gay Prince, and he loved the
dissipations of Flanders more than his wife or the
interests of his prospective Spanish possessions. So
he left his wife, and returned to Flanders.

The conduct of the handsome Prince drove Juana
mad. She loved him so fondly that she thought only
of him, and sat in silence day after day with her




380 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

eyes fixed on the ground, as an historian says, “ equal-
ly regardless of herself, her future subjects, and her
afflicted parents.”

She subsequently joined Philip at Burgos. Here
Philip died of fever after overexertion at a game of
ball. Juana never left his bedside, or shed a tear.
Her grief obliterated nearly all things in life, and
she was dumb. Her only happiness now, except in
music, was to be with his dead body.

She removed her husband’s remains to Santa
Clara.

The body was placed on a magnificent car, and
was accompanied in the long way to the tomb by a
train of nobles and priests. Juana never left it.
She would not allow it to be moved by day. She
said:

“A widow who has lost the sun of her soul
should never expose herself to the light of day!”

Wherever the procession halted, she ordered new
funeral ceremonies. She forbade nuns to approach
the body. Finding the coffin had been carried to a
nunnery at a stage of the journey, she had it re-
moved to the open fields, where she watched by
it, and caused the embalmed body to be revealed to
her by torches. She had a tomb made for the re-
mains in sight of her palace windows in Santa
Clara, and she watched over it in silence for forty-
seven years, taking little interest in any other thing.

But as she survived Ferdinand and Isabella, her
ENTHUSIASTS CARRY THEIR PLANS TO THE KING. 31

name for a time was affixed to royal commissions,
and so Magellan sailed in the service of Charles
under the signature of Juana, who was silently
watching over her husband’s tomb, in the hope that
the Prince would one day rise again.

We relate this narrative to give a view of the
events of the period, and for the same reason we
must speak of an-
other eminent per-
son who acted in the
place of the Queen in
her unhapy state of
mind.

This was the great
political genius of
the time, the virtu-
ous and benevolent
Cardinal Ximenes,
statesman, archbish-
op, the heart of the
people and the con-
science of the Church. Cardinal Ximenes.

He was born of a After a painting by Velasquez.
humble family in Castile in 1487. He was educated
in Rome. His character and learning were such
that Queen Isabella chose him for her confessor, and
made him Archbishop of Toledo, with the approval
of the Pope.

On the death of Philip in 1505, he was made






32 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

regent for Juana. IJerdinand named Ximenes re-
gent of Spain on his deathbed, until Charles V
should return from Flanders to Spain.

The regency of Ximenes was one of honor and
glory. He himself lived humbly and simply amid
all his associations of pomp and power.

He maintained thirty poor persons daily at ne
own cost, and gave half of his income to charity.
He excited the jealousy of Charles V at last, and
lost his power in consequence. He lived to extreme
age, and left a character that Ee pan has ever loved
to hold in honor.

Such was the political condition of Spain in the
early days of Magellan.
CHAPTER V.

ABOUT THE HAPPY ITALIAN WHO WISHED TO SEE
THE WORLD.—BEAUTIFUL SEVILLE!

WE should have known but little of the adven-
tures of Magellan, but for Antonia Pigafetta, Cheva-
lier, and Knight of Rhodes.

He was a young Italian of a susceptible heart and
happy imagination.

He came wandering to Barcelona, Spain, in the
generation that remembered Columbus, and the
splendid scenes that welcomed the return of Colum-
bus on the field of Sante Fé. He must have heard
the enthralling description of those golden days—
he could not be a Columbus; but, if he could win
the good will of Magellan, he might go after Colum-
bus and see what no Europeans had seen.

So he wandered the streets of Barcelona and
heard the tales of the events that occurred when
the “Viceroy of the Isles” was received there by
Isabella.

What days those had been! The march of Colum-

bus through Spain to meet Isabella at Sante Fé, was
33
84 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

such as had a demigod appeared on earth. Spain
was thrilled. The world knew no night. The trum-
pets of heralds rent the air, and men’s hearts swelled
high at the tales of the golden empires that Colon
had added to Aragon and Castile. Alas! they did
not know that there are riches which do not enrich,
and that it is only the gold that does good that
ennobles.

As Columbus approached with his glittering
cavaliers songs rent the air, whose words have been
interpreted—

«Thy name, O Fernando!
Through all earth shall be sounded,

Columbus has triumphed,
His foes are confounded

! ”
or
““Thy name, Isabella,
Through all earth shall be sounded,
Columbus has triumphed,

His foes are confounded!”

»

To Aragon and Castile Columbus had “ given a
new world.” Peals of golden horns shook the
delighted cities, where balconies overflowed with
flowers.

His reception at Barcelona by the King and
Queen had been made inconceivably splendid:

“That was a glorious day
That dawned on Barcelona. Banners filled
The thronging towers, the old bells rung, and blasts
Of lordly trumpets seemed to reach the sky

Cerulean. All Spain had gathered there,
And waited there his coming; Castilian knights,


















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Barcelona,
386 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

Gay cavaliers, hidalgos young, and e’en the old
Puissant grandees of far Aragon,
With glittering mail and waving plumes and all
The peasant multitude with bannerets
And charms and flowers.

“ Beneath pavilions
Of brocades of gold, the Court had met.
The dual crowns of Leon old and proud Castile
There waited him, the peasant mariner.

“The heralds waited
Near the open gates; the minstrels young and fair
Upon the tapestries and arrased walls,
And everywhere from all the happy provinces
The wandering troubadours.

« Afar was heard
Acry, along acclaim. Afar was seen
A proud and stately steed with nodding plumes,
Bridled with gold, whose rider stately rode,
And still afar a long and sinuous train
Of silvery cavaliers. A shout arose,
And all the city, all the vales and hills,
With acclamations rung.

“He came, the Genoese,
With reverent look and calm and lofty mien,
And saw the wondering eyes and heard the cries,
And trumpet peals, as one who followed still
Some Guide unseen.

“Before his steed
Crowned Indians marched with lowly faces,
And wondered at the new world that they saw;
Gay parrots screamed from their gold-circled arms,
And from their crests swept airy plumes. The sun
Shone full in splendor on the scene, and here
The old and new world met!”

The young Italian Chevalier, Pigafetta, Knight of
Rhodes, visited the scenes that his own countryman
had made immortal by his voyage.

He thought of the plumed Indians and of the
THE ITALIAN WHO WISHED TO SEE THE WORLD. 37

birds of splendid plumage that. Columbus had
brought back.

He heard much of Magellan, the “new Colum-
bus.” Why might he not go out upon unknown seas
with him and discover new races, and bring back
with him tropic spices, birds, and flowers?

He journeyed to Seville and there met Magellan.
He entered into the dreams of the new navigator.
He asked Magellan to let him sail with him.

“Why do you wish to enter upon such a hazard-
ous undertaking?” _

“T am desirous of seeing the wonderful things of
the ocean!”

Magellan saw it was so. The Spaniards might
distrust him, the Portuguese be jealous of him, but
here was a man who would have no race preju-
dices—a man after his own heart, whom he could
trust.

“You wish to see the wonders of the ocean
world?” he asked.

“Yes, and I can write, and whatever I may do,
and wherever I may go, I will always be true to
you—the heart of Pigafetta will always be loyal to
the Admiral!”

“My Italian Chevalier, you may embark with me
to see the wonders of the ocean world. You shall
follow my lantern.”

From that hour the young Italian lived in antici-
pation. What new lands would he see, what palm

4
88 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

islands, what gigantic men and strange birds, and
inhabitants of the sea?

The young Knight of Rhodes had spoken truly,
whatever light might fail, his heart would ever be
true to the Admiral.

So the Knight embarked with the rude crew to
follow, in the silences of uncharted seas, the lantern
of Magellan.

He composed on the voyage a narrative for Vil-
liers de ’Isle Adams, Grand Master of Rhodes. By
this narrative we are still able to follow in fancy
the lantern of Magellan through the straits that
now bear the name of Magellan, to the newly dis-
covered Pacific, and around the world.

His character was as spirited as Magellan’s was
noble.

We will sail with him in our voyage around the
world, for he went all the way and bore the news
of Magellan’s triumphs to Seville again.

Beautiful Seville! We must glance at the city
here. She was the pride of Spain in those times
when Spain dazzled the world. The Hispal of the
Phoenicians, the Hispales of the Roman conquest,
and the Seville of the Moors! Her glory had arisen
in the twilight of history, and had grown with the
advancement of the race.

She was indeed beautiful at the time when Ma-
gellan was preparing for the sea. The Moorish
BEAUTIFUL SEVILLE! 39

period had passed leaving her rich in arts and treas-
ures, and splendid architecture.

Situated on the banks of the Guadalquivir, circu-
lar in shape and surrounded with more than a hun-
dred Moorish towers, and about ten miles in circum-
ference, she ri-
valed the cities
of Europe and of
the Orient.

The great ca-
thedral was be-
ing completed at
that time, a moun-
tain of art, aris-
ing from its plain
of marble. It was
four hundred and
thirty-one feet
long, and three
hundred and fif-
teen feet wide,
with solemn and
grand arches
lighted by the
finest windows in Spain, perhaps the most en-
chanting lights through which the sun ever shone.
The altars were enriched by the wealth of dis-
covery.

Over this mountain of gold, marbles, and gems

















The Giralda.
40 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN. —

gleamed the Giralda, or weather vane, in the form
of a statue, three hundred and fifty feet high.

Seville at this time was a city of churches. To
these, sailors resorted while waiting for an expedi-
tion to complete its preparations for the sea, for most
of them were good Catholics, and such as hoped for
God’s favor in the enterprise upon which they were
about to enter.

Here, too, was the old Moorish palace, the Al-
cazar, with its delicate lacework like the walls of
the Alhambra, but richer in color. In this -palace
was the Hall of the Ambassadors, one of the most
enchanting apartments ever created by the genius
of man.

In the latter dream of Moorish fancy have passed
aching hearts, as well as those filled with wonder
and delight. Here Pedro the Cruel received one of
the kings of Granada, and murdered him with his
own hand, to rob him of the jewels that adorned his
person.

The tales of Pedro the Cruel haunted the city at
this time.

We are told that this monarch used to go about
the city in disguise.

One night he went out thus to serenade a beau-
tiful lady. As he approached the balcony with his
guitar where the lady lived, he saw another man
there, who had come for the same purpose. The
rival musician filled him with rage, and the King
BEAUTIFUL SEVILLE! 41

rushed upon him and struck him down and killed
him.

He fled away. He reasoned that as he was in
disguise no one could know him.

There was an old woman who kept a bakery
across the way from the house where the noble lady
lived. She was looking out of her window at the
time of the murder. She saw the act, and got a
view of the terrible face of the royal musician as
he was fleeing away.

“That was the King himself,” said the old bake
woman. “ By my soul, that was the King!”

The next day the news of the murder filled the
city. The murdered man was a person of rank and
importance. The people were alarmed and indig-
nant.

“Who did the deed?” was a question that arose
to every lip.

The King, cruel as he was, did not wish to be
suspected of being a street assassin. So he issued
a proclamation in this form:

“Unless the alcalde (judge) of Seville shall
discover the murderer of the gallant musician
within three days, the alcalde shall lose his
head.”

The city judge began to make great exertions
to discover the murderer.

The old bake woman came to him and said:

“T know who did the deed. But silence, silence!
49 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN,

I saw it with my own eyes, but we must be still. It
was the King himself!”

The alcalde dared not accuse the King, and yet
he must save his own head. What was he to do?

He made an image of the King. He then went to
the palace.

“QO King! I have found the murderer. I have
brought him here to receive sentence.”

The King was glad that a suspected person had
been found, so that the public thought might be
directed to the suspect.

“What shall be done with him?” asked the
alcalde.

“What! He who would slay a musician about to
serenade a noble lady?”

“Yes, your Majesty.”

“What shall be done with him? I condemn him
to death. Bring him before me.”

The alcalde brought in the image of the King,
and uncovered it.

The King beheld himself.

“T will save your head,” said the King, and the
alcalde went thoughtfully away.
CHAPTER VI.
ENEMIES.—ESTEBAN GORMEZ.

No man living could better know what he needed
for such a stupendous and unprecedented undertak-
ing than Magellan, who had already been to the
spicery of the Orient in the service of Albuquerque,
the Portuguese Viceroy. Under the royal sanction,
the dockyards of Seville were at his command. He
repaired to Seville, and was there looked upon as
one destined to harvest the wealth of the Indies.

But as soon as it became known in Portugal that
Magellan was to lead a new expedition of discovery,
the mistake that the King had made in rejecting
the proposal of the lame soldier, to whom he had re-
fused pension honors, became apparent. The court
saw what this rejected man of positive purpose and
invaluable knowledge of navigation might accom-
plish. Should his dreams be prophetic and his proj-
ects prove successful, the glory would go to Spain,
and the King would be held responsible for another
mistake like that which his predecessor had made

in the case of Columbus.
43
44 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

What must the court of Portugal do? The ham-
mers were flying in Seville on the ships loading for
the voyage. Magellan was making up his crews.
Spain had faith in him, and he had faith in himself 3
never a man had more.

Portugal must prevent the expedition. The
Crown must appeal to Magellan to withdraw from
it. The King must ask young King Charles to dis-
miss Magellan as an act of royal courtesy. If these
efforts were not successful, -it was argued that the
expedition must be arrested by force, or Magellan
must be murdered by secret spies of the court.

The fleet preparing was to consist of five ships
with ample equipment. These were named the
Trinidad, the San Antonio, of one hundred and
twenty Spanish tons each; the Concepcion, of ninety
Spanish tons; the Victoria, of eighty-five tons; and
the Santiago, of seventy-five. The Victoria, the ship
of destiny, was to circumnavigate the globe.

And now while the hammers were at work, the
dull King of Portugal began to arouse himself to
arrest the plan, and the court, seeing his spirit,
acted with him.

In the bright days in Zaragoza Magellan had
been warned that he was in danger of being assas-
sinated. But he did not take alarm. As his project
rose into public view at Seville he must have known
that he was surrounded by spies, but he did not heed
them; he kept right on, marching forward as it















A6 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

were after the inspiration that had taken posses-
sion of his soul.

There was an India House in Seville, composed
of merchants, and these were favorable to the ex-
pedition. In Spain everything favored Magellan.

Aluaro da Costa was the Portuguese minister to
the court of Spain. He plotted against Magellan, and
sought an interview with young Charles in order to
induce him to eliminate the Portuguese from the ex-
pedition. Charles was about to become a brother-
in-law to Dom Manoel, and Aluaro da Costa could
appeal to the King in this cause in many ways.

Full of diplomacy and craft, he met the King
who had to weigh the prospect of gold and glory
against this personal argument. Gold outweighed
the family considerations, for Charles in his young
days was a man of powerful ambitions.

Aluaro da Costa wrote to Dom Manoel a graphic
account of this interview. It shows how politic
ministers of state were in those days. We can not
give the reader a clearer view of some of the ob-
stacles against which Magellan had to contend in
those perilous days in Spain than by citing Aluaro’s
account to Dom Manoel of his interview with young
Charles V in his intrigue against Magellan:

“Srre: Concerning Ferdinand Magellan’s affair,
how much I have done and how I have labored,
God knows, as I have written you at length; and
now I have spoken upon the subject very strongly
ENEMIES.—ESTEBAN GORMEZ. 47

to the King, putting before him all the inconven-
iences that in this case may arise, and also rep-
resenting to him what an ugly matter it was, and
how unusual for one King to receive the subjects
of another King, his friend, contrary to his wish,
a thing unheard of among cavaliers, and ac-
counted both ill-judged and ill-seeming. Yet I had
just put your Highness and your Highness’s posses-
sions at his service in Valladolid at the moment
that he was harboring these persons against your
will. I begged him to consider that this was not
the time to offend your Highness, the more so in an
affair which was of so little importance and so un-
certain; and that he would have plenty of subjects
of his own and men to make discoveries when the
time came, without availing himself of those mal-
contents of your Highness, whom your Highness
could not fail to believe likely to labor more for
your disservice than for anything else; also that
his Highness had had until now so much to do in
discovering his own kingdoms and dominions, and in
settling them, that he ought not to turn his atten-
tion to these new affairs, from which dissensions and
other matters, which may well be dispensed with,
may result.

“T also presented to him the bad appearance
that this would have at the very moment of the
marriage—the ratification of friendship and affec-
tion. And also that it seemed to me that your
Highness would much regret to learn that these
men asked leave of him to return,* and that he did



* This statement there is every reason to believe was a pure fiction of
Da Costa,
48 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

not grant it, the which are two faults—the receiv-
ing them contrary to your desire, and the retain-
ing them contrary to their own. And I begged of
him, both for his own and for your Highness’s sake,
that he would do one of two things: either permit
them to go, or put off the affair for this year, by
which he would not lose much; and means might
be taken whereby he might be obliged, and your
Highness might not be offended, as you would be
were this scheme carried out.

“He was so surprised, sire, at what I told him,
that I also was surprised; but he replied to me with
the best words in the world, saying that on no
account did he wish to offend your Highness, and
many other good words; and he suggested that I
should speak to the Cardinal, and confide the whole
matter to him.

“May the Lord increase the life and dominions
of your Highness to his holy service. From Sa-
ragoca, Tuesday night, the 28th day of September.

“J kiss the hands of your Highness,
“ ALUARO DA COSTA.”

Court intrigue against Magellan did not avail.
There was one thing statecraft could do. It could
set spies on Magellan on board his own ships. This
it succeeded in doing.

There was in Spain at this time a Portuguese
adventurer and navigator by the name of Estevan
or Esteban Gormez—Stephen Gormez.

He was a student of navigation, and was rest-
less to follow the examples of Columbus and Vasco
ENEMIES.—ESTEBAN GORMEZ. 49

da Gama. He had applied to the court of Spain—
probably to Cardinal Ximenes, for a commission to
go on a voyage of discovery and he had received a
favorable answer, and was preparing to embark,
when Magellan appeared at court and promised to
find the Spice Islands by way of South America.

Magellan’s scheme was so much larger and defi-
nite than that of Gormez that the court canceled
its favors to the lesser plans, and Gormez had to
abandon his prospects of sailing under the royal
favors of Spain.

The eyes of Spain were now fixed on Magellan.

“T will find a way to the Spice Islands by South
America or by the West,” said Magellan to the min-
isters of the King, “or you may have my head.”

These were bold words. Magellan had not only
been to the Spice Islands, but he had gone out on
the very voyage that discovered some of them. He
had behaved heroically on the voyage. So his appli-
cation to the court superseded the plan of Gormez
and the latter sunk out of sight.

In his despondency at the failure of his plans,
Gormez came to Magellan.

“My countryman,” said Gormez, “your schemes
have supplanted mine and turned my ships into air.
I was the first to plan a voyage to the Moluccas out
of the wake of hurricanes and monsoons. I do not
feel that I have been treated rightly. Something
surely is due to me.”
50 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

Magellan was a man of generous impulses. He
saw that Gormez had a case for moral appeal.

“My friend,” said he, “you shall have a place in
my expedition.”

He could but think that the inspiration and
knowledge of navigation of his countryman would
be useful to him, and he pitied him for his disap-
pointment, knowing how he himself would feel were
his plans to be set aside.

So Gormez, the Portuguese, was made the pilot
of the Antonio.

Magellan, had he reflected, must have seen that
this man would carry with him envy and jealousy,
passions that are poisons. But Estefano, or Es-
teban, or Stephen Gormez, took his place at the
pilot house of the Antonio to follow the lantern of
Magellan, but the hurt in his heart at being super-
seded never healed.

On the ships also was one Juan de Carthagena,
captain of the Concepcion, a spy, and one of the
“malapots” of the expedition. He was called the
veedor, or inspector. He inspected Magellan, and
Magellan inspected him, as we shall see.

And now the flags arose in the clear air, and the
joyful fleet cleared the Guadalquivir and leaped into
the arms of the open sea, amid the acclamations of
gay grandees and a happy people.

It was September 20th when the anchors were
lifted, of which probably one was destined to come
ENEMIES.—ESTEBAN GORMEZ. 51

back in triumph after an immortal voyage that en-
compassed the earth, and gave to Spain a new
ocean.

And the King of Portugal ordered the coat of
arms to be torn down from the house of Magellan,
as we have pictured at the beginning of our nar-
rative.
CHAPTER VII.
“ MAROONED.”

THE expedition moved down its western way,
over the track of Columbus. It had left poor Ruy
Faleiro behind—he who had seen the progress of it
all in the fitful light of a disordered vision. He had
not relinquished his own high aims. He hoped to
follow Magellan with an expedition of his own.

The ships were furnished wth “ castles,” fore and
aft; they carried gay pennons and were richly stored.
The artillery comprised sixty-two culverins and
smaller ordnance. Five thousand or more pounds
of powder were shut up in the magazines, and a
large provision was made for trading with the
natives—looking glasses for women, velvets, knives,
and ivory ornaments, and twenty thousand bells.

Magellan’s ship bore a lantern, swung high in
the air amid the thickly corded rigging, which the
other ships were to keep in view in the night. What
a history had this lantern! It gleamed out on the
night track of a new world, a pillar of fire that

encompassed the earth as in the orbit of a star.
52
“ MAROONED.” 53

The fleet had fifteen days of good weather and
passed Cape Verde Islands, running along the Afri-
can coast.

But the fleet carried with it disloyal hearts. The
Portuguese prejudice against Magellan sailed with
it. The Spanish sailors distrusted the loyalty of Ma-
gellan to Spain.

The commander was a man of great heart, chival-
rous, and noble, but be could be firm when there
arose an occasion for it.

After leaving Teneriffe Magellan altered his
course.

Juan de Carthagena, captain of the San Antonio,
“the inspector” and a spy, demanded of Magellan
why he had done so.

“ Sir,” said Magellan, “ you are to follow my flag
by day and my lantern by night, and to ask me no
further questions.” |

Carthagena demanded that Magellan should re-
port his plans to him. Finding that the Admiral
was bent on conducting his own expedition, he
began to act sullenly, and to disobey orders.

Again the ‘captain of the San Antonio demanded
of Magellan that he should communicate his orders
in regard to the course of steerage to him. He did
this by virtue of his office as inspector. He showed
a very haughty and disloyal spirit, and if this were
not to be checked, the success of the expedition

would be imperiled. He was abetted by Pedro
5
54 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

Sanches, a priest. Magellan saw treason already
brewing, and he determined to stamp it out at once.

He went to Carthagena, and laid his hands
on him.

“Captain, you are my prisoner.”

The astonished captain cried out to his men:

“Unhand me—seize Magellan!”

Carthagena had been a priest, and he had great
personal influence, but the men did not obey him.

“Lead him to the stocks and secure him there,”
_ ordered Magellan.

The order was obeyed. The fallen inspector was
committed to the charge of the Captain of the Vic-
toria, and another officer was given charge of the
San Antonio.

“When we reach land Juan de Carthagena shall
be marooned,” was the sentence imposed upon the
inspector. A like sentence was imposed upon San-
ches.

It touched the hearts of the crews to hear this
sentence. What would become of the two priests,
were it to be executed? Would they fall prey to
the natives, or perhaps win the hearts of the people
and be made chiefs among them?

There was a pilot on board the ship who sym-
pathized with the mutineers, but who had close lips,
Esteban Gormez, of whom we have spoken. Were
the two mutineers to be marooned he would be glad
to rescue them.


Night after night the ships followed Magellan’s lantern.
““MAROONED.” 5D

He had been discontented since the day that his
own plans for an expedition had been superseded by
those of Magellan.

His discontentment had grown. He became criti-
cal as the fleet sailed on. Every day reminded him
of what he might have done, if he could have only
secured the opportunity.

A disloyal heart in any enterprise is a very peril-
ous influence. A wooden horse in Troy is more dan-
gerous than an army outside.

_ Magellan in Gormez had a subtle foe, and that
foe was his own countryman.

This man probably could not brook to see his
rival add the domains of the sea to the crowns of
Juana and of Charles, though he himself had sought
to do the same thing. Magnanimous he could not be.
Discovery for the sake of discovery had little mean-
ing for him, but only discovery for his own advance-
ment and glory.

He became jealous of Mesquita, Magellan’s
cousin, now master of the Antonio, who is thought
to have advised severe measures to. suppress con-
spiracy.

Night after night he sat down under the moon
and stars, and brooded over his fancied neglect, and
dreamed. Night after night the ships followed the
lantern of Magellan, and the wonders of the sea
grew; but to him it were better that no discoveries
should be made than that such achievements were
56 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

to go to the glory of Spain through the pilotage of
Magellan.

Discontent grows; jealousy grows as one broods
over fancied wrongs, and sees the prospects of a
rival’s success. So it was with Gormez. In his
heart he did not wish the expedition to succeed. He |
was ambitious to lead such an enterprise himself,
which he also did, at last, sailing along Massachu-
‘setts Bay and giving it its first name.

When Gormez had heard that the two disloyal
men were to be marooned, his feelings rose against
Magellan. That they deserved their sentence he
well knew, but they were opposed to Magellan, as
was his own heart. He would have been glad to
have saved them from the execution of their sen-
tence, but he did not know how to do it.

“J will rescue them if ever I can,” he thought.
“This expedition is not for the glory of Portugal.”

The ships sailed on, bearing the two conspirators
to some place where they could be marooned.

Let us turn from this dark scene to one of a more
hopeful spirit.

One day, as we may picture the scene, the
sea lay unruffled like a mirror. The ships drifted
near each other, and night came on after a sudden
twilight, and the stars seemed like liquid lights shot
forth or let down from some ethereal fountain. The
Southern Cross shone so clearly as to uplift the eyes
of the sailors. The ships were becalmed.
“MAROONED.” 57

Boats began to ply between the ships, and the
officers of the Trinity, Santiago, Victoria, and Con-
cepcion assembled under the awning of the San
Antonio, Mesquita’s ship, of one hundred and
twenty tons.

Mesquita, as we have said, was a cousin of
Magellan, and so the Antonio seemed a friendly
ship. .

Magellan sat down by his cousin. The lantern
was going out; its force was spent.

“We must get a new kind of lantern,” said Ma-
gellan to his cousin, “and a code of signal lights.
We need a lantern that is something more steady
and durable than a faggot of wood.”

“T have here a new farol,” he continued, the men
listening with intent ears. “Here it is, and I
wonder, my sailors, how far your eyes will fol-
low it.”

“ All loyal hearts will follow it,” said Mesquita,
“ wherever it may go.”

Gormez frowned. His heart was bitter.

There rose up an officer named Del Cano, and
stood hat in hand. All eyes were fixed upon him.

“May it please you, Admiral,” he said, “to re-
ceive a word from me. I will follow the new farol
wherever it may lead me. I have ceased to count
my own life in this cause.”

Gormez frowned again.

“Del Cano,” said the Admiral, “I believe in you.
58 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

You have a true heart. If I should fall see that
this farol goes back to Spain!”

Del Cano bowed.

Magellan showed the new lantern to the officers.

It was’ made of
beaten reeds that had
been soaked in water,
and dried in the sun. It
would hold light long,
and carry it strongly
and steadily.

“ All the ships must
have these new farols,”
said he, “and I must
teach you how to signal
by them.”

He stood up. The
moon jas rising, and
Arms granted to Sebastian Del Cano, the dusky, purple air be-

Captain of the Victoria, the firsts c¢ame luminous.

a that circumnavigated the Hee weld the far ola

his hand.

“Two lights,” he said, “shall mean for the ship
to tack.

“Three lights that the sails shall be lowered.
Four, that they shall stop.

“Tive lights, or more, that we have discovered
land, when the fiagship shall discharge a bom-
bard. Follow my lantern always; you can trust it


““MAROONED.” 59

wherever it may fare. My farol shall be my
star!”

The men sat there long. There Sprung up a
breeze at last, and the sea began to ripple in the
moon.

Most expeditions that have made successful
achievements have carried men of great hope. Such
aman was Del Cano. He was loyal to the heart of
Magellan; and happy is any leader who has such a
companion, whose steel rings true.

Magellan hung out the farol. The sails were
spread, and the fleet passed on over the solitary
ocean.

Whither?
CHAPTER VIII.

“THE WONDERS OF NEW LANDS.”—PIGAFETTA’S
TALES OF HIS ADVENTURES WITH MAGELLAN.—
THE STORY OF “THE FOUNTAIN TRER.’”’— ST.
ELMO’S FIRE.”

THE ships moved on, bearing the hopeful Del
Cano, the frowning Gormez, the two ener, and
the happy Italian Pigafetta.

Our next chapters will be a series of wonder tales
which reveal the South Temperate Zone and its in-
habitants as they appeared to the young and suscep-
tible Italian, Pigafetta, nearly four hundred years
“ago.

Pigafetta, as we have shown, desired to accom-
pany Magellan that he might “see the wonders of
the new lands.” He saw them indeed, and he
painted them with his pen so vividly that they will
always live. We get our first views of the strange
inhabitants of the Southern regions of the New
World from him. We are to follow his narratives, as
printed for the Hakluyt Society, London, making

some omissions, and changing its form in part, hop-
60












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Interior of the Alcdzar of Seville.
62 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

ing thereby to render the text more clear. We
closely follow the spirit of events. Pigafetta ad-
dresses his narrative “To the very illustrious and
very excellent Lord Philip de Villiers Lisleaden,
Grand Master of Rhodes,” of whom we have spoken.

He says, by way of introduction:

“Finding myself in Spain in the year of the
nativity of our Lord, 1519, at the court of the most
serene King of the Romans (Charles V), and learning
there of the great and awful things of the ocean
world, I desired to make a voyage to unknown seas,
and to see with my own eyes some of the wonder-
ful things of which I had heard.

“TI heard that there was in the city of Seville
an armada (armade) of five ships, which were ready
to perform a long voyage in order to find the short-
est way to the Islands of Moluco (Moluceca) from
whence came the spices. The Captain General of
this armada was Ferdinand de Magagleanes (Ma-
gellan), a Portuguese gentleman, who had made sey-
eral voyages on the ocean. He was an honorable
man. So I set out from Barcelona, where the Em-
peror was, and traveled by land to the said city of
Seville, and secured a place in the expedition.

“The Captain General published ordinances for
the guidance of the voyage. |

“He willed that the vessel on which he himself
was should go before the other vessels, and that the
others should keep in sight of it. Therefore he hung
“THE WONDERS OF NEW LANDS.” 63

by night over the deck a torch or faggot of burn-
ing wood which he called a farol (lantern), which
burned all night, so that the ships might not lose
sight of his own.

“ He arranged to set other lights as signals in the
night. When he wished to make a tack on account
of a change of weather he set two lights. Three
lights signified “faster.” Four lights signified to
stop and turn. When he discovered a rock or land,
it was to be signaled by other lights.

“He ordered that three watches should be kept
at night.

“On Monday, St. Lawrence Day, August 10th,
the five ships with the crews to the number of two
hundred and thirty-seven * set sail from the noble
city of Seville, amid the firing of artillery and came
to the end of the river Guadalcavir (Guadalquivir).
We stopped near the Cape St. Vinconet to make
further provisions for the voyage.

“We went to hear mass on shore. There the Cap-
tain commanded that all the men should confess
before going any further.

“On Tuesday, September 20th, we set sail from
St. Lucar.

“We came to Canaria (Canaries).”

This account repeats in a different way a part
of the facts we have given.

* The number was larger, about 270.
64 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

Here the young Italian relates his first story,
which is substantially as follows:

THE FOUNTAIN TREE.

“ Among the isles of the Canaria there is one
which is very wonderful. There is not to be found
a single drop of water which flows from any fountain
or river.

“But in this rainless land at the hour of mid-
day, every day, there descends a cloud from the sky
which envelops a large tree which grows on this
island.

“The cloud falls upon the leaves of the tree, when
a great abundance of water distills from the leaves.
The tree flows, and soon at the foot of it there
gathers a fountain.

“The people of the island come to drink of the
water. The animals and the birds refresh them-
selves there.”

The story is true so far as relates to the fountain
tree. But that a cloud comes down from Heaven
at midday to refresh it, is not an exact statement
of the manner in which this tree furnishes water to
the sterile island. The young Italian writer describes
the tree as he saw it, and as it seemed to be. The tree
that supplies water as from a natural fountain may
still be found.

With such a tree to begin his researches on the sea,
Pigafetta must have been impatient to proceed along
“THE WONDERS OF NEW LANDS.” 65

the marvelous ocean way. All the world was to him
as he saw it; he seldom stopped to inquire if appear-
ances were true.

With men like Del Cano on board, who had ears
for a marvelous story, his life in the early part of
the voyage must have been a very happy one.
Wonder followed wonder..

“Monday, the 3d of October,” says the interest-
ing Italian, “we set sail making the course auster,
which the Levantine mariners call siroc (southeast)
entering into the ocean sea. We passed Cape Verde
and navigated by the coast of Guinea of Ethiopia,
where there is a mountain called Sierra Leona. A
rain fell, and the storm lasted sixty days.”

They came to waters full of sharks, which had
terrible teeth, and which ate all the people whom
they found in the sea, alive or dead. These were

caught by a hook of iron.

ST. ELMO’S FIRE. :

Here good St. Anseline met the ships; in the
fancy of the mariners of the time, this airy saint
appeared to favored ships in the night, and fair
weather always followed the saintly apparition. He
came in a robe of fire, and stood and shone on the
top of the high masts or on the spars. The sailors
hailed him with joy, as one sent from Heaven.
Happy was the ship on the tropic sea upon whose
rigging the form of good St. Anseline appeared in
66 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

the night, and especially in the night of cloud and
storm!

To the joy of all the ships good St. Anseline came
down one night to the fleet of Magellan. The poeti-
cal Italian tells the story in this way:

“During these storms, the body of St. Anseline
appeared to us several times.

“One night among others he came when it was
very dark on account of bad weather. He came in
the form of a fire lighted at the summit of the main
mast, and remained there near two hours and a half.

“This comforted us greatly, for we were in tears,
looking for the hour when we should perish.

“When the holy light was going away from us
it shed forth so great a brilliancy in our eyes that
we were like people blinded for near a quarter of an
hour. We called out for mercy.

“Nobody expected to escape from the storm.

“It is to be noted that all and as many times as
the light which represents St. Anseline shows itself
upon a vessel which is in a storm at ‘sea, that vessel
never is lost.

“ As soon as this light had departed the sea grew
calmer and the wings of divers kinds of birds ap-
peared.”

Beneficent St. Anseline who manifested his pres-
ence by illuminations in the mast and spars in
equatorial waters! The beautiful illusion has long
been explained and dispelled. It is but an electric
“THE WONDERS OF NEW LANDS.” 67

fire at the end of atmospheric disturbances. But
it is usually a correct prophecy of fair skies and
smooth seas. It is now called St. Elmo’s Fire.

If ever there was an expedition that the saint of
the mariners might favor it would seem to be this.

One can almost envy the pious Italian his imagi-
nation in the clearing tropic night.

His next wonders were the sea birds, of which
there were flocks and clouds, and with them ap-
peared flying fish.

The ships were now off the coasts of Brazil and
stopped at Verzim.

The people of the Brazilian Verzim were accus-
tomed to paint themselves “by fire.’ We do not
clearly understand how this painting “ by fire” was
done. The art of scorching has perished with them.
But besides these indelible marks, the men had three
holes in their lower lips, and hung in them, after the
manner of earrings, small round ornamental stones,
about a finger in length. The men did not shave,
for they plucked out their beard.

Their only clothing was a circle of parrot
feathers. How terribly gay they must have looked!
And yet such customs were hardly more ridiculous
than those of later times, and more civilized coun-
tries—earrings, beauty patches, plume, and snuft-
boxes.

It was the land of parrots. The most beautiful
and intelligent parrots still come from Brazil. Co-
68 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN,

lumbus saw parrots in “clouds ” over the islands of
the Antilles.

Parrots were not expensive in these equatorial
forests at this time. “The natives,” says Pigafetta,
“ give eight or ten parrots for a looking glass,” and
as a looking glass would multiply the picture of par-
rots indefinitely the Verzimans must have thought
the exchange a marvelous bargain.

If Brazilian parrots were cheap and so charming
as likely to become an embarrassment of riches, so
were the little cat monkeys which delighted the men.
These little creatures, which looked like miniature
lions, still delight the visitors to the coast of Brazil,
but they shiver up when brought to the northern
atmospheres and piteously cry for the home lands
of the sun again.

Very curious birds began to excite the surprise of
the voyagers, among such as had a “beak like a
spoon,” and “no tongue.”

The markets of the new land displayed another
commodity far more surprising than birds or ani-
mals, young slaves, which were offered for sale by
their own families. So a family who had many chil-
dren was rich. It cost a hatchet to buy one of these,
and for a hatchet and a knife one might buy two.

The people made bread of the “ marrow of trees,”
and carried victuals in baskets on their heads.

Masses were said for the crews on shore, and the
natives knelt down with the men.
“THE WONDERS OF NEW LANDS.” 69

The people were so pleased with their visitors
that they built a common house for them.

A pleasing illusion had made the sailors most
welcome here.

It had not rained in Verzim for two months
when the expedition landed. The people were look-
ing to the heavens for mercy day by day. But the
copper sun rose as often in a clear sky.

At last Magellan’s sails appeared in the burn-
ing air. The sight of the sails was followed by that
of clouds.

The people thought that the fleet had brought
the clouds with them. .

“They come from Heaven,” said they of the ad-
venturers.

So when they were exhorted to accept Christian-
ity, they at once fell down before the uplifted crosses
and believed the teachings of the sea heroes who
could command the clouds and bring rain to the
parched land.

They thought the ships were gods and the small
boats the children of such beings, and when the
latter approached the ships they imagined that they
were children come home to their fathers or
mothers.

The ships remained in this delightful country of
Verzim thirteen weeks. Pigafetta and Del Cano
must have thought that life here was ideal. What
scenes wand follow?
CHAPTER IX.
PINEAPPLES, POTATOES, VERY OLD PEOPLE.

OTHER things were there on the wonderful Bra-
zilian coast. There the mariners traded in them
and were refreshed with a delicious fruit, called
pique—pineapples. ;

They came to the knowledge here of a nutritious
ground fruit called battate. “This,” says our
Italian, “has the taste of a chestnut and is the
length of a shuttle.” These ground fruits were
potatoes.

The people here seem to have been very liberal in
trading.

They would give six fowls for a knife—well they
might do so, as they used stone implements.

They gave two geese for a comb—here they were
both generous and wise.

They gave as great a quantity of fish as ten men
could eat for a pair of scissors.

And for a bell, they gave a whole basket full of
potatoes (battate).

Marvelous indeed as was this same country of
70
PINEAPPLES, POTATOES, VERY OLD PEOPLE. - 1

Verzim, it also abounded in the conditions and at-
mospheres of long life.

“Some of these people,” says our Italian chroni-
cler, “live to be a hundred or a hundred and twenty,
or a hundred and forty or more. They wear little
clothing.”

Which speaks well for pineapples, potatoes, and
easy dress.

“They sleep on cotton nets, which are fastened
on large timbers, and stretch from one end of the
house to another.”

It is good to sleep in ample ventilation. We do
not wonder that many of the people passed a hun-
dred years.

The boats of these people were as simple as their
open houses.

“These are not made with iron instruments, for
there are none, but with stones.”

The canoes were dug out of one long tree—some
giant growth of the forest which would convey from
thirty to forty men. The paddles for these canoes
resembled shovels. The rowers were usually black
men.

The people ate human flesh, but only at feasts of
triumph. They then served up their enemies.

Pigafetta draws the following grewsome picture:

“They do not eat up the whole body of a man
whom they take prisoner; they eat him bit by bit,
and for fear that he should be spoiled, they cut him
12 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

up into pieces, which they set to dry before the
chimney. They eat this day by day, so as to keep in
mind the memory of their enemy.”

This was indeed the sweet food of revenge, and
as barbarous as it seems, the spirit of revenge secret-
ly cherished is hardly less unworthy when it finds
expression in words that are bitter, if not carnal.

The region abounded with bright birds, yet with
all these delights, and pineapples and _ potatoes,
there fell great rains. So there were shadows in
the sunlands.

We can fancy Pigafetta relating his discoveries
on the shore to a susceptible spirit, like Del Cano,
and writing an account of them day by day in his
immortal journal.

These strange adventures by sea and on land
which so greatly interested the Italian Knight Piga-
fetta, our historian, do not seem to have greatly
impressed the mind of Magellan. The lands had
been sighted before. His whole soul was bent on
one purpose—not on rediscovery, but on discovery.
He was sailing now where other keels had been. It
was his purpose to find new ways for the world to
follow over unknown seas. His heart could find no
full satisfaction but in water courses that sails had
never swept; a new way to the Moluccas that no
ship had ever broken.

Notwithstanding the friendly spirit and liberal
patronage of the Emperor, he still stood against the
PINEAPPLES, POTATOES, VERY OLD PEOPLE. "3

world. He represented a cast-out name. His own
countrymen, on his own ships in the long delays on
the voyage to unknown seas, were plotting against
him.

Let us recall in fancy a night scene as the ships
lay on the waters of the meridional world. Magellan
sits alone in one of the castles of the ship and looks
out on the phosphorescent sea. The stars above
him shine in a clear splendor, and are reflected in
the sea. The sky seems to be in the waters; the
waters are a mirror of the sky. Among the clear
stars the Southern Cross, always vivid, here rises
high. Magellan lifts to it his eye, and feels the re-
ligious inspiration of the suggestion. He is a son
of the Church, and he holds that all discoveries are
to be made for the glory of the Cross.

On the distant shores palms rise in armies in
the dusky air. The shores are silent. When arose
the tall people that inhabited them?

Magellan dreams: he wonders at himself, at his
inward commission; at his cast-out name and great
opportunity.

One of his trusty friends comes to him; he is a
Spaniard and his disquieting words break the seren-
ity of the scene.

“Captain General, it hurts my soul to say it,
but there is disloyalty on the ships—it is every-
where.”

“T seem to feel the atmospheres of it,” said Ma-
44 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

gellan. “Why should it be? The sea and the sky
promise us success. Who are disloyal?”

“Captain General, they are your own country-
men!”

“ And why do they plot treason under the Cross
of discovery?”

“Captain General, if the ocean open new ways
before you, and you should achieve all of which you
dream, they will have little share in the glory; you
are facing stormy waters and perils unknown, not
for Portugal, but for Spain.”

“Not for Spain alone, nor for Portugal, but for
the glory of the Cross, and the good of all the world.
A divine will leads me, and sustains me, and directs
me. Iam not seeking gold or fame or any personal
advantage; my soul goes forth to reveal the wonders
and the benevolence of Providence to the heart of
the whole world. I go alone, and feel the loneliness
of my lot. I left all that I had to make this expedi-
tion. It is my purpose to discover unknown seas.
Joy, rapture, and recompense would come to me,
beyond wealth or fame, could my eyes be the first
to see a new ocean world, and to carry back the
knowledge of it to all nations. What happiness
would it be to me to ride on uncharted tides! My
friend, you are loyal to me?”

“Captain General, I am loyal, and the Spanish
sailors are loyal; it is your own men who plot in
dark corners to bring your plans to naught.”
PINEAPPLES, POTATOES, VERY OLD PEOPLE. q5

In the shadow of one of the tall castles of another
ship sit a band of idle men. They are Portuguese.

One of them, who seems to lead the minds of the
others, is whittling, and after a long silence says:

“We do not know where we are going, and
wherever we are going, we are Portuguese and are
slaves to Spain.”

“Ay, ay,” returned an old Portuguese sailor,
“and when we go back again, should that ever be,
the profit to us will be little at the India House.”

“Right,” answered a number of voices, and one
ventured to say:

“Magellan, after all, may be mad, like his old
companion, the astronomer. Both came from the
same place in Portugal.”

Some of the officers had schemes of their own.

But the ships crept on and on, along the Brazilian
coast, where the flag of Spain and the farol guided
them in the track of the Admiral they followed.
Night after night the lantern of the flagship gleamed
in the air, moving toward cooler waters under the
Southern Cross.

And in Magellan’s heart was a single purpose,
and he anticipated the joy of a great discovery, as
a revelation that would answer the prophetic light
that shone like a star in his own spiritual vision.
On, and on!
CHAPTER X.

THE FIRST GIANT.—THE ISLANDS OF GEESE AND
GOSLINGS.—THE DANCING GIANTS.



Tu narrative of Pigafetta, the Knight of Rhodes,
has much curious lore in regard to giants. At a
place on the coast, formerly called Cape St. Mary,
the first of these giants appeared.

He was a leader of a tribe “who ate human
flesh.” The lively Knight of Rhodes informs us
that this man, who towered above his fellows, “ had
a voice like a bull.”

He came to one of the captains’ ships and asked
—of course in sign language; for a man may have a
“voice like a bull” and yet fail to be understood in
cannibal tongues—if he might come on board the
ship and bring his fellows with him.

He left a quantity of goods on the shore. While
he was negotiating at the ships, his people on the
shore, who seem to have been unusally wise and
prudent, began to remove the stores of goods from
exposure to danger to a kind of castle at some dis-

tance.
76
THE FIRST GIANT. a

The officers of the ships grew inpatient when
they saw the tempting goods being thus removed.
So they landed a hundred men to recover the goods,
which they seemed to have deemed theirs after the
“right of discovery.”

The men began to run after the provident natives,
when they became greatly surprised. The natives
seemed to fly over the ground, and leave them behind
at a humiliating distance.

“They did more in one step than we could do at
a bound,” says Pigafetta, Knight of Rhodes.

The giant people here showed that there was
need to approach them with caution. Some time
before, these “Canibali” had captured a Spanish
sea captain and sixty men, who had landed and pas-
tured inland to make discoveries. They ate them
all—a fearful feast!

Our voyagers probably had no desire to go too
far inland in view of such a warning; so they re-
turned .and proceeded on their course toward the
antarctic pole.

They discovered two small islands, which had
more agreeable inhabitants than the land of Cape
St. Mary. “These islands,” says our good Knight
Pigafetta, “were full of geese and goslings and sea
wolves.” He adds: “ We loaded five ships with them
for an hour.”

The Knight has also left us the following
curious picture of the birds, which must have
q8 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

been very much surprised at being so rudely dis-
turbed:

“The geese are black, and have feathers all over
the body of the same size and shape; and they do not
fly but live on fish, and they were so fat that we
did not pluck them, but skinned them. They have
beaks like that of a crow.

“The sea wolves of these islands are of many
colors and of the size and thickness of a calf, and
have a head like a calf, and ears small and round.
They have teeth but no legs, but feet joining close
to the body, which resemble a human hand. They
have small nails to their feet, and skin between the
fingers like geese.

“Tf these animals could run they would be very
bad and cruel, but they do not stir from the waters,
and swim and live upon fish.”

This seems to be a very admirable description of
a sea wolf, O Knight of Rhodes!

A great storm came down upon the ships here.
But, marvelous to relate, the fiery body of good St.
Anselmo or Anseline “appeared to us, and immedi-
ately the storm ceased.”

The fleet sailed away again and came to Port St.
Julian, the true land of the giants, of which place our
Knight has some very interesting stories to tell.

The fleet entered the Port of St. Julian. It was
winter, and for a long time no human beings ap-
peared.
THE FIRST GIANT. 9

Suddenly one day a most extraordinary sight met
the eyes of some of the adventurers. Our Knight's
description of this being is very vivid. He says:

“One day, without any one’s expecting it, we saw
a giant who was on the shore of the sea, quite naked,



Indta fuperror

Commyo R-





and was dancing and leaping and singing, and, while
singing, he put sand and dust on his head.”
The Captain of one of the ships, who first saw this
extraordinary creature, said to one of the sailors:
“Go and meet him. He dances and sings as a
sien of friendship. You must do the same. Beckon
him to me.”
80 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

The Captain himself was on a little island.

The scene that followed must have been comical
indeed.

The giant danced and sung and sprinkled his
head with sand. The sailor did the same, danced
and sang, and the two approached each other.

So the giant was made to think that he was
among friends. The sailor led him on to the island,
where he met the Captain.

But the lively giant now began to be afraid in
the presence of a new people. He seemed to wish
to ask them who they were and whence they came.
Then an answer to this question came to him. He
looked up to the sky and pointed upward with one
finger, saying by signs:

“Did you come down from Heaven?”

“He was so tall,” says our descriptive Knight,
“that the tallest of us only came up to his waist.”
ile was probably hardly taller than many of his
race. Falkner, in his account of Patagonia (1774),
says that he saw men there seven feet and a half
high.

Of this dancing giant our historian gives a fur-
ther description in lively and interesting colors:

“He had a large face painted red all around, and
around his eyes were rings of yellow, and he had
two hearts painted on his cheeks. He had but little
hair on the top of his head, which was painted white.

“When he was brought before the Captain, he


t

ing gian

The dance
THE FIRST GIANT. 81

had thrown over him the skin of a certain beast,
which skin was very carefully sewed.”

The skin was that of a guanaco, a kind of llama.

Our historian thus describes the guanaco:

“This beast has its head and ears of the size of
a mule, and the neck and body of the fashion of a
camel, the legs of a deer, and the tail of a horse,
and it neighs like a horse. There are great num-
bers of these animals in the same place.”

Patagonia is the land of these strange animals,
which are still found there, and are hunted by In-
dians who lie upon the ground with drawn bows.
The animal has great curiosity, and he draws near
this living snare and is killed. When tame he is an
interesting companion, but if angered he suddenly
emits a great quantity of offensive liquid from his
nose, like a half bucket of water, which he throws
upon the offender. He is the South American
camel.

This giant when he made himself ready to meet
the adventurers had shoes of leather or skins, and
carried a bow made of the “ gut of a beast” and a
bundle of cane arrows feathered, at the end of
which were small white stones.

“The Captain caused food and drink to be given
to him.

“Then the crew began to show him some of the
presents they had brought, among them a looking-
glass.”
89 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

When the giant saw himself in the glass he was
filled with wonder. It was as though his own ghost
had appeared to him. There were men behind him
curious to see how he would be affected. He leaped
back with such force as to tumble them over. They
were but pigmies to him.

The Captain now gave the giant two bells, a mir-
ror, a comb, and beads, and sent him back to the
shore.

One of the giants of the country saw him com-
ing back, ran to the habitation of the giants, and
summoned the giant people to the shore to meet
him. They came, almost naked, leaping and sing-
ing, and pointing upward to Heaven. What a sight
it must have been! ;

The women were laden with goods. The sailors
beckoned them to the ships to trade.

Queerly enough, the women brought with them
a baby or little guanaco, which they led by a string.
Our historian learned that when these giants wished
to capture the old guanacos or camels they fastened
one of the little guanacos to a bush, and the old ones
came to the bush to play with it, and so became an
easy prey.

“Six days afterward, our people going to cut
wood,” writes the Knight, “saw another giant, who
raised his hands toward Heaven.

“ When the Captain General came to know of it,
he sent to fetch him with his ship’s boat, and brought
THE FIRST GIANT. ~ 88

him to one of the little islands in the port. This
giant was of a better disposition than the other, and
was a gracious and amiable person. He loved to
dance and leap. When he leaped, he caused the
earth to sink to a palm’s depth at the place where
his feet touched.”

The good giant remained for a time with the
adventurers. They gave him the name of John.
They learned him to pronounce the name of Jesus.

“Say Pater Noster,” said they.

“Pater Noster,” said the giant.

“Say Ave Maria,” said the men.

“Ave Maria,” said the susceptible giant.

They made him presents when he went away,
among them some of the many tinkling bells.

“We must capture some of these people,” said
the Captain, “and take them to Spain for wonders.”

So the explorers began to study how to secure
some interesting specimens of these tall people, to
excite the wonder of the people of Spain.
CHAPTER XI.
CAPTURING A GIANT.—MAGELLAN’S DECISION.

THE attempts to capture wild giants greatly
interested Pigafetta.

Our historian says that it was “done by gentle
and cunning means, for otherwise they would have
done a hurt to some of our men.”

One day some sailors saw four giants hidden in
some bushes, and they were unarmed. They
brought these into the power of the Captain. Two
of them were young, and such as would excite ad-
miration anywhere for their noble development.

They gave thtése two lusty young Herculeses as
many knives, mirrors, bells, and trinkets as they
could hold in their hands, and while the delighted
youths were thus abounding in riches, the Captain
said:

“ Now show them the iron fetters.”

The two youths could but wonder at these when
they were brought.

The Captain ordered that the fetters be presented

to them.
84
CAPTURING A GIANT.—MAGELLAN’S DECISION. 85

But their hands were already full. What could
they do with them? Where could they put them?

The Captain signified to them that he would orna-
ment their feet with the fetters. To this they con-
sented.

So the fetters were put on the feet of each of
them, like necklaces or rings, but when the young
giants saw a blacksmith bring a hammer and rivet
the fetters, they began to be distrustful and pres-
ently greatly agitated. They tried to walk, but they
could not move.

Our historian thus describes their fury when they
saw that they were helplessly bound:
ve Nevertheless when they saw the trick which
had been played on them they began to be enraged,
and to foam like bulls, crying out to the devil to help
them.” We do not see why our Knight should have
taken this view of the case; we would think that
two human beings who had been so treacherously
deceived, might have been regarded as appealing to
the Deity of justice.

“The hands of the other two giants were bound,”
says the original narrative, “ but it was with great
difficulty; then the Captain sent them back on shore,
with nine of his men to conduct them, and to bring
the wife of one of those who had remained in irons,
because he regretted her greatly.” This last touch
gives us a very favorable view of this young giant.

But on being conducted away, one of the two
7
86 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

giants who were to be liberated, untied his hands
and escaped. As soon as he found that he was
free, his feet were picked up nimbly indeed. He
flew, as it were, his long strides leaving his late
captors far behind him. He had no heart to trust
Europeans again. He rushed to his native town,
but he found only the women there, who must
have been greatly alarmed; the men had gone to
hunt.

He rushed after the hunters to tell them how his
companions had been betrayed.

What became of the other giant whose hands
were bound? He struggled, too, to break the cords,
seeing which, one of the men struck him on the
head. He became quiet when he saw that he was
helpless, and led the men to the giant’s town where
the women and children were.

The men concluded to pass the night there, as it
was near night and everything there looked harm-
less and inviting.

But during the night the other giant who had
gone to meet the hunters returned with his com-
panions. These saw the bruised head of the giant
who had also been bound, and warned the women
who began to run. We are told that the youngest
“ran faster than the biggest” and that the men
“ran faster than horses,” at which we can not
wonder. The fleeing giant shot one of the men from
the ships, and he was buried there on shore. The
CAPTURING A GIANT.—MAGELLAN’S DECISION. 87

poor giant in irons who had lamented for his wife
probably never saw the giantess again.

The methods of treating sickness in the town of
the giants were curious. [For an emetic one ran a
stick down his throat. For a headache, one cut a
gash on the forehead, not unlike the old method of
bleeding. The philosophy of this latter treatment
was interesting—blood did not remain with pain,
and pain departed with blood—quite true; white
people have advanced theories as conclusive.

“When one of them dies,” says our Knight, “ten
devils appear and dance around the dead man.” One
of the poor giants who was forced to remain on
board said he had seen devils with horns, and hair
that fell to their feet, who spouted fire. There
seems to be the color of the European imagination
in this statement.

The giants lived on raw meat, thistles, and sweet
root, and one of them drank a “ bucket of water” at
a time.

The expedition remained at St. Julian five
months, and acquired much information about the
country from the captive giants with whom they
learned to talk by sign language.

They here set up a cross on a mountain and took
possession of the country in the name of the King of
Spain. They called the signal elevation where they
planted the cross the Mount of Christ.

The primitive people of the shores of Brazil and
88 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

Patagonia delighted in exciting the wonder of their.
visitors. Many of these people who thought that.
the Europeans had come down from the sky, where
they conceived all life must be wonderful indeed,
liked to show them some of the feats that the people
of the earth could do. The people who came down
from the sky they reasoned had great wisdom in
sailing the seas, but they were not giants. They
could trail a lantern along the sea in the night air
in some unaccountable way, but they did not know
how to run with flying feet on the land or how to
wing arrows with unerring aim into the sky and sea.

One day there came from a company of the primi-
tive people, a champion in an art of which the Huro-
peans could have never heard. They had seen these
people run, leap, and vault with almost magic power,
but they had never seen one who could make a tube
of himself.

This new champion approached the men in the
usual way, inviting attention. He carried in his
hand an arrow which was a cubit and a half long.

He tilted ity opened his great mouth to receive
it, dropped it into his throat, when, amid muscu-
lar contortions, it began to descend. The sailors
watched him with amazement as it went down. It
disappeared at last, having, as we are told, de-
scended to the “bottom of his stomach.” It seemed
to cause him no pain.

Presently the quiver began to appear again. The
CAPTURING A GIANT—MAGELLAN’S DECISION. 89

long arrow slowly rose out of the human tube which
the man had made of himself, and dropped into his
hand at last, the whole being performed by mus-
cular movement.

He must have been delighted at the sensation
which this mental control over the muscles of diges-
tion had produced. It was less strange that the
arrow should have gone down than that it should
have come up again.

Such feats as these entertained the sailors from
time to time when they were on shore. Pigafetta
was now seeing the “wonders of the world” in-
deed.

Magellan’s mind was given to the more serious
problems of the voyage.

The Antarctic pole star now rose to his view. It
was cold. Magellan saw that the voyage would be
likely to last long.

Not only the Portuguese came to distrust him,
but some of the Spanish sailors caught the infec-
tion of the deleterious atmosphere. They reasoned
differently from the Portuguese.

“The Admiral is a native of Portugal,” said they,
“and though the Portuguese court rejected him, he
will be sure in the end to be true to his own people
and King. He will never allow the glory of his dis-
coveries to go to Spain.”

Some of them came to him to say that the wind
blew cold, that the sea was full of perils, that noth-
90 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

ing but disaster could come by pushing on into the
sea where they were tending.

“Turn south,” said they.

The answer of Magellan was royal and loyal. We
give it in what, from what was reported of it, must
be in his own thought, and very nearly his own
words.

“Comrades, my course was laid down by Cesar
(the King) himself. I—will—not—depart—from—it
—in—any—degree. I will open to Cesar an un-
known world.”
CHAPTER XII.
THE MUTINY AT PORT JULIAN.—THE STRAITS.—1519.

Days of mutiny came in the cold waters.

The spirit of disloyalty that had found expres-
sion in the inspector broke out anew at Port St.
Julian. It spread through the officers and crews of
three of the ships. These caused to be published the
resolution that they would sail no farther.

“You are leading us to destruction,” said the
mutineers.

Luis de Mendoza, Captain of the Victoria, the
treasurer of the expedition, was a leader of the
mutiny. Another disturbing spirit was Gasper de
Queixada, Captain of the Concepcion.

Magellan, of the kind heart, had, as we have seen,
the resolution to meet emergencies. This expedi-
tion was his life. It must not be opposed, hindered,
or thwarted. He lived in his purpose. He must
stamp out the mutiny. He no more used gentle and
courteous words. He thundered his will.

One day Ambrosia Fernandez, his constable,

~came to him, and said:
91
THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

We)
bo

“Three crews are ready to mutiny, to force you
to go back.”

Magellan saw that he must make the leaders of
these ships his prisoners, or that he would become
theirs. j

“ Constable,” he said, “ pick out sixty trusty men
and arm them well. Go with them on board the
treasurer’s ship, and arrest Mendoza and lay him
dead on the deck.”

The fleet was moored in line. It was flood tide,
and Mendoza’s ship rode astern of Magellan’s, and
the ship of Queixada, ahead.

Magellan prepared his own crew to face the con-
sequences of a tragedy should one occur. He ordered
his hawser to be attached to the cable, and called
his crew to arms.

When the flood tide was at its height, Fernandez,
the constable, prepared to execute his order.

He appeared before the ship of the mutinous Men-
doza, and asked to be received on board.

“Back to your own ship,” said the mutineer. “I
command the Victoria.”

“But we are few against many,” said the con-
stable, “and I have a message from the Admiral
which I must deliver.”

He was helped on board the Victoria.

His feet had no sooner touched the deck than he
seized Mendoza.

“T arrest you in the name of the Emperor.”
THE MUTINY AT PORT JULIAN. 93

The armed men that the constable had left on the
boat rushed on board.

The crew of the Victoria stood aghast. They
saw the power of the Admiral’s mind.

Magellan brought his ship alongside the Vic-
toria.

He led his armed crew on board the Victoria,
and halted before a terrible scene. Mendoza had
been stabbed by the constable, and the crew of the
Victoria plead for mercy, and promised to be loyal
to the Admiral.

In this hour of tragedy and terror Magellan bore
his ship around to Queixada’s, and made the officers
and crew of the Concepcion his prisoners. The lead-
ers of the mutiny were executed. It was a necessity.

Magellan caused also the sentence he had im-
posed on the inspector and his accomplice to be
carried out here.

Carthagena and Sanclies were led from their
prison to the shore.

As the sails were being lifted to depart, they
were marooned—left with some provisions, among
which were some bottles of wine, on the desert
shore.

There were hearts that pitied them as the ships
sailed away. There was one who plotted to rescue
them. It was Gormez.

They left them some biscuits with the bottles of
wine.
94 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

“Tt is the last bread they will ever eat,” said their
companions.

“ And the last wine that they will ever drink,”
said a loyal priest on board.

But there was one on board that shook his head.

If he could have his will the two would eat bread
and drink wine again in the convents of beautiful
Seville.

The execution of the disloyal Spaniards again
awakened the jealousy of Gormez. He probably
began to plan about this time to separate the Antonio
from the expedition, and lead her back to Spain.
His heart was with the inspector and friar far away
on the desolate shore.

The ships sailed away, and the marooned priests
saw them disappear.

“They were cast aside for opposing a madman,”
reasoned Gormez. ‘“ Magellan is no fit leader of an
expedition. If I had full command of the Antonio,
I would rescue the inspector, if I were to find him
alive.”

But he could not take the Antonio back while
Mesquita, Magellan’s loyal cousin, was in command.
Had he breathed a breath of disloyalty in the pres-
ence of this Portuguese, he might have himself been
deposed from his position and marooned, as had
been the inspector and the friar.

A dark plot began to form in the pilot’s mind.
If he could incite the crew against Mesquita in some
THE MUTINY AT PORT JULIAN. 95

hour of peril, he might cause him to be imprisoned
on his own ship, and then he could succeed to the
command, and take the Antonio back to Spain.

And he would also endeavor to rescue the in-
spector and the friend of the inspector who had
been marooned. If he could rescue them and take
them back with him to Spain, they would be power-
ful witnesses for him against Magellan.

Gormez now waited his opportunity. A jealous
man seeks for a principle of life to ease his con-
science and justify evil deeds. Gormez had two
principles to sustain him in his disloyalty. The one
was that he could lead a better expedition, and the
other the merciful rescue of his two companions
who had been marooned for the same opinions that
he had from the first carried in his heart. So call-
ing treachery, loyalty and sympathy, he awaited an
hour favorable to his plan.

If he could return to Spain he would offer his
services to Portugal or to Spain to lead an expedi-
tion to the Spice Islands that should be conducted
in some more promising way than by the winter
Seas.

As the ships sailed on into the clouds and cold,
the sailors were filled with apprehension. But the
farol still shone at night like a star in the changing
atmosphere. They had expected that the extremity
of South America would point West, but this was
not the case. Whither were they tending?
96 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

It was the middle of October. The water grew
colder and the land became more desolate. Sud-
denly a bay appeared and the continent seemed to
part. The sea poured its tides to the East amid
towering mountains, and a strait appeared, which
now bears the name of Magellan.

The soul of the Admiral thrilled. It was the ful-
fillment of his visions. He called the opening to
the swift channel Cape Virgins, as he discovered
it on the day on which the Church commemorated
the martyrdom of the “eleven thousand virgins.”

His lone lantern entered the straits. The way
was toward the Hast.

Magellan sent the ship Antonio, which was com-
manded by his cousin Alvaro de Mesquita, to ex-
plore the bay, of which ship Gormez still held the
position of pilot. The mutineer’s hour had come.

The pilot entered the bay, but presently a power-
ful tide carried the ship back, and beyond the sight
of the flag and the lantern of Magellan.

The jealous Portuguese had seen enough to know
that great perils were before the fleet or that a
glory like to that of Columbus was now likely to
fall to the lot of Magellan. He determined to be
revenged upon the Admiral for supplanting him in
accepting the favors of the King. _

He called the crew secretly about him.

“You are rushing on to ruin,” he said. “I can
take you back to Spain. Put Mesquita in irons, and
THE MUTINY AT PORT JULIAN. 97

let us return. Mesquita advised Magellan to execute
our comrades! ”

The crew, overcome by the perils of the situation,
obeyed the pilot. .

Mesquita was placed in irons, and the pilot bore
the Antonio away from the wintry seas, and turned
her prow toward Spain.

But untrue as the sailors were to Magellan, he
was true to them. He delayed the expedition for
their return, and sent out the Victoria in search of
them. The Victoria’s crew planted signal stand-
ards, under which were letters.

Now perhaps for the first time Magellan was
master of the expedition. He supposed at first that
the Antonio had become lost in the terrible tides,
but he still suspected treachery.

As the fleet entered the straits, the hills at night
blazed with fires. The explorers thought these fires
were volcanoes. They were signal fires kindled by
the natives. Magellan gave the place the name of
“Tierra del Fuego ”’—the “Land of Fire,” a name
that it still bears.

The water ran icy cold. Peaks of crystal towered
above the straits, and the sublimities of mountain
desolations everywhere appeared. So amid awful
chasms of the sea, now white with snows, now dark
with shadows, the little fleet glided on, the farol in
the air at night, and all eyes strained with wonder
to see what new disclosure this strait would bring.
98 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

What must have been the reflection of Magellan
as the mysteries of the new world lifted before his
eyes?

Joy is the compensation of suffering, and if his
happiness was as great as his trials had been, he
must have indeed known thrilling moments. He had
dared, and he had achieved.

He wondered at the fate of the Antonio, as the
days went by. He indeed thought her lost, but yet
hoped that she might appear.

“She has deserted us,” ventured a loyal officer.

“No,” reasoned the Admiral. “ Mesquita would
never desert me.”

He was right. There were many true hearts that
made the voyage like Del Cano’s, but no heart was
truer to Magellan than Mesquita’s; and true hearts
know and love each other.

The ships glided on slowly, without the Antonio.
They had two new passengers in the giants whose
lives must have been filled with wonder on ship-
board.
CHAPTER XIII.
“my ADMIRAL WAS MAD!”

GRAVE as was the act of treachery that the
jealousy of Gormez led him to commit, he was true
to the two marooned priests who had opposed the
daring schemes of Magellan.

“We must not leave them to perish,” he said.

So with Mesquita in irons he steered his ship
toward the lonely islands where the crew had passed
the winter.

They found Carthagena and his brother monk
still living, and never could two men have been more
glad to escape from exile. To live among naked
giants, whom they could not civilize, must have be-
come a horror to them. But their lives had been
spared, though their biscuits and wine, we fancy,
were gone.

“The Admiral has gone mad,” said the men who
had come to rescue them. “ He knows not the way
to the Moluccas, nor to anywhere.”

The marooned men asked them where they were
now going.

99
100 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN,

“To Spain,” was the answer. “We have come
to rescue you. Our Captain has never forgotten you.
He will need you as witnesses. You must testify
that the Admiral is mad.”

They were ready to testify that.

The ship sailed back to Spain.

The tales that they carried back to beautiful
Seville caused a great disappointment in Spain.
They must have stricken the heart of the wife of
Magellan.

Gormez related there that the Admiral had be-
come mad; that he had marooned the two priests
whom they had brought back as witnesses of the
truth of what he asserted; that Magellan had sailed
into winter seas, and quite lost his reason, and knew
net where he was going.

Then he told a terrible story of the execution of
the mutinous Spaniards, friends of the King, at St.
Julian. He said:

“ His cousin, Mesquita, our captain, advised these
crimes, and so we put him in irons, and have brought
him back to receive justice in Spain.”

Mesquita protested his innocence and tried to gain
credence for his case. But no one cared to listen to
him. The court and the popular feeling were against
him. He was consigned to a prison. It was useless
for him to protest, and to say that Magellan had made
a great discovery; that he had found straits which
were leading to the South Sea, and which were
“THE ADMIRAL WAS MAD!” 101

likely to prove that the ocean that Balboa had be-
held was continuous.

He was placed in a lonely dungeon, and there
brooded over his wrongs and dreamed.

He had one hope; it was that Magellan would
return triumphant, a second Columbus or Vasco da
Gama. If that day were to come, he would be re-
leased, and the court would honor him, and he would
be hailed as a hero.

“T have been made a prisoner by treachery,” he
said to a few men. “TI believe that the day of my
vindication will one day dawn.”

Cardinal Ximenes died. Juana still watched by
the tomb of her husband, and took no interest in the
world. Charles V was entering upon his career as
a conqueror who was to subdue the Roman world
to his will.

As for Magellan in Spain he was to be but little
more remembered now. Spain believed the story
. of the jealous Gormez, and the mariners of Seville
said:

“The Admiral was mad!”

In the common view the mad Admiral had gone
down in Antarctic seas. Like Faleiro, his friend,
who had been sent to the mad house, it was thought
that his brain had become unsettled, and that his
bright visions had failed.

The two mutineers ate bread and drank wine

again in the convent bowers of Seville.
8
102 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

Gormez had schemes of his own. He desired the
authority of the throne to make an expedition to the
Spice Islands, which he believed he could find by
sailing West. Strangely enough, as we have said,
this jealous, treacherous man was afterward made a
pilot in an expedition that visited Florida, Cape Cod,
and Massachusetts Bay. But he did not find the
way to the Spice Islands on the voyage.

Mesquita, still believing in the success of the
expedition of Magellan, said to a few whom he could
reach:

“Magellan is not mad. He executed those who
had planned to murder him. He had to put to death
these men for the sake of the expedition. He will
return again!”

Few believed his story, and fewer his prophecy.

Still there were some who hoped that the pris-
oner’s prophecy might prove true. Columbus was
deemed mad, and quelled a mutiny, but he returned
again. Vasco da Gama faced doubt and destruc-
tion, but he returned again. There were not want-
ing some who asked, “ Will Magellan ever return
again?” Such usually received the answer, “The
Admiral was mad!”

The poor wife of Magellan, who had hoped much
from him for the sake of her child, as well as for
Spain, heard these reports in an agony of grief. But
she still hoped. She must have believed in her hus-
band’s destiny.
CHAPTER XIV.
THE PACIFIC.—THE DEATH OF THE GIANTS.

Tur four ships glided along the wonderful straits
which Magellan named the “ Virgins,’ but which
will always bear his own name. The scenery con-
tinued wild and fierce, and in some places overawing
and sublime; they sailed amid domes of crystal and
almost under the roofs of a broken world. They
still moved slowly—the scenery growing more and
more wonderful.

The air grew bright again. The ships were in
the sea. They had entered a sea broad and glorious,
but which Magellan could have hardly dreamed to
be nearly ten thousand miles long, and more than
that wide! Its waters were placid—an ocean plain.
Columbus had heard of this vast sea, and Balboa
had seen it from the peak of Darien.

All the joy that Magellan had anticipated in his
visions of years now burst upon him.

“The Pacific!”

This was the name that came to him as he sur-

veyed the new ocean world. He was the discoverer
108
104 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

of the South Pacific, which was continuous with the
ocean discovered by Balboa. What did it contain?
Whither might he sail over the new serenity of
waters?

His soul had stood against his own country; his
name had been cast out by his countrymen. But in
the splendors of the sunset sea he had found his
faith to be reality. It is said that the sailors wept
when they beheld the Pacific.

We may fancy the joy of Del Cano.

We may imagine how the heart of Pigafetta, the
young Italian, which had always been true to the
Admiral, must have overflowed with delight when
the Pacific opened before his eyes! There is a strong
heart beat in the happiness of one who has been true
to a successful man in the hour of his need.

He may have sung the song that cheered Colum-
bus and his men—the mariners’ hymn to the Virgin:

“Gentle Star of Ocean!
Portal of the sky!

Ever Virgin Mother
Of the Lord most high!”

“Wednesday, the 20th of November, 1520,” says
the original narrative, “we came forth out of the
same strait, and entered the Pacific Sea.”

The ships sailed on into the calm mystery of the
ocean, the soul of Magellan glowing. But though
the Admiral had risen superior to so many obstacles,
there were others to be met. The sea was indeed
THE PACIFIC.—THE DEATH OF THE GIANTS. 105

placid and full of promise, but starvation now stared
him in the face, and after the spectre of Treason had
departed that of Famine appeared.

Day after day the sun arose on the same serenity
of sea. One month passed, and still there spread
before the ships the same infinite ocean. Another
month passed, and another, and twenty days more.

How did the crews live on this long voyage of
silence and calms?

The narrative says: “We only ate old biscuit
reduced to powder, and full of grubs, and we drank
water that had turned yellow and smelled.”

But a more perilous diet had to be followed.

They ate the “ox hides that were under the main
yard.” To eat these hides they had to soak them
for some days in the sea, and then cook them on
embers.

They ate sawdust; then the vermin on the ships.

A worse condition came. The gums of the men
swelled from such food, so that many of them could
not eat at all, and nineteen died. Beside those who
died, twenty-five fell ill of “divers sicknesses.”

Kind-hearted Pigafetta, who was always true to
the Portuguese Admiral, formed an intimacy with
the poor young giant, presumably with the giant
whose wife had been left behind. This giant was
imprisoned on the flagship of Magellan.

One day the giant said to him, helplessly:

“ Capac.”
106 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

Our Italian understood that this must be the Pata-
gonian word for bread. So he wrote it down, and
the giant saw that he was interested in the meaning
of his native words.

So the young giant began to teach the young
Italian.

“ Her-dem ” meant a chief.

“ Holi” meant water.

“ Ohone,” a storm.

“Setebos,” the Unseen Power.

They studied together for a time, and shared each
other’s good will.

One day the Italian drew a cross on paper. The
young giant raised it to his lips and kissed it,
as he had seen Pigafetta kiss the sign of the
Cross.

But he said by signs: “Do not make the Cross
again, else Setebos will enter into you and kill
you.”

The meaning of the cross was explained to him.

The poor giant fell ill at last, amid all the misery.

“ Bring me the Cross,” he said by signs.

He kissed it again.

He knew that he would soon die.

““Make me a Christian,” he said.

They named him “ Paul,” and baptized him.

One day found him dead, and they cast his great
frame into the sea. He was probably the first con-
vert to the faith among Patagonians, and his so-
THE PACIFIC.—THE DEATH OF THE GIANTS, 107

called conversion was the heart’s cry in helpless-
ness.

The other giant may have lived to see the days
of famine, when men shrank and death threatened
all. Then he, too, famished and died, and found a
grave in the sea. Another account, makes this
giant die on the Antonio before that ship went back
to St. Julian.

Two islands only appeared in the months of
steady sailing. They were uninhabited except by
birds. The sky in all this time brought no storm.

In these days of ocean solitude, hunger, and
death, Magellan was sure always of the faith of two
true hearts—the susceptible Italian and Del Cano.

Magellan dreamed of the fate of Mesquita in
these strange experiences, and Mesquita in his lonely
prison thought continually of him. Would Magel-
lan ever return? the latter must have asked daily.

If so, his prison doors might swing open. He had
no other hope, but this hope was a star. Magellan’s
wife must have shared this hope with the prisoner.
CHAPTER XV.
WELCOME TO THE PHILIPPINES!

On Wednesday, March 6th, Magellan sighted
islands. His lantern had crossed the Pacific Ocean.
Here he hoped to find food. He approached the
shores eagerly. So hungry were the crews that one
of the sick men begged that if any of the natives
were killed human. flesh might be brought him.

But the natives here were not only wild men,
they were robbers; they sought to kill the voyagers
and to steal everything. Hence, Magellan called —
the islands the Ladrones (robbers).

The robbers threw stones at the famishing ma-
riners as the ships turned away in search of more
hospitable shores. The women were dressed in
bark.

The ships moved on into unknown seas.

On Saturday, March 16, 1521, a notable sight
appeared in the dawn of the morning. It was a
high bluff, some three hundred leagues distant from
the Thieves’ Islands. The island was named Zamal,
now called Samar.

Magellan saw another island near. It was in-
108
WELCOME TO THE PHILIPPINES! 109

habited by a friendly people. He determined to
land there for the sake of security, as he could there
gather sea food and care for the sick. He planted
his tents there, and provided the sick with fresh
meat.

Where was he?

Here surely was a new archipelago which had
found no place ona map. March 16, 1521, was to be
a notable date of the world.

He had discovered the Philippine Islands, though
they were not then known by that name. They
were the door to China from the West—this he could
hardly have known.

The islands as now known: consist of Luzon,
fifty-one thousand three hundred square miles in
extent; and Mendanao, more than twenty-five thou-
sand miles in extent. The islands lying between
Luzon and Mendanao are called the Bissayas, of
which Samar has an area of thirteen thousand and
twenty miles. Magellan visited Mendanao and then
sailed for Zebu, a small island where the first Span-
ish settlement was made, before Manila, which was
founded in 1581.

This archipelago was a new world of wonder.
The small islands are now computed to number
fourteen hundred. Magellan never knew the extent
of his discovery.

Here he was to find the happiest days of his life,
after the serene but famishing voyage.
110 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

The people here were to receive him with open
arms; to feast him; to raise his expectations and to
bow down before the Cross. We must describe in
detail—thanks to the Italian who was true to the
heart of the Admiral—this golden age of the
troubled life of Magellan.

After all the struggle for so many years against
many overwhelming oppositions, Magellan now rose
into the vantage ground of success, and fulfilled the
vision which had illumined his soul in his darkest
hours.

Every man has a right to his record, and what-
ever might happen now, his record no power could
destroy; he had discovered the Pacific Ocean, and
anew way around the world. Whatever might be
his fate, the world must follow his lantern.

On the 18th of March, 1521, after dinner on
shore, the Admiral saw a boat coming out from
a near island toward his ship. There were men
in it.

“Let no one move or speak,” said Magellan.

The crews awaited the coming of the strangers
in the blazing sunlight of the tropic sea. The In-
dians landed, led by a chief.

They were friends. They signified by signs their
joy at seeing them. Magellan feasted the Indians
and gave them presents.

When these people saw the good disposition of
the Captain, they gave him palm wine and figs
WELCOME TO THE PHILIPPINES! 111

“more than a foot long.” On leaving they promised
to return with fruits.

Pigafetta, our Italian Chevalier, vividly describes
the scenes that followed between Magellan and the
friendly people of the newly-discovered islands,
which we call the Philippines, but which were not
so named at that time.

He tells us in a wonderfully interesting narra-
tive a translation of which we closely follow:

“That people became very familiar and friendly,
and explained many things in their language, and
told the names of some islands which they beheld.
The island where they dwelt was called Zuluam, and
it was not large. As they were sufficiently agree-
able and conversible the crews had great pleasure
with them. The Captain seeing that they were of
this good spirit, conducted them to the ship and
showed them specimens of all his goods—that he
most desired—cloves, cinnamon, pepper, ginger, nut-
meg, mace, and gold.

“He-also had shots fired with his artillery, at
which they were so 'much afraid that they wished
to jump from the ship into the sea. They made
signs that the things which the Captain had shown
them grew there.

“ When they wished to go they took leave of the
Captain and of the crew with very good manners
and gracefulness, promising to come back.

“The island where the ships had moored was
112 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

named Humunu; but because the men found there
two springs of very fresh water it was named the
Watering Place of Good Signs. There was much
white coral there, and large trees which bear fruit
smaller than an almond, and which are like pines.
There were also many palm trees both good and bad.
In this place there were many circumjacent islands,
on which account the archipelago was named St.
Lazarus. This region and archipelago is in ten
degrees north latitude, and a hundred and sixty-one
degrees longitude from the line of demarcation.

“Friday, the 22d of March, the above-mentioned
people, who had promised to return, came about mid-
day with two boats laden with the said fruit, cochi,
sweet oranges, a vessel of palm wine, and a cock, to
give us to understand that they had poultry in their
country.” The Tialian thus describes the habits of
the people:

“The lord of these people was old, and had his
face painted, and had gold rings suspended to his
ears, which they name ‘schione,’ and the others
had many bracelets and rings of gold on their arms,
with a wrapper of linen round their head. We re-
mained at this place eight days; the Captain went
there every day to see his sick men, whom he had
placed on this island to refresh them; and he gave
them himself every day the water of this said fruit,
the cocho, which comforted them much.”

Pigafetta tells us that near this isle is another
WELCOME TO THE PHILIPPINES! 113

where there is a kind of people “ who wear holes in
their ears so large that they can pass their arms
through them”—a very remarkable statement—
“and these people go naked, except that round their
middles they wear cloth made of the bark of trees.
But there are some of the more remarkable of them
who wear cotton stuff, and at the end of it there is
some work of silk done with a needle. These people
are tawny, fat, and painted, and they anoint them-
selves with the oil of cocoanuts and sesame to pre-
serve them from the sun and the wind. Their hair
is very black and long, reaching to the waist, and
they carry small daggers and knives, ornamented
with gold.”

Pigafetta fell into the sea here, and he gives a
vivid account of the personal accident:

“The Monday of Passion week, the 25th of
March, and feast of our Lady, in the afternoon, and
being ready to depart from this place, I went to the
side of our ship to fish, and putting my feet on a
spar to go down to the storeroom, my feet slipped,
because it had rained, and I fell into the sea, with-
out any one seeing me; and being near drowning, by
luck I found at my left hand the sheet of the large
sail which was in the sea, I caught hold of it and
began to ery out till some came to help and pick
me up with the boat. I was assisted not by my
merits, but by the mercy and grace of the Fountain
of Pity. That same day we took the course between
114 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

west and southwest, and passed amid four small
islands; that it to say, Cenalo, Huinanghar, Ibusson,
and Abarien.”

The Italian describes in an interesting way the
visit of the King of one of the islands to the ships.
He says of this first visit of a Philippine King to the
Europeans:

“Thursday, the 28th of March, having seen the
night before fire upon an island, at the morning we
came to anchor at this island, where we saw a small
boat which they call boloto, with eight men inside,
which approached the ship of the Captain General.
Then a slave of the Captain’s, who was from Su-
matra, otherwise named Traprobana, spoke from
afar to these people, who understood his talk, and
came near to the side of the ship, but they withdrew
immediately, and would not enter the ship from fear
of us.

“So the Captain, seeing that they would not
trust to us, showed them a red cap and other things,
which he had tied and placed on a little plank, and
the people in the boat took them immediately and
joyously, and then returned to advise their King.
Two hours afterward, or thereabout, we saw come
two long boats, which they call ballanghai, full of
men.

“In the largest of them was their King sitting
under an awning of mats; when they were near the
ship of the Captain General, the said slave spoke
WELCOME TO THE PHILIPPINES! 115

to the King, who understood him well, because in
these countries the kings know more languages than
the common people. Then the King ordered some
of his people to go to the Captain’s ship, while he
would not move from his boat, which was near
enough to us.

“This was done, and when his people returned to
the boat, he went away at once. The Captain made
a good entertainment to the men who came to his
ship, and gave them all sorts of things, on which
account the King wished to give the Captain a
rather large bar of solid gold, and a chest full of
ginger. However, the Captain thanked him very
much, but would not accept the present. After
that, when it was late, he went with the ships near
to the houses and abode of the King.”

The Captain in refusing the offer of gold and
ginger from his guest, showed indeed a true sense
of hospitality. The incident pictures the life of
Magellan. He obeyed his moral sense and his heart
was true. He was a Portuguese gentleman of the
old type, and presented an example worthy of imi-
tation in any age.
CHAPTER XVI.

THE VISIT OF THE KING.—PIGAFETTA VISITS
THE KING.

THEY were ready to meet the King now, when all
was so friendly and promising. The good soul of
Pigafetta felt that these islands of fruits and spicer-
ies were indeed an earthly paradise. He alone had
not been sick in all of the long monotonous voy-
age across the Pacific. His strength had never
abated and his faith in the Admiral had never fal-
tered.

Night after night he had watched the lantern
Swinging in the unknown air, and had said his
prayers. He had had ever a cheering word to say
to the Admiral on all occasions. His heart was true
to the lantern, the stars, the Admiral, and the Divine
Power which he believed was leading him.

He was now in the sea gardens of palms and
spices. He thus continues his narrative (we follow
in part the translation of the Hakluyt Society in the
work of Lord Stanley Alderley).

He tells us that on “the next day, which was
116
THE VISIT OF THE KING, 117

Good Friday, the Captain sent on shore a slave, who
was an interpreter, to the King to beg him to give
him for money some provisions for his ships, sending
him word that he had not come to his country as an
enemy, but as a friend. The King on hearing this
came with seven or eight men in a boat, and entered
the ship, and embraced the Captain, and gave him |
three China dishes covered with leaves full of rice,
and two dorades, which are rather large fish. The
Captain gave this King a robe of red and yellow
cloth, made in the Turkish fashion, and a very fine
red cap, and to his people he gave knives and mir-
rors. After that refreshments were served up to
them. The Captain told the King, through the inter-
preter, that he wished to be with him, as cassi cassi;
that is to say, brothers. To which the King an-
swered that he desired to be the same toward him.
After that the Captain showed him cloths of differ-
ent colors, linen, coral, and much other merchan-
dise, and all the artillery, of which he had some
pieces fired before him, at which the King was much
astonished; after that the Captain had one of his
soldiers armed with white armor, and placed him
in the midst of three comrades, who struck him with
swords and daggers.

“The King thought this very strange, and the
Captain told him, through the interpreter, that a
man thus in white armor was worth many common

men; he answered that it was true; he was further
9
118 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

informed that there were in each ship two hundred
like that man.

“ After that the Captain showed him a great num-
ber of swords, cuirasses, and helmets, and made two
of the men play with their swords before the King;
he then showed him the sea chart and the ship com-
pass, and informed him how he had found a strait,
and of the time which he had spent on the voyage;
also of the time he had been without seeing any
land, at which the King was astonished. At.the-
end the Captain asked if he would be pleased that
two of his people should go with him to the places
where they lived to see some of the things of his
country. This the King granted, and I went with
another.”

The Italian was again in his element, and he
gives a graphic account of his visit to the natives:

“When I had landed, the King raised his hands
to the sky, and turned to us two, and we did the
same as he did; after that he took me by the hand,
and one of his principal people took my companion,
and led us under a place covered with canes, where
there was a ballanghai; that is to say, a boat, eighty
feet long or thereabouts, resembling a fusta. We sat
with the King upon its stern, always conversing with
him by signs, and his people stood up around us,
with their swords, spears, and bucklers. Then the
King ordered to be brought a dish of pig’s flesh and
wine. Their fashion of drinking is in this wise: they
PIGAFETTA VISITS THE KING. 119

first raise their hands to Heaven, then take the
drinking vessel in their right hand, and extend the
left hand closed toward the people. This the King
did, and presented to me his fist, so that I thought
that he wanted to strike me; I did the same thing
toward him; so with this ceremony, and other signs
of friendship, we banqueted, and afterward supped
with him.”

The Italian was a pious man, but he says:

“T ate flesh on Good Friday, not being able to do
otherwise, and before the hour of supper, I gave sey-
eral things to the King, which I had brought. There
I wrote down several things as they name them in
their language, and when the King and the others
saw me write, and I told them their manner of
speech, they were all astonished.

“When the hour for supper had come, they
brought two large China dishes, one of which was
full of rice, and the other of pig’s flesh, with its
broth and sauce. We supped with the same signs
and ceremonies, and then went to the King’s palace,
which was made and built like a hay grange, cov-
ered with fig and palm leaves.”

Here the two found delightful hospitality; the
house was “built on great timbers high above the
eround, and it was necessary to go up steps and
ladders to it. Then the King made us sit on a cane
mat, with our legs doubled as was the custom; after
half an hour there was brought a dish of fish roast
120 _ THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

in pieces, and ginger fresh gathered that moment
and some wine. The eldest son of the King, who
was a Prince, came where we were, and the King
told him to sit down near us, which he did; then
two dishes were brought, one of fish, with its sauce,
and the other of rice, and this was done for us to
eat with the Prince. My companion enjoyed the
food and drank so much that he got drunk. They
use for candles or torches the gum of a tree which
is named anime, wrapped up in leaves of palms or
fig trees. The King made a sign that he wished to
go to rest, and left us with the Prince, with whom
we slept on a cane mat, with some cushions and
pillows of leaves. Next morning the King came
and took me by the hand, and so we went to the
place where we had supped, to breakfast, but the
boat came to fetch us. The King, before we went
away, was very gay, and kissed our hands, and we
kissed his. There came with us a brother of his,
the King of another island, accompanied by three
men. The Captain General detained him to dine
with us, and we gave him several things.”

“The King abounded in gold, and was a grand
figure. In the island belonging to the King who
came to the ship there are mines of gold, which they
find in pieces as big as a walnut or an egg, by seek-
ing in the ground. All the vessels which he makes
use of are made of it, and also some parts of his
house, which was well fitted up according to the
PIGAFETTA VISITS THE KING. 121

custom of the country, and he was the handsomest
man that we saw among these nations. He had very
black hair coming down to his shoulders, with a
silk cloth on his head, and two large gold rings
hanging from his ears; he had a cloth of cotton
worked with silk, which covered him from the waist
to the knees; at his side he wore a dagger, with a
long handle which was all of gold, his sheath was of
carved wood. Besides he carried upon him scents
of storax and benzoin. He was tawny and painted
all over.”

An island where nuggets of gold as big as eggs
could be found must have offered a tempting place
of residence.

But Magellan’s first thought was for the good
of the souls of this hospitable people.
CHAPTER XVII.
EASTER SUNDAY.—MAGELLAN PLANTS THE CROSS.

Now begins the dawn of Christianity in the
Philippines. Magellan was a deeply religious man,
and Pigafetta was a Christian Knight. Magellan
saw the significance of his marvelous voyage, and
his soul glowed with gratitude to Heaven.

Easter Sunday approached. Magellan had made
preparations to plant a cross on a mountain over-
looking the sea.

Easter Sunday fell on the last day of March.
“The Captain,” to follow the Italian’s narrative in
part, “sent the Chaplain ashore early to say mass,
and the interpreter went with him to tell the King
that they were not coming on shore to dine with
him, but only to hear the mass.

“When it was time for saying mass the Captain
went ashore with fifty men, not with their arms, but
only with their swords, and dressed as well as each
one was able to dress, and before the boats reached
the shore our ships fired six cannon shots as a sign

of peace.
122
EASTER SUNDAY.—MAGELLAN PLANTS THE CROSS. 193

“At our landing the two Kings of the islands
were there, and received the Captain in a friendly
manner, and placed him between them, and then we
went to the place prepared for saying mass, which
was not far from the shore.”

The ceremonies that followed were dramatic.
“ Before the mass began the Captain threw a quan-
tity of musk-rose water on those two Kings,” is the
picture drawn by the Italian, “and when the offer-
tory of the mass came, the two Kings went to kiss
the Cross like us, but they offered nothing, and at
the elevation of the body of our Lord they were
kneeling like us, and adored our Lord with joined
hands. The ships fired all their artillery at the ele-
vation of the body of our Lord.”

The scene that followed discloses the religious
nature of Magellan and his joy in what was en-

nobling.
‘He caused a great cross to be lifted, “with the
nails and crown, to which the Kings made rever-
ence.” He told the Kings that he wished to place it
in their country for their profit, “because if there
came afterward any ships from Spain to those
islands, on seeing this cross, they would know that
we had been there, and therefore they would not
cause them any displeasure to their persons nor their
goods; and if they took any of their people, on show-
ing them this sign, they would at once let them go.”
The Captain continued his address to the Kings
























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































land of Luzon

on the Is

d

yon

Ma

Mount
EASTER SUNDAY.—MAGELLAN PLANTS THE CROSS. 195

in the same spirit. He told them that it was neces-
sary that this cross “should be placed on the sum-
mit of the highest mountain in their country, so that
seeing it every day and night they might adore it.”
He further told them that if they did thus, “neither
thunder, lightning, nor the tempest could do them
hurt.” This he believed to be true. The Kings
“thanked the Captain, and said they would do it
willingly.” The Captain asked them how they wor-
shiped. They answered that “they did not per-
form any other adoration, but only joined their
hands, looking up to Heaven, and that they called
their God Aba. Hearing this, the Captain was very
joyful; on seeing that, the first King raised his hands
to the sky and said that he wished it were possible
for him to be able to show the affection which he felt
toward him.”

The elevation of the Cross followed.

“ After dinner we all returned in our dress coats,
and we went together with the two Kings to the
middle of the highest mountain we could find, and
there the Cross was planted.”

Important information followed.

“ After the two Kings and the Captain rested
themselves, and, while conversing, I asked where
was the best port for obtaining victuals. They re-
plied that there were three; that is to say, Ceylon,
Zubu, and Calaghan; but that Zubu was the
largest and of the most traffic. Then the Kings
126 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

offered to give him pilots to go to those ports, for
which he thanked them, and deliberated to go
there, for his ill-fortune would have it so. After the
cross had been planted on the mountain, each one
said the Paternoster and Ave Maria, and adored it,
and the Kings did the like. Then he went down
below to where their boats were. There the
kings had brought some of the fruit called cocos
and other things to make a collation and to re-
fresh us.”

The fleet sailed away soon after Easter Monday,
the Captain having secured native pilots from the
Kings. One of the Kings volunteered to act him-
self as pilot, and this service was accepted.

Pigafetta describes the use of betel:

“This kind of people are gentle, and go naked,
and are painted. They wear a piece of cloth made
from a tree, like a linen cloth, round their body to
cover their natural parts; they are great drinkers.
The women are dressed in tree cloth from their
waists downward; their hair is black, and reaches
down to the ground; they wear certain gold rings
in their ears. These people chew most of their time
a fruit which they call areca (betel), which is some-
thing of the shape of a pear; they cut it in four
quarters, and after they have chewed it for a long
time they spit it out, from which afterward they
have their mouths very red. They find themselves
the better from the use of this fruit because it re-
EASTER SUNDAY.—MAGELLAN PLANTS THE CROSS. 127

freshes them much, for this country is very hot, so
that they could not live without it.”

The use of the areca, or betel nut, is still com-
mon in all the Philippine Islands.

The fleet next went to Maestral, “ passing through
five islands—Ceylon, Bohol, Canighan, Baibai, and
Satighan. In the Island of Satighan was a kind of
bird called barbarstigly, which was as large as an
eagle. Of these we killed only one,” says our nar-
rator, “because it was late. We ate it, and it had
the taste of a fowl. There were also in this island
doves, tortoises, parrots, and certain black birds as
large as a fowl, with a long tail. They lay eggs as
large as those of a goose. These they put a good
length under the sand in the sun, where they were
hatched by the great heat which the heated sand
gives out; and when these birds were hatched they
pushed up the sand and came out. These eggs are
good to eat.

“Trom this island of Mazzubua to that of Sati-
ghan there are twenty leagues, and on leaving
Satighan we went by the west; but the King
of Mazzabua could not follow us; therefore we
waited for him near three islands; that is to say,
Polo, Ticobon, and Pozzon. When the King
arrived he was much astonished at our navi-
gation; the Captain General bade him come on
board his ship with some of his principal people,
at which they were much pleased. Thus we
128 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN,

went to Zubu, which is fifteen leagues off from
Satighan.”

The story of the Italian here, which we so freely
use, leaves in the mind a picture of the first voyage
among the Philippines. The habits of the people in
these same islands are not greatly changed, but we
hardly find there now as tractable kings as were
those to whom Magellan left the Cross.
CHAPTER XVIII.

CHRISTIANITY AND TRADE ESTABLISHED.—THE
BAPTISM OF THE QUEEN.

On April 9th they entered the Port of Zubu, on
approaching which they saw houses in the trees.
The Captain hung out his flags in the clear sunny
air. He caused his artillery to be fired, which greatly
alarmed the natives. He then sent an interpreter
to the King.

The interpreter found the people in terror at the
thunder of the guns. He assured the King that the
salute had been made in his honor. Then the inter-
preter said:

“My master is the greatest King in all the world.
We are sailing at his command to discover the Spice
Islands. But we have heard of your fame, and the
fame of your country, and have come to visit you.”

“You are welcome,” said the King, “but you
must pay me tribute.”

“My master,” said the interpreter, “is the great-
est of all Kings, and we can pay tribute to no

one.”
129
130 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

The King feasted them, and they entered into
negotiations of peace with the King of Zubu.

At Zubu Magellan turned missionary with no
common zeal.

He told the native princes that his visit was for
the sake of peace.

We are told that the “Captain General sat in a
chair of red velvet, and near him were the principal
men of the ships sitting in leather chairs, and the
others sat on the ground on mats.

“The Captain,” says the narrative, “spoke at
length on the subject of peace, and prayed God to
confirm it in Heaven. These people replied that they
had never heard such words as these which the Cap-
tain had spoken to them, and they took great pleas-
ure in hearing them. The Captain, seeing then that
those people listened willingly to what was said to
them, and that they gave good answers, began to
say a great many good things to induce them to
become Christians.

“He told them how God had made Heaven and
earth and all other things in the world, and that he
had commanded that every one should render honor
and obedience to his father and mother, and “that
whoever did otherwise was condemned to eternal
fire.”

His teaching bore immediate fruit.

“The people heard these things willingly, and
besought the Captain to leave them two men to teach
CHRISTIANITY AND TRADE ESTABLISHED. 131

and show them the Christian faith, and they would
entertain them well with great honor. To this the
Captain answered that for the moment he could not
leave any of his people, but that if they wished to
be Christians that his priest would baptize them, and
that another time he would bring priests and teach-
ers to teach them the faith.”

His manner of teaching reveals his heart:

“The people told him that they wished to con-
sult their King in regard to becoming Christians.”
The friends of the Captain “wept for the joy which
they felt at the good-will of these people, and
the Captain told them not to become Christians
‘from fear of us, or to please us, but that if they
wished to become Christian they must do it will-
ingly, and for the love of God, for even though
they should not become Christian, no displeasure
would be done them, but those who became Chris-
tian would be more loved and better treated than
the others.’ Then they all cried out with one voice
that they did not wish to become Christians from
fear, nor from complaisance, but of their free
will.”

Here the true character of the man again appears
—few Christian explorers ever made so noble a
record. His sincerity won the hearts of the natives:

“ At last they said they did not know what more
to answer to so many good and beautiful words
which he spoke to them, but that they placed them-
139 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

selves in his hands, and that he should do with them
as with his own servants.” .

The next scene is ideal:

“Then the Captain, with tears in his eyes, em-
braced them, and, taking the hand of the Prince and
that of the King, said to him that by the faith he
had in God, and to his master the Emperor, and by
the habit of St. James which he wore, he promised
them to cause them to have perpetual peace with
the King of Spain, at which the Prince and the
others promised him the same.” i

It is a pleasure to follow such a narrative as
Pigafetta here writes in illustration of the character
of a true Christian Knight. Compare this narra-
tive with the history of Pizarro, Cortes, and De Soto.
Magellan was a Las Casas, a Marquette, a La Salle.

The next incident told by Pigafetta has as fine
a touch as a portrayal of character. It relates to a
message which Magellan sent to the King, with a
present.

“When we came to the town we found the King
of Zubu at his palace, sitting on the ground on a
mat made of palm, with many people about him.

“He had a very heavy chain around his neck,
and two gold rings hung in his ears with precious
stones.

“He was eating tortoise eggs in two china
dishes, and he had four vessels full of palm wine,
which he drank with a cane pipe. We made our
CHRISTIANITY AND TRADE ESTABLISHED. 133

obeisance, and presented to him what the Captain
had sent him, and told him through the interpreter
that the present was not as a return for his present
which he had sent to the Captain, but for the affection
which he bore him. This done, his people told him all
the good words and explanations of peace and re-
ligion which he had spoken to them.”

We now behold Magellan in a new attitude, as a
missionary teacher, a John the Baptist in the wilder-
ness. Pigafetta thus describes the scene:

“On Sunday morning, the fourteenth day of
April, we went on shore, forty men, of whom two
were armed, who marched before us, following the
standard of our King Emperor. When we landed
the ships discharged all their artillery, and from
fear of it the people ran away in all directions.

“Magellan and the King embraced one another,
and then joyously we went near the scaffolding,
where the Captain General and the King sat on two
chairs, one covered with red, the other with violet
velvet. The principal men sat on cushions, and
others on mats, after the fashion of the country.

“Then the Captain began to speak to the King
through the interpreter to incite him to the faith of
Jesus Christ, and told him that if he wished to be
a good Christian, as he had said the day before, that
he must burn all the idols of his country, and, in-
stead of them, place a cross, and that\ every one

Should worship it every day on their knees, and their
10
134 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

hands joined to Heaven; and he showed him how he
ought every day to make the sign of the Cross.

“To that the King and all his people answered
that they would obey the commands of the Captain
and do all that he told them. The Captain took the
King by the hand, and they walked about on the
scaffolding, and when he was baptized he said that
he would name him Don Charles, as the Emperor his
sovereign was named; and he named the Prince Don
Irernand, after the brother of the Emperor, and the
King of Mazzava, Jehan; to the Moor he gave the
name of Christopher, and to the others each a name
of his fancy. Thus, before mass, there were fifty men
baptized.”

The baptism of the Queen followed.

“Our Chaplain and some of us went on shore to
baptize the Queen. She came with forty ladies, and
we conducted them onto the scaffolding; then made
her sit down on a cushion, and her women around
her, until the priest was ready. During that time
they showed her an image of our Lady, of wood, hold-
ing her little child, which was very well made, and a
cross. When she saw it, she had a greater desire to
be a Christian, and, asking for baptism, she was bap-
tized and named Jehanne, like the mother of the
Emperor. The wife of the Prince, daughter of this
Queen, had the name of Catherine, the Queen of
Mazzava Isabella, and to the others each their name.

“That day we baptised eight hundred persons of
THE BAPTISM OF THE QUEEN. 135

men, women, and children. The Queen was young
and hardsome, covered with a black and white
sheet; she had the mouth and nails very red, and
wore on her head a large hat made of leaves of
palm, with a crown over it made of the same leaves,
like that of the Pope. After that she begged us to
give her the little wooden boy to put in the place of
the idols. This we did, and she went away. In the
evening the King and Queen, with several of their
people, came to the sea beach, where the Captain
had some of the large artillery fired, in which they
took great pleasure. The Captain and the King
called one another brother.”

The “little boy ” spoken of was an image of the
infant Christ. The figure was preserved until the
year 1598, when the Spaniards sent missionaries to
the place who gave it a place in a shrine and named
a city for it. -

The naming of the Queen at her baptism for
poor Juana, or “Crazy Jane,” the incapable mother
of Charles V, who was watching beside her dead
husband in Granada, and who had signed the com-
mission of Magellan by proxy, completes a tale of
missionary work in a somewhat ideal way. If these
people did not maintain their faith, the work reveals
the intention of Magellan, and shows the nobility
of character of the Christian Knight.
- CHAPTER XIX.
HALCYON DAYS.

THESE were indeed days of joy. The glory of
them grew. All the inhabitants of the island came
to be baptized. Magellan went on shore daily to
hear mass.

It was Pigafetta who gave to the Queen the
image of the infant Christ, which became historical.

On one of the occasions that Magellan went on
shore to hear mass he met the Queen, who appeared
in a veil of silk and gold. He sprinkled over her
some rose water and musk, and noticed that she
cherished the image of the infant Christ.

“You do well,” said he. “Put it in the place
where your idols were; it will keep in your mind
the Son of God.”

“JT will cherish it forever,” said the veiled Queen.

She seems to have kept her word.

The joy of these scenes reached their height,
when the King of Seba swore fealty to the King of
Spain.

The scene of the conclusion of this ceremony was

136
HALCYON DAYS. 187

knightly indeed, and again reveals the heart of
Magellan.

He, seeing a good spirit of the King of Seba, re-
solved to swear fealty of eternal friendship to him.
Only a Christian Knight would have dreamed of
such a thing.

“T swear,” he said, “by the image of our Lady,
the Virgin, by the love of my Emperor, and by the
insignia on my heart, that I will ever be faithful to
you, O King of Seba!”

Here the true character of the statesman as well
as teacher appeared. History records few acts more
noble. Magellan sought the good of mankind.

There was one officer on the ships whose soul,
like that of Pigafetta’s, must have been in all these
benevolent efforts.

The expedition was tarrying long, seeking the
glory of the Cross rather than the gold and spices.
There were impatient hearts in Seville.

Mesquita in his still prison, with the world
against him, dreamed of Magellan, Del Cano, and the
Italian historian. The half world Separated them
now.

In his dreams Mesquita saw the fleet coming
back again, and he heard the Shouting of the people
and the ringing of the bells. The star of hope in his
heart did not fail.

“Padre,” he said, “the day of my vindication will
come.”
138 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

But the seasons came and went, and the light
changed color in the window of his cell, and the
birds sang their notes in the trees in spring and left
their empty nests to silence in the retreating sum-
mer. The great Cathedral grew, and the achieve-
ment of Charles had begun to excite the world. —

We now come to the tragedy of this wonderful
expedition; to the tempest that rose out of the calm.
The transition from these ideal scenes to what is
to follow is sudden indeed.
CHAPTER XxX.
THE DEATH OF MAGELLAN.

MAGELLAN, as we have shown, had sought not
wealth, nor glory, but the good of the world in his
life. He was ever ready to put his own interest aside
in the service of that which was best for others. He
had sought welfare and not wealth, service and not
self, and his life was about to end in the unselfish
spirit in which it had lived.

On Friday, April 26, 1520, Zula, one of the great
chiefs of the Island of Matan, sent to Magellan one
of his sons and two goats as a present. He had
promised his service to the King of Spain, but this
surrender of royalty had been opposed by another
chief named Silapalapa. This chief had declared
with native spirit that Matan would never submit
to the Spanish King

“ But I can overthrow Silapalapa,” ran the Matan
chief’s message, “if I can have your help. Send me
a boatload of men. Let them come to-morrow
night.”

Magellan received the message and the presents
139
140 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

in a friendly feeling, and resolved to follow the
chief’s lead.

“T will not send another on this expedition so
full of peril,” he thought. “I will lead it myself.”

So he set out from Zubu to Matan at midnight,
with sixty men, in corselets and helmets. He took
with him the Christian King, and the chief men of
his new adherents.

The boats moved silently over the tropic waters
under the moon and stars. Magellan had become a
happy man. He could not doubt that he was on his
way to new victories. Pigafetta, the Italian, always
_ true to the Admiral, was with him.

The expedition arrived at Matan just before the
dawn of the morning.

The mellow nature of Magellan came back to him
on this short night journey. He had no wish to
slaughter men. ;

So he spoke to a Moorish merchant.

“Go to the natives,” he said, “and tell them if
they will recognize a Christian King as their sover-
eign I will become their friend. If not, that they
must feel our lances.”

The Moorish ambassador was landed, and met
the chiefs.

“Go tell your master,” they said, “that if he has
lances, so have we, and our lances are hardened by
fire.”

At the red dawn of the morning, the Admiral
THE DEATH OF MAGELLAN, 141

gave the order to disembark, and forty-nine men
leaped into the water. They faced a fierce army,
some fifteen hundred in number.

Magellan divided his followers into two bands.
The musketeers and cross bowmen began the attack.
But the firing was not effective. The black army
moved down upon them like a cloud, throwing jave-
lins. and spears hardened with fire. Some of them
singled out Magellan. They threw at him lances
pointed with iron.

Magellan, seeing that the odds were against him
in such a contest, sought to break their lines by firing
their houses. Some thirty houses burst into flame.

The sight of the fire maddened the natives and
rendered them furious. They discovered that the
legs of the invaders were exposed, and that they
could be wounded there with poisoned arrows.

A poisoned arrow was aimed at Magellan. It
pierced him in the leg. He felt the wound, and knew
its import.

He gave orders to retreat. A panic ensued, and
his men took to. flight.

The air was filled with arrows, spears, stones,
and mud.

The Spaniards tried to escape to the boat. The
islanders followed them and directed their fury to
Magellan. They struck him twice on his helmet.

Magellan’s thought now was not for himself, but -
for the safety of his men.
149 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

He stood at his own post fighting that they might
make safe their retreat.

He thus broke the assault for nearly an hour,
until he was almost left alone.

An Indian suddenly rushed down toward him
having a cane lance. He thrust this into his face.
Magellan wounded the Indian, and attempted to
draw his sword. But he had received a javelin
wound in his arm, and his strength failed.

Seeing him falter, the Indian rushed upon him
and brought him down to the earth with a rude
sword.

The Indians now fell upon him and ran him
through with lances.

He tried to rise up, to see if his men were safe.
He did not call for assistance, but to the last sought
to secure the safety of his men. In fact, he never
seemed to so much as think of himself in the whole
contest. It was thus that his life went out, and his
heart ceased to beat. He was left dead on the sand,
on April 27, 1521. The natives refused to surrender
his body. Eight of his own men and four Indians,
who had become Christians, perished with him.

There was one man who was true to the Admiral
to the end. He was wounded with him, but sur-
vived. He it was that saw that the Admiral had
forgotten himself at the hour of the final conflict.
It was Pigafetta, the Italian, whose narrative we
are following.


The death of Magellan.
THE DEATH OF MAGELLAN. 143

This hero of the pen says of him to whom he
gave his heart:

“One of his principal virtues was constancy in
the most adverse fortune.”

“Tt was God who made me the messenger of the
new heavens and new earth, and told me where to
find them,” said Columbus. “Maps, charts, and
mathematical knowledge had nothing to do with
the case.”

As sublime an inspiration is seen in the words of
Pigafetta in regard to Magellan:

“No one gave to him the example how to encompass
the globe.” His sight was the inner eye, the pure
vision of a consecrated purpose in life.

No hero of the sea has ever been more noble!
His purpose in life was everything; he had the faith
of a Christian Knight; he was as nothing to him-
self, but to others all, and he died giving his own
body for a shield to his men. His name will always
be associated with what is glorious in the history
of the Philippines.

' Magellan was dead, but a good purpose lives in
others. Magellan dead, Del Cano yet lives, and the
Italian historian has other scenes to record.

The farol of Magellan will go on; it will never
cease to shine, and the cast-out name of the Christian
Knight will become a fixed star amid the lights that
have inspired the world.
CHAPTER XXI.

THE SPICE ISLANDS.—WONDERFUL BIRDS.—CLOVES,
CINNAMON, NUTMEGS, GINGER.—THE SHIPS OVER-
LOADED.



THE massacre at Matan caused the Spaniards
to lose credit in the eyes of the natives. The King
of Seba turned against them, thus throwing a
shadow on the glory of Magellan’s missionary work.
The Spaniards were, however, much to blame for the
change that took place in the King’s heart.

Their ships were becoming unseaworthy.

They were reduced to two ships, the Victoria and
the Trinidad, and these shaped their course for the
Moluccas, or Spice Islands, by the way of Borneo.
Del Cano began to represent the spirit of Magellan
among the crews.

They came to the Bornean city, Brunei, “a collec-
tion of houses built on piles over the water, where
were twenty-five thousand fires or families.” On
the shore was the palace of a voluptuous Sultan, its
walls hung with brocades of silk. Here was also

one of the most curious markets in all the world,
144
THE SPICE ISLANDS. 145

carried on at high tide, when there gathered a great
army of canoes.

On November 8, 1521, the two ships anchored off
Tidor on the Spice Islands, saluting the King of the
place with a broadside.

They concluded a treaty of peace with the King,
and began to load the two ships with spice, and
especially with cloves, a kind of spice at that time
regarded as a great luxury in Spain.

If Pigafetta had desired above all things to see
the wonders of the ocean world, he must again have
been gratified here at some of the presents sent to
the ships by the natives. Columbus had brought to
Spain gorgeous parrots or macaws. But the King
of Batchian sent to him a bird whose plumage sur-
passed anything that he had ever seen.

“Tt is the bird of Paradise,” said the agent of the
royal almoner.

The Italian did not doubt it. He wished to learn
the history of this superb inhabitant of the air.

He did in a way that excited his wonder beyond
measure.

The bird, after the Mohammedan account, was
born in Paradise. It came down from Heaven where
dwelt departed souls, who had died true to the Mos-
lem faith.

These birds were found dead, and they had no
feet. If Pigafetta inquired the cause of this, he
doubtless was answered:
146 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

“They do not need feet; they never alight on the
ground.”

But as greatly as the Chevalier must have won-
dered, he was not induced to accept the Moslem
faith.

They overcrowded the ships while receiving the
favors of the Sultan of Tidor.

An account of their voyage about the Spice
Islands, “most delightful to read,” as we are
told in the title, was written by one Maximilianus
Transylvanus, from which we gather the following
incidents (Hakluyt Society) of great pearls and_
strange men:

“They came to the shores of the Island of Solo,
where they heard that there were pearls as big as
dove’s eggs, and sometimes as hen’s eges, but which
can only be fished up from the very deepest sea.
Our men brought no large pearl, because the season
of the year did not allow of the fishery. But they
testify that they had taken an oyster in that region,
the flesh of which weighed forty-seven pounds. For
which reason I could easily believe that pearls of
that great size are found there; for it is clearly
proved that pearls are the product of shellfish. And
to omit nothing, our men constantly affirm that the
islanders of Porne told him that the King wore in
his crown two pearls of the size of a goose’s egg.

“Hence they went to the Island of Gilo, where
they saw men with ears so long and pendulous that
THE SPICE ISLANDS. 147

they reached to their shoulders. When our men
were mightily astonished at this, they learnt from
the natives that there was another island not far
off where the men had ears not only pendulous, but
so long and broad that one of them would cover the
whole head if they wanted it (cum exusu esset). But
our men, who sought not monsters but Spices, neg-
lecting this nonsense, went straight to the Moluccas,
and they discovered them eight months after their
Admiral, Magellan, had fallen in Matan. The
islands are five in number, and are called Tarante,
Muthil, Thidore, Mare, and Matthien; some on this
side some on the other, and some upon the equinoc-
tial line.

“One produces cloves, another nutmegs, and an-
other cinnamon. AIl are near to each other, but
small and rather narrow.”

The world to-day thinks little of spices, for com-
merce has made common the luxuries of the Indian
Ocean. Cloves, nutmegs, allspice, cinnamon, ginger
are found in every home in all civilized lands, and
even children make few inquiries about them.

This was not so in the early days of the Viceroys
of India. Spices which were gathered and sold by
Arabian merchants, were held in Europe as a gift
of Arabia, and esteemed to be the greatest, or among
the greatest of luxuries. Aship laden with spices was
hailed in the ports of the Iberian peninsula as next
to a ship freighted with gold, as the Golden Hynde
148 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

was welcomed in the days of Sir Francis Drake.
It used to be said that the odors of the spice ships
from the East Indies could be breathed through the
breezes that wafted them toward the land.

The principal Spice Islands were the Moluccas,
or the islands of the East India Archipelago between
Celebes on the west and New Guinea on the east,
Timor on the south and the open Pacific Sea on the
north. They are distributed over a wide ocean area.
Of these the Moluccas form the principal group.
Here are the paradises of the seas. __

It was to these islands where could be procured
the products of “ Araby the Blessed” that Magellan
had hoped to find a new way. There were brighter
shores than Spain, and to these he sought the
shortest routes over which ships could travel.

The Peruvian adventurers wished to find gold;
the voyagers to. the Antilles, magical waters and new
productions of the earth; but Magellan’s dream was
of the spiceries of the Indian seas. They all found
what they sought, except Ponce de Leon, who hoped
to find the Fountain of Eternal Youth.

Transylvanus speaks of another wonderful bird
that only alighted at death, and whose feathers were
believed to possess magic powers.

“The kings of Marmin began to believe that souls
were immortal a few years ago, induced by no other
argument than that they saw that a certain most
beautiful small bird never rested upon the ground
THE SPICE ISLANDS. 149

nor upon anything that grew upon it; but they some-
times saw it fall dead upon the ground from the sky.
And as the Mohammedans, who traveled to those
parts for commercial purposes, told them that this
bird was born in Paradise, and that Paradise was the
abode of the souls of those who had died, these
kings (reguli) embraced the sect of Mohammed, be-
cause it promised wonderful things concerning this
abode of souls. But they call the bird Mamuco
- Diata, and they hold it in such reverence and re-
ligious esteem that they believe that by it their
kings are safe in war, even though they, according
to custom, are placed in the forefront of battle.”

He continues his narrative:

“But, our men having carefully inspected the
position of the Moluccas and of each separate island,
and also having inquired about the habits of the
kings, went to Thedori, because they learnt that in
that island the supply of cloves was far above that of
the others, and that its King also surpassed the
other kings in wisdom and humanity. So, having
prepared their gifts they land, and salute the King,
and they offer the presents as if they had been sent
by Cesar. He, having received the presents kindly,
looks up to Heaven, and says:

““T have known now for two years from the
course of the stars, that you were coming to seek
these lands, sent by the most mighty King of Kings.

Wherefore your coming is the more pleasant and
11
150 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN,

grateful to me, as I had been forewarned of it by
the signification of the stars.

“* And, as I know that nothing ever happens to
any man which has not been fixed long before by
the decree of fate and the stars, I will not be the one
to attempt to withstand either the fates or the sig-
nification of the stars, but willingly and of good
cheer, will henceforth lay aside the royal pomp and
will consider myself as managing the administration
of this island only in the name of your King. -
Wherefore draw your ships into port, and order the
rest of your comrades to land; so that now at last,
after such a long tossing upon the seas, and so many
dangers, you may enjoy the pleasures of the land
and refresh your bodies. And think not but that
you have arrived at your King’s kingdom.’

“Having said this, the King, laying aside his
crown, embraced them one by one, and ordered
whatever food that land afforded to be brought. Our
men being overjoyed at this, returned to their com-
rades, and told them what had happened. They,
pleased above measure with the friendly behavior
and kindness of the King, take possession of the
island. And when their health was completely re-
stored, in a few days, by the King’s munificence, they
sent envoys to the other kings, to examine the
wealth of the islands, and to conciliate the other
kings.”

His description of the clove trees is very pleasing:
THE SPICE ISLANDS. 151

“Tirante was the nearest, and also the smallest,
of the islands; for it has a circumference of a little
more than six Italian miles. Matthien is next to it,
and it, too, is small. These three produce a great
quantity of cloves, but more every fourth year than
the other three. These trees only grow on steep
rocks, and that so thickly as frequently to form a
grove. This tree is very like a laurel (or bay tree)
in leaf, closeness of growth, and height; and the
gariophile, which they call clove from its likeness to
a nail (clavus), grows on the tip of each separate
twig. First a bud, and then a flower, just like the
orange flower is produced.

“The pointed part of the clove is fixed at the
extreme end of the branch, and then growing slightly
longer, it forms a spike. It is at first red, but soon
gets black by the heat of the sun. The natives keep
the plantations of these trees separate, as we do our
vines. They bury the cloves in pits till they are
taken away by the traders.”

He also describes the cinnamon tree:

“Muthil, the fourth island, is not larger than the
rest, and it produces cinnamon. The tree is full of
shoots, and in other respects barren; it delights in
dryness, and is very like the tree which bears pome-
granates. The bark of this splits under the influence
of the sun’s heat, and is stripped off the wood; and,
after drying a little in the sun, it is cinnamon.”

Also the nutmeg tree:
152 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

“Near to this is another island, called Bada,
larger and more ample than the Moluccas. In this
grows the nutmeg, the tree of which is tall and
spreading, and is rather like the walnut tree, and
its nut, too, grows like the walnut; for it is pro-
tected by a double husk, at first like a furry calix,
and under this a thin membrane, which embraces
the nutlike network. This is called the Muscat
flower with us, but by the Spaniards mace, and is
a noble and wholesome spice. The other covering
is a woody shell, like that of a hazelnut, and in
that, as we have already said, is the nutmeg.”

And ginger:

“Ginger grows here and there in each of the
islands of the archipelago. It sometimes grows by
sowing, and sometimes spontaneously; but that
which is sown is the more valuable. Its grass is like
that of the saffron, and its root is almost the same
too, and that is ginger.”

While sailing among these bowery ocean gardens,
and gathering their odorous products, the poetic
Maximilianus was presented with one of the im-
mortal birds that protected a hero in battle, “the
bird of God.”

He thus speaks of the rare present:

“Our men were kindly treated by the chiefs in
turn, and they, too, submitted freely to the rule of
Cesar, like the King of Thidori. But the Spaniards,
who had but two ships, resolved to bring some of
THE SPICE ISLANDS. 153

each (spice) home, but to load the ships with cloves,
because the crop of that was the most abundant that
year, and our ships could contain a greater quan-
tity of this kind of spice. Having, therefore, loaded
the ships with cloves, and having received letters
and presents for Cesar from the Kings, they make
ready for their departure. The letters were full of
submission and respect. The gifts were Indian
swords, and things of that sort. But, best of all, the
Mamuco Diata; that is, the bird of God, by which
they believe themselves to be safe and invincible
in battle. Of which five were sent, and one I ob-
tained from the Captain (congran prieghi), which I
send to your reverence, not that your reverence may
think yourself safe from treachery and the sword
by means of it, as they profess to do, but that you
may be pleased with its rareness and beauty. I send
also some cinnamon and nutmeg and cloves, to show
that our spices are not only not worse, but more
valuable than those which the Venetians and Portu-
guese bring, because they are fresher.”

He also relates the disasters which fell to one of
the overloaded ships:

“When our men had set sail from Thedori, one
of the ships, and that the larger one, having sprung
a leak, began to make water, so that it became neces-
sary to put back to Thedori. When the Spaniards
saw that this mischief could not be remedied with-
out great labor and much time, they agreed that the
154 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

other ship should sail to the Cape of Cattigara, and
afterward through the deep as far as possible from
the coast of India, lest it should be seen by the Por-
tuguese, and until they saw the promontory of
Africa which projects beyond the tropic of Capri-
corn, and to which the Portuguese have given the
name of Good Hope; and. from that point the pas-
sage to Spain would be easy.

“But as soon as the other ship was refitted it
should direct its course through the archipelago,
and that vast ocean toward the shores of the con-
tinent which we mentioned before, till it found that
coast which was in the neighborhood of Darien, and
where the southern sea was separated from the
western, in which are the Spanish Islands, by a very
narrow piece of land. So the ship sailed again from
Thedori, and, having gone twelve degrees on the
other side of the equinoctial line, they did not find
the Cape of Cattigara, which Ptolemy supposed to
extend even beyond the equinoctial line; and when
they had traversed an immense space of sea, they
came to the Cape of Good Hope and afterward to the
Islands of the Hesperides.

“ And, as this ship let in water, being much
knocked about by this long voyage, the sailors, many
of whom had died by hardships by land and by sea,
could not clear the ship of water. Wherefore they
landed upon one of the islands, which is named after
Saint James, to buy slaves.
THE SPICE ISLANDS. 155

“But as our men had no money, they offered,
sailor fashion, cloves for the slaves. This matter
having come to the ears of the Portuguese who were
in command of the island, thirteen of our men were
thrown into prison. The rest were eighteen in
number.

“frightened by the strangeness of this behavior,
they started straight for Spain, leaving their ship-
mates behind them. And go, in the sixteenth month
after leaving Thedori, they arrived safe and sound
on the 6th of September, at the port near Hispalis
(Seville). Worthier, indeed, are our sailors of eternal
fame than the Argonauts who sailed with Jason to
Colchis. And much more worthy was their ship of.
being placed among the stars than that old Argo;
for that only sailed from Greece through Pontus,
but ours from Hispalis to the South;.and after that,
through the whole West and the Southern hemis-
phere, penetrating into the East, and again returned
to the West.”

His subscription is interesting:

“JT commend myself most humbly to your rever-
. ence. Given at Vallisoleti, on the 23d of October,
1522.
“Your most reverend and illustrious lordship’s
“Most humble and constant servant,

“MAXIMILIANUS TRANSYLVANUS.”
156 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

When the spice ship began to fill with water, the
officers sent for native divers. But these, although
very skillful, could not find the place or the cause
of the leak.

Let us change our view to a different scene, across
the wide tropical world.
CHAPTER XXII.
MESQUITA IN PRISON.

WHILE the little ship Victoria, which had sought
for Mesquita in vain, was sailing around the world,
and was returning laden with spice, Mesquita him-
self remained shut out from the sun by the shadows
of prison walls. His life became more and more
silent and neglected.

We know not by what authority he was held in
a dungeon for advising the supposed crimes of his
cousin Magellan. It could not have been that of
Juana, who was still watching over the tomb from
which she expected her husband to rise, nor by good
Cardinal Ximenes, and possibly not by Charles V
himself, but perhaps by one of his ministers. It
may have been by the direction of Charles, for his
imprisonment implies doubt; otherwise with such
an array of testimony against him, we might expect
he would have been executed.

Two years had passed over beautiful Seville, and
the India House there must have began to doubt the

story of Gormez as not one of the other ships re-
157
158 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

turned. These ships might have been cast away in
the wintry seas that Gormez and his crew described,
or the flag of Spain that the daring Portuguese had
set toward the Spice Islands of the Hast by the way
of the South might be seen again some day, rising
over the Guadalquivir.

Mesquita believed in his cousin Magellan; not
only in him as a true man, but as one who had a
divine calling to fulfill; as one whom destiny had
allotted to lead the decisive events of mankind. He
still felt that he would prove another Columbus or
Vasco da Gama.

The two priests whom Magellan had marooned
had honestly thought Magellan mad. But Mesquita
had his own confessor, and we can easily fancy how
the prisoner must have opened his heart to him.

“ Padre, I am misunderstood,” we can hear him
say. “Time tells the truth about all men. Time
vindicates all.

“ Padre, some messenger from Magellan will come
back again. Time weighs all events, and life is self
revealing. The heralds will blow their trumpets
then, and the bells will ring.

“Padre, they do well to prolong my life. Some
day my prison doors will open wide, and I shall ride
through the streets of Seville, and those who doubt
me now will hail me as a heart that was always true
to a Knight whose heart will be found true to the
Emperor!”
MESQUITA IN PRISON. 159

The lamp of his faith burned clear and odorous oil.
He had a quiet conscience. But how must the con-
spirators have felt during these uncertain months?
The ships did not return. That seemed to favor one
view of the madness of Magellan, and yet it did not
leave them at ease. There were some who reasoned:
If Magellan were indeed mad on his own ship, why
might not one or more of the other ships have re-
turned? If the other ships had been loyal to the
lantern of Magellan, and had kept together, might
the fleet not return again? Should it return what
a stigma would be cast on the characters of the
~ cowardly mutineers! In such a case Mesquita
would become a hero, and the latter would have to
flee from their own names.

Charles V was in his promise of glory now. In
1519, as we have before stated, he had been elected
Emperor of Germany; and in 1520 he had been
crowned at Aix la Chapelle, amid great rejoicings,
and the Pope had bestowed upon him the title of
Ceesar or Emperor of the Roman world. He was
called “ Ceesar ” in the chronicles of the times.

Poor Juana took no interest in any of these pomps
of her son, as they shook the world. Her ears were
deaf to them, her heart was dead to them all. The
mother of “Cesar” was almost the only person in
Spain who hailed not the glory of Cesar.

Amid all the splendors of his court the dream
of Magellan must still have haunted the mind of the
160 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

new Cesar. He had accepted the story brought by
the returned ship; but Magellan the madman might
come back again. Madmen had returned before.

The period was a wonderful one. Printing, the
art of which had been but recently developed after
the discovery of Gutenberg, was revealing its great
possibilities. These were the times of Francis in
France, and of Henry VIII in England. The Ref-
ormation was overturning Germany. The whole
world seemed to be changing.

If the ships of Magellan were to find a new way
to the East, and were to sail around the world, what
surprising events might follow!

So, night after night, Mesquita could but hope
and ask:

“Where is the lantern of Magellan now?”

Seville was full of maritime prosperity. The
tuneful bells in her many churches had frequent
occasions to ring out for national festivals. The
sailors loved these services, and especially those that
celebrated the triumphs of the Virgin whose do-
minion had become, as was supposed, the sea, and
who was hailed as the “Star of the Deep.”

The happy crowds on their way to the rejoicing
churches must have passed the prison walls where
Mesquita was detained. Life indeed must have been
mysterious to him. The world in which he deserved
so much honor and happiness was shut out from
him—even the sun.and stars.
CHAPTER XXIII.

STRANGE STORIES.—THE WISE OLD WOMEN.—THE
WALKING LEAVES.—THE HAUNTED SANDALWOOD
TREES.—THE EMPEROR OF CHINA.—THE LITTLE
BOY AND THE GIANT BIRD.

PIGAFETTA was no Munchausen, but he had a
love of marvelous stories, and there never was a
voyage that offered to a European a greater num-
_ ber of curious events and superstitions. Some of the
incidents that excited our Chevalier’s wonder were
natural events which have been since explained.
The superstitious legends of the people were, how-
ever, for the most part but the growth of folklore
through the imagination.

One of these accounts relates to the wise old
women who prepared the sacrifices of the wild boar
as offerings to the sun. It shows how small may be
the real meaning of pompous and pretentious cere-
monies. The rites took place in the Philippines.

Says Pigafetta in his narrative prepared for the
Grand Master of the Knight of Rhodes:

“Since I have spoken of the idols, it may please

your illustrious Highness to have an account of the
161
162 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

ceremony with which, in this island, they bless the
pig. They begin by sounding some great drums
(tamburi); they then bring three large dishes; two
are filled with cakes of rice and cooked millet rolled
up in leaves, with roast fish; in the third are Cambay
cloths and two strips of palm cloth. Cambay is spread out on the ground; then two old
women come, each of whom has in her hand a reed
trumpet. They step upon the cloth and make an
obeisance to the sun; they then clothe themselves
with the above-mentioned cloths. The first of these
puts on her head a handkerchief which she ties on
her forehead so as to make two horns, and taking
another handkerchief in her hand, dances and sounds
her trumpet and invokes the sun.

“The second old woman takes one of the strips
of palm cloth and dances, and also sounds her
trumpet; thus they dance and sound their trumpets
for a short space of time, saying several things to
the sun. The first old woman then drops the hand-
kerchief she has in her hand and takes the other
strip of cloth, and both together sounding their
trumpets, dance for a long time round the pig which
is bound on the ground. The first one always speaks
in a low tone to the sun, and the second answers
her. So the sun and the two old women had @ lu-
minous partnership.

“The second old woman then presents a cup of
wine to the first, who, while they both continue their
STRANGE STORIES. 163

address to the sun, brings the cup four or five times
near the mouth as though going to drink, and mean-
while sprinkles the wine on the heart of the pig.
She then gives up the cup, and receives a lance
which she brandishes, while still dancing and re-
_ citing, and four or five times directs the lance at the
pig’s heart; at last, with a sudden and well-aimed
blow, she pierces it through and through. She with-
draws the lance from the wound, which is then
closed and dressed with herbs.

“ During the ceremony a torch is always burning,
and the old woman who pierced the pig takes and
puts it out with her mouth; the other old woman
dips the end of her trumpet in the pig’s blood, and
with it marks with blood the forehead of her hus-
band and of her companion, and then of the rest of
the people. But they did not come and do this
to us.

“That done the old women took off their robes
and ate what was in the two dishes, inviting only
women to join them. After that they get the hair
off the pig with fire. Only old women are able to
consecrate the boar, and this animal is never eaten
unless it is killed in this manner.”

Pigafetta saw wonderful things in Borneo, among
them a wild boar whose head was two and a half
spans long, and oysters as large as turtles. He says
that the flesh of one of these oysters weighed forty-
five pounds.
164 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

But the thing there which probably must have
most greatly excited his curiosity was the walking
leaves. There were certain trees on the islands that
had very animated leaves. When one of these
leaves fell from the tree, it did not lie where it fell,
to rot or to be shuffled by the winds, but it lifted
itself up and walked away.

Here was a sight indeed to make the young Ital-
ian fly to his memoranda book, which he did.

Other travelers later saw the same curious thing,
but they examined the miracle more closely than the
credulous Chevalier. They found that the leaves
were moved by an insect that lived inside of them,
like the Mexican bean, which is used as a toy, and
will jump about a table.

The islands of the Indian Ocean abound in sandal-
wood. Of the sandal trees Pigafetta heard other
curious legends. One of them tells us that when the
people of the Timor went out to cut sandalwood, the
devil appeared to them, and demanded them to bar-
gain with him for the wood. This they did, for those
who cut the wood are otherwise likely to fall sick;
a poisonous miasma is exhaled from the wounded
wood.

Pigafetta heard also marvelous tales of the Em-
peror of China, who seemed to live amid human
walls. There may be some truths in these incidents;
if so, what a remarkable condition must have been
that of the Chinese court four hundred years ago!
STRANGE STORIES. 165

He says:

“The kingdom of Cocchi lies next; its sovereign
is named Raja Seri Bummipala. After that follows
Great China, the king of which is the greatest soy-
ereign of the world, and is called Santoa Raja. He
has seventy crowned kings under his dependence;
and some of these kings have ten or fifteen lesser
kings dependent on them. The port of this kingdom
is named Guantan, and among the many cities of
this Empire, two are the most important, namely,
Nankin and Comlaha, where the King usually re-
sides.

“He has four of his principal ministers close to
his palace, at the four sides looking to the four car-
dinal winds; that is, one to the west, one to the
east, to the south, and to the north. Bach of these
gives audience to those that come from his quarter.
All the kings and lords of India major and superior
obey this King, and in token of their vassalage, each
is obliged to have in the middle of the principal
palace of his city the marble figure of a certain ani-
mal named Chinga, an animal more valuable than
the lion; the figure of this animal is also engraved
on the King’s seal, and all who wish to enter his port
must carry the same emblem in wax or ivory.

“Tf any lord is disobedient to him, he is flayed,
and his skin, dried in the sun, salted, and stuffed, is
placed in an eminent part of the public place, with
the head inclined and the hands on the head in the

12
166 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN, -

attitude of doing zongu; that is obeisance to the
Kking.

“He is never visible to anybody; and if he wishes
to see his people he is carried about the palace on
a peacock most skillfully manufactured and very
richly adorned, with six ladies dressed exactly like
himself, so that he can not be distinguished from
them. He afterward passes into a richly adorned
figure of a serpent called Naga, which has a large
glass in the breast, through which he and the ladies
are seen, but it is not possible to distinguish which
is the King. He marries his sisters in order that his
blood should not mix with that of others.

“His palace has seven walls around it, and in each
circle there are daily ten thousand men on guard,
who are changed every twelve hours at the sound
of a bell. Each wall has its gate, with a guard at
each gate. At the first stands a man with a great
scourge in his hand, named Satuhoran with satu-
bagan; at the second, a dog called Satuhain; at the
third, a man with an iron mace, called Satuhoran
with pocumbecin; at the fourth, a man with a bow
in his hand, called Saturhoran with anatpanan; at
the fifth, a man with a lance, called Satuhoran with
tumach; at the sixth, a lion, called Saturhorimau;
at the seventh, two white elephants, called Gagia-
pute.

“The palace contains seventy-nine halls, in which
dwell only the ladies destined to serve the King;
STRANGE STORIES. 167

there are always torches burning there. It is not pos-
sible to go round the palace in less than a day. In
the upper part of it are four halls where the minis-
ters go to speak to the King; one is ornamented
with metal, both the pavement and the walls; an-
other is all of silver, another all of gold, and the
other is set with pearls and precious stones. The
gold and other valuable things which are brought as
tribute to the King are placed in these rooms; and
when they are there deposited, they say, ‘ Let this be
for the honor and glory of.our Santoa Raja.’ All
these things and many others relating to this King,
were narrated to us by a Moor, who said that he had
seen them.”

A palace of seven walls, seventy-nine halls,
and ten thousand men on guard! A hall of silver,
another of gold, and one of precious stones! It took
a day to encompass it. We may well wonder how
much of truth there was in this brief Oriental story!

When the adventurers came to Java they heard
some tales that were marvelous, and that quite
equaled those which Queen Scheherezade of the
Arabian Nights told of Sinbad the Sailor.

One of these fabulous stories, told them by a
pilot, had an Oriental charm and coloring. It was
of a giant bird, like the roc of the Arabian Nights.

According to this fanciful legend which we give
with some freedom, there was a land called Java
Major on the north of the Gulf of China, where grew
168 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

an enormous tree, seemingly as big as a mountain—
one of the greatest trees in all the world. In this
tree, which might have shaded a hill, lived a colony
of birds, with wings like clouds, so broad and power-
ful that they could lift an elephant or a buffalo into
the air and bear him away to the mountainous tree.
The fruit of this tree was larger than the largest
melons.

There were Moors on the ship where this story of
the great tree and the great bird was told. One of
them said:

“T have seen the great bird with my own
eyes!”

Another Moor said:

“One of the birds was once captured, and sent
as a present to the King of Siam!”

An account of the capture of such a bird would
have been very interesting!

There were great whirlpools around the moun-
tainous tree. So that no ship could approach within
three or four leagues of it.

But once, according to the legend, some adven-
turous sailors sailed near the great tree. They had
a little boy on board their boat, and he must have
surveyed the giant of the forest with wonder.

They sailed too near, for presently their boat
began to go round and round, and they found them-
selves in the power of the whirlpool.

Round and round went the junk until it struck
STRANGE STORIES. 169

against a rock, and all on board perished, except the
little boy, who was supple.

This child caught a plank and held on to it. He
was carried hither and thither among the eddies and
breakers, but he found himself drawing nearer and
nearer the great tree. At last he was cast on shore
at the foot of the tree.

“Here must be my home,” said he, for he thought
he never could get away again. No boat could come
to him, and he could not fly.

The tree had great masses of bark, so that he
could climb up into it. He mounted up to its high
limbs. He could not starve, for the fruit of such a
tree must have been sufficient to have supplied a
colony.

So cast away on the tree, he here expected to live
and to die.

Toward sunset great wings like clouds darkened
the shining air. The birds were coming home to-
night in the tree. Their nests were there as big as
houses.

They settled down, causing a great wind, and put
their great heads under their wings and went to
sleep.

The boy was bright, and a plan of getting away
from the tree came to him. He reasoned that if he
could not fly the bird could, and what would be the
weight of a little boy to a bird who could carry
away an elephant?
170 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

So he marked the largest and most powerful bird
with his eye, and crept up to it and got under his
Wing, and into his great feathers.

The bird was asleep and did not wake!

Morning came, and with the first red dawn, as
we may fancy, the bird threw up his head and
began to stir. He lifted himself up and shook
himself, but he did not shake off the boy, who
was safely nestled among the little forest of its
feathers.

The sun was brightening the islands, and the
bird mounted up and flew away in search of food,
carrying the little boy under his wing.

After traversing the sunrise air for a long time,
the bird flew over a land of buffaloes.

He here descended to capture a buffalo, to bear
him away to the mountainous tree for food. As he
alighted on the back of the buffalo with a wild
scream of delight, the little boy dropped out from
under his wing, and so found his way to his own
island.

It was the little boy that told this large story,
quite like Sinbad’s.

There were found mysterious fruits floating on
the sea, which were supposed to have fallen from
the tree.

“T have seen the bird myself,” said a third Moor-
ish pilot, and with the testimony of the little boy,
and the three pilots and the floating fruit, this story
STRANGE STORIES. 171

ought to be as trustworthy as the one of Sinbad the
Sailor.

The voyage back to the Cape of Good Hope and
thence to the Cape Verde Islands was one for strange
reflections. Del Cano now was the leader of the
returning mariners. The expedition had gone out
from the port of Seville amid shouting quays and
towers, with some two hundred and seventy men.
Only one ship was returning and she was bringing
home hardly as many men as composed her own
crew.

We can imagine Del Cano on deck, with the lan-
tern of Magellan still swinging above him, talking
with his officers on a tropical night off the African
coast.

“Magellan has found an unknown graye,” we
may hear him say.

“But humanity will mourn for him, and honor
him, and the grave matters not,” answers a padre.

“We shall never see Mesquita again,’ continues
Del Cano.

“We can not be sure,” replies the padre. “We
can know nothing that we do not see.”

“We surely shall never meet Carthagena again.
I can see in my memory those last biscuits and
bottles of wine. He needs none of them now.”

“He may have them all,” answers the padre.

“We are yet rich in spices. We shall surprise
the world when we drop anchor at Seville.”
172 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN,

“And Seville may have surprises for us,” says
the hopeful padre.

They drifted on under favoring airs. The soul of
Del Cano was lost to common events in the wonder-
ful revelations of the sea. Should he reach Seville,
he would be the living hero of the most marvelous
voyage ever made by any mariner.

Such were the scenes and tales that crowded
upon the mind of Pigafetta, who wished “to see
the wonders of the world.” The story of the Em-
peror of China’s palace is associated with objects
so marvelous that the meaning of their names is
lost to-day.
CHAPTER XXIV.
THE LOST DAY.

WHEN they reached the Cape Verde Islands, the
sailors found that a very strange thing had hap-
pened.

They had lost a day—or, the islanders had
gained a day!

They met the ships from Seville there, and doubt-
less disputed with the traders in regard to what
day of the week it was.

“This is the 6th of September,” they said; “a day
that we shall ever have occasion to celebrate.”

“Tt is the 7th of September,” said their joyous
friends.

The sailors consulted with each other. All
agreed that it was the 6th of September. Nowhere
had they failed to make a daily memorandum. The
people of Seville must have lost a day.

The solar year consists of three hundred and
sixty-five days and six hours, and if one sails West
three years one will gain a day, and if one sails East,

one will lose a day.
178
174 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN,

If the reader will note the following dates of this
wonderful voyage, he will solve the mystery of the
“lost day: ”

CHRONOLOGY OF THE FIRST VOYAGE ROUND THE WORLD.



Magellan arrives at Seville................... October 20, 1518.
Magellan’s fleet sails from Seville, Monday *.. August 10, 1519.
Magellan sails from San Lucar de Barrameda,

HEU OS CGV 8 si. ctva versa: Soar nen seis area September 20, 1519.
Magellan arrives at Teneriffe. ................ September 26, 1519.
Magellan sails from Teneriffe, Monday. ...... October 3, 1519.
Magellan arrives at Rio Janeiro.............. December 13, 1519.
Magellan sails from Rio....... .... eee eee eee December 26, 1519.
Magellan sails from Rio de la Plata.......... February 2, 1520.
Magellan arrives at Port St. Julian........... March 31, 1520.
Helipse:of suns 255 ec sewer na eet stearate April 17, 1520,
Loss of Santiago.

Magellan sails from Port St. Julian........... August 24, 1520.
Magellan sails from river of Santa Cruz...... October 18, 1520.
Magellan makes Cape of the Virgins, entrance

Ol Stalls ie, saris ce were cess ane et ee October 21, 1520.
Desertion of San Antonio..................0. November, 1520. .
Magellan issues from straits into the Pacific, :

‘Weednesdayic. ve ceities nce Ma aleecue es November 28, 1520. .
Magellan fetches San Pablo Taian acres ead January 24, 1521.
Magellan fetches Tiburones Island........... February 4, 1521.
Magellan reaches the Ladrone Islands, Wednes-

Cay Gersenetreracon en canee eine eh cent ee oh March 6, 1521.
Magellan reaches Samar Island of the Philip-

pimessSatirdayncse feud eee March 16, 1521.
Magellan reaches Mazzava Island, Thursday..March 28, 1521.
Magellan arrives at Zebu Island.............. April 7, 1521.

Death of Magellan at Matan, Saturday........ April 27, 1521.



*The 10th of August was Wednesday, and Monday was the 8th of
August; all the other dates of the week and month agree and are con-
sistent with each other.
THE LOST DAY. 175

Arrival of San Antonio at Seville............. May 6, 1521.
Arrival of Victoria and Trinity at Tidore, Fri-

Lay seetetctle a ret repens een eon ene ete November 8, 1521.
Victoria sails from Tidore.................... December 21, 1521.
Victoria discovers Amsterdam Island, Tuesday. March 18, 1522.
Victoria doubles the Cape of Good Hope...... May 18, 1522.

Victoria arrives at San Lucay, Wednesday *...September 6, 1522.

They sought provisions of the Portuguese colony
at Cape Verde.

The Portuguese persecution of the expedition,
which Magellan had made for Spain, did not cease
even here. The Victoria sent out boats for rice.
One of the sailors could not restrain his joy, and told
the Portuguese who he was and whence he came.

The jealousy of the Portuguese was aroused
again.

“The expedition carries glory to Spain,” said
they. “Did not the King tear the arms from Ma-
gellan’s door? ”

One of the boats sent out for rice did not return.
The Victoria knew why they were detained, and
sailed away while she could, to bear the glorious
news of the discovery to Seville.



* According to ship’s time.
CHAPTER XXV.

IN THE CHURCH OF OUR LADY OF VICTORY.—
PIGAFETTA.

THE Victoria cast anchor in the Port of Se-
ville on September 8, 1522. Joy filled the city on
that day, and heralds went forth to proclaim the
news.

What news it was!

That Magellan had found a new way to the
Pacific.

That he had discovered the Pacific to be a mighty
ocean.

That he had sailed over it and found a new ocean
world.

That he was dead.

That he had made immortal discoveries, and that
one of his ships had sailed around the world.

The hero of the day was Del Cano, the com-
mander of the Victoria. :

There was a most beautiful church in Seville,
called Our Lady of Victory. To that the returning

mariners. were summoned to give thanks for their
176
IN THE CHURCH OF OUR LADY OF VICTORY. 177

discovery on the day after their arrival, September
9, 1522.

Bells rang out on the shining air. The remnant
of the happy crews entered the church amid the
joyous music to hear the songs of thanksgiving for
victory:

‘*We praise thee, O God!
We believe thee to be
The Father everlasting!”

They had returned in the Victoria, and the serv-
ice had to them a special significance in the church
of that name.

Mesquita must have heard the acclaiming city.

To the prisoner who had waited in hope, the
- trumpets of the heralds must have been sweet after
his release! Juana, the demented Queen, was yet
watching by the tomb in view of her window, hoping
at each dawn of the morning that she would find
that the dust had awakened to life again. Charles
was mapping Europe; his fire of ambition was
glowing, and the news of the new fields of the
ocean that these discoveries had brought to him
filed him with pride and exultation.

He resolved on giving Del Cano and his mariners
a splendid reception, after the manner that Isabella
had received Columbus.

Del Cano was now the living representative of
Magellan. In publicly receiving him with heralds,
music, and festival he would do honor to Magellan,
178 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

Whose name was now immortal. So Charles spread
his tables of silver and gold to those who had lived
on the open sea on scraps of leather, and magnani-
mously welcomed as knights of the sea those who
had followed the sun around the world.

Spain opened the prison doors of Mesquita.

How must Del Cano have welcomed Mesquita as
he came forth from his prison, vindicated on these:
festal days!

Mesquita was a hero now, and a hero among
heroes, for he had been a martyr to the cause. The
people’s hearts overflowed toward him.

So the islands of the new ocean world came to
be the possessions of Spain, and from Philip, who
succeeded Charles, were called the Philippines.
They were to be governed, robbed, taxed, and, in
part, reduced to slavery for the enrichment of Spain
for nearly four hundred years. Then Spain was to
vanish from their history in the smoke of Admiral
Dewey’s guns, and over them was to float the flag
of the republic of the West.

It is a strange allotment of events that these
islands should introduce the republic of the West
into the Asiatic world.
ject of Europe in Asia excited the attention of man-
kind, but no one ever dreamed that a like topic of
America in Asia would ever become one of the
political problems of the world.

The future of these islands must be one of civili-






Pigafetta presenting the history of the voyage to the King
of Spain.
IN THE CHURCH OF OUR LADY OF VICTORY. 179

zation, education, and development, and we may
hope that these will be brought about under the
divine law of American institutions, that “all gov-
ernments derive their just powers from the consent
of the governed.” Justice alone is the true sword
of power, perpetuity, and peace. To lead the natives
of these islands to desire to receive all that is best
in civilized life, is one of the great missions of the
republic of the West; and that republic, governed by
the conscience of the people, will be true to the
cause of human rights. .

Pigafetta? We must let him tell the story of his
life on his return. “ Leaving Seville I repaired to
Valladolid, where I presented his sacred Majesty,
Don Carlos, neither gold nor silver, but other things
far more precious in the eyes of so great a sovereign.
For I brought to him, among other things, a book
written in my own hand, giving an account of all
the things which had happened day by day on the
voyage.

“Then I went to Portugal, where I related to
King John the things that I had seen.

“Returning by the way of Spain, I came to
France, where I presented treasures that I had
brought home to the regent mother of the most
Christian King Don Francis.

“Then I turned my face toward Italy, where I
gave myself to the service ofthe illustrious Philip
180 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

de Villiers V’Isle Adams, the Grand Master of
Rhodes.”

The scene of the presentation of the parchment
story of Magellan to Charles V is most interesting.
That manuscript was like the return of Magellan
himself; it told what the hero of the sea had been
and what he had done. It was in itself a work
of genius, and the world has never ceased to
read it in the spirit of sympathy in which it was
written:

We may fancy the scene: the young King sur-
rounded by his court, in his happiest days; the
Italian Knight amid the splendors of the audience
room, placing in the hands of the new Cesar the roll
of the narrative of the voyage around the world!
Such a story no pen had ever traced before. That
must have been one of the proudest moments in the
life of Charles as he took from the Knight the map
of the round world.

To the last Pigafetta was true to the Admiral;
and one of the best things that can be said of any
man is, “ He is true hearted.”

A wooden statue of Del Cano was found at Cavite
on the surrender of that port to Commodore Dewey.
It was sent to Washington. It should be replaced
by some worthy work of art.

The island of Guam, of the Ladrones, which broke
the long voyage of Magellan over the Pacific, and
which is some fifteen hundred miles from Luzon, was
IN THE CHURCH OF OUR LADY OF VICTORY. 181

captured by Captain Glass, of the United States
cruiser Charleston, July 21,1898. Itisa connecting
link between the West and the Orient. A memorial
of Magellan, Del Cano, and Pigafetta might be suit-:
ably placed there.

The author of the Songs of the Sierras has
described the spirit of Columbus in a poem which
has been highly commended. The interpretation
applies as well to Magellan. We quote two verses:
genius must overcome obstacles, and all obstacles, to
be made divine. :

THE PORT.

Behind him lay the gray Azores,
Behind, the gates of Hercules.

Before him not the ghosts of shores,
Before him only shoreless seas.

The good mate said: “‘ Now must we pray,
For, lo! the very stars are gone.

Brave Admiral, speak—what shall I say ?”
«“Why say—Sail on, sail on, sail on!”

They sailed, they sailed. Then spoke the mate:
‘This mad sea shows her teeth to-night;
She curls her lip and lies in wait
With lifted teeth as if to bite.
Brave Admiral, say but one good word,
What shall we do when hope is gone ?”
The words leaped as a leaping sword—
‘*Sail on, sail on, sail on and on!”

18
SUPPLEMENTAL.

THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.—LAGASPI.—THE STRUGGLE OF
THE NATIVES WITH SPAIN.—STORY OF THE PATRIOT
RIZAL.—AGUINALDO.

THE Philippine Islands, which promise to become
a republic of the seas, and the first republic in
Asiatic waters, were for generations held by Spain
These one thousand and more sea gardens, some
eleven thousand miles from New York, number
about as few islands of importance as there are
American States. The government of the more
populous islands has been so restrictive that, before
the boom of Dewey’s guns in the China Sea, little
was known about them to the world.

The archipelago consists of some six hundred
islands that might find marking on an ordinary map
of the world.

Twenty-five of these have gained a commercial
standing, from which are collected products for for-
eign trade. The chief of these is Luzon, and the prin-
cipal ports of the larger islands are Iloilo, on the
island of Panay; Zebu and Zamboango.

Luzon and the northern islands are inhabited by
182
THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 183

a partly civilized race, called the Tagals, who are
supposed to be descended from immigrants from
the Malay peninsula. They have had the reputa-
tion of a mild-mannered people, as they have long
received, directly or indirectly, European influences.
There are two thousand one hundred schools in
Luzon and some six millions of the natives of the
islands are claimed as Catholics.

‘A sultanate was formed on the Sulu archipelago
nearly eight hundred years ago, and the Moham-
medan populations are called Moros or Moors. The
Visayas people are a lower race. Colonies of Chinese
are to be found in many of the larger islands, and
these constitute the centers of thrift and industry.

The official language of the islands is Spanish, but
the natives speak in twenty or more dialects. The
islands are supposed to contain about ten mil-
lion people, but there are no correct censuses by
which to compute the number. Even the islands
themselves seem not to have been correctly counted.

The history of the islands since their discovery
has been one of the most silent in the world. They
have been governed by Spain in such a manner as to
enrich the Crown of Spain. When the Pope appor-
tioned the newly discovered world among the Kings
of the Church, the Western Hemisphere was given
to Spain, and by an error of division Spain received
the Moluccas or Spice Islands. Magellan declared
the King of Spain suzerain of the islands, and after
184 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

many years Spain sent an expedition from one of her
colonies to Zebu to begin the occupation of the
Spicery. The leader of this expedition, Miguel de
Lagaspi, caused his men to marry native women,
hoping thereby more easily to subdue a wild and un-
trained race.

In 1571 this colonizer brought Manila under his
influence, and induced the native King to accept the
suzerainty of the Spanish King. He proclaimed
Manila the seat of Government, and made it an
episcopal city.

Legaspi came to learn a very strange thing. It
was that the Chinese had made themselves masters
of navigation by monsoons. They came down from
their coasts to Manila Bay on northwest monsoons,
and when the monsoons changed they were carried
back again. This power was akin to steam. Their
boats were junks, but they filled the marts of Manila
with silks and other Oriental luxuries.

Legaspi encouraged this trade. He was the
founder of trade in the ports of the China Sea. He
caused a market place to be built for the Chinese
traders in Manila, in the form of a circus, and after-
ward opened a quarter for them within the walls.
The Chinese still hold a large part of the retail trade
of the port. Before the late Spanish war, they num-
bered about sixty thousand, and one hundred thou-
sand in the port and provinces.

The monks came and sought to convert the
THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 185.

people; their efforts were partly successful, but
sometimes ended in tragedies.

The trade between Spain and the Philippines was
for a long time carried on by the way of Mexico.
The intercourse between the Crown and her depend-
encies here was infrequent. The Mohammedans
waged frequent wars against the Catholic mission-
aries, whom they sought to exterminate.

The friars became the real rulers of the civilized
parts of the islands. The will of the Spanish priest
was absolute. He was independent of State author-
ity. The rule of the Church was so severe that it
brought religion into disfavor, and when the power
of Aguinaldo arose, that chief insisted upon the ex-
pulsion of certain monastic orders, as detrimental to
liberty, and demanded the restoration of the estates
of the Church to the people.

Such is, in brief, the simple history of the islands
discovered by Magellan before the archipelago was
ceded by the treaty of Paris to the United States.

MANILA.

Beautiful Manila, shining over the China Sea—so
seductive to the white man when seen from a dis-
tance, so withering to all his energies when the same
white man becomes a resident there!

A two days’ voyage from Hong Kong brings
the traveler to Luzon to the river Pasig, where
the grim old fortresses of Manila, earthquake rent,
186 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

like a haze of green vegetation, break the view.
Palms lift their green cool shadows in the burning
air.

Manila is a walled city. The entrance is by draw-
bridges, which are raised at night.

The medieval atmosphere does not disappear
when one finds one’s self within the walls. Exhaus-
tion and decay are every-
where. The large open bay
lies in the splendors of the
sunlight when the day is
calm, and the visitor would
never dream of its turbu-
lent condition when it is
lashed by the typhoon.

Across the bay stands
PSSA Cavite, the naval station,

Admiral Dewey. the scene of Dewey’s victory
over the Spanish fleet.

The city has some two hundred and seventy thou-
sand inhabitants. The merchants, as we have said,
are largely Chinese, and their quarters are pictur-
esque with gay bazaars.

In the shadow land of trees and open dry
marshes outside of the city are beautiful estates, and
along the roadsides people go waving their fans
slowly and listlessly. Here are the parks, the bull
ring, and the lovely botanical gardens.

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THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 187

their backs to the sun, though little work can be
done here in the noonday heat.

Some years ago a terrible cold came to Manila.
It was on a late December night, near morning. The
thermometer went down to 74°. Think of that, and
of the poor coolies, and of the negritos, or the little
black dwarfs, and of those who lived in the thou-
sands of huts of bamboo or reeds! True, 74° would
indicate a hot day in our American June or July,
but in Manila it was a cold morning, and the people
‘came shivering into the streets, to tell each other
of their sufferings.

The best description of Manila before the war
that we have seen was written by Crozet, and is con-
tained in an English translated book entitled
Crozet’s Voyage to Tasmania, New Zealand, the
Ladrone Islands, and the Philippines. from this
beautifully illustrated work we present a view of the
city and the surrounding island as it appeared seven
years or more ago:

“The city of Manila is one of the most beautiful
that Europeans have built in the East Indies; its
houses are all of stone, with tile roofs and they are
big, comfortable and well ventilated. The streets
of Manila are broad and perfectly straight; there
are five principal streets, which divide the city
lengthwise, and about ten which divide it broad-
ways. The form of the city is that of an oblong,
surrounded by walls and ditches, and defended on
188 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

the side of the river by a badly planned citadel,
which is about to be pulled. down and rebuilt. The
city walls are flanked by a bastion at every one of
the four angles. There are at Manila eight principal
churches, with an open place in front of every one;
they are all beautiful, large and very richly deco-
rated. The Cathedral is a building which would
grace any of our European cities, and has just been
rebuilt by an Italian Theatin,* who is an able archi-
tect. The two rows of columns which support the
vaults of the nave and of the aisles are of magnifi-
cent marble; so also are the columns of the portal,
the altars, the steps, and the pavement. These mar-
bles are obtained from local quarries, are of great
variety, and are of the greatest beauty. The space in
front of the Cathedral is very large, and is the finest
in the city.

“On one side the palace of the Governor is
flanked by the Cathedral, on the other by the Town
Hall. The Town Hall is very beautiful. At the
extremity of the place in front of the Cathedral a
large barracks is being constructed, which is to be
capable of lodging eight thousand troops.

“Private houses, as well as public buildings, are
all one story high. Spaniards never live on the
ground floor, on account of the dampness, but they
occupy the first floor instead. The heat of the cli-



* A regular order of clergy established at Rome in 1524, but which
does not appear to have spread much beyond Italy and France.
THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 189

mate has induced them to build very large apart-
ments, with verandas running right round the out-
side, so as to keep out of the sun; the windows form
part of the verandas, and the daylight only enters
the rooms by means of the doors which open out on
to these verandas. The ground floor serves as a
storehouse, and to prevent the rising of moisture
from the soil its surface is raised a foot, by means
of a bed of charcoal; then sand or gravel is placed
on top of this bed, which is finally paved with stone
or brick laid with mortar.

“As the country is very subject to earthquakes,
the houses, although built of stone, are strengthened
with large posts of wood or iron fixed perpendicular-
ly in the ground, rising to the top of the wall-plates,
and built within the walls, so that they can not be
seen, and then crossed on every floor by master gird-
ers, strongly bound together and bolted by wooden
keys, which so consolidate the whole building.

“Manila is built on the mouth of a beautiful
river, which flows from a lake, called by the Span-
iards Lagonne-de-bay, and which is situated five
leagues inland. Forty streams flow into this lake,
which is twenty leagues in circumference, and
around which there are as many villages as streams.
The Manila River is the only one which flows out
of the lake. It is covered with boats, bringing to
the city every sort of provision from the forty agri-
cultural tribes established on the lake shores.
190 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN,

“The suburbs are bigger and more thickly popu-
lated than the city itself; they are separated from it
by a river, across which a beautiful bridge has been
thrown. The Minondo suburb is more especially in-
habited by half-breeds, Chinese, and Indians, who
are for the most part goldsmiths and silversmiths,
and all of them work people.

“The Saint Croix suburb is inhabited by Spanish
merchants, by foreigners of all nations, and by Chi-
nese half-breeds. This quarter is the most agreeable
one in the country, because the houses, which are
quite as fine as those of the city, are built on the
river bank, and thereby they enjoy all the conven-
iences and pleasantness due to such a position.

“In spite of such advantages, the city is badly
situated, being placed between two intercommuni-
cating volcanoes, and of which the interiors, being
always active, are evidently preparing its ruin. The
two volcanoes are those of the Lagonne-ed-Taal and
of Monte Albay. When one burns, the other smokes.
I shall speak later on of the former of these vol-
canoes, which, to me at least, appeared a most sin-
gular one.

“Until the shocks of the volcanoes shall decide
its fate, Manila remains the capital of the Spanish
establishments in the Philippines. Here reside the
Governor, who is called the Captain General and
President of the Royal Audience. Don Simon de
Auda filled this office when I arrived at Manila.




Manila.

Houses in

ive

Nat
THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 191

This Governor had previously been a member of the
Royal Audience, and when the English, at the end
of the last war, took Manila, he escaped from the
city before the surrender, placed himself at the head
of the Indians of the province of Pampague, and,
without regard to the capitulation of the city, he is
said to have succeeded in confining the English
within their conquest, starving equally the con-
querors and the conquered. Noticing that the Chi-
nese established outside the city walls were furnish-
ing provisions to English and Spaniards alike, he
butchered them, putting more than ten thousand to
the sword. It seemed to me, however, that the Span-
iards in general considered the efforts.of this coun-
cillor to be more harmful than advantageous to the
welfare of the Spanish colony. The English, har-
assed by the Indians under Don Simon de Auda, had
on their part armed and raised other provinces of
Luzon, so as to oppose Indian to Indian, and this
sort of civil war did more harm to the colony than
even the capture of Manila by the English.

“ However this may be, Don Simon de Auda re-
turned to Spain after the peace, was rewarded for
his zeal by being made Privy Councillor of Castile,
and was sent back to Manila as Governor General of
the Philippines. Since his arrival in his province
he has started a number of important projects, but
difficult to be carried out at one and the same time.
He has started considerable fortifications in vari-
192 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

ous parts of the city, very large barracks, dykes at
the mouth of the river, a powder-mill, smelting fur-
naces and forges to work the iron mines, and a num-
ber of other useful works, which might have suc-
ceeded better had they been started in due succes-
sion.

“The Philippine Archipelago contains fourteen
principal islands, the Government of which is
divided into twenty-seven provinces, which are gov-
erned by alcaldes under the orders of the Governor
Captain General. All these islands are thickly popu-
lated, being about three million. These islands ex-
tend from the tenth to the twenty-third degree north
latitude, and vary in breadth from about forty
leagues at the north end of Luzon up to two hun-
dred leagues from the south of the southeast point
of Mindanao to the southwest point of Paragoa..

“They are all fertile and rich in natural products.
But although the Spaniards have been established
here for more than two hundred years, they have
not yet succeeded in making themselves masters of
the islands. They have no foothold on Paragoa,
which is almost eighty leagues long, nor on the
adjacent small islands; they only possess a few acres
on the big island of Mindanao, which is two hun-
dred leagues in circumference, nor are they yet fully
acquainted with the interior of the island of Luzon,
where they have their chief settlement, namely, the
city of Manila. Luzon is the largest of these islands,
THE STORY OF THE PATRIOT RIZAL. 193

being a hundred and forty leagues long from Cape
Bojador to Bulusan Point, which is the most north-
erly point, and about forty leagues broad. In the
northern part of Luzon, near the province of Ilocos,
there are some aborigines with whom the Spaniards
have never been able to establish communication.
It is believed that these people are the descendants
of Chinese, who, having been shipwrecked on these
shores, have established themselves in the moun-
tains of this part of the island. It is said that some
Indians know the routes by which access is gained
to this people, and that they have been well received
by them; but it is in the interest of these Indians
to withhold the knowledge from the Spaniards, on
account of their great trade profits with these people,
who lack many things and have only provisions and
gold.”

THE STORY OF THE PATRIOT RIZAL.

Dr. Josh Riza, a virtuous Catholic reformer,
was the Samuel Adams of the awakening of moral
feeling against the tyranny of Spain. He sought to
reform the Government and to correct corruption in
the Church.

He belonged to the province of Cavite. He was
a small man, of a clear, sensitive conscience, and
great intellectual penetration and force. It became
the one purpose of his life to free his countrymen.
“ He organized the Revolution,” says a monument to
Samuel Adams, and Dr. Rizal sought to organize a
194 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

revolution in a like manner as the “last of the Puri-
tans ” in New England, by the collecting of facts for
correspondence with patriots at Manila and Hong
Kong.

In his school life he beheld the universal corrup-
tion going on around him. His heart was moved
to pity the people.

He wrote a letter in which he urged reform by
the expulsion of corrupt officers of the Government
and of certain immoral priests. This awakened the
Government and made him secret enemies. He was
accused by the Government of treason and by the
decadent priests of the Church of blasphemy. He
held to his convictions against all opposition, know-
ing that right was right and truth was truth.

He sought to unite the worthy representatives of
the State and Church in an effort to bring about a
change which should honor morals and give justice
to the people. Among men of conscience his influ-
ence secretly grew. He hoped to gain such force
as to make an appeal to the court at Madrid.

He organized a moral revolution.

Conscience is power, but its progress is slow.

In 1890 Dr. Rizal published a pamphlet that
stirred the island world. He pictured the sufferings
of the natives under the Spanish rule. He appealed
to the enlightened Church, conscience and humanity.

The patriot’s friends saw that the reform move-
ment was about to be crushed, and said to Rizal:
THE STORY OF THE PATRIOT RIZAL. 195

“ Escape to Hong Kong!”

There was a patriotic club in Hong Kong that
sought the emancipation of the natives of Luzon and
the Philippines from the extortions of Spain. It
would be well for him now to go there.

“How shall I leave the city?” was the one ques-
tion that suddenly haunted his mind.

He must go by sea. He could not go on board a
ship without being detected and detained.

“Get into a perforated box,” said a fellow-patriot,
“and I will ship you with the merchandise.”

Dr. Rizal secreted himself in the perforated box,
and was shipped from Luzon to Hong Kong.

He was received with great enthusiasm by the
Philippine patriots in Hong Kong.

But he was more dangerous to the officials of
Luzon in Hong Kong than at Cavite. It became a
problem with the latter how to get him once more
in their power.

The Governor General Weyler caused a dispatch
to be sent to him which stated that he “was too
valuable a man for the State to lose his services,”
that his past conduct would be overlooked, and that
he could safely return to his own island.

Honest himself, he could not believe that the dis-
patch was insincere.

He went back to Manila. His foes were bent on
his destruction.

He was one day absent from his rooms attending
196 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

probably to his medical duties, when some soldiers
led by a spy entered his apartments and searched
his trunks and pretended to find there seditious
books.

Dr. Rizal was arrested. His enemies formed the
court to try him for treason.

The books were put out as evidence against
him.

“JT imported no books,” said he.

“ But the books are here.”

“The customhouse officers found no books in my
trunks,” said Dr. Rizal.

“But here are the books that witness against
you.”

“There were no books in my room when I left it,”
said he.

“ But we found them there.”

“Let me call the customhouse officers.”

The court refused the request.

“ Let me summon the owner of my room.”

The court refused the request.

“The witness against me is a convict, a spy, and
a perjurer.” ,

The court found him guilty.

He was sent into exile. The injustice of the trial
was a flame of liberty; the British consul protested
against it, and riots broke out in Cavite against the
officials that countenanced such a mockery of jus-
tice.
AGUINALDO. 197

_ He went again to Hong Kong. Weyler had left
Luzon, and had been succeeded by Despajol.

His case aroused the Patriot Club. The patriots
resolved to go to Spain and lay their cause before
the throne. They were mobbed in Spain and. sent
to Manila for trial.

The trial was a farce; Dr. Rizal was again con-
demned.

On December 6, 1896, he was led out of the
- Manila prison into the courtyard. A file of soldiers
awaited the coming. A sharp volley of shots broke
the stillness of the air; and that heart, so true to lib- |
erty, was broken and lay bleeding on the earth. So
perished one of the noblest patriots of the islands of
the China Sea.

AGUINALDO.

AGUINALDO, called “the greatest of the Malays,”
in that he rose against Spanish tyranny, is one of
the interesting characters of the closing century.
His true character can hardly be determined at the
present time. I*uture events must reveal it. He
is of mixed blood, and is said to more resemble a
European than a Malay.

He was born in the province of Cavite, and is
supposed to have European blood in his veins. He
was brought up as a house boy in the apartments
of a Jesuit priest—a house boy being an errand boy;

a boy handy for all common work.
14
198 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN,

It has been the policy of Spain for centuries to
keep her subjects on the Pacific islands in partial
ignorance; but this bright boy had an impulse to
learn, to acquire knowledge, to grasp the truth of
life. He had a remarkable memory, and he became
such an apt scholar as to excite wonder. When he
was fourteen years old
he entered the medical
school at Manila. He
lost the favor of the
Church by joining the
Masonic order.

In 1888 he went to
Hong Kong, where was a
Philippine colony. Here
he sought and obtained a
military education, and
studied military works,
and the historical cam-
paigns of the world’s greatest heroes. He learned
Latin, English, French, and Chinese.

At the breaking out of the insurrection of the
Philippines against Spain in 1896, Aguinaldo
espoused the cause of liberty, and was made an
officer and became a leader. The revolution grew
and affected the native troops, and its spirit filled
the archipelago. It became the purpose of the more
fiery patriots to “drive the Spaniards into the sea.”

Aguinaldo advocated the acceptance of conces-



Aguinaldo.
AGUINALDO. 199

sions by the Spanish Government, by which the
rights of the native races should be recognized and
protected. His policy was accepted, and the insur-
gents disbanded. He _ received Spanish gold to
abandon the war for independence, and fell under
the suspicion that his patriotism was purchasable.
This suspicion has shadowed his fame. He went to
Hong Kong.

The island Hong Kong, which is English, is a
school of good government. Here Aguinaldo seems
to have conceived an ambition to free the native
races of the archipelago, and form a republic of the
confederated islands.- The Spanish-American War
revealed to him an opportunity to strike for liberty.
He said to the Filipinos: “The hour has come.”

The Filipinos looked upon him as the man for
the crisis.

An article in the Review of Reviews represents
the chief as saying to an American naval officer:

“There will be war between your country and
Spain, and in that war you can do the greatest deed
in history by putting an end to Castilian tyranny in
my native land. We are not ferocious savages. On
the contrary, we are unspeakably patient and docile.
That we have risen from time to time is no sign of
bloodthirstiness on our part, but merely of manhood
resenting wrongs which it is no longer able to en-
dure. You Americans revolted for nothing at all
compared with what we have suffered. Mexico and
200 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

the Spanish republics rose in rebellion and swept
the Spaniard into the sea, and all their sufferings
together would not equal that which occurs every
day in the Philippines. We are supposed to be liv-
ing under the laws and civilization of the nineteenth
century, but we are really living under the practices
of the Middle Ages.

“ A man can be arrested in Manila, plunged into
jail, and kept there twenty years without ever hav-
ing a hearing or even knowing the complaint upon
which he was arrested. There is no means in the
legal system there of having a prompt hearing or of
finding out what the charge is. The right to obtain
evidence by torture is exercised by military, civil,
and ecclesiastical tribunals. To this right there is
no limitation, nor is the luckless witness or defend-
ant permitted to have a surgeon, a counsel, a friend,
or even a bystander to be present during the opera-
tion. As administered in the Philippines one man in
every ten dies under the torture, and nothing is ever
heard of him again. Everything is taxed, so that it
is impossible for the thriftiest peasant farmer or
shopkeeper to ever get ahead in life.

“The Spanish policy is to keep all trade in the
hands of the Spanish merchants, who come out
here from the peninsula and return with a for-
tune. The Government budget for education is no
larger than the sum paid by the Hong Kong au-
thorities for the support of Victoria College here.
AGUINALDO. 201

What little education is had in the Philippines is
obtained from the good Jesuits, who, in spite of: their
being forbidden to practice their priestly calling in
Luzon, nevertheless devote their lives to teaching
their fellow-countrymen. They carry the same prin-
ciple into the Church, and no matter how devout,
able, or learned a Filipino or even a half-breed may
be, he is not permitted to enter a religious order or
ever to be more than an acolyte, sexton, or an insig-
nificant assistant priest. The State taxes the people
for the lands which it says they own, and which
as a matter of fact they have owned from time im-
memorial, and the Church collects rent for the same
land upon the pretext that it belongs to them under
an ancient charter of which there is no record. Nei-
ther life nor limb, liberty nor property have any se-
curity whatever under the Spanish administration.”

Such was his indictment of Spain.

He began a war for independence from Spain
in the provinces of Luzon. He was an inspiring gen-
eral and practically made prisoners of some fifteen
thousand of the Spanish forces. He organized a
Government at least nominally Republican, although
it has been called a dictatorship. The purchase of
the Philippines by the United States, in accordance
with the Treaty of Paris, has been opposed by Agui-
naldo and his followers in a most distressing war.
He has claimed the absolute independence of all the
Philippines, although, so far as our knowledge goes,
202 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

his authority does not extend far beyond certain dis-
tricts of the Island of Luzon. Without anticipating
the verdict of history upon our relations to the Phil-
ippines, it is enough to add that the bloodshed and
suffering caused by this war are most deplorable.

HONG KONG.

Hone Kone and the China Sea have come to
stand not only for Europe in Asia, but for America
in Asia, though of the latter, Manila is the port. The
center of the world’s forces changes, and it is a
strange current of events that has made the China
Sea, with its English port of Hong Kong, and the Lu-
zon port of Manila, facing each other across the blue
ocean way, the pivotal point of not only England in
China, but of America in the East. The Anglo-Chi-
nese community in Hong Kong represents the union
of Europe and Asia in the family of nations, and
America joins the world of the higher civilization
at Manila, the scene of Dewey’s victory.

The civilizing history of Hong Kong is largely
associated with Sir John Bowring, whom a large
part of the world recalls merely as a writer of popu-
dar hymns; as, “ In the Cross of Christ I Glory.”

The British free traders secured Hong Kong as a
market for the East, and added it to the British
Empire in the middle of the century. The Suez
Canal increased the importance of Hong Kong.

Hong Kong, not being an integral part of Asia,

















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































204 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

became a place of refugees before its union with.
the British Empire. It lay in the route of the Brit-
ish possessions in Africa, India, and North America.
Its Urasian destiny was seen in the alliance between
Europe and Asia concluded at Canton (1634) between
the East India Company and the Chinese Govern-
ment. It then became the vantage ground of the
Anglo-Saxon race. The early English Governors of
Hong Kong made the port the cradle of liberty and
free trade, and a civilizing influence in the East.

The island is some nine miles long and from two
to six miles broad, with a population of more than
one hundred and twenty thousand, most of whom
are Chinese. It was ceded in perpetuity to the Brit-
ish by the treaty of Nankin in 1848, when its Govern-
ment began to be administered by Colonial Gover-
nors, under whom it grew commercially.

The East India Trade Company had prepared the
way for this little Britain in the East. The United
States in the middle of the century began to trade
at Canton from the ports of Boston and Salem. It
is a very curious and almost forgotten fact that the
first cargoes from New England to Canton consisted
largely of ginseng, a plant now little esteemed, but
which at that time had acquired such a medical repu-
tation in China as to be almost worth its weight in
gold. The plant was held to be a magical cure for
nearly all diseases and to possess the gift of im-
mortal youth.
HONG KONG, 205

Boston and Salem are still adorned with the tall
and stately mansions of these old merchants, whose
wooden vessels went to the China Sea, at first carry-
ing ginseng and returning with tea.
a Boston paper thus pictures this period:

“The generation that would not have had to look
at a map to find out where Manila was when George
Dewey arrived there, is almost passed away. These
were the great sailors of their time; men who met
emergencies with nerve and overcame tempest and
adversity with equal complacency, who knew the
merchants of Canton and Calcutta as well as the
merchants of Salem and Boston, and whose tempers
were never ruffled if even stress of circumstance com-
pelled them to put up with a paltry profit of one
hundred per cent. They lived at a time when there
might easily be a fortune in a single freight, and
when one turn round the world might represent
more than a million of money. Most of them lived
before the day of the bill of exchange, and when the
solid old method of carrying specie in the hold was
the familiar business practice. They knew the
pirate of the China Sea and he of Barbary, too, for
it was this old-fashioned system of carrying your
capital with you that made the pirates’ life worth
living. They lived before the cable as well, and
from the moment that a ship cleared from Canton
or Manila or Singapore there was no way in the
world for the consignee or the merchant in Boston
206 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN,

to know what she had on board until she arrived
here to speak for herself. Be it silks or teas or what-
not, the merchant must move quickly to bid or buy,
for the nature and value of the cargo could not have
been discounted in advance, while the ship was skim-
ming the oceans. Each vessel made her own market,
and the wharf was the market place. It was good
news, indeed, when a captain with a cargo of teas
was informed by his owners, who may have met him
upon the completion of a two years’ cruise, that the
price of tea had advanced the day before his arrival.
It was pretty apt to be something in the captain’s
own pocket, too, for in those days he was allowed
to carry twenty-five tons of freight for his own pri-
vate speculation, and a salary of three hundred dol-
lars a month in addition was not uncommon. There
are retired captains on Cape Cod and in Salem and
in the suburbs-of Boston to-day who earned a com-
petence in those times of Boston’s water-front pros-
perity. They became masters sometimes before they
were of age, and occasionally there would be one,
like the late R. B. Forbes, who would become a great
merchant, the head of a famous, wealthy house,
known the world over, almost before he realized how
great was the fortune that had overtaken him. And
there was another very nice thing about those old
days of plenty. If a man came home from China
rich, invesced his wealth in a railroad or some
manufacturing or mining project that would be






lloilo.
208 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

pretty apt to ruin him, all he would have to do
would be to exile himself, under the right auspices,
for another year or two in China, and then return
to his home and friends with his fortunes quite
mended.”

The great merchant at Canton at the time of the
Boston commercial period was Honqua. He was
as noble as he was rich, and Mr. Forbes, the famous
old Boston merchant, relates the following story
of him:

“ 4 New England trader had gone to Canton, and
had been unsuccessful, and owed Honqua one hun-
dred thousand dollars. He desired to return home,
but could not do so if he discharged the debt. Hon-
qua heard of his condition, pitied him, and sent for
him.

“J shall be sorry to part from you,’ he said, ‘ but
I wish you to return as you so desire, happy and
free. Here are all your notes canceled.’ ”

Here was superb commercialism.

The American sovereignty over the Philippine
Islands opens the way to China by the China Sea.
In the progress of events the achievements of Ma-
gellan have led the ships of the West to the East
again, and it is possible that there may yet be great
Mongol emigrations to the western shores of the
southern continent. The lantern or farol of Magel-
lan was never more prophetic than now. So sug-
gestion lives.
TRAVELERS’ TALES OF THE PHILIPPINES. 209

TRAVELERS’ TALES OF THE PHILIPPINES.

Hone Kone is the market place of the Eastern
world. Here the East and West meet in the airy
bazaars, and from it, it is easy to find one’s way to
Luzon, over the bright sea mirrors, the sleepy,
dreamy splendors of the China Sea.

But few travelers have written books on Luzon,
and those have usually published them in French or
in Spanish. Travelers from the East have, as a rule,
not remained long on the island, where earthquakes,
typhoons, malarial fevers, and the plague itself have
been not unfrequent visitors, and where one wel-
comes gratefully the shadows of the night in the
seasons of fervid heat. The rain storms are down-
pours and deluges that are blinding, but they leave
behind their inky tracts a paradise of beauty and
bloom.

The morning on the China Sea in serene weather
is a royal glory. It has the odors of Araby and the
freshness of an Eden. The earth seems waiting. The
sails hang listlessly on the glassy, breathless straits,
and the sun sheds its splendor through the pale blue
air as powerfully as the clouded heavens poured
down the rain.

The Filipinos are a sensitive race, and many of
them have a keen sense of injustice. Great numbers
of them have a church education, and their views
of the world are bounded by what they have learned
210 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

of India, China, and Malaysia and Iberian peninsula
from the priests of Spain.

A recent traveler from Manila said to me:

“The Filipinos have hot blood and are revenge-
ful, but they are quick to discern justice. A boy who
attended me at the hotel came to me one day
bleeding.

“«My master has beaten me,’ he said, ‘with a
rawhide.’

“<« We has abused you,’ I said. ‘Why?’

“<« He took me into the storeroom and lashed me,
and the rawhide cut me. I bleed.’

“<« Why did he punish you?’

“ my work by hiding away and fighting cocks. It was
not true. The porter lied; he hates me.’

“<“Go to the marshal and make a complaint
against the landlord. Go now, before the blood
dries. A master has no right to beat one like that.
It is inhuman. Justice ought to be done.’

“<« But I do not blame him; he is not to blame.
The porter is to blame. The porter lied.’

“But the marshal would hardly take up your
case against the porter; he would hold him to be
a person of slight consequence.’

“<« But wrong is wrong whether it be done by a
landlord or his porter. The porter should go to
prison for twenty years!’ ”

The case then dropped, but the boy carried a case
TRAVELERS’ TALES OF THE PHILIPPINES. 911

for revenge against the porter in his heart. He was
quick to discern justice.

Cockfighting is a favorite diversion among the
Filipinos. A traveler says that he has seen Fili-
pinos going to mass carrying gamecocks under their
arms to set fighting in the cemetery after the
service.

The brutal sport is a passion, and is to be seen
going on almost everywhere on festal days, and in
the evenings in the cool shadows of awnings and
palms.

Alfred Marché published a book in Paris in 1887
entitled Luxon and Palaveran; Six Annes de Voy-
ages aux Philippines. It contains some vivid pic-
_ tures of the natives, of the habits and customs of
the country, of the earthquakes and storms. He de-
scribes the earthquake seasons when the earth trem-
bled, and the people rushed wildly into the open
courts at the first tremor. As great as the terror
was the Chinese did not leave their merchandise un-
protected for fear of thieves, showing that the trem-
bling earth did not overcome the nature of the mer-
chant or the native thief. The one would face death
for his goods and the other for his chance of getting
plunder.

Monsieur Marché gives some views of the tropic
jungles, one of which is illustrated by a very curious
anecdote and pictorial illustration.

One day one of his native servants told him that
912 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

he had seen in the woods an immense python, which
seemed to have been gorged with some animal that
he had swallowed, and so rendered sluggish and re-
sistless.

“T should like to see so large a serpent,” said the
traveler.

An hour afterward, while he was sitting in the
shadow of his bungalow, an extraordinary sight met
his eyes. The native had gone into the wood and
had put a cord about the neck of the great serpent
and attached it to the horns of a buffalo, and the
buffalo was dragging the python toward the bunga-
low. The python was seven meters long (thirty-nine
inches to a meter), a distended mass of folds and
flesh (page 356, Alfred Marché’s Luzon).

What had he swallowed? What creature was
there inside of him that was about to be digested,
and that so distorted his folds? ’

The serpent was harmless in the noose and from
the weight of his meal.

The traveler severed the python’s vertebree, ren-
dering it inoffensive, and then made an incision into
its abdomen.

A surprise followed. Out of the abdomen came a
calf of some months’ growth. The animal’s legs were
so doubled under its body as to make the latter hori-
zontal. .The serpent was prepared for the museum
of the traveler.

The same traveler describes earthquakes, after
DR. DE LA GIRONIBRE'S ADVENTURES IN LUZON. 913

which victims were fed by tubes let down under the
ponderous débris.

One of the most interesting books of travel in
Luzon that we have ever read is entitled Aventures
dun Gentilhomme Breton aux iles Philippines, par
P. de la Gironiére (Paris, 1855). A part of the
work has been translated into English by Frederick
Wardman, and from this translation in part we
select material for a view of the life of the French
savant in Jala-Jala, a very interesting district of the
island. The original French work ig very vividly
illustrated. The English abridgment is without
illustrations. (French edition, Boston Public Libra-
ry, No. 3040a, 182. English abridgment, 5049a, 69.)

THE ADVENTURES OF DR. DE LA GIRONIERE IN LUZON,
(After Hardman.)

CHANGING THE HEART OF A BRIGAND,.

“JALA-JALA is a long peninsula, stretching from
north to south into the middle of Bay Lake. The
peninsula is divided longitudinally by a chain of
mountains, which gradually diminish in elevation,
until, for the last three leagues, they dwindle into
mere hills. These mountains, of easy access, are
covered partly with wood and partly with beautiful
pastures, where the grass attains a height of between
one and two yards, and, when waving in the wind,
resembles the waves of the ocean. Finer vegetation

can nowhere be found; it is refreshed by limpid
15
214 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN,

springs, flowing from the higher slopes of the moun-
tain down into the lake. Owing to these pastures,
Jala-Jala is richer in game than any other part of
the island of Luzon. Deer, wild boar, and buffalo,
quails, hens, snipes, pigeons of fifteen or twenty
kinds, parrots: in short, all manner of birds, there
abound. The lake teems with water-fowl, and espe-
cially with wild ducks. Notwithstanding its extent,
the island contains no dangerous or carnivorous
beasts; the worst things to be feared in that way is
the civet, a little animal about the size of a cat,
which attacks only birds; and the monkeys, which
issue from the forest by troops, and lay waste the
maize and sugar fields.

“The lake, which. yields excellent fish, is less
favored than the land; for it contains a great many
caymans, a creature of such enormous size that
in a few minutes it divides a horse piecemeal and
absorbs it into its huge stomach. The accidents
occasioned by these caymans are frequent and ter-
rible, and I have seen more than one Indian fall
victims to them.

“ At the period of my purchase the only human
inhabitants of Jala-Jala were a few Indians, of
Malay extraction, who lived in the woods and tilled
some nooks of land. At night they were pirates
upon the lake, and they afforded shelter to all the
banditti of the surrounding provinces. The people
at Manila had given me the most dismal account of
DR. DE LA GIRONIERE’'S ADVENTURES IN LUZON. 915

the district; according to them, I should soon be
murdered: my turn for adventure was such, that all
their stories, instead of alarming me, only increased
my desire to visit men who were living almost in a
savage state.

“ As soon as I had bought Jala-Jala, I traced for
myself a plan of conduct, having for its object to
attract the banditti to me; to this end, I felt that I
must not appear among them in the character of an
exacting and sordid owner, but in that of a father.
All depended upon the first impressions I should
make upon these Indians, now my vassals. On land-
ing, I went straight to a little hamlet, composed of
a few cabins.

“My faithful coachman was with me; we were
each of us armed with a good double-barreled gun,
a brace of pistols, and a saber. I had already ascer-
tained, from some fishermen, to which Indian I ought
to address myself. This man, who was much re-
spected by his countrymen, was called, in the Tagal
tongue, Mabutin-Tajo, translatable as The brave and
valiant.

“We was quite capable of committing, without
the slightest remorse, five or six murders in the
course of a single expedition; but he was brave; and
courage is a virtue before which all primitive races
respectfully bow. My conversation with Mabdutin-
Tajo was not long; a few words sufficed to win his
good will, and to convert him into a faithful servant
216 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

for the whole time I dwelt at Jala-Jala. This is how
I spoke to him:

“<«You are a great rascal,’ I said; ‘I am the lord
of Jala-Jala; it is my will that you amend your con-
duct; if you refuse, you shall expiate all your mis-
deeds. I want a guard; give me your word of honor
to turn honest man, and I will make you my lieu-
tenant.’

“When I completed this brief harangue, Alila
(that was the brigand’s name) remained for a mo- -
ment silent, his countenance indicating deep reflec-
tion. I waited for him to speak; not without a cer-
tain degree of anxiety as to what his answer
would be.

“¢ Master!’ he at last exclaimed, offering me his
hand and putting one knee to the ground, ‘I will be
faithful to you until death!’

“T was very well pleased with this reply, but I
concealed my satisfaction.

“Mis good, I said; ‘to show you that I have
confidence in you, take this weapon, and use it only
against enemies.’

“T presented him with a Tagal sabre, on which
was inscribed in Spanish: ‘Draw me not without
cause, nor sheath me without honor.’

“This legend I translated into Tagal; Alila
thought it sublime, and swore ever to observe it.

“« When I go to Manila,’ I added, ‘I will bring you
epaulets and a handsome uniform; but you must
DR. DE LA GIRONIERE'S ADVENTURES IN LUZON, AG

lose no time in getting together the soldiers you are
to command, and who will compose my guard. Take
me at once to him among your comrades whom you
think most capable of acting as sergeant.’

“We walked a short distance to the habitation of
a friend of Alila’s, who usually accompanied him
on his piratical expeditions. A few words, in the
Same strain as those I had spoken to my future lieu-
tenant, produced the same effect on his comrade, and
decided him to accept the rank I offered him. We
passed the day recruiting in the various huts, and
before night we had got together, in cavalry, a guard
of ten men, a number I did not wish to exceed, I
took the command as captain.

“The next day I mustered the population of the
peninsula, and, surrounded by my new guards, I
selected a site for a village, and one for a house for
myself. I gave orders to the fathers of families to
build their cabins upon a line which I marked out,
and I desired my lieutenant to employ all the hands
he could procure in extracting stone, cutting tim-
ber, and preparing everything for my dwelling. My
orders given, I set out for Manila, promising soon
to return. On reaching home, I found my friends
uneasy on my account; for, not having heard from
me, they feared I had fallen victim to the caymans
or the pirates. The narrative of my voyage, my de-
scription of Jala-Jala, far from making my wife
averse to my project of living there, rendered her
218 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

on the contrary impatient to visit our property, and
to settle upon it.”

Dr. de la Gironiére lived many years at Jala-Jala
in the peninsula country. He relates many adven-
tures in the primitive forests, one of which is as
follows:

A BUFFALO HUNT IN JALA-JALA.

“Tr Indians consider the pursuit of the buffalo
the most dangerous of all hunts; and my guards
told me they would rather place their naked breast
at twenty paces from a rifle’s muzzle than find
themselves at the same distance from a wild buf-
falo. The difference is, they say, that a rifle bullet
may only wound, whereas a buffalo’s horn is sure
to kill.

“Taking advantage of their fear of the buffalo,
I one day informed them, with all the coolness I
could assume, of my intention to hunt that animal.
Thereupon they exerted all their eloquence to dis-
suade me from my project; they drew a most pic-
turesque and intimidating sketch of the dangers
and difficulties I should encounter; I, especially, as
one unaccustomed to that sort of fight—for such a
chase is in fact a life or death contest. I would
not listen to them. I had declared my will; I would
not discuss the subject, or attend to their advice.

“Tt was fortunate that I did not; for these affec-
tionate counsels, these alarming pictures of the


Boats on the River Pasig.
A BUFFALO HUNT IN JALA-JALA. 919

dangers I was about to run, were given and drawn
by way of snare; they had agreed among them-
selves to estimate my courage accordingly as I ac-
cepted or avoided the combat. My only reply was
an order to get everything in readiness for the
hunt. I took care that my wife should know noth-
ing of the expedition, and I set out, accompanied
by a dozen Indians, almost all armed with guns.

“The buffalo is hunted differently in the plain
and in the mountains. In the plain, all that is
needed is a good horse, agility, and skill in throw-
ing the lasso. In the mountains, an extraordinary
degree of coolness is requisite. This is how the
thing is done: The hunter takes a gun, upon which
he is sure he can depend, and so places himself that
the buffalo, on issuing from the forest, must per-
ceive him. The very instant the brute sees you, he
rushes upon you with his very utmost speed, break-
ing, crushing, trampling under foot, everything that
impedes his progress. He thunders down upon you
as though he would annihilate you; at a few paces
distance, he pauses for a moment, and presents his
sharp and menacing horns.

“Tt is during that brief pause that the hunter
must take his shot, and send a bullet into the center
of his enemy’s brow. If unfortunately the gun
misses fire, or if his hand trembles and his ball
goes askew, he is lost—Providence alone can save
him! Such, perhaps, was the fate that awaited me;
220 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

but I was determined to run the chance. We
reached the edge of a large wood, in which we felt
sure that buffaloes were; and there we halted. I
was sure of my gun; I thought myself tolerably sure
of my coolness, and I desired that the hunt should
take place as if I had been a common Indian. I
stationed myself on a spot over which everything
made it probable that the animal would pass, and
I suffered no one to remain near me. I sent every
man to his post, and remained alone on the open
ground, two hundred paces from the edge of the
forest, awaiting a foe who would assuredly show
me no mercy if I missed him.

“That is certainly a solemn moment in which
one finds himself placed thus between life and
death, all depending on the goodness of a gun, and
on the steadiness of the hand that grasps it. I
quietly waited. When all had taken up their posi-
tions, two men entered the forest, having previously
stripped off a part of their clothes, the better to
climb the trees in case of need. They were armed
only with cutlasses, and accompanied by dogs. For
more than half an hour a mournful silence reigned.
We listened with all our ears, but no sound was
heard.

“The buffalo is often very long before giving
sign of life. At last the reiterated barking of the
dogs, and the cries of the prickers, warned us that
the beast was afoot. Soon I heard the cracking of
A BUFFALO HUNT IN JALA-JALA. Q21

the branches and young:-trees, which broke before
him as he threaded the forest with frightful rapid-
ity. The noise of his headlong career was to be
compared only to the gallop of several horses, or to
the rush of some monstrous and fantastical crea-
ture; it was like the approach of an avalanche. At
that moment, I confess, my emotion was so great
that my heart beat with extraordinary rapidity.
Was it death, a terrible death, that thus approached
me? Suddenly the buffalo appeared. He stood for
a moment, glared wildly about him, snuffed the air
of the plain, and then, his nostrils elevated, his
horns thrown back upon his shoulders, charged down
upon me with terrible fury.

“The decisive moment had come. A _ victim
there must be—either the buffalo or myself—and
we were both disposed to defend ourselves stoutly.
I should be puzzled to describe what passed within
me during the short time the animal took to trav-
erse the interval between us. My heart, which had
beat so violently when I heard him tearing through
the forest, no longer throbbed. My eyes were fixed
upon his forehead with such intensity that I saw
nothing else. There was a sort of deep silence
within me. I was too much absorbed to hear any-
thing—even the baying of the dogs as they followed
their prey at a short distance.

“At last the buffalo stopped, lowered his head,
and presented his horns; just as he gave a spring I
999 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

fired. My bullet pierced his skull—I was half
saved. He fell to the ground, just a pace in
front of me, with the ponderous noise of a mass
‘of rock. I put my foot between his horns and was
about to fire my second barrel, when a hollow and
prolonged roar informed me that my victory
was complete. The buffalo was dead. My Indians
came up. Their joy turned to admiration; they
were delighted; I was all that they wished me
to be.

“Their doubts had been dissipated with the
smoke of my gun; I was brave, I had proved it, and
they had now entire confidence in me. My victim
was cut up, and carried in triumph to the village.
In right of conquest I took his horns; they were six
feet in length; I have since deposited them in the
Nantes museum. The Indians, those lovers of
metaphor, those givers of surnames, thenceforward
called me Malamit Oulou—Tagal words, signifying
‘cool head.’ ”

The traveler describes the cayman, which is of
enormous size—the whale of the oozy lagoon. He
relates the following adventure with a boa:



THE BOA OF LUZON.

“THE other monster of which I have promised
a description, the boa, is common in the Philip-
pines, but it is rare to meet with a very large
specimen. It is possible, even probable, that cen-
THE BOA OF LUZON. 223

turies (?) are necessary for this reptile to attain its
largest size; and to such an age the various acci-
dents to which animals are exposed rarely suffer it
to attain. I*ull-sized boas are met with only in the
gloomiest, most remote, and most solitary forests.

“T have seen
many boas of or-
dinary size, such
as are found in
our European col-
lections. There
were some, indeed,
that inhabited my
house; and one
night I found one,
two yards long, in
possession of my
bed.

“Several times,
passing through
the woods with my Indians, I heard the piercing
cries of a wild boar. On approaching the spot
whence they proceeded we almost invariably found
a wild boar, about whose body a boa had twisted its
folds, and was gradually hoisting him up into the
tree round which it had coiled itself. (See book for
illustration.)

“When the wild boar had reached a certain
height the snake pressed him against the tree with


924 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

a force that crushed his bones and stifled him.
Then the boa let its prey fall, descended the tree,
and prepared to swallow what it had slain. This
last operation was much too lengthy for us to await
its end.

“To simplify matters, I sent a ball into the boa’s
head. Then my Indian took the flesh to dry (buca-
nier) it, and the skin for dagger sheaths. It is
unnecessary to say that the wild boar was not
forgotten. It was a prey that had cost us little
pains.

“One day an Indian surprised one of these rep-
tiles asleep, after it had swallowed an enormous
doe deer. Its size was such that a buffalo cart
would have been required to transport it to the vil-
lage.

“The Indian cut it in pieces, and contented him-
self with as much as he could carry off. I sent for
the remainder. They brought me a piece about
eight feet long, and so large that the skin, when
dried, enveloped the tallest man like a cloak. I
gave it to my friend Lindsay.

“T had not yet seen one of the full-grown rep-
tiles, of which the Indians spoke to me so much
(always with some exaggeration), when one after-
noon, crossing the mountains with two shepherds,
our attention was attracted by the sustained bark-
ing of my dogs, who seemed assailing some animal
that stood upon its defense. We at first thought
THE BOA OF LUZON. 225

it was a buffalo which they had brought to bay, and
approached the spot with precaution.

“My dogs were dispersed along the brink of a
deep ravine, in which was an enormous boa. The
monster raised his head to a height of five or six
feet, directing it from one edge to the other of the
ravine, and menacing his assailants with his forked
tongue; but the dogs, more active than he was, eas-
ily avoided his attacks. My first impulse was to
shoot him, but then it occurred to me to take him
alive and send him to France. Assuredly he would
have been the most monstrous boa that had ever
been seen there. To carry out my design, we manu-
factured nooses of cane, strong enough to resist the
most powerful wild buffalo. With great precau-
tion we succeeded in passing one of our: nooses
round the boa’s neck; then we tied him tightly to a
tree, in such a manner as to keep its head at its
usual height—about six feet from the ground.

“This done, we crossed to the other side of the
ravine and threw another noose over him, which
we secured like the first. When he felt himself
thus fixed at both ends, he coiled and writhed, and
grappled several little trees which grew within his
reach along the edge of the ravine. Unluckily for
him, everything yielded to his efforts; he tore up
the young trees by the roots, broke off the branches,
and dislodged enormous stones, round which he
sought in vain to obtain the hold or point of resist-
226 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

ance he needed. The nooses were strong, and with-
stood his most furious efforts. To convey an ani-
mal like this several buffaloes and a whole system
of cordage was necessary. Night approached; con-
fident in our nooses we left the place, proposing to
return next morning and complete the capture—
but we reckoned without our host. In the night
the boa changed his tactics, got his body round
some huge blocks of basalt, and finally succeeded
in breaking his bonds and getting clear off. I was
ereatly disappointed, for I doubted whether I
should ever have another chance.

“ Human beings rarely fall victims to these huge
reptiles. I was able to verify but one instance. A
criminal hid from justice in a cavern. His father,
who alone knew of his hiding place, went sometimes
to see him and to take him rice. One day he found,
instead of his son, an enormous boa asleep. He
killed it, and found his son’s body. in its stomach.
The priest of the village, who went to give the body
Christian burial, and who saw the remains of the
boa, described it to me as of almost incredible size.”

AN ADVENTURE WITH A MONSTER CAYMAN.

“ At the period at which I first occupied my habi-
tation and began to colonize the village of Jala-
Jala, caymans abounded upon that side of the lake.
From my windows I daily saw them gamboling in
AN ADVENTURE WITH A MONSTER CAYMAN. 997

the water, and waylaying and snapping at the dogs
that ventured too near the brink. One day a fe-
male servant of my wife’s having been so imprudent
as to bathe at the edge of the lake was surprised
by one of them, a monster of enormous size. One
of my guards came up at the very moment she was
being carried off; he fired his carbine at the brute
and hit it under the fore-leg (the armpit), which is
the only vulnerable place. But the wound was in-
sufficient to check the cayman’s progress, and it dis-
appeared with its prey. Nevertheless, this little
bullet-hole was the cause of its death; and here it
is to be noted that the slightest wound received
by the cayman is incurable. The shrimps, which
abound in the lake, get into the hurt; little by little
their number increases, until at last they penetrate
deep into the solid flesh and into the very interior
of the body. This is what happened to the one
which devoured my wife’s maid. A month after the
accident the monster was found dead upon the bank
five or six leagues from my house. Indians brought
me back the unfortunate woman’s earrings, which
they had found in its stomach.

“Upon another occasion a Chinese was riding
with me. We reached a river, and I let him go on
alone in order to ascertain whether the river was
very deep or not. On a sudden three or four cay-
mans, which lay in waiting under the water, threw
themselves upon him; horse and Chinese disap-
228 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN,

peared, and for some minutes the water was tinged
with blood.

“Twas very curious to obtain a near sight of one
of these voracious monsters. At the time that they
frequented the vicinity of my house I made several
attempts to attain that end. One night I baited a
huge hook, secured by a chain and strong cord, with
an entire sheep. Next morning sheep and chain
had disappeared. I lay in wait for the creatures
with my gun, but the bullets rebounded from their
scales.
ippines and exceeding any European dog in size,
happening to die, I had his carcase dragged to the
shore of the lake; I then hid myself in a little thick-
et and waited, with my gun in readiness, the coming
of acayman. But presently I fell asleep, and when
I awoke the dog had disappeared. It was fortu-
nate the cayman had not taken the wrong prey.

“When the colony of Jala-Jala had been a few
years founded, the caymans disappeared from its
neighborhood. I was out one morning with my
shepherds, at a few leagues from my house, when
we came to a river which must be swum across.
One of them advised me to ascend it to a narrower
place, for that it was full of caymans, and I was
about to do so when another Indian, more impru-
dent than his companions, spurred his horse into
the stream. ‘I do not fear the caymans!’ he ex-
claimed. But he was scarcely halfway cross when
AN ADVENTURE WITH A MONSTER CAYMAN. 929

we saw a cayman of monstrous size advancing to-
ward him. We uttered a shout of warning; he at
once perceived the danger, and, to avoid it, got off
his horse at the opposite side to that upon which
the cayman was approaching, and swam with all
his strength toward the bank. On reaching it, he
paused behind a fallen tree-trunk, where he had
water to his knees, and where, believing himself in
perfect safety, he drew his cutlass and waited.
Meanwhile the cayman reared his enormous head
out of the water, threw himself upon the horse, and
seized him by the saddle. The horse made an effort,
the girths broke, and, while the cayman crunched
the leather, the steed reached dry land. Perceiving
that the saddle was not what he wanted, the cay-
man dropped it and advanced upon the Indian. We
shouted to him to run. The poor fellow would not
stir, but waited calmly, cutlass in hand, and, on the
alligator’s near approach, dealt him a blow upon the
head. He might as well have tapped upon an anvil.
The next instant he was writhing in the monster’s
jaws. For more than a minute we beheld him
dragged in the direction of the lake, his body erect
above the surface of the water (the cayman had
seized him by the thigh), his hands joined, his eyes
turned to heaven, in the attitude of a man im-
ploring divine mercy. Soon he disappeared. The
drama was over, the cayman’s stomach was his
tomb.
230 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

“During this agonizing moment we had all re-
mained silent, but no sooner had my poor shepherd
disappeared than we vowed we would avenge his
death.

“JT had three nets made of strong cord, each net
large enough to form a complete barrier across the
river. I also had a hut built, and put an Indian to
live in it, whose duty was to keep constant watch
and to let me know as soon as the cayman returned
to the river. He watched in vain for upward of two
months; but at the end of that time he came and
told me that the monster had seized a horse and
dragged it into the river to devour it at leisure. I
immediately repaired to the spot, accompanied by
my guards, by my priest, who positively would see
a cayman hunt, and by an American friend of mine,
Mr. Russell, of the house of Russell and Sturgis,
who was then staying with me. I had the nets
spread at intervals, so that the cayman could not
escape back into the lake. This operation was not
effected without some acts of imprudence; thus, for
instance, when the nets were arranged, an Indian
dived to make sure that they reached the bottom,
and that our enemy could not escape by passing
below them. But it might very well have happened
that the cayman was in the interval between the
nets, and so have gobbled up my Indian. fF ortu-
nately everything passed as we wished.. When all
was ready, I launched three pirogues, strongly fas-
AN ADVENTURE WITH A MONSTER CAYMAN. 931

tened together side by side, with some Indians in
the center, armed with lances, and with tall bam-
boos with which they could touch bottom. At last,
all measures having been taken to attain my end
without any risk or accident, my Indians began to
explore the river with their long bamboos.

“An animal of such formidable size as the one
we sought can not very easily hide himself, and soon
we beheld him upon the surface of the river, lash-
ing the water with his long tail, snapping and clat-
tering with his jaws, and endeavoring to get at
those who dared disturb him in his retreat. A uni-
versal shout of joy greeted his appearance; the In-
dians in the pirogues hurled their lances at him,
while we, upon either shore of the river, fired a vol-
ley. The bullets rebounded from the monster’s
scales, which they were unable to penetrate; the
keener lances made their way between the scales
and entered the cayman’s body some eight or ten
inches. Thereupon he disappeared, swimming with
incredible rapidity, and reached the first net.

“The resistance it opposed turned him; he reas-
cended the river, and again appeared on the top
of the water. This violent movement broke the
staves of the lances which the Indians had stuck
into him, and the iron alone remained in the
wounds. Each time that he reappeared the firing
recommenced, and fresh lances were plunged into
his enormous body. Perceiving, however, how in-
932 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN.

effectual firearms were to pierce his cuirass of in-
vulnerable scales, I excited him by my shouts and
gestures; and when he came to the edge of the
water, opening his enormous jaws all ready to’de-
your me, I approached the muzzle of my gun to
within a few inches and fired both barrels, in the
hope that the bullets would find something softer
than scales in the interior of that formidable cav-
ern, and that they would penetrate to his brain.
All was in vain. The jaws closed with a terrible
noise, seizing only the fire and smoke that issued
from my gun, and the balls flattened against his
bones without injuring them. The animal, which
had now become furious, made inconceivable efforts
to seize one of his enemies; his strength seemed to
increase instead of diminishing, while our resources
were nearly exhausted. Almost all our lances were
sticking in his body, and our ammunition drew to
anend. The fight had lasted more than six hours,
without any result that could make us hope its
speedy termination, when an Indian struck the cay-
man, while at the bottom of the water, with a lance
of unusual strength and size.

“ Another Indian struck two vigorous blows with
a mace upon the butt end of the lance; the iron
entered deep into the animal’s body, and imme-
diately, with a movement as swift as lightning, he
darted toward the nets and disappeared. The
lance-pole, detached from the iron head, returned
AN ADVENTURE WITH A MONSTER CAYMAN. 933

to the surface of the water; for some minutes we
waited in vain for the monster’s reappearance; we
thought that his last effort had enabled him to
reach the lake, and that our chase was perfectly
fruitless. We hauled in the first net, a large hole in
which convinced us that our supposition was cor-
rect. The second net was in the same condition as
the first. Disheartened by our failure, we were
hauling in the third when we felt a strong resist-
ance. Several Indians began to drag it toward
the bank, and presently, to our great joy, we
saw the cayman upon the surface of the water, ex-
piring.

“We threw over him several lassos of strong
cords, and when he was well secured we drew him
to land. It was no easy matter to haul him up on
the bank; the strength of forty Indians hardly suf-
ficed. When at last we had got him completely out
of the water, and had him before our eyes, we stood
stupefied with astonishment; for a very different
thing was it to see his body thus, and to see him
swimming when he was fighting against us. Mr.
Russell, a very competent person, was charged with
his measurement. From the extremity of the nos-
trils to the tip of the tail he was found to be twenty-
seven feet long, and his circumference was eleven feet,
measured under the armpits. His belly was much
more voluminous, but we thought it useless to meas-
ure him there, judging that the horse upon which
934 THE STORY OF MAGELLAN,

he had breakfasted must considerably have in-
creased his bulk.”

SWIFTS.

THE edible swallows’ nests are found in most of
the islands of the Eastern archipelago.

A traveler, Mr. H. Pryer, who made a visit to one
of the swifts’ caves in Borneo, thus describes the
coming and the going of the dusky birds: .

“At a quarter past six in the evening the swifts
began to return to the caves of their nests; a few
had been flying in and out all day long, but now
they began to pour in, at first in tens and then in
hundreds, until the sound of their wings was like
a strong gale of wind whistling through the rigging
of a ship.

“They continued flying until after midnight. As
long as it remained light I found it impossible to
catch any with my butterfly net, but after dark I
found it only necessary to wave my net to secure
as many as I wanted.

“They must possess wonderful powers of sight
to fly about in the dark of the recesses of their caves
and to return to their nests, which are often built
in places where no light penetrates.”

The edible nests are a luxury in China, where
they are used in soups. The bird makes her nest
of saliva, and plasters it on to the rocks inside of
caves. The nests are collected by means of boats,
SWIFTS. 285

ropes, and ladders, and bring in the Chinese market
from £2 to £7 per pound. There have been imported
to Canton more than eight million nests in a single
year,

Such are some views of life inside of the vast
possession of the sea which Magellan discovered for
Spain, but which has fallen under the folds of the
flag of the Republic of the West.

THE END.
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D. APPLETON & CO.’S PUBLICATIONS.



; | “HE FARMER'S BOY. By Curton JOHNSON,
author of ‘‘ The Country School in New England,” etc. With
64 Illustrations by the Author. 8vo. Cloth, $2.50.

“One of the handsomest and most elaborate juvenile works lately published.”—
Philadelphia Item.

“Mr, Johnson’s style is almost rhythmical, and one lays down the book with the
sensation of having read a poem and that saddest of all longings, the longing for
vanished youth.” —Boston Commercial Bulletin,

“As a triumph of the realistic photographer’s art it deserves warm praise quite
aside from its worth as a sterling book on the subjects its title indicates. . . . It is a
most praiseworthy book, and the more such that are published the better,”—-Wew Vork
Mail and Express.

“The book is beautiful and amusing, well studied, well written, redolent of the
wood, the field, and the stream, and full of those delightful reminders of a boy’s
country home which touch the heart.” —New York Independent.

“One of the finest books of the kind that have ever been put out.” —Cleveland
World.

“A book on whose pages many a gray-haired man would dwell with retrospective
enjoyment.”—S¢, Paul Pioneer Press.

“The illustrations are admirable, and the book will appeal to every one who has
had a taste of life on a New England farm.”—Boston 77 vanscript,

] COUNTRY SCHOOL IN NEW ENG-
LAND. By CLirron JoHNsoN. With 60 Illustrations from
Photographs and Drawings made by the Author. Square 8vo.
Cloth, gilt edges, $2.50.

“An admirable undertaking, carried out in an admirable way. . .. Mr. Johnson’s
descriptions are vivid and lifelike and are full of humor, and the illustrations, mostly
after photographs, give a solid effect of realism to the whole work, and are superbly
reproduced. . . . The definitions at the close of this volume are very, very funny, and
yet they are not stupid; they are usually the result of deficient logic.” —Boston Beacon.

‘A charmingly written account of the rural schools in this section of the country.
It speaks of the old-fashioned school days of the early quarter of this century, of the
mid-century schools, of the country school of to-day, and of how scholars think and
write. The style is animated and picturesque. . . . It is handsomely printed, and is
interesting from its pretty cover to its very last page.” —Boston Saturday Evening
Gazette.

‘A unique piece of book-making that deserves to be popular. . . . Prettily and
serviceably bound, and well illustrated.” 7he Churchman.
“‘ The readers who turn the leaves of this handsome book will unite in saying the

author has ‘been there.’ It is no fancy sketch, but text and illustrations are both a
reality.”’—Chicago Inter-Ocean.

“No one who is familiar with the little red schoolhouse can look at these pictures
and read these chapters without having the mind recall the boyhood experiences, and
the memory is pretty sure to be a pleasant one.” —Chicago Times.

_ ‘A superbly prepared volume, which by its reading matter and its beautiful illustra-
tions, so natural and finished, pleasantly and profitably recalls memories and associations
connected with the very foundations of our national greatness.”—/V. Y. Observer.



New York: D. APPLETON & CO., 72 Fifth Avenue.
D. APPLETON & CO.’S PUBLICATIONS.



EZ NCLE REMUS. His Songs and his Sayings. By
JorL CHANDLER Harris. With new Preface and Revisions,
and 112 Illustrations by A. B. Frost.. Library Edition. 12mo.
Buckram, gilt top, uncut, $2.00. Also, Edition de luxe of the
above, limited to 250 copies, each signed by the author, with
the full-page cuts mounted on India paper. 8vo. White vel-

lum, gilt top, $10.00.

“The old tales of the plantation have never been told as Mr. Harris has told them.
‘Each narrative is to the point, and so swift in its action upon the risibilities of the
reader that one almost loses consciousness of the printed page, and fancies it is the
voice of the lovable old darky himself that steals across the senses and brings mirth
inextinguishableasit comes; . . . and Mr. Frost’s drawings are so supelativ ely good,
so inexpressibly funny, that they promise to make this the standard edition of a stand-
ard book.”—New Vork Tribune.

“An exquisite volume, full of good illustrations, nd if there is anybody in this
country who doesn’t know Mr. Harris, here is an oprortunity to make his acquaint-
ance and have many a good laugh.”—New York Herald.

“There is but one ‘Uncle Remus,’ and he will never grow old... . It was a
happy thought, that of marrying the work of Harris and Frost.’—Mew Vork Mail
and Express.

“Nobody could possibly have done this work better than Mr. Frost, whose appre-
ciation of negro life fitted him especially to be the interrreter of ‘ Uncle Remus,’ and
whose sense of the humor in animal life makes these drawings really illustrations in the
fullest sense. Mr. Harris’s well-known work has become in a sense a classic, and this
may be accepted as the standard edition. "—Philadelphia Times.

“A book which became a classic almost as soon as it was published. . . . Mr. Frost
has never done anything better in the way of illustration, if indeed he has done any-
thing as good.” —Boston Advertiser.

‘‘ We pity the reader who has not yet made the acquaintance of ‘Uncle Remus’
and his charming story. . .. Mr. Harris has made a real addition to literature purely
and strikingly American, and Mr. Frost has aided in fixing the work indelibly on the
consciousness of the American reader.” —7he Churchman.

“The old fancies of the old negro. dear as they may have been to us these many
years, seem to gain new life when they appear through the medium of Mr. Frost's
imagination.”—New York Home Yournal.

“In his own peculiar field ‘Uncle Remus’ has no rival. The book has become a
classic, but the latest edition is the choice one. It is rarely given tu an author to see
his work accompanied by pictures so closely in sympathy with his text.”—Sax Fran-
cisco Argonaut,

‘‘We say it with the utmost faith that there is not an artist who works in illustra-
tion that can catch the attitude and exoression, the slyness, the innate depravity. the
eye of surprise, obstinacy, the hang of the head or the kick of the heels of the mute and
the brute creation as Mr. Frost has shown to us here.” —Baltimore Sun.

New York: D. APPLETON & CO., 72 Fifth Avenue.
D. APPLETON & CO.’S PUBLICATIONS.



fee STORY OF WASHINGTON. By Euiza-
BETH EGGLESTON SEELYE. Edited by Dr. Edward Eggleston,
With over roo Illustrations by Allegra Egvleston. A new vole
ume in the “ Delights of History” Series, uniform with “The

Story of Columbus.” r2mo. Cloth, $1.75.

“One of the best accounts of the incidents of Washington’s life for young people.”
2New York Observer.

“The Washington described is not that of the demigod or hero of the first half of
this century, but the man Washington, with his defects as well as his virtues, his unat-
tractive traits as well as his pleasing ones. . . . There is greater freedom from errors
than in more pretentious lives.” —Chicago Tribune.

“The illustrations are numerous, and actually illustrate, including portraits and
views, with an occasional map and minor pictures suggestive of the habits and customs
of the period. It is altogether an attractive and useful book, and one that should find
many readers among American boys and girls.” —Philadelphia Times.

“A good piece of literary work presented in an attractive shape.”—Mew York
Tribune. ;

“Will be read with interest by young and old. It is told with good taste and ac-
curacy, and if the first President loses some of his mythical goodness in this story, the
real greatness of his natural character stands out distinctly, and his example will be all
the more helpful to the boys and girls of this generation.”—New Vork Churchman.

“The book is just what has been needed, the story of the life of Washington, as
well as of his public career, written in a manner so interesting that one who begins
it will finish, and so told that it will leave not the memory of a few trivial anecdotes by
which to measure the man, but a just and comnlete estimate of him. The illustrations
are so excellent as to double the value of the book as it would be without them.”—
Chicago Times.

“PAE STORY OF COLUMBUS. By Evizasetu
EGGLESTON SEELYE. Edited by Dr. Edward Eggleston. With

100 Illustrations by Allegra Eggleston. ‘‘ Delights of History”
Series. 12mo. Cloth, $1.75.

‘A brief, popular, interesting, and yet critical volume, just such as we should wish
to place in the hands of a young reader. The authors of this volume have done their

best to keep it on a high plane of accuracy and conscientious work without losing sight
of their readers.”—New Vork Independent.

“(In some respects altogether the best book that the Columbus year has brought
out.” —Rochester Post-Express.

‘A simple story told in a natural fashion, and will be found far more interesting
than many of the more ambitious works on a similar theme.”—Mew Vork Yournal of
Commerce.

“This is no ordinary work. It is pre-eminently a work of the present time and of
the future as well.” —Boston Traveller.

‘Mrs. Seelye’s book is pleasing in its general effect, and reveals the results of
painstaking and conscientious study.”—New ork Tribune.

“A very just account is given of Columbus, his failings being neither concealed nor
magnified, but his real greatness beiug made plain.’—New York Examiner.

“The illustrations are particularly well chosen and neatly executed, and they add
to the general excellence of the volume.”—New Vork Times.

1

New York: D. APPLETON & CO., 72 Fifth Avenue.









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xml record header identifier oai:www.uflib.ufl.edu.ufdc:UF0008901000001datestamp 2008-12-11setSpec [UFDC_OAI_SET]metadata oai_dc:dc xmlns:oai_dc http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc xmlns:dc http:purl.orgdcelements1.1 xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc.xsd dc:title The story of Magellan dc:creator Butterworth, Hezekiah, 1839-1905Merrill, Frank T ( Frank Thayer ), b. 1848 ( Illustrator )dc:subject Explorers -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )Sailors -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )Natural history -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )NOVELAS ( renib )Discovery and exploration -- Juvenile literature -- Philippines ( lcsh )DESCUBRIMIENTO Y EXPLORACIONES -- NOVELA -- FILIPINAS ( renib )Publishers' catalogues -- 1899 ( rbgenr )Biographies -- 1899 ( rbgenr )Bldn -- 1899dc:description b Statement of Responsibility by Hezekiah Butterworth ; illustrated by Frank T. Merrill and others.Publisher's catalogue precedes and follows text.Bound in green cloth; stamped in gold, black, white and brown; blue-green coated endpapers.Purchased from Gilman, Crompond, N.Y.dc:publisher D. Appleton and Companydc:date 1899dc:type Bookdc:format 235 8 p., 8 leaves or plates : ill., col. map ; 21 cm.dc:identifier http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc/?b=UF00089010&v=00001002223210 (aleph)02026773 (oclc)ALG3459 (notis)99004525 (lccn)dc:source University of Floridadc:language Englishdc:coverage United States -- New York -- New York