Citation
The true story of Lafayette

Material Information

Title:
The true story of Lafayette called the friend of America
Series Title:
Children's lives of great men
Creator:
Brooks, Elbridge Streeter, 1846-1902
Searles, Victor A ( Illustrator )
Lothrop, Lee, and Shepard Co ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
Boston
Publisher:
Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Co.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
260, 4 p. : ill., ports. ; 24 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Generals -- Juvenile fiction -- France ( lcsh )
Statesmen -- Juvenile fiction -- France ( lcsh )
Voyages and travels -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Adventure and adventurers -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Soldiers -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Courage -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Diligence -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Success -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Friendship -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Battles -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Liberty -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile fiction -- United States -- Revolution, 1775-1783 ( lcsh )
Juvenile fiction -- France ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature -- 1899 ( rbgenr )
Biographical fiction -- 1899 ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1899
Genre:
Children's literature ( fast )
Biographical fiction ( rbgenr )
novel ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Pictorial front cover and spine.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Elbridge S. Brooks ; illustrated by Victor A. Searles.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
026609506 ( ALEPH )
ALG3143 ( NOTIS )
02133180 ( OCLC )
99004374 ( LCCN )

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Full Text












The Baldwin Library

University
RMB ei
Florida








See page 145

LAFAYETTE AT MONMOUTH.

“* He dashed into action, leading the cavalry in a desperate charge.”



Werle TIKUE STORY

OF

LAFAYETTE

CALLED THE FRIEND OF AMERICA

BY

DBI DCla S, 1IROMOECS

AUTHOR OF
“THE TRUE STORIES” OF COLUMBUS,
WASHINGTON, LINCOLN, GRANT,
AND FRANKLIN

ILLUSTRATED BY VICTOR A. SEARLES

BOSTON:
LOTHROP, LEE & SHEPARD CO.



CapyRIGHT, 1899,
BY

Loturop Pusisuinc Company.

All rights reserved.



Re EAC i.

In a series devoted to telling the true stories of great Americans or of
those whose lives had a direct bearing upon the splendid story of the United
States of America, no man has better right to a place than the Marquis de
Lafayette, the young and gallant Frenchman whose love for liberty led to
a love for America that outlasted even the romantic story of the way in
which he fought for her independence. For the whole life of Lafayette was
a long struggle for constitutional liberty, the freedom he had seen America
secure and which he so ardently desired for France.

Had it not been for Lafayette, American independence would not have
been so speedily secured; had it not been for America, the liberation of -
France from her long bondage in tyranny would scarcely have come so soon.
Thus Lafayette and America are inseparably connected, and it is most fitting
that, in a series devoted to the makers and defenders of America, Lafayette,
as the Friend of America, should have an honored place.

But this book aims to do more. At a time when interest in Lafayette has
been revived by the erection of a monument to his memory in the Paris he
loved so well, by the boys and girls of the America he helped to make great,
it seeks to show how his entire life was devoted to the cause of freedom
and the glory of France, and to tell, in the whole story of his eventful life,
what one man has done for the progress of humanity and the bettering of
the world. If, from these pages, young Americans may learn not only to
revere the memory of the noble Frenchman, but to learn lessons of per-
sistence, fidelity, unshaken loyalty to conviction, to truth, to honor, and to
manly endeavor, then the story of Lafayette will not have been retold in
vain, and Americans may learn anew to honor, respect, and remember him, as
not only the friend of America, but the benefactor of his race.



HOW

CO NW ENG Ss:

CHAPTER I.

THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE . . . °

CHAPTER II.

WHERE THE YOUNG ARISTOCRAT HEARD OF INDEPENDENCE

WHY

HOW

HOW

HOW

HOW

HOW

HOW

HOW

CHAPTER III.

THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA. : : ;
CHAPTER IV.

LAFAYETTE LANDED IN AMERICA : A é ;
CHAPTER V.

THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS i :
CHAPTER VI.

HE WON THE COMMANDER - IN - CHIEF B : 6
CHAPTER VII.

HE FOUGHT FOR LIBERTY IN AMERICA : a .
CHAPTER VIII.

“THAT BOY”? SERVED THE EARL : : A i
CHAPTER IX.

HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE THIRD TIME . 3
CHAPTER X.

HE TRIED TO MAKE AN AMERICA OF FRANCE
ee,

PAGE

32

40

65

87

107

126

149

169

185



8 CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XI.

HOW HE FELL FROM THE FRYING- PAN INTO THE FIRE

CHAPTER XII.

WHY HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE FOURTH TIME .

CHAPTER XIII.

HOW HE RETURNED TO FRANCE AND FAME

PAGE

200

219



IDS OP IUOILIOS INRA KOINIS),

Lafayette at Monmouth : : : ; : ; . el . Lrontispiece
The boy Lafayette : . . : . : . : . : Page 13
At Hastenbeck . : : 7 A : , 0 . . , . 15
The Chateau of Chavaniac . : : : , : 3 4 : , 18
A French boy of “ quality ” in Lafayette’s school-days . 7 . . 7 21
“The duke thought it over and suggested a compromise” . . . - 25
A French wedding in a sday . : , . . 28
“The American peasants” who stood at enaeron and concord 6 . . 39
Lafayette and the Duke of Gloucester . ; ; : : " : : 43
“«Wake up! I’m going to America!’”. : ; . : ; . : 45
“Tf that is so, I will go with you’ ” : 45
Lafayette secretly calls upon the American arent : , , : . . 48
“ Lafayette and the American agents : : . , 7 5 5 Q 57
Windsor Palace . : ; ‘ 5 , . . . g 59
“ He galloped back to Borderie ; : . 7 . . . 62
“The inn-keeper’s daughter said never a rer eer : : : : : 64
Lafayette and the captain. : : : , 7 0 . . , 68
Lafayette off the Carolina coast . . : : , ; , . : 73
Where Lafayette landed in America. . 6 ° : . . . ah
Lafayette’s welcome to America . . ; ae: 7 . . : 83
Singing for Lafayette . : : : 7 , _ ; . . : 88
The Marquis de Lafayette . . . , ; : : . , 5 go
“A greatand capable commander” 5 , . , 7 ° . 93
The president of Congress . : 6 , ; . . 9 0 f 98
“ At the door of the Congress” . " ; 0 : . 3 ; 0 100
Bartholdi’s statue of Lafayette . . . : : . : : . 103
Lafayette and the Congressman . ; : 9 . . . . . 105
Alexander Hamilton . : : . . 0 9 . : , . 110
Aaron Burr . ; : : . . 9 . . omen ° III
Lafayette meets TyEeEe (on , 0 . . . . . 2 114

Where Lafayette joined the army . : : . . . . , 0 117



ano LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

The monument on Brandywine Battle-field . , : : a , Page 121
Lafayette at Brandywine . ; ; : : : : ‘ . : 123
The Old Sun Inn of Bethlehem . : ; a . 128
The best foreign officers who served in the erceean Revolucion : , ; 131
Gen. Nathaniel Greene, of Rhode Island ; . . : " , 134
Lafayette and the Cabal : : : ; : : , ; : 137
Lafayette’s headquarters at Valley Forge . ; 7 7 ; . : 139
New York City and Harbor . : 3 : : . : : : 146
“Lafayette bade good-bye to Wiaehinetent , " é ; : : : 148
Where Lafayette fought death . : . : , ; . . 150
Lafayette “home again” : : : 7 . : ; . : 153
Lafayette’s “naval aid ” : : : : : . , . : 6, EGE
The old mill at Newport : . 7 . . ; . . , ; 159
Lafayette and Mrs. Arnold . . ' : . . . 7 : : 161
Lafayette’s antagonist . ; , " é Q : . : : 163
Where Washington joined Teron : : ; ; : 7 : ; 165
The Count de Rochambeau . : : : " ; : , " , 166
Lafayette writing to Washington . . : . . , . . 5 172
Lafayette in 1784 : ; . . SD ARee: : : 178
Mount Vernon, the home of Tyeenineron . , . . . : . 181
Pohick Church, near Mount Vernon. 9 ; , a ; , 0 183
Thomas Jefferson : : : ‘ : : . ; . , , 187
One of France’s holidays. : : : . . . . . , 193
Napoleon Bonaparte . : : . . 7 : ; : , : 198
The Austrian prison of Lafayette ; : ae: : : : 204
The wife of Lafayette . : : , 7 F : . . 0 " 206
The escape from Olmutz : : : : : 5 o . , , 211
Lafayette surprised in prison : : : ae . : . : 215
Madame Lafayette and Napoleon : ; . ; , 7 , : 223
Lafayette mourning for his wife . : : . : 7 7 eeee 227
The home of Lafayette’s old age . , : : , 6 0 , ; 231
The invitation from America : : : ; : , ; , 236
The Lafayettes at the tomb of Washington : : : . . : : 240
Lafayette in America . : ; , : : . . 7 : , 242
Lafayette’s farewell to America. : 5 7 246
General Lafayette, commander-in-chief a ae pres of Teanee 3 7 a 249
Lafayette and the Duke of Orleans : : : : : : . ‘ 253
One of the last portraits of Lafayette . ° : : : ; " ; 255

In the national capital . : : : : : : . . . : 259



THE
AUN EEG SO) eer ©) ase ae nayeeui alu)

THE FRIEND OF AMERICA.

_

Clea nas L

HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE.

Ae boys and girls like stories of adventure. Let me

tell you a true story, as crammed with adventure as
“ Robinson Crusoe,” as crowded with fighting as “ Ivanhoe,”
as full of noble deeds as “ Westward Ho!”

It is not the story of an American; and yet few names
have been more honored by America; it is not the story of
a great man, as Washington and Lincoln, Franklin and
Grant were great; and yet the service he rendered to America
has placed his name among the great ones of the earth.

It is the story of a brave, romantic, generous, noble-
hearted and devoted man, who reverenced liberty although
born an aristocrat; fought for it through nearly sixty years,
although he detested war, and, through those sixty years,
labored for his country’s good even against his country’s

II



I2 HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE.

will; who risked his life for the liberties of America, and
narrowly escaped death in establishing the liberties of his
native land.

Flies begany lifes -as: ans historic: sboy. she «closed its an
historic man, revered by all lovers of liberty the world over,
disliked only by those who hated liberty and feared the people.
No man suffered more at the hands of those he wished to
benefit; no man was more beloved by those who spurned
his benefits. Idolized one day, imprisoned the next, but
always a patriot, and always cheerful and brave, he builded
even better than he knew, and wrought his name and his
deeds into the destinies and progress of two nations, and died
the friend and deliverer of both. |

Listen, then, to the story of Lafayette.

Upon one of the green hill-slopes of the mountains of
Auvergne, in what is now known as the department or county
of Upper Loire (Haute-Loire it is, in French) but what was
long called the province of Auvergne, in Southern France, there
stands to-day, as there has stood for nearly six hundred years,
a great fortified country mansion or manor-house, known as the
Chateau of Chavaniac. Grim and gray this old country man-
sion, half castle and half farmhouse, with its odd little towers,
mossy walls, and loop-holed terraces, looks off upon the valley
of the Allier and the rugged Auvergne mountains, an old-
time home among the hills, in the healthiest and most inde-
pendent portion of old France.



HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE. 13

In this ancient
castle there was born
on the sixth of Sep-
tember, in the year
1757, a small baby
boy, not particularly
attractive in face, or
especially promising in
form. But he was
born a marquis of
France; and in the
parish register of the
little church of Cha-
vaniac, where he was
baptized, you may read
the name they gave
this little French baby
boy, —a name almost
as long as_ himself.
For it stands recorded
on the parish register,
that, in that little
church, was baptized
on the seventh day of
September, 1757, “the
very noble and very
powerful gentleman



THE BOY LAFAYETTE,
“ He went roaming the forest, sword in hand, to kill the great gray wolf.”



14 HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE,

Monseigneur Marie-Joseph-Paul-Yves-Roch-Gilbert Dumotier
de Lafayette, the lawful son .of the very noble and very
powerful gentleman Monseigneur Michel-Louis-Christophle-
Roch-Gilbert Dumotier, Marquis de Lafayette, Baron de
Vissac, Seigneur de Saint-Romain and other places, and of
the very noble and very powerful lady Madame Marie-
Louise-Julie Delareviere.”

Those were a good many names and a good many titles
for a small baby to stagger under, were they not? But in
France, as in all nations where old families and old estates
become jumbled together under the workings of what is called
the law of succession, the representative of several old and
noble lines, as was Lafayette, often mingled his connec-
tions in his name. But the real name of this very
small boy, stripped of all its additions, was simply Gilbert
Motier.

This old family name of Motier ran away back to before
the year 1000. But when, about that time, one of the Motiers
became possessed of a little farm called Villa Faya, or
Fayetteville, he tacked this estate on his name and became
Motier of La Fayette; then as other lines of the family
sprang up, possessed property, died out, and left their lands
and titles to the remaining branch, these names were added
to the main one, until the baby boy and heir of the estates,
born in 1757, had to bear them all,— Gilbert and Roch and
Christophle and all the rest with his mother’s name of Marie,
and his father’s titles of marquis and baron and seigneur (or



HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE. 15

lord). For, though only a baby, he was, by law, born a
marquis of France.

The reason for this was that six weeks before this little
French boy was born in the gray old castle among the
Auvergne mountains, his father, Colonel the Marquis de La



AT HASTENBECK,

“ His father, Colonel the Marquis de La Fayette, fell dead while charging an English battery.”

Fayette, fell dead at the head of his regiment of the Grena-
diers of France, while charging an English battery in the
battle of Hastenbeck,—one of the engagements in what
is known in history as the Seven Years’ War; in America
“we are familiar with the same conflict as it was waged in



16 HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE.

this country under the general title of the French and Indian
War, — the war that made George Washington .a successful
soldier, and made all America English by the conquest
of Canada.

Without any father when he was born, this little French
baby, by the law of the land, succeeded to his father’s titles
and estates. He was Marquis of Lafayette, Baron of Vissac,
and Lord of Saint-Romain, old castles, now in ruins, and
perched higher up among the Auvergne mountains than is
the manor-house of Chavaniac.

But though marquis, baron, and lord, this little Lafayette
baby was not born to great wealth. He was, in fact, what
we call “land poor.” His mountain farms were extensive
but not very productive;.it had cost a large sum to send and
keep his grandfather and father at the never-ending wars
that, for generations, had swept over Europe, and as there
was now no one in the family to hold high positions and draw
good salaries at the king’s court, the Lafayettes of Chavaniac
were, in 1757, what would be called “ high-born but poor.”

Still they were strong and sturdy people, those mountain
folks of Auvergne; and the baby marquis, the last and only
remaining boy to represent the dignities and titles of the old
and noble family whose name he bore, was brought up by
his mother, his grandmother, and his aunts in the healthy,
inspiring, frugal, and liberty-loving atmosphere of the Au-
vergne hills.

Country life and ways do not always develop the graces,



HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE. 17

and a boy who is brought up entirely by and among women
is apt to be diffident and shy. So the Lafayette boy of the
Chavaniac forests was by no means the model of beauty and
grace we have been accustomed to consider him. He was
a long-limbed, lean, lanky little chap with a hook-nose, red
hair, and a retreating forehead, while he was so shy as to be
almost ungainly and so quiet as to be almost awkward. But —
his eye was bright and sharp, his look, when interested, was
firm and high, and beneath his unattractive exterior lay an
intelligence that was making the boy a thinker, and a heart
that was stirring up high ideals of right and justice, there
among the fields and forests, the birds and beasts of his
mountain estates.

The birds and the beasts seemed for a time bis only. play-
mates. His mother had scarcely money enough to go’ to
Paris and keep up a grand city house, as was then the cus
tom with most of the lordly families of France; so the lad
grew up in the country, learning the habits of the farm and
forest animals rather than of the court; ignorant of the fine,
though often false manners of the gay society of Paris and
Versailles, save as his good mother instructed ‘him in polite-
ness, good breeding, gentle and chivalrous ways, while his
sturdy grandmother saw that he was alike manly and brave,
strong-limbed and stout-hearted, valiant and vigorous, as
became the small son and last scion of a great race, whose
men had been knights and warriors from the far-off days
of the Crusades. !









8 HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE.

Indeed, the desire to do some “high emprise and deed
of derring-do,” learned from the old tales his grandmother
told him, burned in the heart of this boy of eight when,
sword in hand and eye alert, he went roaming the forests

: VeeAe
"1 Oy
ON

of iy
Sa AL Ct by
g ae eas
a



THE CHATEAU OF CHAVANIAC.

“In this ancient castle was born Lafayette, a marquis of France, September 6, 1757.”

about Chavaniac in search of the great gray wolf which, so
“his people” reported, had been breaking into sheepfolds
and destroying the peace of mind of the farmers and cot-
tagers around the manor-house. We do not read that he
really killed that wolf, or even found the monster, but, in a



HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE. 19

way, it was a prophetic sign; for, later, he was to go forth
sword in hand and eye alert, to hunt out and attack a greater
and more ravaging wolf, far across the vast western sea
that this home-staying boy had never seen.

He could not be a home-staying boy many years, how-
ever. As the last representative of a noble house, it was his
duty as a Frenchman of high estate to prepare himself to
meet the obligations of his rank. Although the family was
short of cash, they had rich and influential relations, and so,
when he was eleven years old, it was decided by the family
that he should leave his quiet castle home at Chavaniac, and
go up to Paris to begin his education as a gentleman.

He was sent to a sort of private school for young gentle-
men,—the boys of the French “four hundred.” It was
called the College du Plessis, and there the boy was taught
to express himself elegantly, handle his sword gracefully,
dance delightfully, and offer his arm to a lady as gallantly as
he could pick up her fan. It was hardly the school familiar
to the boys and girls of to-day, who probably know more of real
things and how to study about them than did even the school
teachers at the College du Plessis in young Lafayette’s day.

But there was that in young Lafayette that helped him to
educate and develop himself, in spite of the false instruction
of his time; while the devotion of his lady mother aided and
strengthened him; for, at much sacrifice, she gave up her
quiet home in the country, and, with the aid of her rich rela-
tions, obtained recognition at court and a place in society, so



20 HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE.

that she might help her son to enter the most aristocratic
circles of France.

The boy had a rich uncle, too, — or, rather, it was his
mother’s uncle,—who, because all the Lafayettes had been
soldiers, put himself out to get the name of his grandnephew
entered, early in life, on the “ waiting list” of one of the “crack
regiments” of France. This regiment was called “The Black
Musketeers,” and many a day did young Lafayette get
“excused” from school to run off and see a review of “ my
regiment,” as he would call it; for, of course, he felt very
proud to be on its roll of cadets.

Under these influences and opportunities the awkward
country boy became easier in his manners and more grace-
ful in his motions; but he was still shy and silent; he dis-
liked dancing and society ways; he thought a good deal
about things; he was old for his years both in his talk and
ways, and he was so practical that even when he undertook
the task that all boys attempt, —a school composition on the
horse, —he dwelt especially on the fact that if you try to
make a horse do too many things perfectly the horse will
grow restless and throw you, —a lesson of which Lafayette
himself had practical experience, later, when in the days |
of the restless French Revolution he tried to train the people
to be guided by his rein rather than their will—and was

d

“thrown” again and again.
Just as he had got into his “teens,” in the year 1770, a

sad thing happened. Both his good mother, who was so



HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE. 21

watchful of his future, and his rich grand-uncle, who had
taken so great an interest in the young Lafayette because









A FRENCH BOY OF “QUALITY” IN LAFAYETTE’S SCHOOL- DAYS,

he was the son of this old noble’s favorite niece, and a prom-
ising boy as well, died in Paris.



22 HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE,

The boy felt sad and lonely enough. He was now quite
alone in the world; his nearest relative was his grandmother
in the old castle at home; alike his dearest friend and his
strongest protector had been taken from him.

Even in his death, however, this high-placed protector of
his youth had remembered him. For the count, the uncle
of Lafayette, left by his will all his fortune and estate to this
small boy of thirteen. Thus from being a poor and proud
young nobleman, Lafayette now became a very rich and power-
ful young nobleman. At once every match-making mother
and father in France who wished to “arrange” a fine mar-
riage for their daughter laid siege to the young Marquis de
Lafayette, — much to the disgust of this quiet, society-hating
boy, who, like many boys just in their “teens,” had a supreme
contempt for all girls.

Matters were conducted differently in the France of
Lafayette’s day than in our America of to-day. Very early
in their children’s lives fathers and mothers were preparing
to “ marry off” their sons and daughters to the best financial
and social advantage. Even when they were babies, boys
and girls were sometimes “betrothed,” — engaged, as we
would say to-day,— although the poor babies themselves had
nothing to say in the matter, and had no especial interest
in the plans arranged for them.

So the relatives and guardians of the young marquis —
a rich young marquis, now — began to look about for some
suitable match for the boy, lest he should be made the prey



HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE. 23

of fortune-hunters, little knowing the boy’s ability to look out
for himself, and to think for himself as well.

They selected one of the five daughters of the Duke
d’Ayen, a noble and wealthy peer of the realm, marshal of the
camp of the armies of the king, and a very persistent and
determined gentleman, when once he made up his mind to
have his own way.

In this case the proposal of the guardians of the young
Marquis de Lafayette to make the boy his son-in-law was
- precisely in the duke’s way; and at once he communicated the
proposal to his wife, and declared that the one selected to be
the Marchioness de Lafayette was their second daughter,
Mademoiselle Marie-Adrienne-Francoise de Noailles, a girl of
twelve, — good, pretty, amiable, and in every way a delightful
character. 3

But Adrienne’s mother, the Duchess d’Ayen, was quite
as strong a character, in her way, as was her husband the
duke. When she learned who was this son-in-law that her
husband had selected for their second daughter, she objected
at once.

“Tt is too great a risk to run for Adrienne,” she declared.
“The Marquis de Lafayette is very young, very rich, and
very wilful. He seems to be a good boy, so far as his stand-
ing at school and his conduct in society are concerned; but
with no one to guide him, no one to look after his fortune
and hold him back from extravagance and foolishness, with-
out a near relative, and with his character as yet unformed |



24 HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE.

and uncertain, our daughter’s marriage to him is out of the
question, and I will not agree to it.”

Her husband declared that she must, and she repeated
that she would not; the discussion, of which, by the way,
neither the boy nor the girl most interested had the slightest
idea, continued until this husband and wife, who had always
loved each other dearly, actually quarrelled and almost
separated because of it. But the duke thought it over and
at last gave in so far as to suggest as a compromise that the
marriage should not take place for two years, that Adrienne
should not leave her mother for at least three years, and that,
meantime, he, the duke, would himself look after the education
and advancement of the young marquis, so as to make him
in every way a proper and suitable husband for their daughter.

The duchess thought it over also, and at last she, too, -
agreed to the compromise.

“If the boy is brought up in our home wee I can see
and study him,” she declared, “I will agree. Then, having
taken all precautions, and having no negligence wherewith to
reproach ourselves, we need do nothing but peacefully submit
to the will of God, who knows best what is fitting for us.”

So it was decided, and so it was arranged. The boy and
girl were allowed to meet without knowing what were the
family intentions in regard to them, and, very fortunately,
they liked one another at once, and so much that when at
last their future was disclosed to them by their guardians,
they were both delighted, and began to build bright air-castles,



el

a
i

|





























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































“THE DUKE THOUGHT IT OVER AND SUGGESTED A COMPROMISE,”






HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE. 27

in true boy and girl style, of what they would do for the hap-
piness of the world when they were old enough to use their
own money and estate. |

Lafayette was fourteen and Adrienne was twelve when
their engagement was made public; rather young, we should
say, according to our American standards; but customs vary
as much as do tongues and times, and all France declared it
was an excellent match.

Even the duchess, who objected, said so too, in time.
For when Adrienne’s mother came really to know this quiet
and rather awkward young marquis, she loved him as dearly
and cared for him as tenderly as if he were her own son; and
then she and the duke “ made it all up again.”

The duke kept his promise. He took the boy in hand,
had him live in his own home, the stately, old-time Noailles
mansion in the heart of Paris, and sent him in time to
the Academy of Versailles where young noblemen were
educated in military duties, until at last the boy mar-
quis secured his commission and became an officer in the
king’s own regiment of the Black Musketeers, upon whose
very exclusive roll of cadets his good grand-uncle had entered
his name.

While this military education was going on, Lafayette and
Adrienne d’Ayen were married. Their wedding day was the
eleventh of April, 1774; the young bridegroom was but sixteen,
the bride was fourteen; it was a boy and girl marriage, and,
indeed, for a year or more the young people were both kept



28 HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE.

at the Noailles mansion, under the guardianship of the duke
and duchess. But it was one of the happiest of marriages,
and for thirty-four years they lived together as husband and
wife. “Thirty-four years of union,” so wrote Lafayette after
Adrienne’s death in 1807, “in which the love and the eleva-



A FRENCH WEDDING IN LAFAYETTE’S DAY.

tion, the delicacy and the generosity of her soul, charmed,
adorned, and honored my days, and in which I was so much
accustomed to all that she was to me that I did not distin-
guish her from my own existence.”

That was a beautiful tribute to his girl-wife, was it not?
Madame Adrienne de Lafayette seems to have been as rare



HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE. 29

and beautiful and noble a woman as he was excellent, pure-
hearted, and noble a man.

In 1775 the young couple set up housekeeping for them-
selves. They had a house in Paris, and their country estate
was the old castle at Chavaniac; they had gay surroundings,
and were of the “inner circle,” with princes and princesses
and all the young lords and ladies of that bright and careless
court at Versailles as their associates.

But Lafayette did not take kindly to all this show and
glitter. “The awkwardness of my manners,” he says,
“never could properly adjust themselves to the required
graces of the court.” The balls and theatrical shows, the
dances and suppers, and all the extravagant entertainments
of the young queen Marie Antoinette, were not to his liking,
although you would naturally expect them to be most attrac-
tive to a boy of seventeen.

It was the fashion just then among the younger courtiers
and aristocrats of France, to talk much of liberty and the
rights of man. It came from the teaching of certain “ up-to-
date” philosophers and students of society, who, in the last
quarter of the eighteenth century, influenced the aristocratic
classes of France and made them liberty-lovers, although
they were the ruling spirits in a nation where there was very
little liberty, and where any man not a noble had scarcely
any rights. It was, after all, mostly talk, however; but to.
the young Lafayette, brought up in sturdy independence,
in the free air of the rugged Auvergne hills, it proved some-



30 HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE.

thing more than talk. He learned to believe in and desire
liberty and freedom for the people; he thought it would be a
fine thing if there were less of suffering and wrong among
the poor, and more of helpfulness and generosity among the
rich. He and his young wife, as I have told you, had
beautiful dreams of what they would do to make the world
better; they were only dreams, to be sure, but, because of
them and of his retiring disposition, the young marquis did
not take kindly to the stiff ceremonials and foolish fripperies
of the court, where so much was show without sense and
affectation without affection.

He even joined some of the young nobles in making
sport of the older ones and in poking fun at all their stiff
and starched ways; one day he, with the princes and young
lords of the court, got up a mock parliament which they
played before the gay young queen, Marie Antoinette, just
to make fun of the real parliament then in session at
Versailles. It came very near getting Lafayette and the
young nobles in trouble; for though even the young king,
Louis XVI., had to laugh over it, he was forced also, out
of respect to his “grave and revered seigneurs” to “call
down” and reprimand those who had taken part in the
“take-off.” And in the midst of all the fuss and fume over
the affair, Lafayette, who was heartily sick of it all, was
glad enough to be ordered, as a sort of punishment, to join
his regiment at Strasburg.

But under all this sport and caricature in which the



HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE. 31

young and thoughtless nobles joined there was with a few, —
and especially with Lafayette, much serious and earnest
thought over the condition of the world. He shared the
growing desire that seemed “in the air” for real liberty and
the end of sham and of the meaningless ceremonies that
bolstered up royalty; so, although he could not tell precisely —
how liberty was to come to France or when it was to come,
he still dreamed about it, and, like the clear-headed, pure-
hearted, sensible, and manly boy he was, hoped for the
dawning of the day that should bring men nearer together
as brothers and fellow workers, and give to all, in some way
and to some extent, the boon and blessing of freedom.



32 WHERE HE HEARD OF INDEPENDENCE.

CHAPTER II.

WHERE THE YOUNG ARISTOCRAT HEARD OF INDEPENDENCE.

ie father-in-law, the Duke d’Ayen, always
felt himself so responsible for the doings of his daugh-
ters husband that he was greatly displeased over this con-
duct of his son-in-law, in mimicking the manners of the high
and ceremonious nobles of the court. The duke greatly
liked Lafayette, although he could not understand him or
fathom his thoughts. He was afraid the boy was growing
indifferent, careless, and indolent, and he begged young
Count Segur, Lafayette’s especial friend and cousin, to rouse
the young marquis, and stir him up to more enthusiasm.
“Indifferent! indolent!” cried the young count, with a
laugh. “ Faith! my dear marshal, you do not yet know our
Lafayette. He has altogether too much enthusiasm. Why,
only yesterday he almost insisted on my fighting a duel with
him because I did not agree with him in a matter of which
I knew nothing, and of which he thought I should know
everything. He is anything but indifferent and indolent, I
can assure you.”
If that were the case, and he really had misunderstood
his young son-in-law, the Duke d’Ayen decided that he must



WHERE HE HEARD OF INDEPENDENCE, 33

put the lad’s talents to the highest use. To a noble of
France, the “highest use” for a man of rank meant faithful
and continued attendance at court; so the duke planned and
worked to have Lafayette “ attached” in some official capac
ity to the personal suite or following of one of the scapegrace
young princes of France, —the Count of Provence, brother
of King Louis XVI.

But if you have read the story of Lafayette aright, even
thus far, you have discovered that he was not the kind of a
‘boy to curry favor with princes or follow like a lackey in
a noble’s train. Already, his vague search after liberty for
man was making him detest anything like toadying and
favoritism, and leading him to dislike titles and distinctions
of rank. He listened eagerly to anything he heard concern-
ing men who, in any land, were awaking to a desire for
freedom.

“T was delighted with republican stories,” he says of
himself at that time, “and when my relatives secured a place
for me at court I did not hesitate to give offence in order to
maintain my independence.”

Probably if the Count of Provence, in whose “ train” the
young marquis was to be provided with a place, had been
an older man Lafayette would not have “given offence” in
just the way he did; for Lafayette was always a gentleman,
and had been brought up to respect his elders. But this |
young prince, the brother of the king of France, was
scarcely two years older than Lafayette, and felt his impor-



34 WHERE HE HEARD OF INDEPENDENCE.

tance tremendously. Any boy of spirit and independence
dislikes such airs, and the young marquis felt that he was
just as much of a boy and had just as much of right and
interest in the world as had this haughty young Count of
Provence — king’s brother though he were.

So, when the duke, his father-in-law, managed to get the
young marquis to Paris and told him what he was trying to
arrange, Lafayette, as he confesses, actually put himself out
to give offence to the prince and to break up the proposed
scheme for his objectionable “ advancement.”

At one of the gay masked balls given at the court, Lafay-
ette took pains to hunt out the Count of Provence, who was
to be his “patron.” Then, actually cornering him, he reeled
off the greatest lot of talk about liberty and equality and the
rights of man that he could think up, — more of it, perhaps,
and much more radical and emphatic in statement than
Lafayette himself really believed. He was just “piling it
on,” you see, in order to make the young prince angry and
disgusted with him.

He certainly succeeded. The king’s brother tried to pro-
test, but he could scarcely “get a word in edgewise;” the
usually silent and reserved young marquis grew more and
more eloquent and objectionable. .

« Sir,” said the boy prince, lifting his mask, “I shall remem-
ber this interview.”

“Sir,” replied the boy marquis, lifting his mask and bowing
politely, but significantly; “ memory is the wisdom of fools.”



WHERE HE HEARD OF INDEPENDENCE. 35

With an indignant gesture the prince turned hotly on his
heel, and the young marquis was in disgrace. And you shall
see, as you get deeper into the story of Lafayette, how the
angry Count of Provence really did “remember” the inter-
view.

The well-meaning father-in-law of the young marquis was
again terribly scandalized. The thought that this young man
had not only recklessly refused so fine an opportunity, but
had gone out of his way to anger those to whom he should
have toadied, was something the good, but old-fashioned
Duke d’Ayen could not understand.

The Duke found fault with the boy openly and strongly.
But Lafayette had accomplished what he desired, and he was
so independent as regarded rank and riches that he could
afford to do about as he pleased; so, though his family
“complained,” he said little or nothing in reply.

“His reluctance to talk,” one of his youthful associates
said, in later years, “and his chilly, serious manner, were
always remarkable, but never as much so as in his youth, .
when they contrasted strangely with the petulant brilliance
of his companions.”

That sounds oddly to Americans, does it not? For we
have always thought of Lafayette as bright, impetuous, talk-
ative and fascinating, something entirely different from the
silent, serious, “chilly ” young man this picture seems to
make him. We know, however, what high ideals were fighting
the injustice of the world in this boy’s thoughtful nature;



36 WHERE HE HEARD OF INDEPENDENCE.

and his companions and relations simply did not under.
stand him. But Madame Adrienne, his bright young wife,
did understand him better than the rest of her family; and,
as she loved him, so, too, she sympathized with him, even
though she did not really always agree with him.

But the Duke d’Ayen, in great distress, had the young
marquis despatched to his regiment, sorrowfully giving up that
brilliant plan for advancement at court. And, in August,
1775, Lafayette was transferred from the Black Musketeers,
in which he held a commission, to another command. He
was made an officer in the “regiment de Noailles,” as it
was called, one of the high-toned regiments of France, com-
manded by an equally high-toned young colonel, Monsei-
gneur the Prince de Poix, a cousin of Lafayette’s wife, and
one of the lofty De Noailles family for whom the regiment
was named, as has long been the custom in certain armies of
certain European countries. .

The “regiment de Noailles” was stationed at Metz, at
that time a garrison city of France, and nearly two hun-
dred miles east of Paris. The military governor or com-
mander of Metz was the Count de Broglie, marshal and
prince of France and commander of the French armies in
the Seven Years’ War, in which, at that fatal battle of
Hastenbeck, as I have told you, Lafayette’s father, the
colonel, had been killed by English guns.

The Count de Broglie had a high regard for the son
of his old friend and companion in arms, and made much of ©



WHERE HE HEARD OF INDEPENDENCE. 37

Lafayette when his regiment was stationed at Metz. He
invited the young marquis to his feasts and entertainments,
of which there were many in the gay garrison towns of that
show-time in France.

In those years France and England were, for a wonder,
at peace, and so it came about that, on the eighth of
August, 1775, when the Count de Broglie gave a garrison
dinner-party to a young English prince, the Duke of
Gloucester, the Marquis de Lafayette in his handsome dress
uniform of blue and silver was one of the guests at the
table. But even these “functions” were not to his taste,
and he sat silent and thoughtful, while the other young
officers were boisterous, laughing, and talkative, through the
courses of this long “swell” banquet given by a prince of
France to a prince of England.

Now this prince of England, William, Duke of Glouces-
ter, was in temporary disgrace with his brother, George, the
king of England, because he had the audacity to marry
a wife to whom the king objected. So the duke and his
wife had been sent out of England on a sort of enforced
vacation, and, as a result, the duke was not in a very loving
mood toward his brother the king. Indeed the duke was
so foolish as to criticise the king and even to make fun of
him in the house of his hereditary foes. For France,
although, as I have told you, at peace just then with
England, had been her bitter foe ever since the days of
Crecy and Poitiers, and, especially, from that disastrous



38 WHERE HE HEARD OF INDEPENDENCE.

September day in 1759 when, on the Heights of Abra
ham, Wolfe had defeated Montcalm and driven the French
power from America.

In that very year of 1775 in which the Duke of
Gloucester dined with the French Commandant at Metz,
news had come to England of the breaking out of a
rebellion in America, which had led to a fight between
American “peasants” and British soldiers at a place called
Lexington in the colony of Massachusetts Bay. The duke
had received letters from England in which had been told
the story of the determined stand of the American “ peas-
ants” at Lexington and Concord, — for to aristocratic Europe
those Middlesex farmers and fishermen were simply “ peas-
ants,’ men of the lower orders who needed the strong hand
to put them down. The duke had also been told of the
long and disastrous retreat of Lord Percy and his troops
through a now historic country, from Lexington back to
Boston. This seemed such a good joke on his stubborn
brother, the king, that he told it with great gusto. So, as,
in the company of the French officers around the Duke
de Broglie’s dinner-table, he told the story of the “ uprising ”
in America and how also in that same Boston town, a year
or so before, the “rebel townspeople” rather than pay the
king’s tax on tea had thrown the tea into the harbor, the
company was highly entertained by the recital, and ques-
tioned the duke as to who these rebel “peasants” were
and why they were in rebellion.





“THE AMERICAN PEASANTS” WHO STOOD AT LEXINGTON AND CONCORD.







WHERE HE HEARD OF INDEPENDENCE. AI

The Duke of Gloucester, as I have told you, was just
then “out” with the king his brother; it has even been
charged that he sided with the rebel Americans against King
George III. and his councillors, as did many justice-loving
Englishmen. So he explained to his French hosts the cause
of the quarrel between king and colonists — that is, so far
as he knew it; there were very, very few of the lords and
gentlemen of England in that day who really did understand
the American question; but the Duke of Gloucester did say
that, though the “peasants” of America were a plucky lot,
still, as all the “gentlemen” of the colonies seemed to be
loyal to-theskane the: peasants * had no chance of success
unless, by some chance, leaders and officers of experience
turned in and helped them.

«They are poor, they are ill led, they have no gentlemen-
soldiers to show them how to fight,” the duke declared, “and
the king my brother is determined to bring them into sub-
jection by harsh and forcible methods, if need be. But my
letters say that the Americans seem set upon opposing force
with force, and, as the country is large and the colonies
scattered, it certainly looks as if the trouble would be long
and serious. If but the Americans were well led, I should
say the rebellion might really develop into a serious affair.”

In a way, most of the French officers at that military
banquet involuntarily sympathized with the American
e peasants,” of whose struggle for justice and independence
they were, most of them, hearing for the first time. With



42 WHERE HE HEARD OF INDEPENDENCE.

some of them this sympathy was due to that interest in
liberty which just then was the fancy, almost the “fad,”
among a certain class of French aristocrats; to all of them,
however, it was especially due to the hatred for England
that underlay French enthusiasm and action— the desire
to “get square with” the nation that had worsted and
humbled France, alike in war and in politics.

But while at that table there were interested but indif-
ferent listeners, there was one who, as he listened to the
Duke of Gloucester, felt what the old Puritans used to call
“an inward light.” His sharp-featured, unattractive face
fairly glowed with enthusiasm; his eyes sparkled with an
intensity of interest and purpose; he leaned far forward,
serious and silent, amid his talkative companions, as he
strove to lose no word of the imperfect French of the Eng-
lish prince; then, as the company rose from the table, this
red-haired, awkward boy of eighteen crossed over to the
prince, and, repressing his real earnestness, inquired anx-
iously, “But could one help these peasants over there
beyond the seas, monseigneur ?” .

“One could, my lord marquis, if he were there,” the
prince replied. |

“Then tell me, I pray you, how one may do it, monsei-
gneur,” said the young man; “tell me how to set about it.
For see, I will join these Americans; I will help them fight
for freedom!”

The duke iooked into the face of this calm, cool, appar-



WHERE HE HEARD OF INDEPENDENCE. A3

ently unenthusiastic young noble, now aroused to interest
and ardor. He smiled at first in a sort of disbelief. But,
as he caught the gleam of the boy’s eye, and saw the con-
viction that lived in the earnest face, he said: “Why, I
beliéve you would, my lord.
It wouldn’t take much to
start you across the sea, —
if your people would let
you.”

If his people would let
him? Who would try to
stop him? Lafayette asked
himself. He had been so
accustomed to having his
own way that such a thing
as any one interfering with
his plans seemed to him
absurd. Besides, the high
resolve that he had made



allowed no question of in-

LAFAYETTE AND THE DUKE OF GLOUCESTER.

terference. That purpose “ «Could one help these peasants, monseigneur ?'”
put from his mind every

other thought except his instant decision. Quick and impul-
sive, for all his silent ways and seeming indifference, in that
moment the Marquis de Lafayette had made up his mind.
He would go to America; he would offer his services to

a people who were struggling for freedom and independence.



A4. . WHERE HE HEARD OF INDEPENDENCE.

His inborn love of liberty; his dislike for courts and their
stupid ceremonials, for kingly tyrannies and the fetters they
put upon the wills and ways of men; his dream of doing
something that should make the world happier and better, —
dreams which, as you know, he had shared with his young
wife Adrienne; above all, his desire for action, his wish to
be somebody, to do something besides hanging about the
court, or waiting upon the pleasure or caprices of a king, —
these, all, combined to urge him to instant action. He
questioned the Duke of Gloucester closely; he got all the
“points” possible. The only question was how to get to
America. For, as you can see, he was enlisted, heart and
soul, in the cause of American independence. “Never,” he
said, in after years, recalling his boyish impulse and that
sudden decision; “never had so noble a purpose offered itself
to the judgment of men. This was the last struggle of
liberty; the defeat in America would have left it without
refuge and without hope.” .

Within a month the Duke of Gloucester had returned to
England and to the favor of his kingly brother, probably
giving no further thought to the earnest young Frenchman
who had questioned him so closely at Metz. But before
that month was out the Marquis de Lafayette had already
gone still deeper into the plan which the careless words
of the English prince had set in motion in his youthful
mind.

“From that hour,” he declared, “I could think of nothing



WHERE HE HEARD OF INDEPENDENCE. 45

but this enterprise, and I resolved to go to Paris at once to

make further inquiries.”

He hurried off to Paris, full of
his plans. His determination grew
with his desire, and as soon as he
reached town, he rushed to find
his cousin and close confidant,
the young Count de Segur.

It was only
seven o'clock in
the morning,and
the young count
was not yet up.
But Lafayette
burst into his
cousin’s room.
He was no
longer listless,
silent, or indif-
ferent.

“Wake up!
wake up!” he
called out to
the surprised count. “Wake up!
I’m going to America to fight



*¢WAKE UP ! M GOING
TO AMERICA.’ ”

for freedom. Nobody knows it



“IF THAT IS SO, I WILL GO
WITH YOU.’”

yet; but I love you too much not to tell you.”



46 — WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA.

And the Count de Segur, fired by his cousin’s earnestness,
and thrilled with his inspiring news, sprang out of bed and
caught Lafayette’s outstretched hand.

“Tf that is so, I will go with you,” he cried. “I will go to
America, too. I will fight with you for freedom! How soon
do you start?” |

Cre Aiea euine ae

WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA.

ane: two impulsive boys, who, fired by a generous pur-

pose, thus pledged themselves to fight for the liberties
of America at seven o'clock in the morning, straightway
after breakfast hunted up another young friend whom.
they knew would be with them, heart and soul, in this
enterprise.

This was the Viscount Louis Marie de Noailles, brother-
in-law to Lafayette, one year older than the young mar-
quis and his very dear friend. He, too, eagerly seconded
Lafayette’s plan; for though a great noble of France, he
belonged to what we should call to-day a sort of Tolstoi
family; for his father actually worked with the peasants
at the plough and his mother and sister lived only “for
God and their poor.” Naturally, this plan to help a nation



WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA. 47

to freedom would appeal to such a liberal-minded young
man, and the three boys—none of them were over twenty,
you know— pledged themselves to fight for America and
to set about it at once.

This, however, proved to be no easy task. France
hated England and was ready to go to any extent, secretly, |
to injure her at home and cripple her abroad. But there
was no desire just at that time for an open rupture of
peaceful relations, and the prime minister of King Louis
of France while really wishing one thing said quite
another.

When, therefore, the prime minister learned that there
was a movement among the young nobles of France to
sail across the sea and fight with the American “ insur-
gents” against the power of England, he was afraid that
England would think that the French government per-
mitted and encouraged this hostile action. So, lest it might
lead to undesirable complications, perhaps to actual war,
he “sat down upon” all such schemes whenever he heard
of them, and, especially, upon the three-cornered partner-
ship in patriotism of Lafayette, Noailles, and Segur.

So the young fellows had to go to work cautiously
and in secret council; and as Noailles and Segur had no
money of their own to invest in this adventure, but must
look to their fathers for funds, they had to think first of
money. Even before making this necessary application,
however, they waited until Lafayette could with the great-



48 WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA.

est caution see and talk with the agent of the rebellious
American colonists.
This agent was Silas Deane of Connecticut, who had

































































oa LAFAYETTE SECRETLY CALLS UPON THE
/ AMERICAN AGENT.

been sent across to France by the American “Committee
of Secret Correspondence,” of which Doctor Benjamin
Franklin was a member. Do you remember how, in the



WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA. 49

«True Story of Benjamin Franklin,” I told you about the
mysterious visit to this committee of a certain “little lame

d

Frenchman,” who hinted significantly to the surprised com-
mittee that, whenever they were ready, they could get all
the help they wanted from France?

I am inclined to think that this very mysterious and
“little lame Frenchman” was a certain Monsieur Achard
Bonvouloir, lieutenant in the army of the king of France,
who had “made up” for this interview so that no one
Should recognize him, but who had really been sent to
America by the prime minister of France, to see how
things stood and to give the Americans secretly to under-
stand that if they wished the aid of France there was a
way in which they could have it.

At any rate, it was soon after this secret interview
that the committee sent Silas Deane to France, as the
agent of the colonies in rebellion against the power of
England, and it was to Silas Deane that the young
Marquis de Lafayette applied for information as to how
he could join the “insurgent army” in America.

Before seeking an interview with Silas Deane and with-
out saying anything to his wife or his wife’s family, — for
the latter, he knew, would put an immediate veto on his
action,— the young marquis told his secret to his superior
officer, the Count de Broglie, commander of the garrison
at Metz, his own and his father’s friend.

“Throw your life away in that land of savages!” cried



50 WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA.

the count, when Lafayette had told him his desire. “Why,
my dear marquis, it is a crazy scheme; and to what
purpose?”

“For the noblest purpose, sir,” responded the young
enthusiast; “to help a devoted people attain their liberty.
What can be nobler?” .

“A dream, a dream, my friend, that
can never be fulfilled,’ said the count,
“J will not “help you throw your life
away. My boy,’ he added, feelingly,
grasping the hand of the young marquis,
“I saw your uncle die in the wars of
Italy; I witnessed your brave father’s
death at Hastenbeck, and I cannot, I will
not be a party to the ruin of the last of

_ your name, the only remaining branch
and scion of the Lafayettes.”

This was like cold water on the young



EES SP Sunt Ay a A Zs Me
scneme!? criep twuz soldier's scheme, but even cold water
COUNT.” :
could not drown or even dampen his en-
thusiasm. Indeed, so earnestly and so vigorously did he
combat all the count’s objections, and so strenuously did he
advocate his own desires, that, at last, even the gallant com-
mander of Metz was won over to his young lieutenant’s side,
and said he would help him to his desires, although it was

a risky business.
“T will introduce you to De Kalb, eShessatd. Miles cin



WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA. 51

Paris now, and perhaps through him you can gain your
point with this Monsieur Deane.”

So it was only through a third, even through a fourth
party, that Lafayette was able to bring about his interview
with the agent of the colonies.

There was in Paris at that time, as the Count de Broglie
had said, a veteran Bavarian soldier named John Kalb, better
known as Baron de Kalb. The true story of his life is but
slightly known; but it was full of mystery, action, and ad-
venture, and in the American Revolution De Kalb proved
himself a brave and efficient leader.

Long before the Revolution he had been in America. In
1768 he was sent by a far-seeing minister of France to
investigate the trouble that even then was brewing between
England and her American colonies, and which, so that wise
minister foresaw, would one day lead to serious results,
unless England changed her methods. But England, as
you know, did not change her methods; the troubles of 1768
grew into the revolution of 1776, and England’s necessity
was France’s opportunity.

So, just at the time when Lafayette had made up his
mind to go to America, the Count de Broglie, his com-
mander, whom Lafayette’s earnestness had set to thinking,
requested the Baron de Kalb to go again to America in his
behalf, and see if he could not so “work things” that he, the
Count de Broglie, could be invited by the American Con-
gress to become commander in chief of the American armies.



52 WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA.

This sounds oddly to us, to-day, who know that there
was and could be but one Washington. But, at that time,
France set down all Americans as “a herd of peasants”
who, as the Duke of Gloucester had said, could never suc-
ceed in their struggle against England unless disciplined
and marshalled by some European soldier of high name and
warlike experience, — as, for instance, so reasoned the com-
mander of Metz, the Count de Broglie!

To accomplish his mission, it was necessary that De
Kalb should go at once to America and secretly confer with
the Congress; to do this, an appointment was desirable in
the service of the United States, —it was really the United
States of America now, you see, since the Declaration of
Independence, — and to secure this appointment, the Baron
de Kalb and the Count de Broglie waited upon “ Monsieur
Deane,” the agent of the “insurgents.”

Silas Deane was an enthusiastic but somewhat unwise
patriot, who was so anxious to secure friends and assistance
for America that he made rash promises to every one who
showed any interest or asked for a commission in the
American service; he was therefore unable to distinguish
between scheming adventurers and honest friends of
American liberty.

He was quite impressed by the visit of the Count de
Broglie and the Baron de Kalb, you may be sure, and at once
he promised Baron de Kalb the rank of major-general in the
American army, and signed an agreement whereby De Kalb



WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA. 53

and fifteen French officers should go to America on a vessel
loaded with arms and military supplies for the fighting
Americans.

This was Lafayette’s opportunity. The Count de
Broglie, as promised, introduced him to De Kalb, the baron
introduced him to Silas Deane; and to the American agent
the young marquis freely opened his heart, and stated his
wish and his intention. This was on or about the fifth of
Decemberer7 76:

Lafayette was very boyish-looking at that time; he was
smooth-faced and slight of figure, and, indeed, feared greatly
that his “ nineteen-year-old face,” as he called it, would hurt
his cause. But he was so full of zeal and enthusiasm, and,
as he confesses, “made so much out of the small excitement
that my going away was likely to cause,” that Silas Deane
was captivated by the young marquis at once, and forthwith,
according to his helter-skelter custom, drew up a contract
with Lafayette, by which the young Frenchman was to
enter the service of the United States of America as major-
general, —a major-general at nineteen !

“ His high birth,’ so the agreement which was submitted
to Congress read, “his alliances, the great dignities which
his family holds at this court, his considerable estates in this
realm, his personal merit, his reputation, his disinterested-
ness, and above all, his zeal for the liberty of our provinces,
are such as have only been able to engage me to promise
him the rank of major-general in the name of the United



54 WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA.

States. In witness of which I have signed the present this
seventh of December, 1776. Silas Deane, Agent for the
United States of America.”

From all this you may judge that the overzealous
agent of the United States of America was as susceptible
to the enthusiasm of this nineteen-year-old marquis as
even the soldierly commandant of the king’s garrison at
Metz.

But other people were not so susceptible, especially when
the young marquis was a_ son-in-law. When Lafayette
declared his intention his own relatives and his wife’s family
were furious. Only his girl-wife Adrienne understood his
motives and sympathized with his desires. It was quite in
line, you see, with the high plans for making the world
better that this young husband and wife had dreamed over
together.

“God wills that you should go,” she said. “I have
prayed for guidance and strength. Whatever others think,
you shall not be blamed.”

But others not only thought; they acted. One of these,
and the most important actor, was the Duke d’Ayen, the
father of Adrienne.

The two young comrades of Lafayette, De Noailles and
Segur, who had promised to go with him, could not get
either the funds from their fathers nor permission from the
king. So they had to give up their plans. Lafayette, how-
ever, was rich; his money was all his own; no one could



WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA. 55

control his action or his expenditures. But he was a soldier
of France; so father-in-law d’Ayen complained to the king;
the British ambassador, who had somehow got hold of the
facts, complained to the king; and the king of France, who
was really little more than ‘a boy, and a very unenthusiastic
boy at that, said that, while it was a very fine thing to be
zealous in behalf of liberty, he could not allow the officers of
his army to serve in the army of the American “ insurgents ”
against the soldiers of the king of England, with whom he
was at peace. He therefore forbade any officer of his to go
to the war in America. |

“You had better return to your regiment at Metz, my
dear son,” the triumphant Duke d’Ayen advised. But he
did not yet know the spirit of his son-in-law.

“ No Lafayette was ever known to turn back,” the young

marquis declared. “I shall do as I have determined;” and
thereupon he put upon his coat-of-arms the motto taken by
a great soldier ancestor of his, cur nwon—“ Why not?” in

order, as he declared, that the device might serve him “both
as an encouragement and a response.” And then he went off
very quietly to talk with Doctor Franklin.

For, by this time, Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania,
the foremost and best-known American of that day, had been
sent to France to assist and advise Silas Deane, and, in time,
to replace him. You have read how Franklin went to the
French court as envoy from America, and all that he accom-
plished there. He, too, was at once attracted by Lafay.



56 WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA.

ette’s earnestness, and appreciated the great influence that
his name would have in behalf of America.

Just at that time terrible news came across the Atlantic.
The Americans had been defeated and almost cut to pieces
at the disastrous battle of Long Island, and a sudden
chill fell upon French enthusiasm. It looked as if the
“insurgents” in America were not strong enough to take
care of themselves and that France had better leave them
alone.

But Lafayette was only strengthened in his determination
by this bad news.

He sought out Franklin. Mr. Deane was with the
doctor. | .

“Gentlemen,” said the young marquis, “heretofore I have
been able to show you only my willingness to aid you in
your struggle; the time has now come when that willing-
ness may be put to effective use. I am going to buy a ship
and take your officers and supplies to America in it. Let us
not give up our hope yet. It is precisely in time of danger
that I wish to share whatever fortune may have in store for
you.”

Do you wonder that Franklin was moved by the gener-
osity and friendliness of this very determined young man?
But Doctor Franklin was, as you know, the most practical
of men; so, while accepting the offer of the young marquis
with thanks and appreciation, he suggested that the Ameri-
can agents were not popular people to know just then, and



WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA. 57

that Lafayette should work through third parties, and, if
possible, get away from Paris.

Lafayette took this advice. He selected as his agent an
officer in one of the king’s West Indian regiments, then home







LAFAYETTE AND THE AMERICAN AGENTS.

“* Tt is precisely in time of danger that I wish to share whatever fortune may have in store for you?”

on a furlough; and while this Captain Dubois, for that was
his name, with Lafayette’s money behind him, went about
to secretly purchase and secretly load a vessel, as if it were
intended. for the needs of his own regiment in the West
Indies, the young marquis slipped over the channel to Eng-
land to visit his uncle, the French ambassador, in company



58 WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA.

with the colonel of his regiment, his kinsman, the young
Prince de Poix.

He had a fine time in England. All his relatives believed
that “the crazy American scheme” was quite given up and
forgotten; the marquis was received in London society as
one of the leading young nobles of France; he went to
Windsor and was presented to King George; he went to a
ball at the house of the minister of the colonies, and “ hob-
nobbed” with Sir Henry Clinton on the opera. He was
to meet Sir Henry at quite a different performance not
so very long after.

But, though he had every opportunity to do so, Lafayette
would not play the spy. He kept away from the British
shipyards and the British barracks, although he was invited
to inspect them and see how thoroughly the king was pre-
paring to punish “his American rebels.” Honor was ever
one of the strongest points in Lafayette’s noble character.

Suddenly he disappeared from London. For three days
he was in hiding in Paris where he had a last word with
the American envoys and then slipped away with Baron
de Kalb to Bordeaux, the port at which was waiting the
sloop “Victory,” purchased by Captain Dubois with
Lafayette’s money to take the young marquis and _ his
fellow filibusters to America.

But it was not as the Marquis de Lafayette that the
runaway nobleman stepped as a passenger on board his
own vessel. That would never do. There were spies every-



WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA. 59

where, and as, in France, it was necessary to have a per-
mit or passport before leaving the country, Lafayette’s
name appeared on the permit, which is still preserved as
a relic at Bordeaux, as “Gilbert du Mottie, Chevalier de



= WINDSOR PALACE,

Where Lafayette met the King of Englana.

Chavaillac, aged about twenty, rather tall, light-haired,
embarking on the Victory, Captain Lebourcier command-
ing, for a voyage to the Cape on private business.”

He did not disguise his name so very much, you see;



60 WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA.

for really he was Gilbert du Motier and he was the Che-
valier de Chavaniac; but a careless entry clerk, who knew
nothing about Lafayette’s other names, and had no especial
interest in his “private business,” blunderingly misspelled
them both and so the “ Victory” cleared for the Cape.

It seemed a very easy escape. But the trouble had
not yet even begun. While waiting at Bordeaux Lafayette
heard that, somehow, his plans had been discovered; so the
“Victory” sailed away without waiting for its necessary
sailing papers, intending to run into a Spanish port and
there complete arrangements. .

But even this intention leaked out, and when, on the
twenty-seventh of March, 1777, the “ Victory” run into the
little Spanish port of Las Pasajes on the Bay of Biscay
and just across the French border, Lafayette found that
he had sailed into trouble. Instead of the sailing papers
that should let him clear for America the young runaway
marquis found letters from his family protesting, com-
plaining, and threatening; he found letters from the king’s
ministers charging him with desertion from the army, .
breaking his oath of allegiance to the king and involving
the government in serious trouble with England; worse
than this, he found two officers from the court bearing letters
under the king’s own seal, commanding Lieutenant the
Marquis de Lafayette of the regiment de Noailles to pro-
ceed at once to Marseilles and await orders.

This was serious enough. But, in all those letters, there



WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA. 61

was no word of complaint or censure from his young wife,
even though, to escape detention, Lafayette had_ sailed
away without telling her. She, however, as I have told
you, knew his desires and approved of the enterprise. She
would put no obstacle in his way. But his letters from
home told sad stories about her health and her state of
mind, and, though Lafayette would have braved all else, —
even the wrath of the ministers and the king’s order of
arrest, —he could not stand having anything happen to his
young wife on his account.

So he turned his back on his cherished plans, said
good-bye to the “ Victory” and his companions, and, crossing
the border into France, galloped back to Bordeaux, much to
the disgust of his comrade, the Baron de Kalb, who wrote
to his wife, “This is the end of his expedition to America to
join the army of the insurgents.”

But the Baron de Kalb did not yet know the Marquis
de Lafayette; neither did that young man’s family, friends,
or rulers. If he believed a thing was right he would do
it in spite of all opposition. Upon his arrival at Bordeaux
he learned that he had been recalled by a false alarm, and
that it was all what boys now-a-days call a “put-up job,”
arranged by his father-in-law, the duke. For his wife, he
heard, was well and happy, except at the thought of his long
absence; the government was in no danger of complications
with England because of his action, although the British
ambassador at Paris made such a row over Lafayette’s expe-



62 WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA.

dition that the court was compelled to appear to deal severely
with the young marquis. In fact, as I have told you, he dis-
covered that the trouble all came through the methods pur-
sued by his father-in-law, the Duke d’Ayen, who felt that
Lafayette was too important and too valuable a young man
in France and in his family to be allowed to risk his life
and estate among the savages and “insurgents” of North





















“ HE GALLOPED BACK TO BORDEAUX.”

America. It was the duke, therefore, who had sent off all
those “terrible letters,” as Lafayette called them, which had
recalled the young marquis from his cherished enterprise.

He determined at once to return to the “ Victory.” But
the ship still lay at the Spanish port, and the young man had
no permit to cross the border. He was also under the
orders of the king to return, and if he should be caught
travelling the other way it would go hard with him.



WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA. 63

His father-in-law, the duke, was waiting for him at Mar-
seilles. And, toward Marseilles, Lafayette started, as soon as
the letters sent him from Paris had led him to make up his
mind. While waiting at Bordeaux, he had been joined by a
young French officer, who also had secured from Silas
Deane an appointment in the American army, and, together,
the young men set off in a post-chaise to drive, apparently,
to Marseilles.

But when they were well out of Bordeaux, they suddenly
wheeled about and headed for Spain. In a quiet place,
Lafayette slipped into the woods. There he hastily disguised
himself as a post-boy, a sort of mounted carriage-servant, and
rode on ahead, on horseback, as if he were the guide or
attendant of the other young man in the post-chaise bound
for Spain.

The young man in the post-chaise had a permit to leave
France, and he hoped to get the marquis across the border
in the disguise of his horse-boy. But when they were
almost over the border, driving hard because they were
warned that’ officers from the French court were on
their tracks, suspecting the trick, they came very near to
disaster. For, at a little village where Lafayette had
stopped once before, the daughter of the tavern-keeper
recognized in the pretended post-boy, as he galloped into the
stable yard demanding fresh horses, the same fine young
gentleman who had been there before, ordering things in
great style at the inn.



64 WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA.

“Oh, m’sieur —” she began.

But Lafayette swiftly made a warning sign which the
young girl was bright enough to understand.

“Ves, my child; m/’sieur, my patron desires fresh

“THE INN-KEEPER’S DAUGHTER SAID NEVER A
WORD.”



horses at once,” Lafayette
said, quickly. “He is
just behind. He rides
post-haste into Spain at
once.”

The inn-keeper’s
daughter said never a
word, and “Lafayette’s
luck” did not desert him.
For when, soon after,
he and his companion had
posted across the border,
up came their pursuers at
a gallop, only to be as-
sured by the inn-keeper’s
daughter that the young
gentleman had gone on
just the opposite road

from that really taken into’ Spain.

So, once again, Lafayette came, on the seventeenth of
April, to the little Spanish port of Las Pasajes, and while
all France was ringing with applause over his pluck and

persistence, and England growled so that France said she



HOW LAFAYETTE LANDED IN AMERICA. 65

“didn’t care anyhow” and growled back in return, Lafayette
stood on the deck of the “ Victory” with De Kalb and about
twenty young Frenchmen, and on the twentieth of April he
ordered Captain Leboucier to “up anchor” and put to sea
at once.

The anchor came up; the “Victory” spread her sails;
the coast line of Spain and of France faded gradually from
sight. In spite of all, the expedition was off; in spite of
his father-in-law and in spite of the king of France the
young marquis had run away to sea.

CHAPTER IV.
HOW LAFAYETTE LANDED IN AMERICA.

| es is not a surprising thing in these days for a rich young
man to own a yacht. It is one of the things to which
most boys who love blue water aspire; thousands and
_ thousands of dollars are spent each year in the ownership
and navigation of these pleasure crafts, from the natty
knockabout to the luxurious and fast-sailing steamer.

But when Lafayette set sail from the little Spanish port,
pleasure-sailing was an unknown sport; men went down to
the sea in ships for profit or for fighting, but never for fun;
and when a young fellow of twenty, rich, well-connected and
high-toned, deliberately bought a vessel in which to run



66 HOW LAFAVETTE LANDED IN AMERICA.

away to sea, and actually did run away to help a struggling
people in an alien land, the other rich, well-connected and
high-toned people of France simply held up their hands in
surprise. .

“What kind of iol is this, my dear child?” wrote the
stately mother of a young chevalier who had sent her from
Paris the story of this latest sensation. “What! the madness
of knight-errantry still exists? It has disciples? Go to help
the insurgents? I am delighted that you reassure me about
yourself, or I should tremble for you. But since you see
that M. de Lafayette is a madman I am tranquil.”

”

Meantime the “madman” was sailing westward in his
“private yacht.” It did not prove to be much of a yacht.
The “ Victory” was little better than a “tub” of a boat, and
the marquis had been sadly swindled; she was a slow sailer;
she was meagrely furnished and miserably armed, and her
two old cannons and small supply of muskets would prove
but a. poor defence in case of attack by the pirates and
privateers that in those days swarmed the seas and terrorized,
“the Atlantic ferry,” or by the English cruisers that would
gladly welcome such game as a ship-load of French officers
carrying arms, ammunition, and their own services to the
American insurgents. It reads quite like a chapter out of
the story of Cuba in 1897, does it not?

A. young man who owns. a yacht considers himself the
head man on deck, you know. Lafayette certainly did; but
the first thing he discovered was that the captain of the



HOW LAFAYETTE LANDED IN AMERICA. 67

“Victory” considered himself a bigger man than the owner.
No sooner had the “ Victory” lost sight of the home coast
line than Lafayette directed the captain to steer straight for
a United States port and by the shortest route.

The clearance papers, without which no ship can leave
port for a foreign land, were made out for the West Indies.
But as this was always the case in those war days when a
vessel sailed from Europe, America bound, Lafayette did
not trouble himself about what “his papers” declared. He
intended to get to the United States, and to get there as
quickly as possible.

“Captain,” he said, “you will please make your course
as direct as possible for Charlestown in the Carolinas.”

“The Carolinas, sir!” exclaimed the captain. “Why,
that I cannot. This ship’s papers are made out for a port in
the West Indies and can only protect us on that course. I
Shall sail for the West Indies and you must get transporta-
tion across to the colonies from there.”

The marquis was astonished. <“Sir,’ he said to the
captain, “this ship is mine. I direct you to sail to
Charlestown.”

« Sir,” replied the captain, “I am the master of this ship
and am responsible for her safety. If we are caught by an
English cruiser, and she finds us headed for North America
with arms and supplies, we shall at once be made prisoners
and lose our vessel, our cargo, and our lives. So I shall
follow my papers and steer for the West Indies.”



68 HOW LAFAVETTE LANDED IN AMERICA.

“Captain Leboucier,” said the marquis, facing the stub-
born captain, “ you may be master of the ‘ Victory,’ but I am

her owner and my decision is final.



LAFAYETTE AND THE CAPTAIN.

“ Sir,” said Lafayette,“ this ship is mine. I direct you to sail to
Charlestown.”

You will sail at once
and direct for Charles-
town in the Carolinas or
I shall deprive you this
instant of your command
and place the ship in
charge of the mate. I
have force enough here
to meet any resistance |
on your part. So make
your decision.”

It was now Captain
Leboucier’s turn to be
surprised. He had sup-
posed that he could do
just as he pleased with
this green “land-lubber
of a boy.” But he found
he had awakened the
wrong passenger. He

spluttered and blustered a bit, but he had too much at stake
to risk losing his command; so at last he made a full breast

of it and confessed to the boy owner of the “ Victory ” that

it was not so much the ship’s papers as the ship’s cargo that
troubled him. For it seems the captain had concluded to try



HOW LAFAYETTE LANDED IN AMERICA. 69

a little venture of his own on this voyage and had smuggled
aboard the “Victory” some eight or nine thousand dollars’
worth of goods and merchandise which he wished to sell in
West Indian ports and make some outside money for him-
self. If this cargo were “held up” by an English cruiser he
would be out of pocket, and, therefore, he didn’t wish to run
the risk.

“ And why did you not say so at once, sir?” the marquis
demanded. “I would have helped you out, of course. Sail
for Charlestown in the Carolinas, captain; and if we are
captured, searched, robbed, or destroyed by English cruisers
or by privateers, I will see that you do not lose a sou. I
will promise to make your loss good.”

Captain Leboucier came around at once. As long as he
felt assured that his investment was safe he did not care for
the danger, and at once he headed for the coast of Carolina.
But Lafayette, with the thought of hostile war-ships in his
mind, determined never to surrender, and he made a secret
agreement with a certain Captain de Bedaulx, a deserting
Dutch officer from the English army, that in case of attack
and capture, he and this Captain de Bedaulx would blow up
the “ Victory” rather than surrender her. Which desperate
affair being arranged, the young marquis went below, and for
two weeks was dreadfully seasick, as even the greatest of
heroes have often been, from Ulysses to Napoleon and
General Grant.

But when, at last, the seasickness was passed, and the



7O HOW LAFAYETTE LANDED IN AMERICA.

disgusted young Frenchman crawled out on deck again —
for the voyage across took seven weeks instead of the seven
days in which the “ocean greyhounds” now make it —he
found himself divided between two things, — homesickness
and anxiety to see America. To relieve the first he wrote
long letters to his wife, which he intended to send by dif-
ferent routes when he landed in America, so that some of
his letters could be relied upon to escape capture and reach
her. The letters he wrote his wife were long and loving;
for, though he knew that both of them regretted the separa-
tion, and appreciated the sacrifice, he could not help wishing
again and again to see his “dear Adrienne” and their little
two-year-old daughter, and exclaimed: “Oh, if you knew
what I have suffered, what weary days I have passed thus
flying from everything that I love best in the world!”

Then he tried to calm her fears, and to assure her that
the higher the rank the less the danger to him in the war to
which he was going.

“ Do not allow yourself to feel anxious that I am running
great danger in the occupation that is before me,” he wrote.
“The post of major-general” (you can imagine how big the
boy felt when he wrote himself down as major-general ) “ the
post of major-general has always been a warrant of long life.
It is so different from the service I should have had in
France, as colonel, for instance. With my present rank I
shall only have to attend councils of war. ... As soon as
I land I shall be in perfect safety.”



HOW LAFAYETTE LANDED IN AMERICA. 7 a

You can see how little this young fellow appreciated
what fighting in America meant, and how little he really
knew his own rashness, if he thought for an instant that he
would be content simply to attend councils of war!

In fact, in this very letter to his wife, he showed that
action only would suit him. For, comparing his present
enterprise with the social tour for which his angry but
“foxy” father-in-law wished to lure him to Marseilles, he
wrote: “Consider the difference between my occupation and
my present life, and what they would have been if I had
gone upon that useless journey. As the defender of that lib-
erty which I adore; free, myself, more than any one; com-
ing, as a friend, to offer my services to this most interesting
republic, I bring with me nothing but my own free heart and
my own good-will, — no ambition to fulfil and no selfish in-
terest to serve. If I am striving for my own glory, I am at
the same time laboring for the welfare of the American re-
public. I trust that, for my sake, you will become a good
American. It is a sentiment made for virtuous hearts. The
happiness of America is intimately connected with the happi-
ness of all mankind; she is destined to become the safe and
worthy asylum of virtue, integrity, tolerance, equality, and
peaceful liberty.” .

A pretty good prophet for a young man of nineteen, was
he not—and for one who really did not know to what he
was going, nor even the language of the people he was seek-
ing to serve? | a



72 HOW LAFAYETTE LANDED IN AMERICA.

This last defect he was studiously trying to overcome
during such of the fifty-four days of that long and tedious
voyage as he was not seasick, planning, writing letters, or
studying military science with the veteran fighter, De Kalb,
and his companions.

“Tam making progress with that language,” he wrote to
his wife; “it will soon become most necessary to me.”

April passed; May passed; June came, and still the
slow sailing “Victory” had not made the North Atlantic
coast; for fifty days the little vessel, which had nothing
grand about it except its name and the desires of its passen-
gers, pitched and flopped about, struggling against head
winds and adverse currents.

“fT am still out on this dreary plain,” wrote Lafayette to
his wife on the seventh day of June, “which is beyond com-
parison the most dismal place that one can be in. ... We
have had small alarms from time to time, but with a little
care, and reasonably good fortune, I hope to get through
without serious accident, and I shall be all the more pleased,
because I am learning every day to be extremely prudent.”

Very soon after writing these words, Lafayette and his
comrades had need for all their acquired prudence. For,
while yet out of sight of land, but slowly approaching the
Carolina coast, the lookout one morning hailed the captain
and reported a strange sail bearing down upon them.

At once all was excitement on board the « Victory,” in
the usual impressible French manner. The captain crowded



































































































































LAFAYETTE OFF THE CAROLINA COAST.
“ She broke out the new colors of the American republic, — the Stars and Stripes.”







HOW LAFAVETTE LANDED IN AMERICA. 75

on all sail and tried to get away; but to run the old
“Victory” out of the reach of that fast sailing stranger was
found to be impossible. Resistance or surrender seemed the
only choice. .

“She is an English man-of-war,’ was the word passed
from man to man, and the marquis and his friends prepared -
for resistance, while the captain shook his head dubiously,
and the two poor cannons were made ready, the muskets dis-
tributed, and the crew sent to their stations.

Nearer and nearer came the stranger, rakish and deter-
mined, with a formidable threat in the very “cut of her jib,”
and the water parting at her bows. Lafayette had just
given a significant look to the Dutch deserter, De Bedaulx,
and the Dutchman had replied with an equally significant
nod; the old “ Victory,” laboring desperately to draw out of
the path of her pursuer, only flopped and floundered the
more, when suddenly the stranger came gracefully: about,
and as her broadside was presented to the “ Victory” she
broke out from her peak the new colors of the American
republic, —the stars and stripes! At once the “ Victory”
displayed French colors, and the “scare turned into ju-
bilee.”

But even as the lumbering “ Victory” sought vainly to
keep up with the American privateer, and make for Charles-
ton harbor, off to the south, far against the coast line, two
other strange sails appeared, and the privateer, displaying the
danger signal for the information of the French vessel,



76 HOW LAFAYETTE LANDED IN AMERICA.

announced them to be English cruisers looking for priva-
teers, filibusters, and blockade runners.

Again all was excitement on board the “ Victory.” This
time resistance was felt to be hopeless, for the “ Victory’s ”
two guns would be useless against an armed cruiser, and
even the American privateer deemed desertion to be the
better part of valor. At once she signalled: “good-bye,
can't stop,” and was soon hull down off the coast.

But again the “Victory” proved the luck of her name
even if she could not show a quick pair of heels. For, as
the distance between her and the British cruisers lessened,
suddenly the wind shifted, and blew strong from the north.
This would, of course, drive the “yacht” nearer to Charles-
ton and the enemy, but it would also be a head wind for the
approaching foemen. At once Captain Leboucier decided
to take advantage of this north wind and, instead of making
Charleston, run before the wind into Georgetown Bay, which
broke into the Carolina coast almost directly on his course.

At once he headed the “Victory” shoreward, and by
great good fortune, for he knew nothing whatever of the
coast thereabouts, he made the opening of the South Inlet
of Georgetown Bay, —a shallow roadstead, but worth risk-
ing at a time when, as the sailors say, “any port in a storm.”

The north wind held steady; the British cruisers labored
against it in vain, and finally dropped out of sight, and on
the afternoon of Friday, the thirteenth day of June, 1777,
the “Victory” ran in through the inlet and came to off



HOW LAFAYETTE LANDED IN AMERICA. ade

North Island, one of the long, low-lying sand-spits fringing
the broken South Carolina coast.



BY PERMISSION OF THE LIGHTHOUSE BOARD.

WHERE LAFAYETTE LANDED IN AMERICA.
Georgetown Lighthouse, North Island, on the South Carolina coast; here Lafayette sailed into the bay.

To-day, above the South Inlet, at the entrance to George-
town Bay, the towering white walls and the protecting rays
of Georgetown light show the way over the bar; but when



78 HOW LAFAYETTE LANDED IN AMERICA.

the “ Victory” felt its way in for shelter and security, like
some hunted animal scudding for cover, there was no such
thing as a lighthouse on the sands, and it was only good
luck and a favoring wind that carried the blockade runner
into safe harbor. It was a fortunate combination; “but
it was not the only time in my life,” so Lafayette de-
clared many years after, in referring to his adventure, “ that
the elements have conspired in my favor.” Wind and rain, -
you see, are oftentimes as welcome in the hour of perilous
adventure as are clear and sunny days.

Neither captain nor crew could tell just where they were.
But of one thing Lafayette was certain; he was on the Caro-
lina coast; the Carolinas were American and rebel; there-
fore, wherever he was, he should be among friends. So, acting
on this course of reasoning, he proposed to Baron de Kalb
that they should go ashore in one of the “ Victory’s” boats,
find out where they were, and perhaps pick up a pilot to take
the “ Victory” into safe anchorage or guide her around to
Charleston.

The baron thought the plan of the marquis wise. So
the ship’s yawl was ordered out; seven men were told off as
a crew to row it ashore, and into it went Lafayette, De Kalb,
and some other officers, a half dozen passengers in all.

The explorers dropped over the side, the oars fell into the
water, and a little after two o’clock in the afternoon the yawl
cast off from the “ Victory” on its voyage of discovery and
information.



HOW LAFAVETTE LANDED IN AMERICA. 79

Both discovery and information proved uncertain quan-
' tities, however. Georgetown Bay is broad and broken with
inlets, bars, and islands, and in those days there were, along
the low shores, little signs of life or occupation. The rowers
pulled this way and that until, finally, as night closed down,
they found themselves rowing up the North Inlet, where,
around North Island, the channel of Georgetown Bay con-
nects with the sea at its northern entrance.

They rowed along the silent shores, wondering if America
were really inhabited, when suddenly, ahead, they saw a burn-
ing flare and soon came up to some negroes dragging for
oysters.

Baron de Kalb was the only man in the yawl whose’
English could really be relied upon, so he hailed the darkeys
and asked them who they were and where they were; whether
there was safe anchorage for a ship thereabouts and where
he and his friends could find a pilot to take them around to
Charleston.

“Golly, massa! Don’t know nuffin ‘bout it,’ one of the
negroes replied, bewildered by the string of questions flung
at him in broken English by the Bavarian soldier, and rather
fearful of this boat-load of “ Hessians,” as he thought them
to be. “We’m belongs to Major Huger, we do. He’m our
massa.”

“Major Huger. He is of ze American army?” demanded
the baron. |

SEN AAG aS ll eee ea tileeal Continentaler,” the negro. replied.



80 HOW LAFAYETTE LANDED IN AMERICA.

And he told the Frenchmen that there was a pilot to be
found somewhere on the upper end of North Island, that he
could show the gentlemen where the pilot lived and take them
also to the big house, —“ Major Huger’s house, sah — our
massa; he'll be right glad to see you gen’'l’men, sah; he'll be
powerful glad,” the black oysterman declared. And Lafay-
ette decided to seek out Major Huger at once.

So you see that really Lafayette’s first reception and
welcome on American shores were at the hands of black
Americans, —slaves in a land fighting for freedom; slaves
after liberty was won, until a greater than revolutionary
patriot or French hero was to enfranchise and deliver them
and make America indeed the land of liberty.

But when the yawl attempted to follow its guide, the
oyster-boat, it was discovered that the tide was falling fast
and that it would be unsafe for strange rowers to keep to the
channel and pull the big yawl up to a safe landing-place, if
indeed they were not left high and dry on the flats.

There was nothing for it but to take to the oyster-boat.
So, leaving the most of ‘his party in the yawl, greatly to their
disgust, no doubt, Lafayette, De Kalb, and a young French
American named Price (who evidently could not speak his
own language as well as the Bavarian Frenchman) stepped
aboard the clumsy and dirty oyster-boat, and with an “adieu!”
to their comrades in the yawl and a “ bon voyage! eaneterutn
pulled into the night with their negro boatmen.

Creeping along the shallowing reach they skirted the



HOW LAFAYETTE LANDED IN AMERICA. 81

shore of North Island, and, finally, about midnight they saw
a light, shining as if from a house on shore.

“ Dat’s it, sah; dat’s Major Huger’s, sah,” said the oyster-
man. “We set you gen’men ashore heah, and you jes’ follow
de light, and Major Huger he be powerful glad to see you.”

The oyster-boat ran alongside the landing and, with
stiffened limbs and a goodly fee to his colored boatmen,
the marquis and his two companions stepped on American
soil. Lafayette, at last, had one ambition gratified. He was
in America, the land for whose freedom he had come to fight,
and which, all France supposed, was to fervently welcome
him. |

The fervor in the welcome was not just then apparent as
the three bewildered Frenchmen stood on the rickety boat
landing at North Island, alone and at midnight, with nothing
to guide them but a distant and uncertain light.

But, as is wisest in all times of doubt and difficulty, they
did as the negro boatman advised them, — they followed the
light.

Now it seems in those troublesome times, when English
cruisers and privateers were coasting the American shores
for prey or booty, the seaside dwellers lived in continual
fear of raid and attack, and were ever on the watch for
marauders.

So, as Lafayette and his two companions went stum-
bling up from the shore heading for the light, their coming
aroused the guardians of the house, and at once the sharp



82 HOW LAFAVETTE LANDED IN AMERICA.

warning bark of a watch-dog broke the silence; the bark
swelled to a chorus as all the other dogs in the pack took up
the cry; the lights disappeared from the house; windows
were flung up and men with guns stood at each darkened sash.

“Hollo! who goes there? Stand or we fire,” came the
threatening call.

“ Friends, sir; friends only,’ De Kalb in broken English
hastened to reply to the challenge. “We are French off-
cers, sir, just set ashore from our ship in your waters. We
come to fight for America and we seek a pilot to bring our
vessel to safe anchorage and shelter for ourselves.”

Even before the explanation was half given, the house
changed from hostility to hospitality; lights flashed out
again; welcoming hands unbarred the door, and on its
threshold, with black servants holding lights aloft and
hurriedly dressed forms just outlined in the shadows, stood
a smiling gentleman and a small boy,— for you can always
depend upon a small boy to be on hand whenever anything
exciting is about to happen.

“Gentlemen, I am proud to welcome you,” cried the
man in the doorway, extending his hands in greeting.
“Down, Bruno! down, Vixen!” —this to the- vociferous
dogs —“I am Major Huger, Major Benjamin Huger of
the American army; this is my shore house where we camp
down in the summer. Come in, gentlemen, come in. This
house and all it holds are at the service of brave Frenchmen
who come to fight for our liberties.”



LAFAYETTE’S WELCOME TO AMERICA.

BE

“Come in, gentlemen. This house and all it holds are yours.








HOW LAFAYETTE LANDED IN AMERICA. 85

He almost pulled the oldest man —the Baron de Kalb —
into the house in the excessive cordiality of his welcome;
while the small boy, catching at the hand of the young
marquis, who looked little more than a boy in that light,
dragged him into the spacious hall.

“Permit me, Major Huger,” said the punctilious De
Kalb, “to introduce ourselves to you who have so gener-
ously welcomed us. This, sir, is the leader and head of
our expedition, the Seigneur Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de
Lafayette; this is Monsieur Price of Sauveterre, and I, sir,
am Johann Kalb, at your service.”

“The Baron de Kalb, monsieur the major,’ broke in
Lafayette, “a brigadier in the army of the king of France
and aid to the Maréchal Duke de Broglie.”

But Major Huger had ears but for one part of this
introduction. Already the news of the young French noble-
man’s determination to fight for American liberty had
crossed the Atlantic.

“The Marquis de Lafayette!” he exclaimed, grasping the
young man by both hands. “Sir, my house is honored by
your presence; sir, we have heard of you——-who has not?
Sir, command me in anything and everything. I will see to
your pilot, your vessel, your friends. Oblige me by resting
here to-night and in the morning all things shall be arranged.
Francis, escort the marquis to the dining-room; this is my
son, gentlemen, Francis Kinloch Huger, and proud he is to
welcome those who sacrifice time and ease to fight for the



86 HOW LAFAVETTE LANDED IN AMERICA.

liberty of his native land. Gentlemen, be seated. Here,
Hector, Pompey, take these gentlemen’s wraps; stir your-
selves! Gentlemen, your healths!”

« And that of the Cause!” responded the Baron de Kalb. .

And so in the midst of generous hospitality, with a
blessed night’s sleep in a “Christian bed” for the first time
in eight weeks, Lafayette passed his first night in America.

As for Francis Kinloch Huger, that small boy was capti-
vated by the young Frenchman. He became a _hero-wor-
shipper, at once, and his dreams that night were full of the
boy marquis. It was a hero-worship that was not to cease
with that midnight reception on a Carolina sea-island; for
that boy’s life was to be strongly and romantically mingled,
in later years, with that of the noble Marquis de Lafayette,
who on a June night in 1777 had taken this boy’s house by
storm and, after months of anxiety and adventure, had, at
last, safely landed on the shores of America.



HOW THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS. d7

lalate We

HOW THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS.

GOOD night’s sleep greatly refreshed and strengthened

the weary, ship-worn marquis, for, like any young fellow
of nineteen, he recovered quickly from fatigue and privation ;
and, besides, he was in America. He had, as he expressed
it, “retired to rest rejoiced that he had at last attained the
haven of his wishes and was safely landed in America beyond
the reach of his pursuers.”

He had not yet. attained the era of his mission, — the
command of a major-general in the American army. . That,
however, he felt was only a matter of time. With his letters of
introduction and the contract he had made with Mr. Deane —
he was confident he had only to present. himself before the
American Congress to be received as cordially and welcomed
as enthusiastically as he had been greeted and “made at
home” by Major Huger, in that comfortable Southern sea-
shore mansion.

So he sank to sleep contentedly, and when he ole in
the morning he was in a blissful state of mind.

As, years after, he recalled that first morning in America,
he still spoke with all the enthusiasm of the homesick, seasick



88 HOW THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS.

boy who had been made to feel that he was a welcome and

honored guest.
“The next morning,” he said, “was beautiful. The nov-

elty of everything around me, the room, the bed with its



SINGING FOR LAFAYETTE.

“ Every cranny resounds with the lovely name of Liberty.”

mosquito curtains, the black servants who came to ask my
wishes, the beauty and strange appearance of the country as I
could see it from my window clothed in luxuriant verdure, —
all conspired to produce upon me an effect like magic and to
impress me with indescribable sensations.”



HOW THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS. 89

His comrades in the yawl had been hunted up and
brought to the house; a pilot had been sent to the “ Vic-
tory,’ and, in fact, everything hospitable and helpful was so
cheerfully done by Major Huger and his family that, as
Lafayette wrote his wife, “the manners of this people are
simple, honest, and dignified. The wish to oblige, the love of
country, and freedom reign here together in sweet equality.
All citizens are brothers. They belong to a country where
every cranny resounds with the lovely name of Liberty. My
sympathy with them makes me feel as if I had been here for
twenty years.”

Everything, you see, was delightful at the start, and this
enthusiastic French boy felt sure there would be for him,
everywhere in America, a repetition of the South Carolina
welcome. So, in confidence and anticipation, in high hopes
and higher spirits, he set out for the long journey to Phila-
delphia, where the American Congress was in session.

He was to go by land this time. He and his comrades
had experienced quite enough of ship life and preferred to
trust to the uncertainties of colonial country roads. Besides,
the “ Victory” was “in limbo,” as the saying is. For when
the pilot sent by Major Huger reported that there was not
sufficient depth of water for the ship in Georgetown Bay,
Lafayette sent the “ Victory,” in charge of the pilot, around to
Charleston. But when he heard of the activity and watchful-
ness of the British cruisers he hurried a message to the captain,
bidding him run the “ Victory” ashore and burn her rather



go HOW THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS.

than let the British capture her.

The captain, however, re-

membered his cargo and his own little venture; he decided to
run the risk, and, thanks to a favoring wind, the “ Victory”







FROM AN OLD PRINT.

THE MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.

As he looked upon his first coming to A merica.



escaped the cruis-
ers and, as he re-
ported, “sailed into
Charles Town har-
bor in broad day-
light without see-
ing either friends
or enemies.”
Thereupon La-
fayette and De
Kalb, mounted on
the only horses
Major Huger
could spare or
find in that un-
inhabited seaside
section, set out for
Charleston, while
the other French-
men trudged along

on foot. And when they had reached that famous and hos-

pitable old Carolina town a cordial welcome was extended

them. Lafayette, as one of his companions says, was received
“with all the honors due to a Marshal of France.”



HOW THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS. gi

Do you wonder that this young Frenchman felt very
much “set up” and elated ?

The Marquis de Lafayette was, however, a shrewd young
man, even if he was an enthusiastic one. or, even in those
days the interviewer was in the land; but Lafayette refused
to be interviewed.

“T have every reason to feel highly gratified at my recep-
tion in Charles Town,” he wrote his wife, “but I have not yet
explained my plans to any one. I judge it best to wait until
I have presented myself to the Congress before making a
statement as to the projects I have in view.”

He wished to be off on this journey to Congress as
speedily as possible. So he proceeded to dispose of the
“Victory” and her cargo in order to obtain the necessary
money for his own and his comrades’ expenses and support.

But when he attempted to do this he found the French
merchants who had sold him the ship and the French cap-
tain who sailed her had so tied him up with agreements and
provisos and commissions (all of which he had signed at
Bordeaux without realizing what he was doing, because he
was in such a hurry to be off) that, instead of having any
money coming to him, he was actually in debt, and he had
to go to work trying to borrow enough money in Charleston
to get away from town. All of which goes to prove that
even enthusiasm should not blind people to understand just
what they are signing, and that it is always best, for young
and old alike, to look before they leap. And yet, on the



92 HOW THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS.

other hand, if Lafayette had not taken his leap, regardless of
consequences, where would have been one of the most roman-
tic and inspiring episodes in American history, which we. of
to-day never tire of reading and applauding ?

Just at that time, however, it must be confessed that the
American Congress and the American commander-in-chief
were very, very tired of this particular kind of romance.
The American colonies had risen in rebellion against the
king of England; they had organized revolution and had
declared themselves free and independent states; they wel-
comed every expression of friendliness and sympathy from
European nations, and were working hard to secure recogni-
tion and assistance at foreign courts. But the American
people had raised and officered their own army. They had
placed at the head of it a great and capable commander, and
had associated with him, as leaders and officers, those of their
own countrymen who seemed best fitted to the tasks of leader-
ship as generals, colonels, and captains.

But as the war with England progressed, there came to
America swarms of European soldiers — French, Spanish,
German, Dutch, Polish, and Italian — who, because they
were experienced soldiers, counted their services far ahead
of those of the American “peasants,” and demanded high
offices in the American army, from commander-in-chief to
colonel and captain. These foreign volunteers were so many
and so persistent that the American Congress grew just a bit
tired of the assumption and demands of these adventurers,














































































































































































































































HOW THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS. 95

who were out for money rather than to show their sympathy,
and who, also, almost insisted upon telling the American
Congress just what it should do.

A regiment of colonels and an army of major-generals can
do very little real fighting, and, as none of these foreign
officers would put up with anything less than the highest
rank, Congress, preferring first to recognise able and earnest
Americans, found itself simply flooded with requests it could
not grant, while General Washington himself protested in
vigorous language.

“Their ignorance of our language and their inability to
recruit men,” he wrote to the president of Congress in Febru-
ary, 1777, “are insurmountable obstacles to their being in-
grafted into our continental battalions; for our officers, who
have raised their men, and have served through the war upon
pay that has hitherto not borne their expenses, would be dis-
gusted if foreigners were put over their heads; and I assure
you, few or none of these gentlemen look lower than field-
officers’ commissions. To give them all brevets, by which
they have rank, and draw pay without doing any service, is
saddling the continent with vast expense; and to form them
into corps would be only establishing corps of officers; for,
as I have said before, they cannot possibly raise any men.”

So, you see, with the Congress and the commander-in-
chief set against this rush of overzealous and self-seeking
foreigners (mostly from France) in a scramble for command-
ing positions in the American army, the outlook was not so



96 HOW THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS.

bright nor so promising as Lafayette and De Kalb and their
companions anticipated. Evidently, too, the aspiring Duke
de Broglie was to get a “ set-back.”

But, equipping his expedition with the money he had
borrowed in Charleston, Lafayette and his “caravan,” as he
called it, certain that recognition and position awaited them,
started from Charleston on the twenty-fifth of June, 1777,
headed for Philadelphia and Congress.

The “caravan,” indeed, was quite like a procession. At
the head rode one of Lafayette’s men dressed in the uniform
of a French hussar, and behind him rode the marquis and
Baron de Kalb in a queer, old-fashioned open carriage with
a front seat for the driver, while at Lafayette’s wheel rode
his body servant, valet, or “squire.” Next came a one-horse
chaise with two colonels, Lafayette’s “chief counsellors;”
then followed another with more French officers, then the
baggage, and bringing up the rear, a negro on horseback.

From Charleston to Philadelphia in June is a hot ride
even in a parlor-car: in open carriages it is still worse;
while, over the dreadful clearings called “roads” in 1777, the
journey was one long series of accidents and discomforts.
Their guide proved no guide at all. In four days their car-
riages were jolted into splinters; their horses went lame or
broke down altogether; much of their baggage had to be left
behind, and what they took with them was mostly stolen
before the journey ended. They spent all their money for
fresh horses and other wagons, and the necessaries of life,



HOW THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS. 97

and even then, because of the dreadful roads, most of the
journey was made on foot, while the poor Frenchmen, sick,
weary, and hungry, sleeping in the woods, and worn down by
the hardships and hot weather, would -have begun to doubt
whether American liberty was really worth all it was costing
them, had not Lafayette, hopeful and enthusiastic in spite of
all privations and misadventures, kept up their spirits, cheer-
fully shared all their trials, and held ever before them
the reception and appreciation they were certain to find in
Philadelphia.

“You have heard,” he wrote to his wife, “how brilliantly
I started out in a carriage. I have to inform you” (this was
written from Petersburg in Virginia) “that we are now
on horseback after having broken the wagons in my usual
praiseworthy fashion, and I expect to write you before long
that we have reached our destination on foot.”

On the twenty-seventh of July, after a tedious and dis-
astrous journey of nine hundred miles in thirty-two days,
Lafayette and his travel-stained company entered Philadel-
phia— “in a pitiable condition,’ one of his comrades de-
clared. But they supposed now that all their troubles were
over; so, after “ brushing themselves up,” and making them-
selves presentable, they proceeded to wait upon the president
of Congress with their letters of introduction and their con-
tracts with Mr. Deane.

Now the president of the American Congress at that
time was Mr. John Hancock, of Massachusetts, a patriot of



98 HOW THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS.

prominence and integrity, with a very bold signature, and a
very high opinion of the Honorable John Hancock, presi-
dent of Congress. He felt himself to be the chief man in



THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS.

“John Hancock, of Massachusetts, a patriot of prominence and integrity.”

all America; he set
up a great show of
state and dignity, for
all of which he un-
complainingly paid
out of his own pocket,
and he demanded, as
his right, the proper
amount of recogni-
tion and respect.
Whether or not
he had received and
read Franklin’s flat-
tering introduction of
Lafayette, at 1s, cer
tain that he did not
fully appreciate the
meaning or the ex-
tent of the young

Frenchman’s sacrifices in behalf of American liberty. He
merely looked upon Lafayette and his companions as
another “batch” of adventurous Frenchmen looking for
a job, and at once, with scarcely a word of welcome, he
referred them to Gouverneur Morris, the chairman of the



HOW THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS. 99

committee “who,” so he told Lafayette, “had such matters in
charge.”

To Mr. Morris, also a man with whom the later story
of Lafayette’s life was to be singularly connected, this
travel-stained band of place-seeking Frenchmen seemed no
different from any of the other appointment-hunting for-
eigners, whom no one wanted, and who simply hung about
Congress as suppliants who soon “wore their welcome
out.”

So Mr. Morris told the marquis and the baron to call
again.

“Meet me to-morrow, gentlemen, at the door of the Con-
gress,” he said. “ Meantime I will examine your papers and
see what we can do for you.”

The next day the marquis and the baron were “at the
door of the Congress,” exactly on time. But Mr. Morris
was not. Instead, he kept them waiting a long time, fretting
at this unexpected coolness and delay.

At last he came out to them with another gentleman
whom he introduced as Mr. Lovell, and who, he told them,
was “intrusted with the matters that concern people of your
nationality. Hereafter, please communicate with him.” And
then Mr. Morris left them still waiting in the street, at the
door of the Congress. _

Mr. Lovell was amember of the Committee on Foreign
Affairs, and evidently he counted the marquis and the baron
and the gentlemen who accompanied them simply as “ for-



IO0O HOW THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS.

eign affairs.’ But he spoke French well, and he at once
“got down to business.”











“ Gentlemen,” he said,
not inviting them into
the building, but talking
to them in the street,
“like a set of adventur-
ers,’ as one of the French
officers indignantly de-























clared, “you say you
have authority from Mr.
Deane?”

“Certainly, sir,’ re-
plied De Kalb, “as our
contracts show.”

“This is most annoy-
ing,” said Mr. Lovell.
“We authorized Mr.
Deane to send us four
French engineers; in- OO Oy Cane
stead, he sent us some engineers who are no engineers, and





“ AT THE DOOR OF THE CONGRESS.”





Full Text


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The Baldwin Library

University
RMB ei
Florida





See page 145

LAFAYETTE AT MONMOUTH.

“* He dashed into action, leading the cavalry in a desperate charge.”
Werle TIKUE STORY

OF

LAFAYETTE

CALLED THE FRIEND OF AMERICA

BY

DBI DCla S, 1IROMOECS

AUTHOR OF
“THE TRUE STORIES” OF COLUMBUS,
WASHINGTON, LINCOLN, GRANT,
AND FRANKLIN

ILLUSTRATED BY VICTOR A. SEARLES

BOSTON:
LOTHROP, LEE & SHEPARD CO.
CapyRIGHT, 1899,
BY

Loturop Pusisuinc Company.

All rights reserved.
Re EAC i.

In a series devoted to telling the true stories of great Americans or of
those whose lives had a direct bearing upon the splendid story of the United
States of America, no man has better right to a place than the Marquis de
Lafayette, the young and gallant Frenchman whose love for liberty led to
a love for America that outlasted even the romantic story of the way in
which he fought for her independence. For the whole life of Lafayette was
a long struggle for constitutional liberty, the freedom he had seen America
secure and which he so ardently desired for France.

Had it not been for Lafayette, American independence would not have
been so speedily secured; had it not been for America, the liberation of -
France from her long bondage in tyranny would scarcely have come so soon.
Thus Lafayette and America are inseparably connected, and it is most fitting
that, in a series devoted to the makers and defenders of America, Lafayette,
as the Friend of America, should have an honored place.

But this book aims to do more. At a time when interest in Lafayette has
been revived by the erection of a monument to his memory in the Paris he
loved so well, by the boys and girls of the America he helped to make great,
it seeks to show how his entire life was devoted to the cause of freedom
and the glory of France, and to tell, in the whole story of his eventful life,
what one man has done for the progress of humanity and the bettering of
the world. If, from these pages, young Americans may learn not only to
revere the memory of the noble Frenchman, but to learn lessons of per-
sistence, fidelity, unshaken loyalty to conviction, to truth, to honor, and to
manly endeavor, then the story of Lafayette will not have been retold in
vain, and Americans may learn anew to honor, respect, and remember him, as
not only the friend of America, but the benefactor of his race.
HOW

CO NW ENG Ss:

CHAPTER I.

THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE . . . °

CHAPTER II.

WHERE THE YOUNG ARISTOCRAT HEARD OF INDEPENDENCE

WHY

HOW

HOW

HOW

HOW

HOW

HOW

HOW

CHAPTER III.

THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA. : : ;
CHAPTER IV.

LAFAYETTE LANDED IN AMERICA : A é ;
CHAPTER V.

THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS i :
CHAPTER VI.

HE WON THE COMMANDER - IN - CHIEF B : 6
CHAPTER VII.

HE FOUGHT FOR LIBERTY IN AMERICA : a .
CHAPTER VIII.

“THAT BOY”? SERVED THE EARL : : A i
CHAPTER IX.

HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE THIRD TIME . 3
CHAPTER X.

HE TRIED TO MAKE AN AMERICA OF FRANCE
ee,

PAGE

32

40

65

87

107

126

149

169

185
8 CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XI.

HOW HE FELL FROM THE FRYING- PAN INTO THE FIRE

CHAPTER XII.

WHY HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE FOURTH TIME .

CHAPTER XIII.

HOW HE RETURNED TO FRANCE AND FAME

PAGE

200

219
IDS OP IUOILIOS INRA KOINIS),

Lafayette at Monmouth : : : ; : ; . el . Lrontispiece
The boy Lafayette : . . : . : . : . : Page 13
At Hastenbeck . : : 7 A : , 0 . . , . 15
The Chateau of Chavaniac . : : : , : 3 4 : , 18
A French boy of “ quality ” in Lafayette’s school-days . 7 . . 7 21
“The duke thought it over and suggested a compromise” . . . - 25
A French wedding in a sday . : , . . 28
“The American peasants” who stood at enaeron and concord 6 . . 39
Lafayette and the Duke of Gloucester . ; ; : : " : : 43
“«Wake up! I’m going to America!’”. : ; . : ; . : 45
“Tf that is so, I will go with you’ ” : 45
Lafayette secretly calls upon the American arent : , , : . . 48
“ Lafayette and the American agents : : . , 7 5 5 Q 57
Windsor Palace . : ; ‘ 5 , . . . g 59
“ He galloped back to Borderie ; : . 7 . . . 62
“The inn-keeper’s daughter said never a rer eer : : : : : 64
Lafayette and the captain. : : : , 7 0 . . , 68
Lafayette off the Carolina coast . . : : , ; , . : 73
Where Lafayette landed in America. . 6 ° : . . . ah
Lafayette’s welcome to America . . ; ae: 7 . . : 83
Singing for Lafayette . : : : 7 , _ ; . . : 88
The Marquis de Lafayette . . . , ; : : . , 5 go
“A greatand capable commander” 5 , . , 7 ° . 93
The president of Congress . : 6 , ; . . 9 0 f 98
“ At the door of the Congress” . " ; 0 : . 3 ; 0 100
Bartholdi’s statue of Lafayette . . . : : . : : . 103
Lafayette and the Congressman . ; : 9 . . . . . 105
Alexander Hamilton . : : . . 0 9 . : , . 110
Aaron Burr . ; : : . . 9 . . omen ° III
Lafayette meets TyEeEe (on , 0 . . . . . 2 114

Where Lafayette joined the army . : : . . . . , 0 117
ano LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

The monument on Brandywine Battle-field . , : : a , Page 121
Lafayette at Brandywine . ; ; : : : : ‘ . : 123
The Old Sun Inn of Bethlehem . : ; a . 128
The best foreign officers who served in the erceean Revolucion : , ; 131
Gen. Nathaniel Greene, of Rhode Island ; . . : " , 134
Lafayette and the Cabal : : : ; : : , ; : 137
Lafayette’s headquarters at Valley Forge . ; 7 7 ; . : 139
New York City and Harbor . : 3 : : . : : : 146
“Lafayette bade good-bye to Wiaehinetent , " é ; : : : 148
Where Lafayette fought death . : . : , ; . . 150
Lafayette “home again” : : : 7 . : ; . : 153
Lafayette’s “naval aid ” : : : : : . , . : 6, EGE
The old mill at Newport : . 7 . . ; . . , ; 159
Lafayette and Mrs. Arnold . . ' : . . . 7 : : 161
Lafayette’s antagonist . ; , " é Q : . : : 163
Where Washington joined Teron : : ; ; : 7 : ; 165
The Count de Rochambeau . : : : " ; : , " , 166
Lafayette writing to Washington . . : . . , . . 5 172
Lafayette in 1784 : ; . . SD ARee: : : 178
Mount Vernon, the home of Tyeenineron . , . . . : . 181
Pohick Church, near Mount Vernon. 9 ; , a ; , 0 183
Thomas Jefferson : : : ‘ : : . ; . , , 187
One of France’s holidays. : : : . . . . . , 193
Napoleon Bonaparte . : : . . 7 : ; : , : 198
The Austrian prison of Lafayette ; : ae: : : : 204
The wife of Lafayette . : : , 7 F : . . 0 " 206
The escape from Olmutz : : : : : 5 o . , , 211
Lafayette surprised in prison : : : ae . : . : 215
Madame Lafayette and Napoleon : ; . ; , 7 , : 223
Lafayette mourning for his wife . : : . : 7 7 eeee 227
The home of Lafayette’s old age . , : : , 6 0 , ; 231
The invitation from America : : : ; : , ; , 236
The Lafayettes at the tomb of Washington : : : . . : : 240
Lafayette in America . : ; , : : . . 7 : , 242
Lafayette’s farewell to America. : 5 7 246
General Lafayette, commander-in-chief a ae pres of Teanee 3 7 a 249
Lafayette and the Duke of Orleans : : : : : : . ‘ 253
One of the last portraits of Lafayette . ° : : : ; " ; 255

In the national capital . : : : : : : . . . : 259
THE
AUN EEG SO) eer ©) ase ae nayeeui alu)

THE FRIEND OF AMERICA.

_

Clea nas L

HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE.

Ae boys and girls like stories of adventure. Let me

tell you a true story, as crammed with adventure as
“ Robinson Crusoe,” as crowded with fighting as “ Ivanhoe,”
as full of noble deeds as “ Westward Ho!”

It is not the story of an American; and yet few names
have been more honored by America; it is not the story of
a great man, as Washington and Lincoln, Franklin and
Grant were great; and yet the service he rendered to America
has placed his name among the great ones of the earth.

It is the story of a brave, romantic, generous, noble-
hearted and devoted man, who reverenced liberty although
born an aristocrat; fought for it through nearly sixty years,
although he detested war, and, through those sixty years,
labored for his country’s good even against his country’s

II
I2 HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE.

will; who risked his life for the liberties of America, and
narrowly escaped death in establishing the liberties of his
native land.

Flies begany lifes -as: ans historic: sboy. she «closed its an
historic man, revered by all lovers of liberty the world over,
disliked only by those who hated liberty and feared the people.
No man suffered more at the hands of those he wished to
benefit; no man was more beloved by those who spurned
his benefits. Idolized one day, imprisoned the next, but
always a patriot, and always cheerful and brave, he builded
even better than he knew, and wrought his name and his
deeds into the destinies and progress of two nations, and died
the friend and deliverer of both. |

Listen, then, to the story of Lafayette.

Upon one of the green hill-slopes of the mountains of
Auvergne, in what is now known as the department or county
of Upper Loire (Haute-Loire it is, in French) but what was
long called the province of Auvergne, in Southern France, there
stands to-day, as there has stood for nearly six hundred years,
a great fortified country mansion or manor-house, known as the
Chateau of Chavaniac. Grim and gray this old country man-
sion, half castle and half farmhouse, with its odd little towers,
mossy walls, and loop-holed terraces, looks off upon the valley
of the Allier and the rugged Auvergne mountains, an old-
time home among the hills, in the healthiest and most inde-
pendent portion of old France.
HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE. 13

In this ancient
castle there was born
on the sixth of Sep-
tember, in the year
1757, a small baby
boy, not particularly
attractive in face, or
especially promising in
form. But he was
born a marquis of
France; and in the
parish register of the
little church of Cha-
vaniac, where he was
baptized, you may read
the name they gave
this little French baby
boy, —a name almost
as long as_ himself.
For it stands recorded
on the parish register,
that, in that little
church, was baptized
on the seventh day of
September, 1757, “the
very noble and very
powerful gentleman



THE BOY LAFAYETTE,
“ He went roaming the forest, sword in hand, to kill the great gray wolf.”
14 HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE,

Monseigneur Marie-Joseph-Paul-Yves-Roch-Gilbert Dumotier
de Lafayette, the lawful son .of the very noble and very
powerful gentleman Monseigneur Michel-Louis-Christophle-
Roch-Gilbert Dumotier, Marquis de Lafayette, Baron de
Vissac, Seigneur de Saint-Romain and other places, and of
the very noble and very powerful lady Madame Marie-
Louise-Julie Delareviere.”

Those were a good many names and a good many titles
for a small baby to stagger under, were they not? But in
France, as in all nations where old families and old estates
become jumbled together under the workings of what is called
the law of succession, the representative of several old and
noble lines, as was Lafayette, often mingled his connec-
tions in his name. But the real name of this very
small boy, stripped of all its additions, was simply Gilbert
Motier.

This old family name of Motier ran away back to before
the year 1000. But when, about that time, one of the Motiers
became possessed of a little farm called Villa Faya, or
Fayetteville, he tacked this estate on his name and became
Motier of La Fayette; then as other lines of the family
sprang up, possessed property, died out, and left their lands
and titles to the remaining branch, these names were added
to the main one, until the baby boy and heir of the estates,
born in 1757, had to bear them all,— Gilbert and Roch and
Christophle and all the rest with his mother’s name of Marie,
and his father’s titles of marquis and baron and seigneur (or
HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE. 15

lord). For, though only a baby, he was, by law, born a
marquis of France.

The reason for this was that six weeks before this little
French boy was born in the gray old castle among the
Auvergne mountains, his father, Colonel the Marquis de La



AT HASTENBECK,

“ His father, Colonel the Marquis de La Fayette, fell dead while charging an English battery.”

Fayette, fell dead at the head of his regiment of the Grena-
diers of France, while charging an English battery in the
battle of Hastenbeck,—one of the engagements in what
is known in history as the Seven Years’ War; in America
“we are familiar with the same conflict as it was waged in
16 HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE.

this country under the general title of the French and Indian
War, — the war that made George Washington .a successful
soldier, and made all America English by the conquest
of Canada.

Without any father when he was born, this little French
baby, by the law of the land, succeeded to his father’s titles
and estates. He was Marquis of Lafayette, Baron of Vissac,
and Lord of Saint-Romain, old castles, now in ruins, and
perched higher up among the Auvergne mountains than is
the manor-house of Chavaniac.

But though marquis, baron, and lord, this little Lafayette
baby was not born to great wealth. He was, in fact, what
we call “land poor.” His mountain farms were extensive
but not very productive;.it had cost a large sum to send and
keep his grandfather and father at the never-ending wars
that, for generations, had swept over Europe, and as there
was now no one in the family to hold high positions and draw
good salaries at the king’s court, the Lafayettes of Chavaniac
were, in 1757, what would be called “ high-born but poor.”

Still they were strong and sturdy people, those mountain
folks of Auvergne; and the baby marquis, the last and only
remaining boy to represent the dignities and titles of the old
and noble family whose name he bore, was brought up by
his mother, his grandmother, and his aunts in the healthy,
inspiring, frugal, and liberty-loving atmosphere of the Au-
vergne hills.

Country life and ways do not always develop the graces,
HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE. 17

and a boy who is brought up entirely by and among women
is apt to be diffident and shy. So the Lafayette boy of the
Chavaniac forests was by no means the model of beauty and
grace we have been accustomed to consider him. He was
a long-limbed, lean, lanky little chap with a hook-nose, red
hair, and a retreating forehead, while he was so shy as to be
almost ungainly and so quiet as to be almost awkward. But —
his eye was bright and sharp, his look, when interested, was
firm and high, and beneath his unattractive exterior lay an
intelligence that was making the boy a thinker, and a heart
that was stirring up high ideals of right and justice, there
among the fields and forests, the birds and beasts of his
mountain estates.

The birds and the beasts seemed for a time bis only. play-
mates. His mother had scarcely money enough to go’ to
Paris and keep up a grand city house, as was then the cus
tom with most of the lordly families of France; so the lad
grew up in the country, learning the habits of the farm and
forest animals rather than of the court; ignorant of the fine,
though often false manners of the gay society of Paris and
Versailles, save as his good mother instructed ‘him in polite-
ness, good breeding, gentle and chivalrous ways, while his
sturdy grandmother saw that he was alike manly and brave,
strong-limbed and stout-hearted, valiant and vigorous, as
became the small son and last scion of a great race, whose
men had been knights and warriors from the far-off days
of the Crusades. !






8 HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE.

Indeed, the desire to do some “high emprise and deed
of derring-do,” learned from the old tales his grandmother
told him, burned in the heart of this boy of eight when,
sword in hand and eye alert, he went roaming the forests

: VeeAe
"1 Oy
ON

of iy
Sa AL Ct by
g ae eas
a



THE CHATEAU OF CHAVANIAC.

“In this ancient castle was born Lafayette, a marquis of France, September 6, 1757.”

about Chavaniac in search of the great gray wolf which, so
“his people” reported, had been breaking into sheepfolds
and destroying the peace of mind of the farmers and cot-
tagers around the manor-house. We do not read that he
really killed that wolf, or even found the monster, but, in a
HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE. 19

way, it was a prophetic sign; for, later, he was to go forth
sword in hand and eye alert, to hunt out and attack a greater
and more ravaging wolf, far across the vast western sea
that this home-staying boy had never seen.

He could not be a home-staying boy many years, how-
ever. As the last representative of a noble house, it was his
duty as a Frenchman of high estate to prepare himself to
meet the obligations of his rank. Although the family was
short of cash, they had rich and influential relations, and so,
when he was eleven years old, it was decided by the family
that he should leave his quiet castle home at Chavaniac, and
go up to Paris to begin his education as a gentleman.

He was sent to a sort of private school for young gentle-
men,—the boys of the French “four hundred.” It was
called the College du Plessis, and there the boy was taught
to express himself elegantly, handle his sword gracefully,
dance delightfully, and offer his arm to a lady as gallantly as
he could pick up her fan. It was hardly the school familiar
to the boys and girls of to-day, who probably know more of real
things and how to study about them than did even the school
teachers at the College du Plessis in young Lafayette’s day.

But there was that in young Lafayette that helped him to
educate and develop himself, in spite of the false instruction
of his time; while the devotion of his lady mother aided and
strengthened him; for, at much sacrifice, she gave up her
quiet home in the country, and, with the aid of her rich rela-
tions, obtained recognition at court and a place in society, so
20 HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE.

that she might help her son to enter the most aristocratic
circles of France.

The boy had a rich uncle, too, — or, rather, it was his
mother’s uncle,—who, because all the Lafayettes had been
soldiers, put himself out to get the name of his grandnephew
entered, early in life, on the “ waiting list” of one of the “crack
regiments” of France. This regiment was called “The Black
Musketeers,” and many a day did young Lafayette get
“excused” from school to run off and see a review of “ my
regiment,” as he would call it; for, of course, he felt very
proud to be on its roll of cadets.

Under these influences and opportunities the awkward
country boy became easier in his manners and more grace-
ful in his motions; but he was still shy and silent; he dis-
liked dancing and society ways; he thought a good deal
about things; he was old for his years both in his talk and
ways, and he was so practical that even when he undertook
the task that all boys attempt, —a school composition on the
horse, —he dwelt especially on the fact that if you try to
make a horse do too many things perfectly the horse will
grow restless and throw you, —a lesson of which Lafayette
himself had practical experience, later, when in the days |
of the restless French Revolution he tried to train the people
to be guided by his rein rather than their will—and was

d

“thrown” again and again.
Just as he had got into his “teens,” in the year 1770, a

sad thing happened. Both his good mother, who was so
HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE. 21

watchful of his future, and his rich grand-uncle, who had
taken so great an interest in the young Lafayette because









A FRENCH BOY OF “QUALITY” IN LAFAYETTE’S SCHOOL- DAYS,

he was the son of this old noble’s favorite niece, and a prom-
ising boy as well, died in Paris.
22 HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE,

The boy felt sad and lonely enough. He was now quite
alone in the world; his nearest relative was his grandmother
in the old castle at home; alike his dearest friend and his
strongest protector had been taken from him.

Even in his death, however, this high-placed protector of
his youth had remembered him. For the count, the uncle
of Lafayette, left by his will all his fortune and estate to this
small boy of thirteen. Thus from being a poor and proud
young nobleman, Lafayette now became a very rich and power-
ful young nobleman. At once every match-making mother
and father in France who wished to “arrange” a fine mar-
riage for their daughter laid siege to the young Marquis de
Lafayette, — much to the disgust of this quiet, society-hating
boy, who, like many boys just in their “teens,” had a supreme
contempt for all girls.

Matters were conducted differently in the France of
Lafayette’s day than in our America of to-day. Very early
in their children’s lives fathers and mothers were preparing
to “ marry off” their sons and daughters to the best financial
and social advantage. Even when they were babies, boys
and girls were sometimes “betrothed,” — engaged, as we
would say to-day,— although the poor babies themselves had
nothing to say in the matter, and had no especial interest
in the plans arranged for them.

So the relatives and guardians of the young marquis —
a rich young marquis, now — began to look about for some
suitable match for the boy, lest he should be made the prey
HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE. 23

of fortune-hunters, little knowing the boy’s ability to look out
for himself, and to think for himself as well.

They selected one of the five daughters of the Duke
d’Ayen, a noble and wealthy peer of the realm, marshal of the
camp of the armies of the king, and a very persistent and
determined gentleman, when once he made up his mind to
have his own way.

In this case the proposal of the guardians of the young
Marquis de Lafayette to make the boy his son-in-law was
- precisely in the duke’s way; and at once he communicated the
proposal to his wife, and declared that the one selected to be
the Marchioness de Lafayette was their second daughter,
Mademoiselle Marie-Adrienne-Francoise de Noailles, a girl of
twelve, — good, pretty, amiable, and in every way a delightful
character. 3

But Adrienne’s mother, the Duchess d’Ayen, was quite
as strong a character, in her way, as was her husband the
duke. When she learned who was this son-in-law that her
husband had selected for their second daughter, she objected
at once.

“Tt is too great a risk to run for Adrienne,” she declared.
“The Marquis de Lafayette is very young, very rich, and
very wilful. He seems to be a good boy, so far as his stand-
ing at school and his conduct in society are concerned; but
with no one to guide him, no one to look after his fortune
and hold him back from extravagance and foolishness, with-
out a near relative, and with his character as yet unformed |
24 HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE.

and uncertain, our daughter’s marriage to him is out of the
question, and I will not agree to it.”

Her husband declared that she must, and she repeated
that she would not; the discussion, of which, by the way,
neither the boy nor the girl most interested had the slightest
idea, continued until this husband and wife, who had always
loved each other dearly, actually quarrelled and almost
separated because of it. But the duke thought it over and
at last gave in so far as to suggest as a compromise that the
marriage should not take place for two years, that Adrienne
should not leave her mother for at least three years, and that,
meantime, he, the duke, would himself look after the education
and advancement of the young marquis, so as to make him
in every way a proper and suitable husband for their daughter.

The duchess thought it over also, and at last she, too, -
agreed to the compromise.

“If the boy is brought up in our home wee I can see
and study him,” she declared, “I will agree. Then, having
taken all precautions, and having no negligence wherewith to
reproach ourselves, we need do nothing but peacefully submit
to the will of God, who knows best what is fitting for us.”

So it was decided, and so it was arranged. The boy and
girl were allowed to meet without knowing what were the
family intentions in regard to them, and, very fortunately,
they liked one another at once, and so much that when at
last their future was disclosed to them by their guardians,
they were both delighted, and began to build bright air-castles,
el

a
i

|





























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































“THE DUKE THOUGHT IT OVER AND SUGGESTED A COMPROMISE,”
HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE. 27

in true boy and girl style, of what they would do for the hap-
piness of the world when they were old enough to use their
own money and estate. |

Lafayette was fourteen and Adrienne was twelve when
their engagement was made public; rather young, we should
say, according to our American standards; but customs vary
as much as do tongues and times, and all France declared it
was an excellent match.

Even the duchess, who objected, said so too, in time.
For when Adrienne’s mother came really to know this quiet
and rather awkward young marquis, she loved him as dearly
and cared for him as tenderly as if he were her own son; and
then she and the duke “ made it all up again.”

The duke kept his promise. He took the boy in hand,
had him live in his own home, the stately, old-time Noailles
mansion in the heart of Paris, and sent him in time to
the Academy of Versailles where young noblemen were
educated in military duties, until at last the boy mar-
quis secured his commission and became an officer in the
king’s own regiment of the Black Musketeers, upon whose
very exclusive roll of cadets his good grand-uncle had entered
his name.

While this military education was going on, Lafayette and
Adrienne d’Ayen were married. Their wedding day was the
eleventh of April, 1774; the young bridegroom was but sixteen,
the bride was fourteen; it was a boy and girl marriage, and,
indeed, for a year or more the young people were both kept
28 HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE.

at the Noailles mansion, under the guardianship of the duke
and duchess. But it was one of the happiest of marriages,
and for thirty-four years they lived together as husband and
wife. “Thirty-four years of union,” so wrote Lafayette after
Adrienne’s death in 1807, “in which the love and the eleva-



A FRENCH WEDDING IN LAFAYETTE’S DAY.

tion, the delicacy and the generosity of her soul, charmed,
adorned, and honored my days, and in which I was so much
accustomed to all that she was to me that I did not distin-
guish her from my own existence.”

That was a beautiful tribute to his girl-wife, was it not?
Madame Adrienne de Lafayette seems to have been as rare
HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE. 29

and beautiful and noble a woman as he was excellent, pure-
hearted, and noble a man.

In 1775 the young couple set up housekeeping for them-
selves. They had a house in Paris, and their country estate
was the old castle at Chavaniac; they had gay surroundings,
and were of the “inner circle,” with princes and princesses
and all the young lords and ladies of that bright and careless
court at Versailles as their associates.

But Lafayette did not take kindly to all this show and
glitter. “The awkwardness of my manners,” he says,
“never could properly adjust themselves to the required
graces of the court.” The balls and theatrical shows, the
dances and suppers, and all the extravagant entertainments
of the young queen Marie Antoinette, were not to his liking,
although you would naturally expect them to be most attrac-
tive to a boy of seventeen.

It was the fashion just then among the younger courtiers
and aristocrats of France, to talk much of liberty and the
rights of man. It came from the teaching of certain “ up-to-
date” philosophers and students of society, who, in the last
quarter of the eighteenth century, influenced the aristocratic
classes of France and made them liberty-lovers, although
they were the ruling spirits in a nation where there was very
little liberty, and where any man not a noble had scarcely
any rights. It was, after all, mostly talk, however; but to.
the young Lafayette, brought up in sturdy independence,
in the free air of the rugged Auvergne hills, it proved some-
30 HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE.

thing more than talk. He learned to believe in and desire
liberty and freedom for the people; he thought it would be a
fine thing if there were less of suffering and wrong among
the poor, and more of helpfulness and generosity among the
rich. He and his young wife, as I have told you, had
beautiful dreams of what they would do to make the world
better; they were only dreams, to be sure, but, because of
them and of his retiring disposition, the young marquis did
not take kindly to the stiff ceremonials and foolish fripperies
of the court, where so much was show without sense and
affectation without affection.

He even joined some of the young nobles in making
sport of the older ones and in poking fun at all their stiff
and starched ways; one day he, with the princes and young
lords of the court, got up a mock parliament which they
played before the gay young queen, Marie Antoinette, just
to make fun of the real parliament then in session at
Versailles. It came very near getting Lafayette and the
young nobles in trouble; for though even the young king,
Louis XVI., had to laugh over it, he was forced also, out
of respect to his “grave and revered seigneurs” to “call
down” and reprimand those who had taken part in the
“take-off.” And in the midst of all the fuss and fume over
the affair, Lafayette, who was heartily sick of it all, was
glad enough to be ordered, as a sort of punishment, to join
his regiment at Strasburg.

But under all this sport and caricature in which the
HOW THE LITTLE MARQUIS BEGAN LIFE. 31

young and thoughtless nobles joined there was with a few, —
and especially with Lafayette, much serious and earnest
thought over the condition of the world. He shared the
growing desire that seemed “in the air” for real liberty and
the end of sham and of the meaningless ceremonies that
bolstered up royalty; so, although he could not tell precisely —
how liberty was to come to France or when it was to come,
he still dreamed about it, and, like the clear-headed, pure-
hearted, sensible, and manly boy he was, hoped for the
dawning of the day that should bring men nearer together
as brothers and fellow workers, and give to all, in some way
and to some extent, the boon and blessing of freedom.
32 WHERE HE HEARD OF INDEPENDENCE.

CHAPTER II.

WHERE THE YOUNG ARISTOCRAT HEARD OF INDEPENDENCE.

ie father-in-law, the Duke d’Ayen, always
felt himself so responsible for the doings of his daugh-
ters husband that he was greatly displeased over this con-
duct of his son-in-law, in mimicking the manners of the high
and ceremonious nobles of the court. The duke greatly
liked Lafayette, although he could not understand him or
fathom his thoughts. He was afraid the boy was growing
indifferent, careless, and indolent, and he begged young
Count Segur, Lafayette’s especial friend and cousin, to rouse
the young marquis, and stir him up to more enthusiasm.
“Indifferent! indolent!” cried the young count, with a
laugh. “ Faith! my dear marshal, you do not yet know our
Lafayette. He has altogether too much enthusiasm. Why,
only yesterday he almost insisted on my fighting a duel with
him because I did not agree with him in a matter of which
I knew nothing, and of which he thought I should know
everything. He is anything but indifferent and indolent, I
can assure you.”
If that were the case, and he really had misunderstood
his young son-in-law, the Duke d’Ayen decided that he must
WHERE HE HEARD OF INDEPENDENCE, 33

put the lad’s talents to the highest use. To a noble of
France, the “highest use” for a man of rank meant faithful
and continued attendance at court; so the duke planned and
worked to have Lafayette “ attached” in some official capac
ity to the personal suite or following of one of the scapegrace
young princes of France, —the Count of Provence, brother
of King Louis XVI.

But if you have read the story of Lafayette aright, even
thus far, you have discovered that he was not the kind of a
‘boy to curry favor with princes or follow like a lackey in
a noble’s train. Already, his vague search after liberty for
man was making him detest anything like toadying and
favoritism, and leading him to dislike titles and distinctions
of rank. He listened eagerly to anything he heard concern-
ing men who, in any land, were awaking to a desire for
freedom.

“T was delighted with republican stories,” he says of
himself at that time, “and when my relatives secured a place
for me at court I did not hesitate to give offence in order to
maintain my independence.”

Probably if the Count of Provence, in whose “ train” the
young marquis was to be provided with a place, had been
an older man Lafayette would not have “given offence” in
just the way he did; for Lafayette was always a gentleman,
and had been brought up to respect his elders. But this |
young prince, the brother of the king of France, was
scarcely two years older than Lafayette, and felt his impor-
34 WHERE HE HEARD OF INDEPENDENCE.

tance tremendously. Any boy of spirit and independence
dislikes such airs, and the young marquis felt that he was
just as much of a boy and had just as much of right and
interest in the world as had this haughty young Count of
Provence — king’s brother though he were.

So, when the duke, his father-in-law, managed to get the
young marquis to Paris and told him what he was trying to
arrange, Lafayette, as he confesses, actually put himself out
to give offence to the prince and to break up the proposed
scheme for his objectionable “ advancement.”

At one of the gay masked balls given at the court, Lafay-
ette took pains to hunt out the Count of Provence, who was
to be his “patron.” Then, actually cornering him, he reeled
off the greatest lot of talk about liberty and equality and the
rights of man that he could think up, — more of it, perhaps,
and much more radical and emphatic in statement than
Lafayette himself really believed. He was just “piling it
on,” you see, in order to make the young prince angry and
disgusted with him.

He certainly succeeded. The king’s brother tried to pro-
test, but he could scarcely “get a word in edgewise;” the
usually silent and reserved young marquis grew more and
more eloquent and objectionable. .

« Sir,” said the boy prince, lifting his mask, “I shall remem-
ber this interview.”

“Sir,” replied the boy marquis, lifting his mask and bowing
politely, but significantly; “ memory is the wisdom of fools.”
WHERE HE HEARD OF INDEPENDENCE. 35

With an indignant gesture the prince turned hotly on his
heel, and the young marquis was in disgrace. And you shall
see, as you get deeper into the story of Lafayette, how the
angry Count of Provence really did “remember” the inter-
view.

The well-meaning father-in-law of the young marquis was
again terribly scandalized. The thought that this young man
had not only recklessly refused so fine an opportunity, but
had gone out of his way to anger those to whom he should
have toadied, was something the good, but old-fashioned
Duke d’Ayen could not understand.

The Duke found fault with the boy openly and strongly.
But Lafayette had accomplished what he desired, and he was
so independent as regarded rank and riches that he could
afford to do about as he pleased; so, though his family
“complained,” he said little or nothing in reply.

“His reluctance to talk,” one of his youthful associates
said, in later years, “and his chilly, serious manner, were
always remarkable, but never as much so as in his youth, .
when they contrasted strangely with the petulant brilliance
of his companions.”

That sounds oddly to Americans, does it not? For we
have always thought of Lafayette as bright, impetuous, talk-
ative and fascinating, something entirely different from the
silent, serious, “chilly ” young man this picture seems to
make him. We know, however, what high ideals were fighting
the injustice of the world in this boy’s thoughtful nature;
36 WHERE HE HEARD OF INDEPENDENCE.

and his companions and relations simply did not under.
stand him. But Madame Adrienne, his bright young wife,
did understand him better than the rest of her family; and,
as she loved him, so, too, she sympathized with him, even
though she did not really always agree with him.

But the Duke d’Ayen, in great distress, had the young
marquis despatched to his regiment, sorrowfully giving up that
brilliant plan for advancement at court. And, in August,
1775, Lafayette was transferred from the Black Musketeers,
in which he held a commission, to another command. He
was made an officer in the “regiment de Noailles,” as it
was called, one of the high-toned regiments of France, com-
manded by an equally high-toned young colonel, Monsei-
gneur the Prince de Poix, a cousin of Lafayette’s wife, and
one of the lofty De Noailles family for whom the regiment
was named, as has long been the custom in certain armies of
certain European countries. .

The “regiment de Noailles” was stationed at Metz, at
that time a garrison city of France, and nearly two hun-
dred miles east of Paris. The military governor or com-
mander of Metz was the Count de Broglie, marshal and
prince of France and commander of the French armies in
the Seven Years’ War, in which, at that fatal battle of
Hastenbeck, as I have told you, Lafayette’s father, the
colonel, had been killed by English guns.

The Count de Broglie had a high regard for the son
of his old friend and companion in arms, and made much of ©
WHERE HE HEARD OF INDEPENDENCE. 37

Lafayette when his regiment was stationed at Metz. He
invited the young marquis to his feasts and entertainments,
of which there were many in the gay garrison towns of that
show-time in France.

In those years France and England were, for a wonder,
at peace, and so it came about that, on the eighth of
August, 1775, when the Count de Broglie gave a garrison
dinner-party to a young English prince, the Duke of
Gloucester, the Marquis de Lafayette in his handsome dress
uniform of blue and silver was one of the guests at the
table. But even these “functions” were not to his taste,
and he sat silent and thoughtful, while the other young
officers were boisterous, laughing, and talkative, through the
courses of this long “swell” banquet given by a prince of
France to a prince of England.

Now this prince of England, William, Duke of Glouces-
ter, was in temporary disgrace with his brother, George, the
king of England, because he had the audacity to marry
a wife to whom the king objected. So the duke and his
wife had been sent out of England on a sort of enforced
vacation, and, as a result, the duke was not in a very loving
mood toward his brother the king. Indeed the duke was
so foolish as to criticise the king and even to make fun of
him in the house of his hereditary foes. For France,
although, as I have told you, at peace just then with
England, had been her bitter foe ever since the days of
Crecy and Poitiers, and, especially, from that disastrous
38 WHERE HE HEARD OF INDEPENDENCE.

September day in 1759 when, on the Heights of Abra
ham, Wolfe had defeated Montcalm and driven the French
power from America.

In that very year of 1775 in which the Duke of
Gloucester dined with the French Commandant at Metz,
news had come to England of the breaking out of a
rebellion in America, which had led to a fight between
American “peasants” and British soldiers at a place called
Lexington in the colony of Massachusetts Bay. The duke
had received letters from England in which had been told
the story of the determined stand of the American “ peas-
ants” at Lexington and Concord, — for to aristocratic Europe
those Middlesex farmers and fishermen were simply “ peas-
ants,’ men of the lower orders who needed the strong hand
to put them down. The duke had also been told of the
long and disastrous retreat of Lord Percy and his troops
through a now historic country, from Lexington back to
Boston. This seemed such a good joke on his stubborn
brother, the king, that he told it with great gusto. So, as,
in the company of the French officers around the Duke
de Broglie’s dinner-table, he told the story of the “ uprising ”
in America and how also in that same Boston town, a year
or so before, the “rebel townspeople” rather than pay the
king’s tax on tea had thrown the tea into the harbor, the
company was highly entertained by the recital, and ques-
tioned the duke as to who these rebel “peasants” were
and why they were in rebellion.


“THE AMERICAN PEASANTS” WHO STOOD AT LEXINGTON AND CONCORD.

WHERE HE HEARD OF INDEPENDENCE. AI

The Duke of Gloucester, as I have told you, was just
then “out” with the king his brother; it has even been
charged that he sided with the rebel Americans against King
George III. and his councillors, as did many justice-loving
Englishmen. So he explained to his French hosts the cause
of the quarrel between king and colonists — that is, so far
as he knew it; there were very, very few of the lords and
gentlemen of England in that day who really did understand
the American question; but the Duke of Gloucester did say
that, though the “peasants” of America were a plucky lot,
still, as all the “gentlemen” of the colonies seemed to be
loyal to-theskane the: peasants * had no chance of success
unless, by some chance, leaders and officers of experience
turned in and helped them.

«They are poor, they are ill led, they have no gentlemen-
soldiers to show them how to fight,” the duke declared, “and
the king my brother is determined to bring them into sub-
jection by harsh and forcible methods, if need be. But my
letters say that the Americans seem set upon opposing force
with force, and, as the country is large and the colonies
scattered, it certainly looks as if the trouble would be long
and serious. If but the Americans were well led, I should
say the rebellion might really develop into a serious affair.”

In a way, most of the French officers at that military
banquet involuntarily sympathized with the American
e peasants,” of whose struggle for justice and independence
they were, most of them, hearing for the first time. With
42 WHERE HE HEARD OF INDEPENDENCE.

some of them this sympathy was due to that interest in
liberty which just then was the fancy, almost the “fad,”
among a certain class of French aristocrats; to all of them,
however, it was especially due to the hatred for England
that underlay French enthusiasm and action— the desire
to “get square with” the nation that had worsted and
humbled France, alike in war and in politics.

But while at that table there were interested but indif-
ferent listeners, there was one who, as he listened to the
Duke of Gloucester, felt what the old Puritans used to call
“an inward light.” His sharp-featured, unattractive face
fairly glowed with enthusiasm; his eyes sparkled with an
intensity of interest and purpose; he leaned far forward,
serious and silent, amid his talkative companions, as he
strove to lose no word of the imperfect French of the Eng-
lish prince; then, as the company rose from the table, this
red-haired, awkward boy of eighteen crossed over to the
prince, and, repressing his real earnestness, inquired anx-
iously, “But could one help these peasants over there
beyond the seas, monseigneur ?” .

“One could, my lord marquis, if he were there,” the
prince replied. |

“Then tell me, I pray you, how one may do it, monsei-
gneur,” said the young man; “tell me how to set about it.
For see, I will join these Americans; I will help them fight
for freedom!”

The duke iooked into the face of this calm, cool, appar-
WHERE HE HEARD OF INDEPENDENCE. A3

ently unenthusiastic young noble, now aroused to interest
and ardor. He smiled at first in a sort of disbelief. But,
as he caught the gleam of the boy’s eye, and saw the con-
viction that lived in the earnest face, he said: “Why, I
beliéve you would, my lord.
It wouldn’t take much to
start you across the sea, —
if your people would let
you.”

If his people would let
him? Who would try to
stop him? Lafayette asked
himself. He had been so
accustomed to having his
own way that such a thing
as any one interfering with
his plans seemed to him
absurd. Besides, the high
resolve that he had made



allowed no question of in-

LAFAYETTE AND THE DUKE OF GLOUCESTER.

terference. That purpose “ «Could one help these peasants, monseigneur ?'”
put from his mind every

other thought except his instant decision. Quick and impul-
sive, for all his silent ways and seeming indifference, in that
moment the Marquis de Lafayette had made up his mind.
He would go to America; he would offer his services to

a people who were struggling for freedom and independence.
A4. . WHERE HE HEARD OF INDEPENDENCE.

His inborn love of liberty; his dislike for courts and their
stupid ceremonials, for kingly tyrannies and the fetters they
put upon the wills and ways of men; his dream of doing
something that should make the world happier and better, —
dreams which, as you know, he had shared with his young
wife Adrienne; above all, his desire for action, his wish to
be somebody, to do something besides hanging about the
court, or waiting upon the pleasure or caprices of a king, —
these, all, combined to urge him to instant action. He
questioned the Duke of Gloucester closely; he got all the
“points” possible. The only question was how to get to
America. For, as you can see, he was enlisted, heart and
soul, in the cause of American independence. “Never,” he
said, in after years, recalling his boyish impulse and that
sudden decision; “never had so noble a purpose offered itself
to the judgment of men. This was the last struggle of
liberty; the defeat in America would have left it without
refuge and without hope.” .

Within a month the Duke of Gloucester had returned to
England and to the favor of his kingly brother, probably
giving no further thought to the earnest young Frenchman
who had questioned him so closely at Metz. But before
that month was out the Marquis de Lafayette had already
gone still deeper into the plan which the careless words
of the English prince had set in motion in his youthful
mind.

“From that hour,” he declared, “I could think of nothing
WHERE HE HEARD OF INDEPENDENCE. 45

but this enterprise, and I resolved to go to Paris at once to

make further inquiries.”

He hurried off to Paris, full of
his plans. His determination grew
with his desire, and as soon as he
reached town, he rushed to find
his cousin and close confidant,
the young Count de Segur.

It was only
seven o'clock in
the morning,and
the young count
was not yet up.
But Lafayette
burst into his
cousin’s room.
He was no
longer listless,
silent, or indif-
ferent.

“Wake up!
wake up!” he
called out to
the surprised count. “Wake up!
I’m going to America to fight



*¢WAKE UP ! M GOING
TO AMERICA.’ ”

for freedom. Nobody knows it



“IF THAT IS SO, I WILL GO
WITH YOU.’”

yet; but I love you too much not to tell you.”
46 — WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA.

And the Count de Segur, fired by his cousin’s earnestness,
and thrilled with his inspiring news, sprang out of bed and
caught Lafayette’s outstretched hand.

“Tf that is so, I will go with you,” he cried. “I will go to
America, too. I will fight with you for freedom! How soon
do you start?” |

Cre Aiea euine ae

WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA.

ane: two impulsive boys, who, fired by a generous pur-

pose, thus pledged themselves to fight for the liberties
of America at seven o'clock in the morning, straightway
after breakfast hunted up another young friend whom.
they knew would be with them, heart and soul, in this
enterprise.

This was the Viscount Louis Marie de Noailles, brother-
in-law to Lafayette, one year older than the young mar-
quis and his very dear friend. He, too, eagerly seconded
Lafayette’s plan; for though a great noble of France, he
belonged to what we should call to-day a sort of Tolstoi
family; for his father actually worked with the peasants
at the plough and his mother and sister lived only “for
God and their poor.” Naturally, this plan to help a nation
WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA. 47

to freedom would appeal to such a liberal-minded young
man, and the three boys—none of them were over twenty,
you know— pledged themselves to fight for America and
to set about it at once.

This, however, proved to be no easy task. France
hated England and was ready to go to any extent, secretly, |
to injure her at home and cripple her abroad. But there
was no desire just at that time for an open rupture of
peaceful relations, and the prime minister of King Louis
of France while really wishing one thing said quite
another.

When, therefore, the prime minister learned that there
was a movement among the young nobles of France to
sail across the sea and fight with the American “ insur-
gents” against the power of England, he was afraid that
England would think that the French government per-
mitted and encouraged this hostile action. So, lest it might
lead to undesirable complications, perhaps to actual war,
he “sat down upon” all such schemes whenever he heard
of them, and, especially, upon the three-cornered partner-
ship in patriotism of Lafayette, Noailles, and Segur.

So the young fellows had to go to work cautiously
and in secret council; and as Noailles and Segur had no
money of their own to invest in this adventure, but must
look to their fathers for funds, they had to think first of
money. Even before making this necessary application,
however, they waited until Lafayette could with the great-
48 WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA.

est caution see and talk with the agent of the rebellious
American colonists.
This agent was Silas Deane of Connecticut, who had

































































oa LAFAYETTE SECRETLY CALLS UPON THE
/ AMERICAN AGENT.

been sent across to France by the American “Committee
of Secret Correspondence,” of which Doctor Benjamin
Franklin was a member. Do you remember how, in the
WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA. 49

«True Story of Benjamin Franklin,” I told you about the
mysterious visit to this committee of a certain “little lame

d

Frenchman,” who hinted significantly to the surprised com-
mittee that, whenever they were ready, they could get all
the help they wanted from France?

I am inclined to think that this very mysterious and
“little lame Frenchman” was a certain Monsieur Achard
Bonvouloir, lieutenant in the army of the king of France,
who had “made up” for this interview so that no one
Should recognize him, but who had really been sent to
America by the prime minister of France, to see how
things stood and to give the Americans secretly to under-
stand that if they wished the aid of France there was a
way in which they could have it.

At any rate, it was soon after this secret interview
that the committee sent Silas Deane to France, as the
agent of the colonies in rebellion against the power of
England, and it was to Silas Deane that the young
Marquis de Lafayette applied for information as to how
he could join the “insurgent army” in America.

Before seeking an interview with Silas Deane and with-
out saying anything to his wife or his wife’s family, — for
the latter, he knew, would put an immediate veto on his
action,— the young marquis told his secret to his superior
officer, the Count de Broglie, commander of the garrison
at Metz, his own and his father’s friend.

“Throw your life away in that land of savages!” cried
50 WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA.

the count, when Lafayette had told him his desire. “Why,
my dear marquis, it is a crazy scheme; and to what
purpose?”

“For the noblest purpose, sir,” responded the young
enthusiast; “to help a devoted people attain their liberty.
What can be nobler?” .

“A dream, a dream, my friend, that
can never be fulfilled,’ said the count,
“J will not “help you throw your life
away. My boy,’ he added, feelingly,
grasping the hand of the young marquis,
“I saw your uncle die in the wars of
Italy; I witnessed your brave father’s
death at Hastenbeck, and I cannot, I will
not be a party to the ruin of the last of

_ your name, the only remaining branch
and scion of the Lafayettes.”

This was like cold water on the young



EES SP Sunt Ay a A Zs Me
scneme!? criep twuz soldier's scheme, but even cold water
COUNT.” :
could not drown or even dampen his en-
thusiasm. Indeed, so earnestly and so vigorously did he
combat all the count’s objections, and so strenuously did he
advocate his own desires, that, at last, even the gallant com-
mander of Metz was won over to his young lieutenant’s side,
and said he would help him to his desires, although it was

a risky business.
“T will introduce you to De Kalb, eShessatd. Miles cin
WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA. 51

Paris now, and perhaps through him you can gain your
point with this Monsieur Deane.”

So it was only through a third, even through a fourth
party, that Lafayette was able to bring about his interview
with the agent of the colonies.

There was in Paris at that time, as the Count de Broglie
had said, a veteran Bavarian soldier named John Kalb, better
known as Baron de Kalb. The true story of his life is but
slightly known; but it was full of mystery, action, and ad-
venture, and in the American Revolution De Kalb proved
himself a brave and efficient leader.

Long before the Revolution he had been in America. In
1768 he was sent by a far-seeing minister of France to
investigate the trouble that even then was brewing between
England and her American colonies, and which, so that wise
minister foresaw, would one day lead to serious results,
unless England changed her methods. But England, as
you know, did not change her methods; the troubles of 1768
grew into the revolution of 1776, and England’s necessity
was France’s opportunity.

So, just at the time when Lafayette had made up his
mind to go to America, the Count de Broglie, his com-
mander, whom Lafayette’s earnestness had set to thinking,
requested the Baron de Kalb to go again to America in his
behalf, and see if he could not so “work things” that he, the
Count de Broglie, could be invited by the American Con-
gress to become commander in chief of the American armies.
52 WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA.

This sounds oddly to us, to-day, who know that there
was and could be but one Washington. But, at that time,
France set down all Americans as “a herd of peasants”
who, as the Duke of Gloucester had said, could never suc-
ceed in their struggle against England unless disciplined
and marshalled by some European soldier of high name and
warlike experience, — as, for instance, so reasoned the com-
mander of Metz, the Count de Broglie!

To accomplish his mission, it was necessary that De
Kalb should go at once to America and secretly confer with
the Congress; to do this, an appointment was desirable in
the service of the United States, —it was really the United
States of America now, you see, since the Declaration of
Independence, — and to secure this appointment, the Baron
de Kalb and the Count de Broglie waited upon “ Monsieur
Deane,” the agent of the “insurgents.”

Silas Deane was an enthusiastic but somewhat unwise
patriot, who was so anxious to secure friends and assistance
for America that he made rash promises to every one who
showed any interest or asked for a commission in the
American service; he was therefore unable to distinguish
between scheming adventurers and honest friends of
American liberty.

He was quite impressed by the visit of the Count de
Broglie and the Baron de Kalb, you may be sure, and at once
he promised Baron de Kalb the rank of major-general in the
American army, and signed an agreement whereby De Kalb
WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA. 53

and fifteen French officers should go to America on a vessel
loaded with arms and military supplies for the fighting
Americans.

This was Lafayette’s opportunity. The Count de
Broglie, as promised, introduced him to De Kalb, the baron
introduced him to Silas Deane; and to the American agent
the young marquis freely opened his heart, and stated his
wish and his intention. This was on or about the fifth of
Decemberer7 76:

Lafayette was very boyish-looking at that time; he was
smooth-faced and slight of figure, and, indeed, feared greatly
that his “ nineteen-year-old face,” as he called it, would hurt
his cause. But he was so full of zeal and enthusiasm, and,
as he confesses, “made so much out of the small excitement
that my going away was likely to cause,” that Silas Deane
was captivated by the young marquis at once, and forthwith,
according to his helter-skelter custom, drew up a contract
with Lafayette, by which the young Frenchman was to
enter the service of the United States of America as major-
general, —a major-general at nineteen !

“ His high birth,’ so the agreement which was submitted
to Congress read, “his alliances, the great dignities which
his family holds at this court, his considerable estates in this
realm, his personal merit, his reputation, his disinterested-
ness, and above all, his zeal for the liberty of our provinces,
are such as have only been able to engage me to promise
him the rank of major-general in the name of the United
54 WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA.

States. In witness of which I have signed the present this
seventh of December, 1776. Silas Deane, Agent for the
United States of America.”

From all this you may judge that the overzealous
agent of the United States of America was as susceptible
to the enthusiasm of this nineteen-year-old marquis as
even the soldierly commandant of the king’s garrison at
Metz.

But other people were not so susceptible, especially when
the young marquis was a_ son-in-law. When Lafayette
declared his intention his own relatives and his wife’s family
were furious. Only his girl-wife Adrienne understood his
motives and sympathized with his desires. It was quite in
line, you see, with the high plans for making the world
better that this young husband and wife had dreamed over
together.

“God wills that you should go,” she said. “I have
prayed for guidance and strength. Whatever others think,
you shall not be blamed.”

But others not only thought; they acted. One of these,
and the most important actor, was the Duke d’Ayen, the
father of Adrienne.

The two young comrades of Lafayette, De Noailles and
Segur, who had promised to go with him, could not get
either the funds from their fathers nor permission from the
king. So they had to give up their plans. Lafayette, how-
ever, was rich; his money was all his own; no one could
WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA. 55

control his action or his expenditures. But he was a soldier
of France; so father-in-law d’Ayen complained to the king;
the British ambassador, who had somehow got hold of the
facts, complained to the king; and the king of France, who
was really little more than ‘a boy, and a very unenthusiastic
boy at that, said that, while it was a very fine thing to be
zealous in behalf of liberty, he could not allow the officers of
his army to serve in the army of the American “ insurgents ”
against the soldiers of the king of England, with whom he
was at peace. He therefore forbade any officer of his to go
to the war in America. |

“You had better return to your regiment at Metz, my
dear son,” the triumphant Duke d’Ayen advised. But he
did not yet know the spirit of his son-in-law.

“ No Lafayette was ever known to turn back,” the young

marquis declared. “I shall do as I have determined;” and
thereupon he put upon his coat-of-arms the motto taken by
a great soldier ancestor of his, cur nwon—“ Why not?” in

order, as he declared, that the device might serve him “both
as an encouragement and a response.” And then he went off
very quietly to talk with Doctor Franklin.

For, by this time, Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania,
the foremost and best-known American of that day, had been
sent to France to assist and advise Silas Deane, and, in time,
to replace him. You have read how Franklin went to the
French court as envoy from America, and all that he accom-
plished there. He, too, was at once attracted by Lafay.
56 WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA.

ette’s earnestness, and appreciated the great influence that
his name would have in behalf of America.

Just at that time terrible news came across the Atlantic.
The Americans had been defeated and almost cut to pieces
at the disastrous battle of Long Island, and a sudden
chill fell upon French enthusiasm. It looked as if the
“insurgents” in America were not strong enough to take
care of themselves and that France had better leave them
alone.

But Lafayette was only strengthened in his determination
by this bad news.

He sought out Franklin. Mr. Deane was with the
doctor. | .

“Gentlemen,” said the young marquis, “heretofore I have
been able to show you only my willingness to aid you in
your struggle; the time has now come when that willing-
ness may be put to effective use. I am going to buy a ship
and take your officers and supplies to America in it. Let us
not give up our hope yet. It is precisely in time of danger
that I wish to share whatever fortune may have in store for
you.”

Do you wonder that Franklin was moved by the gener-
osity and friendliness of this very determined young man?
But Doctor Franklin was, as you know, the most practical
of men; so, while accepting the offer of the young marquis
with thanks and appreciation, he suggested that the Ameri-
can agents were not popular people to know just then, and
WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA. 57

that Lafayette should work through third parties, and, if
possible, get away from Paris.

Lafayette took this advice. He selected as his agent an
officer in one of the king’s West Indian regiments, then home







LAFAYETTE AND THE AMERICAN AGENTS.

“* Tt is precisely in time of danger that I wish to share whatever fortune may have in store for you?”

on a furlough; and while this Captain Dubois, for that was
his name, with Lafayette’s money behind him, went about
to secretly purchase and secretly load a vessel, as if it were
intended. for the needs of his own regiment in the West
Indies, the young marquis slipped over the channel to Eng-
land to visit his uncle, the French ambassador, in company
58 WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA.

with the colonel of his regiment, his kinsman, the young
Prince de Poix.

He had a fine time in England. All his relatives believed
that “the crazy American scheme” was quite given up and
forgotten; the marquis was received in London society as
one of the leading young nobles of France; he went to
Windsor and was presented to King George; he went to a
ball at the house of the minister of the colonies, and “ hob-
nobbed” with Sir Henry Clinton on the opera. He was
to meet Sir Henry at quite a different performance not
so very long after.

But, though he had every opportunity to do so, Lafayette
would not play the spy. He kept away from the British
shipyards and the British barracks, although he was invited
to inspect them and see how thoroughly the king was pre-
paring to punish “his American rebels.” Honor was ever
one of the strongest points in Lafayette’s noble character.

Suddenly he disappeared from London. For three days
he was in hiding in Paris where he had a last word with
the American envoys and then slipped away with Baron
de Kalb to Bordeaux, the port at which was waiting the
sloop “Victory,” purchased by Captain Dubois with
Lafayette’s money to take the young marquis and _ his
fellow filibusters to America.

But it was not as the Marquis de Lafayette that the
runaway nobleman stepped as a passenger on board his
own vessel. That would never do. There were spies every-
WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA. 59

where, and as, in France, it was necessary to have a per-
mit or passport before leaving the country, Lafayette’s
name appeared on the permit, which is still preserved as
a relic at Bordeaux, as “Gilbert du Mottie, Chevalier de



= WINDSOR PALACE,

Where Lafayette met the King of Englana.

Chavaillac, aged about twenty, rather tall, light-haired,
embarking on the Victory, Captain Lebourcier command-
ing, for a voyage to the Cape on private business.”

He did not disguise his name so very much, you see;
60 WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA.

for really he was Gilbert du Motier and he was the Che-
valier de Chavaniac; but a careless entry clerk, who knew
nothing about Lafayette’s other names, and had no especial
interest in his “private business,” blunderingly misspelled
them both and so the “ Victory” cleared for the Cape.

It seemed a very easy escape. But the trouble had
not yet even begun. While waiting at Bordeaux Lafayette
heard that, somehow, his plans had been discovered; so the
“Victory” sailed away without waiting for its necessary
sailing papers, intending to run into a Spanish port and
there complete arrangements. .

But even this intention leaked out, and when, on the
twenty-seventh of March, 1777, the “ Victory” run into the
little Spanish port of Las Pasajes on the Bay of Biscay
and just across the French border, Lafayette found that
he had sailed into trouble. Instead of the sailing papers
that should let him clear for America the young runaway
marquis found letters from his family protesting, com-
plaining, and threatening; he found letters from the king’s
ministers charging him with desertion from the army, .
breaking his oath of allegiance to the king and involving
the government in serious trouble with England; worse
than this, he found two officers from the court bearing letters
under the king’s own seal, commanding Lieutenant the
Marquis de Lafayette of the regiment de Noailles to pro-
ceed at once to Marseilles and await orders.

This was serious enough. But, in all those letters, there
WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA. 61

was no word of complaint or censure from his young wife,
even though, to escape detention, Lafayette had_ sailed
away without telling her. She, however, as I have told
you, knew his desires and approved of the enterprise. She
would put no obstacle in his way. But his letters from
home told sad stories about her health and her state of
mind, and, though Lafayette would have braved all else, —
even the wrath of the ministers and the king’s order of
arrest, —he could not stand having anything happen to his
young wife on his account.

So he turned his back on his cherished plans, said
good-bye to the “ Victory” and his companions, and, crossing
the border into France, galloped back to Bordeaux, much to
the disgust of his comrade, the Baron de Kalb, who wrote
to his wife, “This is the end of his expedition to America to
join the army of the insurgents.”

But the Baron de Kalb did not yet know the Marquis
de Lafayette; neither did that young man’s family, friends,
or rulers. If he believed a thing was right he would do
it in spite of all opposition. Upon his arrival at Bordeaux
he learned that he had been recalled by a false alarm, and
that it was all what boys now-a-days call a “put-up job,”
arranged by his father-in-law, the duke. For his wife, he
heard, was well and happy, except at the thought of his long
absence; the government was in no danger of complications
with England because of his action, although the British
ambassador at Paris made such a row over Lafayette’s expe-
62 WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA.

dition that the court was compelled to appear to deal severely
with the young marquis. In fact, as I have told you, he dis-
covered that the trouble all came through the methods pur-
sued by his father-in-law, the Duke d’Ayen, who felt that
Lafayette was too important and too valuable a young man
in France and in his family to be allowed to risk his life
and estate among the savages and “insurgents” of North





















“ HE GALLOPED BACK TO BORDEAUX.”

America. It was the duke, therefore, who had sent off all
those “terrible letters,” as Lafayette called them, which had
recalled the young marquis from his cherished enterprise.

He determined at once to return to the “ Victory.” But
the ship still lay at the Spanish port, and the young man had
no permit to cross the border. He was also under the
orders of the king to return, and if he should be caught
travelling the other way it would go hard with him.
WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA. 63

His father-in-law, the duke, was waiting for him at Mar-
seilles. And, toward Marseilles, Lafayette started, as soon as
the letters sent him from Paris had led him to make up his
mind. While waiting at Bordeaux, he had been joined by a
young French officer, who also had secured from Silas
Deane an appointment in the American army, and, together,
the young men set off in a post-chaise to drive, apparently,
to Marseilles.

But when they were well out of Bordeaux, they suddenly
wheeled about and headed for Spain. In a quiet place,
Lafayette slipped into the woods. There he hastily disguised
himself as a post-boy, a sort of mounted carriage-servant, and
rode on ahead, on horseback, as if he were the guide or
attendant of the other young man in the post-chaise bound
for Spain.

The young man in the post-chaise had a permit to leave
France, and he hoped to get the marquis across the border
in the disguise of his horse-boy. But when they were
almost over the border, driving hard because they were
warned that’ officers from the French court were on
their tracks, suspecting the trick, they came very near to
disaster. For, at a little village where Lafayette had
stopped once before, the daughter of the tavern-keeper
recognized in the pretended post-boy, as he galloped into the
stable yard demanding fresh horses, the same fine young
gentleman who had been there before, ordering things in
great style at the inn.
64 WHY THE MARQUIS RAN AWAY TO SEA.

“Oh, m’sieur —” she began.

But Lafayette swiftly made a warning sign which the
young girl was bright enough to understand.

“Ves, my child; m/’sieur, my patron desires fresh

“THE INN-KEEPER’S DAUGHTER SAID NEVER A
WORD.”



horses at once,” Lafayette
said, quickly. “He is
just behind. He rides
post-haste into Spain at
once.”

The inn-keeper’s
daughter said never a
word, and “Lafayette’s
luck” did not desert him.
For when, soon after,
he and his companion had
posted across the border,
up came their pursuers at
a gallop, only to be as-
sured by the inn-keeper’s
daughter that the young
gentleman had gone on
just the opposite road

from that really taken into’ Spain.

So, once again, Lafayette came, on the seventeenth of
April, to the little Spanish port of Las Pasajes, and while
all France was ringing with applause over his pluck and

persistence, and England growled so that France said she
HOW LAFAYETTE LANDED IN AMERICA. 65

“didn’t care anyhow” and growled back in return, Lafayette
stood on the deck of the “ Victory” with De Kalb and about
twenty young Frenchmen, and on the twentieth of April he
ordered Captain Leboucier to “up anchor” and put to sea
at once.

The anchor came up; the “Victory” spread her sails;
the coast line of Spain and of France faded gradually from
sight. In spite of all, the expedition was off; in spite of
his father-in-law and in spite of the king of France the
young marquis had run away to sea.

CHAPTER IV.
HOW LAFAYETTE LANDED IN AMERICA.

| es is not a surprising thing in these days for a rich young
man to own a yacht. It is one of the things to which
most boys who love blue water aspire; thousands and
_ thousands of dollars are spent each year in the ownership
and navigation of these pleasure crafts, from the natty
knockabout to the luxurious and fast-sailing steamer.

But when Lafayette set sail from the little Spanish port,
pleasure-sailing was an unknown sport; men went down to
the sea in ships for profit or for fighting, but never for fun;
and when a young fellow of twenty, rich, well-connected and
high-toned, deliberately bought a vessel in which to run
66 HOW LAFAVETTE LANDED IN AMERICA.

away to sea, and actually did run away to help a struggling
people in an alien land, the other rich, well-connected and
high-toned people of France simply held up their hands in
surprise. .

“What kind of iol is this, my dear child?” wrote the
stately mother of a young chevalier who had sent her from
Paris the story of this latest sensation. “What! the madness
of knight-errantry still exists? It has disciples? Go to help
the insurgents? I am delighted that you reassure me about
yourself, or I should tremble for you. But since you see
that M. de Lafayette is a madman I am tranquil.”

”

Meantime the “madman” was sailing westward in his
“private yacht.” It did not prove to be much of a yacht.
The “ Victory” was little better than a “tub” of a boat, and
the marquis had been sadly swindled; she was a slow sailer;
she was meagrely furnished and miserably armed, and her
two old cannons and small supply of muskets would prove
but a. poor defence in case of attack by the pirates and
privateers that in those days swarmed the seas and terrorized,
“the Atlantic ferry,” or by the English cruisers that would
gladly welcome such game as a ship-load of French officers
carrying arms, ammunition, and their own services to the
American insurgents. It reads quite like a chapter out of
the story of Cuba in 1897, does it not?

A. young man who owns. a yacht considers himself the
head man on deck, you know. Lafayette certainly did; but
the first thing he discovered was that the captain of the
HOW LAFAYETTE LANDED IN AMERICA. 67

“Victory” considered himself a bigger man than the owner.
No sooner had the “ Victory” lost sight of the home coast
line than Lafayette directed the captain to steer straight for
a United States port and by the shortest route.

The clearance papers, without which no ship can leave
port for a foreign land, were made out for the West Indies.
But as this was always the case in those war days when a
vessel sailed from Europe, America bound, Lafayette did
not trouble himself about what “his papers” declared. He
intended to get to the United States, and to get there as
quickly as possible.

“Captain,” he said, “you will please make your course
as direct as possible for Charlestown in the Carolinas.”

“The Carolinas, sir!” exclaimed the captain. “Why,
that I cannot. This ship’s papers are made out for a port in
the West Indies and can only protect us on that course. I
Shall sail for the West Indies and you must get transporta-
tion across to the colonies from there.”

The marquis was astonished. <“Sir,’ he said to the
captain, “this ship is mine. I direct you to sail to
Charlestown.”

« Sir,” replied the captain, “I am the master of this ship
and am responsible for her safety. If we are caught by an
English cruiser, and she finds us headed for North America
with arms and supplies, we shall at once be made prisoners
and lose our vessel, our cargo, and our lives. So I shall
follow my papers and steer for the West Indies.”
68 HOW LAFAVETTE LANDED IN AMERICA.

“Captain Leboucier,” said the marquis, facing the stub-
born captain, “ you may be master of the ‘ Victory,’ but I am

her owner and my decision is final.



LAFAYETTE AND THE CAPTAIN.

“ Sir,” said Lafayette,“ this ship is mine. I direct you to sail to
Charlestown.”

You will sail at once
and direct for Charles-
town in the Carolinas or
I shall deprive you this
instant of your command
and place the ship in
charge of the mate. I
have force enough here
to meet any resistance |
on your part. So make
your decision.”

It was now Captain
Leboucier’s turn to be
surprised. He had sup-
posed that he could do
just as he pleased with
this green “land-lubber
of a boy.” But he found
he had awakened the
wrong passenger. He

spluttered and blustered a bit, but he had too much at stake
to risk losing his command; so at last he made a full breast

of it and confessed to the boy owner of the “ Victory ” that

it was not so much the ship’s papers as the ship’s cargo that
troubled him. For it seems the captain had concluded to try
HOW LAFAYETTE LANDED IN AMERICA. 69

a little venture of his own on this voyage and had smuggled
aboard the “Victory” some eight or nine thousand dollars’
worth of goods and merchandise which he wished to sell in
West Indian ports and make some outside money for him-
self. If this cargo were “held up” by an English cruiser he
would be out of pocket, and, therefore, he didn’t wish to run
the risk.

“ And why did you not say so at once, sir?” the marquis
demanded. “I would have helped you out, of course. Sail
for Charlestown in the Carolinas, captain; and if we are
captured, searched, robbed, or destroyed by English cruisers
or by privateers, I will see that you do not lose a sou. I
will promise to make your loss good.”

Captain Leboucier came around at once. As long as he
felt assured that his investment was safe he did not care for
the danger, and at once he headed for the coast of Carolina.
But Lafayette, with the thought of hostile war-ships in his
mind, determined never to surrender, and he made a secret
agreement with a certain Captain de Bedaulx, a deserting
Dutch officer from the English army, that in case of attack
and capture, he and this Captain de Bedaulx would blow up
the “ Victory” rather than surrender her. Which desperate
affair being arranged, the young marquis went below, and for
two weeks was dreadfully seasick, as even the greatest of
heroes have often been, from Ulysses to Napoleon and
General Grant.

But when, at last, the seasickness was passed, and the
7O HOW LAFAYETTE LANDED IN AMERICA.

disgusted young Frenchman crawled out on deck again —
for the voyage across took seven weeks instead of the seven
days in which the “ocean greyhounds” now make it —he
found himself divided between two things, — homesickness
and anxiety to see America. To relieve the first he wrote
long letters to his wife, which he intended to send by dif-
ferent routes when he landed in America, so that some of
his letters could be relied upon to escape capture and reach
her. The letters he wrote his wife were long and loving;
for, though he knew that both of them regretted the separa-
tion, and appreciated the sacrifice, he could not help wishing
again and again to see his “dear Adrienne” and their little
two-year-old daughter, and exclaimed: “Oh, if you knew
what I have suffered, what weary days I have passed thus
flying from everything that I love best in the world!”

Then he tried to calm her fears, and to assure her that
the higher the rank the less the danger to him in the war to
which he was going.

“ Do not allow yourself to feel anxious that I am running
great danger in the occupation that is before me,” he wrote.
“The post of major-general” (you can imagine how big the
boy felt when he wrote himself down as major-general ) “ the
post of major-general has always been a warrant of long life.
It is so different from the service I should have had in
France, as colonel, for instance. With my present rank I
shall only have to attend councils of war. ... As soon as
I land I shall be in perfect safety.”
HOW LAFAYETTE LANDED IN AMERICA. 7 a

You can see how little this young fellow appreciated
what fighting in America meant, and how little he really
knew his own rashness, if he thought for an instant that he
would be content simply to attend councils of war!

In fact, in this very letter to his wife, he showed that
action only would suit him. For, comparing his present
enterprise with the social tour for which his angry but
“foxy” father-in-law wished to lure him to Marseilles, he
wrote: “Consider the difference between my occupation and
my present life, and what they would have been if I had
gone upon that useless journey. As the defender of that lib-
erty which I adore; free, myself, more than any one; com-
ing, as a friend, to offer my services to this most interesting
republic, I bring with me nothing but my own free heart and
my own good-will, — no ambition to fulfil and no selfish in-
terest to serve. If I am striving for my own glory, I am at
the same time laboring for the welfare of the American re-
public. I trust that, for my sake, you will become a good
American. It is a sentiment made for virtuous hearts. The
happiness of America is intimately connected with the happi-
ness of all mankind; she is destined to become the safe and
worthy asylum of virtue, integrity, tolerance, equality, and
peaceful liberty.” .

A pretty good prophet for a young man of nineteen, was
he not—and for one who really did not know to what he
was going, nor even the language of the people he was seek-
ing to serve? | a
72 HOW LAFAYETTE LANDED IN AMERICA.

This last defect he was studiously trying to overcome
during such of the fifty-four days of that long and tedious
voyage as he was not seasick, planning, writing letters, or
studying military science with the veteran fighter, De Kalb,
and his companions.

“Tam making progress with that language,” he wrote to
his wife; “it will soon become most necessary to me.”

April passed; May passed; June came, and still the
slow sailing “Victory” had not made the North Atlantic
coast; for fifty days the little vessel, which had nothing
grand about it except its name and the desires of its passen-
gers, pitched and flopped about, struggling against head
winds and adverse currents.

“fT am still out on this dreary plain,” wrote Lafayette to
his wife on the seventh day of June, “which is beyond com-
parison the most dismal place that one can be in. ... We
have had small alarms from time to time, but with a little
care, and reasonably good fortune, I hope to get through
without serious accident, and I shall be all the more pleased,
because I am learning every day to be extremely prudent.”

Very soon after writing these words, Lafayette and his
comrades had need for all their acquired prudence. For,
while yet out of sight of land, but slowly approaching the
Carolina coast, the lookout one morning hailed the captain
and reported a strange sail bearing down upon them.

At once all was excitement on board the « Victory,” in
the usual impressible French manner. The captain crowded
































































































































LAFAYETTE OFF THE CAROLINA COAST.
“ She broke out the new colors of the American republic, — the Stars and Stripes.”

HOW LAFAVETTE LANDED IN AMERICA. 75

on all sail and tried to get away; but to run the old
“Victory” out of the reach of that fast sailing stranger was
found to be impossible. Resistance or surrender seemed the
only choice. .

“She is an English man-of-war,’ was the word passed
from man to man, and the marquis and his friends prepared -
for resistance, while the captain shook his head dubiously,
and the two poor cannons were made ready, the muskets dis-
tributed, and the crew sent to their stations.

Nearer and nearer came the stranger, rakish and deter-
mined, with a formidable threat in the very “cut of her jib,”
and the water parting at her bows. Lafayette had just
given a significant look to the Dutch deserter, De Bedaulx,
and the Dutchman had replied with an equally significant
nod; the old “ Victory,” laboring desperately to draw out of
the path of her pursuer, only flopped and floundered the
more, when suddenly the stranger came gracefully: about,
and as her broadside was presented to the “ Victory” she
broke out from her peak the new colors of the American
republic, —the stars and stripes! At once the “ Victory”
displayed French colors, and the “scare turned into ju-
bilee.”

But even as the lumbering “ Victory” sought vainly to
keep up with the American privateer, and make for Charles-
ton harbor, off to the south, far against the coast line, two
other strange sails appeared, and the privateer, displaying the
danger signal for the information of the French vessel,
76 HOW LAFAYETTE LANDED IN AMERICA.

announced them to be English cruisers looking for priva-
teers, filibusters, and blockade runners.

Again all was excitement on board the “ Victory.” This
time resistance was felt to be hopeless, for the “ Victory’s ”
two guns would be useless against an armed cruiser, and
even the American privateer deemed desertion to be the
better part of valor. At once she signalled: “good-bye,
can't stop,” and was soon hull down off the coast.

But again the “Victory” proved the luck of her name
even if she could not show a quick pair of heels. For, as
the distance between her and the British cruisers lessened,
suddenly the wind shifted, and blew strong from the north.
This would, of course, drive the “yacht” nearer to Charles-
ton and the enemy, but it would also be a head wind for the
approaching foemen. At once Captain Leboucier decided
to take advantage of this north wind and, instead of making
Charleston, run before the wind into Georgetown Bay, which
broke into the Carolina coast almost directly on his course.

At once he headed the “Victory” shoreward, and by
great good fortune, for he knew nothing whatever of the
coast thereabouts, he made the opening of the South Inlet
of Georgetown Bay, —a shallow roadstead, but worth risk-
ing at a time when, as the sailors say, “any port in a storm.”

The north wind held steady; the British cruisers labored
against it in vain, and finally dropped out of sight, and on
the afternoon of Friday, the thirteenth day of June, 1777,
the “Victory” ran in through the inlet and came to off
HOW LAFAYETTE LANDED IN AMERICA. ade

North Island, one of the long, low-lying sand-spits fringing
the broken South Carolina coast.



BY PERMISSION OF THE LIGHTHOUSE BOARD.

WHERE LAFAYETTE LANDED IN AMERICA.
Georgetown Lighthouse, North Island, on the South Carolina coast; here Lafayette sailed into the bay.

To-day, above the South Inlet, at the entrance to George-
town Bay, the towering white walls and the protecting rays
of Georgetown light show the way over the bar; but when
78 HOW LAFAYETTE LANDED IN AMERICA.

the “ Victory” felt its way in for shelter and security, like
some hunted animal scudding for cover, there was no such
thing as a lighthouse on the sands, and it was only good
luck and a favoring wind that carried the blockade runner
into safe harbor. It was a fortunate combination; “but
it was not the only time in my life,” so Lafayette de-
clared many years after, in referring to his adventure, “ that
the elements have conspired in my favor.” Wind and rain, -
you see, are oftentimes as welcome in the hour of perilous
adventure as are clear and sunny days.

Neither captain nor crew could tell just where they were.
But of one thing Lafayette was certain; he was on the Caro-
lina coast; the Carolinas were American and rebel; there-
fore, wherever he was, he should be among friends. So, acting
on this course of reasoning, he proposed to Baron de Kalb
that they should go ashore in one of the “ Victory’s” boats,
find out where they were, and perhaps pick up a pilot to take
the “ Victory” into safe anchorage or guide her around to
Charleston.

The baron thought the plan of the marquis wise. So
the ship’s yawl was ordered out; seven men were told off as
a crew to row it ashore, and into it went Lafayette, De Kalb,
and some other officers, a half dozen passengers in all.

The explorers dropped over the side, the oars fell into the
water, and a little after two o’clock in the afternoon the yawl
cast off from the “ Victory” on its voyage of discovery and
information.
HOW LAFAVETTE LANDED IN AMERICA. 79

Both discovery and information proved uncertain quan-
' tities, however. Georgetown Bay is broad and broken with
inlets, bars, and islands, and in those days there were, along
the low shores, little signs of life or occupation. The rowers
pulled this way and that until, finally, as night closed down,
they found themselves rowing up the North Inlet, where,
around North Island, the channel of Georgetown Bay con-
nects with the sea at its northern entrance.

They rowed along the silent shores, wondering if America
were really inhabited, when suddenly, ahead, they saw a burn-
ing flare and soon came up to some negroes dragging for
oysters.

Baron de Kalb was the only man in the yawl whose’
English could really be relied upon, so he hailed the darkeys
and asked them who they were and where they were; whether
there was safe anchorage for a ship thereabouts and where
he and his friends could find a pilot to take them around to
Charleston.

“Golly, massa! Don’t know nuffin ‘bout it,’ one of the
negroes replied, bewildered by the string of questions flung
at him in broken English by the Bavarian soldier, and rather
fearful of this boat-load of “ Hessians,” as he thought them
to be. “We’m belongs to Major Huger, we do. He’m our
massa.”

“Major Huger. He is of ze American army?” demanded
the baron. |

SEN AAG aS ll eee ea tileeal Continentaler,” the negro. replied.
80 HOW LAFAYETTE LANDED IN AMERICA.

And he told the Frenchmen that there was a pilot to be
found somewhere on the upper end of North Island, that he
could show the gentlemen where the pilot lived and take them
also to the big house, —“ Major Huger’s house, sah — our
massa; he'll be right glad to see you gen’'l’men, sah; he'll be
powerful glad,” the black oysterman declared. And Lafay-
ette decided to seek out Major Huger at once.

So you see that really Lafayette’s first reception and
welcome on American shores were at the hands of black
Americans, —slaves in a land fighting for freedom; slaves
after liberty was won, until a greater than revolutionary
patriot or French hero was to enfranchise and deliver them
and make America indeed the land of liberty.

But when the yawl attempted to follow its guide, the
oyster-boat, it was discovered that the tide was falling fast
and that it would be unsafe for strange rowers to keep to the
channel and pull the big yawl up to a safe landing-place, if
indeed they were not left high and dry on the flats.

There was nothing for it but to take to the oyster-boat.
So, leaving the most of ‘his party in the yawl, greatly to their
disgust, no doubt, Lafayette, De Kalb, and a young French
American named Price (who evidently could not speak his
own language as well as the Bavarian Frenchman) stepped
aboard the clumsy and dirty oyster-boat, and with an “adieu!”
to their comrades in the yawl and a “ bon voyage! eaneterutn
pulled into the night with their negro boatmen.

Creeping along the shallowing reach they skirted the
HOW LAFAYETTE LANDED IN AMERICA. 81

shore of North Island, and, finally, about midnight they saw
a light, shining as if from a house on shore.

“ Dat’s it, sah; dat’s Major Huger’s, sah,” said the oyster-
man. “We set you gen’men ashore heah, and you jes’ follow
de light, and Major Huger he be powerful glad to see you.”

The oyster-boat ran alongside the landing and, with
stiffened limbs and a goodly fee to his colored boatmen,
the marquis and his two companions stepped on American
soil. Lafayette, at last, had one ambition gratified. He was
in America, the land for whose freedom he had come to fight,
and which, all France supposed, was to fervently welcome
him. |

The fervor in the welcome was not just then apparent as
the three bewildered Frenchmen stood on the rickety boat
landing at North Island, alone and at midnight, with nothing
to guide them but a distant and uncertain light.

But, as is wisest in all times of doubt and difficulty, they
did as the negro boatman advised them, — they followed the
light.

Now it seems in those troublesome times, when English
cruisers and privateers were coasting the American shores
for prey or booty, the seaside dwellers lived in continual
fear of raid and attack, and were ever on the watch for
marauders.

So, as Lafayette and his two companions went stum-
bling up from the shore heading for the light, their coming
aroused the guardians of the house, and at once the sharp
82 HOW LAFAVETTE LANDED IN AMERICA.

warning bark of a watch-dog broke the silence; the bark
swelled to a chorus as all the other dogs in the pack took up
the cry; the lights disappeared from the house; windows
were flung up and men with guns stood at each darkened sash.

“Hollo! who goes there? Stand or we fire,” came the
threatening call.

“ Friends, sir; friends only,’ De Kalb in broken English
hastened to reply to the challenge. “We are French off-
cers, sir, just set ashore from our ship in your waters. We
come to fight for America and we seek a pilot to bring our
vessel to safe anchorage and shelter for ourselves.”

Even before the explanation was half given, the house
changed from hostility to hospitality; lights flashed out
again; welcoming hands unbarred the door, and on its
threshold, with black servants holding lights aloft and
hurriedly dressed forms just outlined in the shadows, stood
a smiling gentleman and a small boy,— for you can always
depend upon a small boy to be on hand whenever anything
exciting is about to happen.

“Gentlemen, I am proud to welcome you,” cried the
man in the doorway, extending his hands in greeting.
“Down, Bruno! down, Vixen!” —this to the- vociferous
dogs —“I am Major Huger, Major Benjamin Huger of
the American army; this is my shore house where we camp
down in the summer. Come in, gentlemen, come in. This
house and all it holds are at the service of brave Frenchmen
who come to fight for our liberties.”
LAFAYETTE’S WELCOME TO AMERICA.

BE

“Come in, gentlemen. This house and all it holds are yours.


HOW LAFAYETTE LANDED IN AMERICA. 85

He almost pulled the oldest man —the Baron de Kalb —
into the house in the excessive cordiality of his welcome;
while the small boy, catching at the hand of the young
marquis, who looked little more than a boy in that light,
dragged him into the spacious hall.

“Permit me, Major Huger,” said the punctilious De
Kalb, “to introduce ourselves to you who have so gener-
ously welcomed us. This, sir, is the leader and head of
our expedition, the Seigneur Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de
Lafayette; this is Monsieur Price of Sauveterre, and I, sir,
am Johann Kalb, at your service.”

“The Baron de Kalb, monsieur the major,’ broke in
Lafayette, “a brigadier in the army of the king of France
and aid to the Maréchal Duke de Broglie.”

But Major Huger had ears but for one part of this
introduction. Already the news of the young French noble-
man’s determination to fight for American liberty had
crossed the Atlantic.

“The Marquis de Lafayette!” he exclaimed, grasping the
young man by both hands. “Sir, my house is honored by
your presence; sir, we have heard of you——-who has not?
Sir, command me in anything and everything. I will see to
your pilot, your vessel, your friends. Oblige me by resting
here to-night and in the morning all things shall be arranged.
Francis, escort the marquis to the dining-room; this is my
son, gentlemen, Francis Kinloch Huger, and proud he is to
welcome those who sacrifice time and ease to fight for the
86 HOW LAFAVETTE LANDED IN AMERICA.

liberty of his native land. Gentlemen, be seated. Here,
Hector, Pompey, take these gentlemen’s wraps; stir your-
selves! Gentlemen, your healths!”

« And that of the Cause!” responded the Baron de Kalb. .

And so in the midst of generous hospitality, with a
blessed night’s sleep in a “Christian bed” for the first time
in eight weeks, Lafayette passed his first night in America.

As for Francis Kinloch Huger, that small boy was capti-
vated by the young Frenchman. He became a _hero-wor-
shipper, at once, and his dreams that night were full of the
boy marquis. It was a hero-worship that was not to cease
with that midnight reception on a Carolina sea-island; for
that boy’s life was to be strongly and romantically mingled,
in later years, with that of the noble Marquis de Lafayette,
who on a June night in 1777 had taken this boy’s house by
storm and, after months of anxiety and adventure, had, at
last, safely landed on the shores of America.
HOW THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS. d7

lalate We

HOW THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS.

GOOD night’s sleep greatly refreshed and strengthened

the weary, ship-worn marquis, for, like any young fellow
of nineteen, he recovered quickly from fatigue and privation ;
and, besides, he was in America. He had, as he expressed
it, “retired to rest rejoiced that he had at last attained the
haven of his wishes and was safely landed in America beyond
the reach of his pursuers.”

He had not yet. attained the era of his mission, — the
command of a major-general in the American army. . That,
however, he felt was only a matter of time. With his letters of
introduction and the contract he had made with Mr. Deane —
he was confident he had only to present. himself before the
American Congress to be received as cordially and welcomed
as enthusiastically as he had been greeted and “made at
home” by Major Huger, in that comfortable Southern sea-
shore mansion.

So he sank to sleep contentedly, and when he ole in
the morning he was in a blissful state of mind.

As, years after, he recalled that first morning in America,
he still spoke with all the enthusiasm of the homesick, seasick
88 HOW THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS.

boy who had been made to feel that he was a welcome and

honored guest.
“The next morning,” he said, “was beautiful. The nov-

elty of everything around me, the room, the bed with its



SINGING FOR LAFAYETTE.

“ Every cranny resounds with the lovely name of Liberty.”

mosquito curtains, the black servants who came to ask my
wishes, the beauty and strange appearance of the country as I
could see it from my window clothed in luxuriant verdure, —
all conspired to produce upon me an effect like magic and to
impress me with indescribable sensations.”
HOW THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS. 89

His comrades in the yawl had been hunted up and
brought to the house; a pilot had been sent to the “ Vic-
tory,’ and, in fact, everything hospitable and helpful was so
cheerfully done by Major Huger and his family that, as
Lafayette wrote his wife, “the manners of this people are
simple, honest, and dignified. The wish to oblige, the love of
country, and freedom reign here together in sweet equality.
All citizens are brothers. They belong to a country where
every cranny resounds with the lovely name of Liberty. My
sympathy with them makes me feel as if I had been here for
twenty years.”

Everything, you see, was delightful at the start, and this
enthusiastic French boy felt sure there would be for him,
everywhere in America, a repetition of the South Carolina
welcome. So, in confidence and anticipation, in high hopes
and higher spirits, he set out for the long journey to Phila-
delphia, where the American Congress was in session.

He was to go by land this time. He and his comrades
had experienced quite enough of ship life and preferred to
trust to the uncertainties of colonial country roads. Besides,
the “ Victory” was “in limbo,” as the saying is. For when
the pilot sent by Major Huger reported that there was not
sufficient depth of water for the ship in Georgetown Bay,
Lafayette sent the “ Victory,” in charge of the pilot, around to
Charleston. But when he heard of the activity and watchful-
ness of the British cruisers he hurried a message to the captain,
bidding him run the “ Victory” ashore and burn her rather
go HOW THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS.

than let the British capture her.

The captain, however, re-

membered his cargo and his own little venture; he decided to
run the risk, and, thanks to a favoring wind, the “ Victory”







FROM AN OLD PRINT.

THE MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE.

As he looked upon his first coming to A merica.



escaped the cruis-
ers and, as he re-
ported, “sailed into
Charles Town har-
bor in broad day-
light without see-
ing either friends
or enemies.”
Thereupon La-
fayette and De
Kalb, mounted on
the only horses
Major Huger
could spare or
find in that un-
inhabited seaside
section, set out for
Charleston, while
the other French-
men trudged along

on foot. And when they had reached that famous and hos-

pitable old Carolina town a cordial welcome was extended

them. Lafayette, as one of his companions says, was received
“with all the honors due to a Marshal of France.”
HOW THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS. gi

Do you wonder that this young Frenchman felt very
much “set up” and elated ?

The Marquis de Lafayette was, however, a shrewd young
man, even if he was an enthusiastic one. or, even in those
days the interviewer was in the land; but Lafayette refused
to be interviewed.

“T have every reason to feel highly gratified at my recep-
tion in Charles Town,” he wrote his wife, “but I have not yet
explained my plans to any one. I judge it best to wait until
I have presented myself to the Congress before making a
statement as to the projects I have in view.”

He wished to be off on this journey to Congress as
speedily as possible. So he proceeded to dispose of the
“Victory” and her cargo in order to obtain the necessary
money for his own and his comrades’ expenses and support.

But when he attempted to do this he found the French
merchants who had sold him the ship and the French cap-
tain who sailed her had so tied him up with agreements and
provisos and commissions (all of which he had signed at
Bordeaux without realizing what he was doing, because he
was in such a hurry to be off) that, instead of having any
money coming to him, he was actually in debt, and he had
to go to work trying to borrow enough money in Charleston
to get away from town. All of which goes to prove that
even enthusiasm should not blind people to understand just
what they are signing, and that it is always best, for young
and old alike, to look before they leap. And yet, on the
92 HOW THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS.

other hand, if Lafayette had not taken his leap, regardless of
consequences, where would have been one of the most roman-
tic and inspiring episodes in American history, which we. of
to-day never tire of reading and applauding ?

Just at that time, however, it must be confessed that the
American Congress and the American commander-in-chief
were very, very tired of this particular kind of romance.
The American colonies had risen in rebellion against the
king of England; they had organized revolution and had
declared themselves free and independent states; they wel-
comed every expression of friendliness and sympathy from
European nations, and were working hard to secure recogni-
tion and assistance at foreign courts. But the American
people had raised and officered their own army. They had
placed at the head of it a great and capable commander, and
had associated with him, as leaders and officers, those of their
own countrymen who seemed best fitted to the tasks of leader-
ship as generals, colonels, and captains.

But as the war with England progressed, there came to
America swarms of European soldiers — French, Spanish,
German, Dutch, Polish, and Italian — who, because they
were experienced soldiers, counted their services far ahead
of those of the American “peasants,” and demanded high
offices in the American army, from commander-in-chief to
colonel and captain. These foreign volunteers were so many
and so persistent that the American Congress grew just a bit
tired of the assumption and demands of these adventurers,





































































































































































































































HOW THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS. 95

who were out for money rather than to show their sympathy,
and who, also, almost insisted upon telling the American
Congress just what it should do.

A regiment of colonels and an army of major-generals can
do very little real fighting, and, as none of these foreign
officers would put up with anything less than the highest
rank, Congress, preferring first to recognise able and earnest
Americans, found itself simply flooded with requests it could
not grant, while General Washington himself protested in
vigorous language.

“Their ignorance of our language and their inability to
recruit men,” he wrote to the president of Congress in Febru-
ary, 1777, “are insurmountable obstacles to their being in-
grafted into our continental battalions; for our officers, who
have raised their men, and have served through the war upon
pay that has hitherto not borne their expenses, would be dis-
gusted if foreigners were put over their heads; and I assure
you, few or none of these gentlemen look lower than field-
officers’ commissions. To give them all brevets, by which
they have rank, and draw pay without doing any service, is
saddling the continent with vast expense; and to form them
into corps would be only establishing corps of officers; for,
as I have said before, they cannot possibly raise any men.”

So, you see, with the Congress and the commander-in-
chief set against this rush of overzealous and self-seeking
foreigners (mostly from France) in a scramble for command-
ing positions in the American army, the outlook was not so
96 HOW THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS.

bright nor so promising as Lafayette and De Kalb and their
companions anticipated. Evidently, too, the aspiring Duke
de Broglie was to get a “ set-back.”

But, equipping his expedition with the money he had
borrowed in Charleston, Lafayette and his “caravan,” as he
called it, certain that recognition and position awaited them,
started from Charleston on the twenty-fifth of June, 1777,
headed for Philadelphia and Congress.

The “caravan,” indeed, was quite like a procession. At
the head rode one of Lafayette’s men dressed in the uniform
of a French hussar, and behind him rode the marquis and
Baron de Kalb in a queer, old-fashioned open carriage with
a front seat for the driver, while at Lafayette’s wheel rode
his body servant, valet, or “squire.” Next came a one-horse
chaise with two colonels, Lafayette’s “chief counsellors;”
then followed another with more French officers, then the
baggage, and bringing up the rear, a negro on horseback.

From Charleston to Philadelphia in June is a hot ride
even in a parlor-car: in open carriages it is still worse;
while, over the dreadful clearings called “roads” in 1777, the
journey was one long series of accidents and discomforts.
Their guide proved no guide at all. In four days their car-
riages were jolted into splinters; their horses went lame or
broke down altogether; much of their baggage had to be left
behind, and what they took with them was mostly stolen
before the journey ended. They spent all their money for
fresh horses and other wagons, and the necessaries of life,
HOW THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS. 97

and even then, because of the dreadful roads, most of the
journey was made on foot, while the poor Frenchmen, sick,
weary, and hungry, sleeping in the woods, and worn down by
the hardships and hot weather, would -have begun to doubt
whether American liberty was really worth all it was costing
them, had not Lafayette, hopeful and enthusiastic in spite of
all privations and misadventures, kept up their spirits, cheer-
fully shared all their trials, and held ever before them
the reception and appreciation they were certain to find in
Philadelphia.

“You have heard,” he wrote to his wife, “how brilliantly
I started out in a carriage. I have to inform you” (this was
written from Petersburg in Virginia) “that we are now
on horseback after having broken the wagons in my usual
praiseworthy fashion, and I expect to write you before long
that we have reached our destination on foot.”

On the twenty-seventh of July, after a tedious and dis-
astrous journey of nine hundred miles in thirty-two days,
Lafayette and his travel-stained company entered Philadel-
phia— “in a pitiable condition,’ one of his comrades de-
clared. But they supposed now that all their troubles were
over; so, after “ brushing themselves up,” and making them-
selves presentable, they proceeded to wait upon the president
of Congress with their letters of introduction and their con-
tracts with Mr. Deane.

Now the president of the American Congress at that
time was Mr. John Hancock, of Massachusetts, a patriot of
98 HOW THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS.

prominence and integrity, with a very bold signature, and a
very high opinion of the Honorable John Hancock, presi-
dent of Congress. He felt himself to be the chief man in



THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS.

“John Hancock, of Massachusetts, a patriot of prominence and integrity.”

all America; he set
up a great show of
state and dignity, for
all of which he un-
complainingly paid
out of his own pocket,
and he demanded, as
his right, the proper
amount of recogni-
tion and respect.
Whether or not
he had received and
read Franklin’s flat-
tering introduction of
Lafayette, at 1s, cer
tain that he did not
fully appreciate the
meaning or the ex-
tent of the young

Frenchman’s sacrifices in behalf of American liberty. He
merely looked upon Lafayette and his companions as
another “batch” of adventurous Frenchmen looking for
a job, and at once, with scarcely a word of welcome, he
referred them to Gouverneur Morris, the chairman of the
HOW THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS. 99

committee “who,” so he told Lafayette, “had such matters in
charge.”

To Mr. Morris, also a man with whom the later story
of Lafayette’s life was to be singularly connected, this
travel-stained band of place-seeking Frenchmen seemed no
different from any of the other appointment-hunting for-
eigners, whom no one wanted, and who simply hung about
Congress as suppliants who soon “wore their welcome
out.”

So Mr. Morris told the marquis and the baron to call
again.

“Meet me to-morrow, gentlemen, at the door of the Con-
gress,” he said. “ Meantime I will examine your papers and
see what we can do for you.”

The next day the marquis and the baron were “at the
door of the Congress,” exactly on time. But Mr. Morris
was not. Instead, he kept them waiting a long time, fretting
at this unexpected coolness and delay.

At last he came out to them with another gentleman
whom he introduced as Mr. Lovell, and who, he told them,
was “intrusted with the matters that concern people of your
nationality. Hereafter, please communicate with him.” And
then Mr. Morris left them still waiting in the street, at the
door of the Congress. _

Mr. Lovell was amember of the Committee on Foreign
Affairs, and evidently he counted the marquis and the baron
and the gentlemen who accompanied them simply as “ for-
IO0O HOW THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS.

eign affairs.’ But he spoke French well, and he at once
“got down to business.”











“ Gentlemen,” he said,
not inviting them into
the building, but talking
to them in the street,
“like a set of adventur-
ers,’ as one of the French
officers indignantly de-























clared, “you say you
have authority from Mr.
Deane?”

“Certainly, sir,’ re-
plied De Kalb, “as our
contracts show.”

“This is most annoy-
ing,” said Mr. Lovell.
“We authorized Mr.
Deane to send us four
French engineers; in- OO Oy Cane
stead, he sent us some engineers who are no engineers, and





“ AT THE DOOR OF THE CONGRESS.”


HOW THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS. IOI

some artillerists who have never seen service. We instructed
Mr. Franklin to send us four engineers, and he has now sent
them. There seems to be nothing for you to do here, gentle-
men. French officers seem to have taken a great fancy to
enter our service without being invited. It is true we were
in need of a few experienced officers last year, but now we
have plenty of experienced men, and can promise no more
positions. Gentlemen, I wish you good morning.”

Here was a sad ending to all their high hopes and antic-
ipations. Mr. Lovell’s curt announcement (“more like a
dismissal than a welcome,” so Lafayette declared) fell like a
wet blanket on all their schemes and desires.

«But, sir,’ began the baron, recovering first from the
shock of refusal, “ Mr. Deane promised — ”

“Oh, Mr. Deane, Mr. Deane!” petulantly exclaimed the
member of the Committee on Foreign Affairs. “Mr. Deane
has exceeded his authority, sir. Mr. Deane has promised too
much and we cannot recognize his authority. We have not
even a colonel’s commission to give away to any foreign offi-
cer; certainly, not a major-general’s. The Congress is sorely
tried by these demands, and General Washington declares
that he is haunted and teased to death by the importunity of
some and the dissatisfaction of others. Gentlemen, I am
sorry to disappoint you, but I must. We can provide
nothing and promise nothing. Again I bid you good morn-
ing.” And then he, too, left them on the street.

The Frenchmen looked at one another in speechless as-
102 HOW THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS.

tonishment and dismay. Then their indignation burst out
in a torrent of French expressions.

“Ah! these Americans; these ingrates!” cried one.
«What do they mean? . After all we have suffered for their
cause, who could expect such a reception as this? Who
would think it possible that the Marquis de Lafayette and
the Baron de Kalb and the French officers, recommended as
we have been, and secretly approved, if not openly avowed,
by the government of France, could be so thrust aside as
mere adventurers? Ah, it is brutal. These Americans
indeed are peasants.”

“ He says some of our compatriots have proved worthless
and that the Congress is besieged by adventurers,” exclaimed
another. “Can he not tell the difference between those low
fellows and a gentleman like the Marquis de Lafayette —
and like us? Bah! the stupids!”

« Are my name, my person, or my services proper objects
to be thus trifled with or laughed at?” demanded the angry
baron, who felt himself to be really the most important per-
sonage in the party. “It is ridiculous, gentlemen, that off-
cers like ourselves should leave our homes and families and
affairs to cross the sea under a thousand different dangers,
only to be received and looked upon with contempt by those
from whom we expected but the warmest thanks. Oheitas
not to be borne. I will take action against Deane and his
successors. I will have heavy damages for this indignity.”

But the young marquis said, thoughtfully, «Let us not
HOW THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS. 103

talk of damages, my friend; let us talk of doing. Surely,
the Congress did not solicit us to leave our homes and cross
the seas to lead its army.
But I for one will not go
back. If the Congress will
not accept me as a major-
general, behold! I will fight
for American liberty as a
volunteer.”

And that, indeed, was pre-
cisely what the wilful but
wise young Frenchman pro-
ceeded to do. While his
comrades fretted and fumed
and grew still more indig-
nant over their “turn down,”
as you boys of to-day would
call it, the Marquis de La-
fayette went to his lodgings
and wrote a letter to the
president of the Congress.

In this letter, after ex-





























oe BARTHOLDI’S STATUE OF LAFAYETTE.
plaining why he came over, In Madison Square, New York City. “I will fight for

American Liberty as a volunteer.”

under what conditions and
in spite of what discouragements, Lafayette insisted that
Silas Deane’s promise, Benjamin Franklin’s endorsement,
and his own sacrifices and desires should lead the Con-
104. HOW THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS.

gress to recognize his claims and grant his request. He
was, he declared, mindful of the embarrassments and dis-
tresses of the Congress, and he had no desire to increase
them, but in proof of his earnestness and determination to be
of service to America, he begged, while insisting that his sac-
rifices already made for the cause should be acknowledged, to
ask but two favors at the hands of Congress: “ First, that I
serve without pay and at my own expense; and, the other,
that I be allowed to serve at first as a volunteer.”

This proposition quite took away the breath of the Hon-
orable John Hancock, president of the Congress, and his
associates. The main difficulty with which they had to wres-
tle was that of money; so, when a young French officer of
high station, wealth, and refinement was so deeply in sym-
pathy with their cause as to offer to serve in the American
army as an unpaid volunteer, their opinion of him was
changed at once.

They turned again to the letter from Doctor Franklin
recommending him to their consideration.

“Those who censure him as imprudent,” Franklin had
written, “do nevertheless applaud his spirit, and we are satis-
fied that the civilities and respect that may be shown him
will be serviceable to our affairs here, as pleasing not only to
his powerful relations and to the court, but to the whole
French nation.”

The president of Congress was a man impressed by just
such things, and he began to feel that he had been rather
HOW THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS. 105

discourteous to this highly connected young Frenchman who
now made so generous an offer of his services and his life.
His request was certainly vastly different from that of the
other foreign officers and gentlemen who sought service in
the American army for their own selfish interests and ad-



LAFAYETTE AND THE CONGRESSMAN.

“ He tested the sincerity of his offer, and courteously but shrewdly questioned the young fellow.”

vancement. So another member of Congress, neither so
bluff nor so brusque as Mr. Morris or Mr. Lovell, was sent
to Lafayette with a sort of apology, and, in a private inter-
view, tested the sincerity of his offer, and courteously but
shrewdly sounded the young fellow as to the full extent of
his desires, his influence, and his enthusiasm.
106 HOW THE MARQUIS CONQUERED CONGRESS.

As a result of all this private conference and favorable
report, the Congress of the United States on the thirty-
first day of July, 1777, passed the following resolution:
«Whereas, the Marquis de Lafayette, out of his great zeal to
the cause of liberty, in which the United States are engaged,
has left his family and connections, and, at his own expense,
come over to offer his services to the United States, without
pension or particular allowance, and is anxious to risk his
life in our cause, therefore Resolved that his services be
accepted, and that, in consideration of his zeal, illustrious
family, and connections, he have the rank and commission of
major-general in the army of the United States.”

Thus, after all, you see, this persistent French boy had
his way. He had conquered the American Congress; he
was a major-general at nineteen; he was to be permitted
to realize one of his earliest dreams and controlling ambi-
tions, — to help on the progress of the world, to fight for the
liberty of a nation and the freedom of man.
HOW HE WON THE COMMANDER-IN- CHIEF. 107

Clee else inoue ale

HOW HE WON THE COMMANDER - IN - CHIEF.

HOUGHTFULNESS and generosity are among the

things that make people lovable and popular, and they

were very prominent traits in the character of the young
Marquis de Lafayette.

He had obtained his desires; but he did not say, as suc-
cessful people too often do, “Well! 7’ all right, anyhow,”
and go off and forget all about his companions.

Instead of this, he wrote to the president of the Congress
a queer but careful letter in English, which you may see
to-day in the State Department in Washington, in which,
while thanking “the Honorable mr. Hancok,” as he spelled
it, and the Congress for accepting his services, he added this
sentence — excellently expressed and capitally written (even
though lacking in capitals) for one who had such brief experi-
ence in speaking and writing English: “it is now as an
american that I'l mention every day to congress the officers
who came over with me, whose interests are for me as my
own, and the consideration which they deserve by their
merits, their ranks, their state and reputation in france.”

He kept his promise with unfailing zeal. ©
108 HOW HE WON THE COMMANDER-IN- CHIEF.

“He did everything that was possible for our appoint-
ment,” one of his French soldier-companions said, “but in
vain, for he had no influence. But if he had his way, De
Kalb would have been major-general and we should all have
had places.”

So, you see, it was not through any lack of Lafayette’s
interest that the French officers met final disappointment,
as unfortunately they did. Congress was simply unable to
give them commissions or places. But it paid their expenses
back to France, where most of them bitterly complained of
the “ingratitude” of the Americans. One of them, however,
the Dutch deserter from the British army, Captain de
Bedaulx, who was a veteran soldier, and who, you remem-
ber, was pledged with Lafayette to blow up the “ Victory”
rather than be captured, was made a captain in the American
army; two others were retained by Lafayette as aides-de-
camp, and one was engaged by Congress as draughtsman
and engineer. As for Baron de Kalb, who had come over,
as you remember, with the secret intention of “working”
Congress to make his patron, the Count de Broglie, “ Gen-
eralissimo of the American armies,” he soon saw how im-
possible and ridiculous a scheme that was; indeed, he very
nearly lost the opportunity of finding service himself in the
army. He had finally given up his endeavors, although
Lafayette did not, and was actually on his way to take the
first ship home when a messenger from Congress came
galloping aiter him, caught up with him at Bethlehem in
HOW HE WON THE COMMANDER-IN- CHIEF. 109

Pennsylvania, and there turned him back with the announce-
ment that Congress, having to ballot for one more major-
general in the army of the United States, had elected the
Baron de Kalb.
As for the Marquis de Lafayette, he had, in his letter
of thanks to Hancock, expressed the wish to serve “near
the person of General Washington till such time as he may
think proper to entrust me with a division of the army.”
George Washington, generalissimo and commander-in-chief
of the American army, was very fond of bright young men.
He was what is called an optimist, looking on the bright side
of things even when they appeared to have no bright side,
and he saw that young men were best for action and achieve-
ment. But they must be bright young men; he could stand
no dullards or drones about him; neither could he put up
with what you would call “fresh” and self-important young
fellows who “knew it all.” He demanded implicit obedience
and willing service, and, while he was ready to listen to all
suggestions from his subordinates, young and old alike, he
desired no one to act upon any scheme or plan without his
approval; for the hasty and unsupported act of one over-
zealous or hot-headed youth might disarrange all the deeply
studied and carefully matured plans of the commander-in-
chief. He had far too many experiences of this sort during
the trying times of the American Revolution.
With this attitude toward the young men who flocked to
his service, Washington, who was a keen-eyed and perfect
IIO HOW HE WON THE COMMANDER -IN- CHIEF.

reader of character, saw through the shallowness or recog-
nized the worth of the earnest, active young men about him.
That is why he disliked Aaron Burr and why he liked Al
exander Hamilton,
both of whom served
him as aids; and it
was near to this
man, already a hero
to his hero-worship-
ping soul, that the
young Marquis de
Lafayette desired
speedy service.

It was a serious
time in the affairs of
the struggling re-
public, fighting for
existence, when La-
fayette sought ser-



vice in its army.

ALEXANDER HAMILTON. Defeated at Long
A young man whom Washington liked. .
Island, driven across
New Jersey, Washington had triumphed in his brilliant
Christmas dash on Trenton, and, though apparently defeated
at Princeton, had held his army and secured the advantage
of a stubbornly-won foothold from which he could annoy and

menace the British commander.
HOW HE WON THE COMMANDER-IN- CHIEF. ro

And this, when Lafayette sought him out, he was doing,
with a volunteer army, short of arms, short of supplies,
insufficiently clothed and always hungry, an army wanting

in all things save
courage, lacking in
everything but lead-

ership, secure in

nothing save the
justice of their cause,
the integrity of their
commander, and
their own persistent
devotion to the cause
of liberty.

lis “was” fat: othe
moment when all
things combined to
darken the prospect
of success, when Bur-
goyne was marching
from Canada for the
invasion of New



AARON BURR.

A young man whom Washington distrusted.

York and the capture of the valley of the Hudson; when
Howe was threatening Philadelphia and preparing to join
Burgoyne and “stamp out” the rebellion, that Lafayette was
invited to a dinner in Philadelphia “to meet the commander-

in-chief.”
II2 HOW HE WON THE COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF.

Washington, as you know, was not favorable to these
foreign major-generals; he held that it was an injustice to
those devoted and able American officers whom he had tried
alike in success and in defeat, to push ahead of them for-
eigners who, he feared, joined the American army only for
their own selfish aims and desires.

“These men,” he said, “have no attachment nor ties to
the country further than interest binds them; they have
no influence, and are ignorant of the language they are to
receive and give orders in; consequently, great trouble or
much confusion must follow. But this is not the worst;
they have not the smallest chance to recruit others, and our
officers think it exceedingly hard, after they have toiled in
this service and probably have sustained many losses, to
have strangers put over them, whose merit perhaps is not
equal to their own, but whose effrontery will take no denial.”

Feeling thus, you see, Washington was not especially
anxious for the services of a young French nobleman who
was scarcely more than a boy, who had run away from home
to join the American army which he could neither benefit by
his influence nor increase by recruiting men; who had been
forced to borrow money to join the army, and had brought with
him from France (for the cargo of the “ Victory” had been
seized and sold by the captain) only a number of undesired
French officers who clamored for rank and pay and had
to be returned to their homes by the Congress at its own

unnecessary Expense.
HOW HE WON THE COMMANDER-IN- CHIEF. 113

Still, Washington did admire pluck and persistence; and
when he learned how Lafayette had persisted in his plans,
demanding finally to be allowed to serve as an unpaid volun-
teer, his interest in the young man was awakened. Perhaps
when he learned of Lafayette’s refusal to receive pay for his
services, he saw in the young Frenchman’s character the
true gold of sincerity and principle; for, you know, Washing-
ton’s one stipulation when he accepted the position of com-
mander-in-chief was that he should be permitted to serve
without salary; and his final account of expenses, presented
at the close of the war, furnished, so says Irving, “many
noble and impressive lessons taught by his character and
example.”

You can see, therefore, that, in Spite of his objection to
foreign officers, Washington recognized in Lafayette an ex-
ceptional and worthy young man, who was ready to back up
his convictions by his actions; when, therefore, he learned
that the young Frenchman was to be at the dinner in Phila-
delphia, he felt a curiosity to meet him.

As for Lafayette, his eyes were anxiously open for the
first sight of the American commander; his desire was soon
gratified, and the meeting proved to be, indeed, almost a case
of “love at first sight.”

“Although General Washington was surrounded by
officers and private citizens,” the marquis wrote afterwards
in his memoirs, “the majesty of his countenance and of his
figure made it impossible not to recognize him; he was
rid HOW HE WON THE COMMANDER-IN- CHIEF

especially distinguished also by the affability of his manners
and the dignity with which he addressed those about him.”
Lafayette was duly presented to the commander-in-chief
by one of his new friends of the Congress, with a flattering
introduction as “the young French nobleman who had given



LAFAYETTE MEETS WASHINGTON.

“ The great man gave the French lad a cordial hand-clasp.”

up everything to serve
the American cause.”
The great man gave
the jarenchladeaccor
dial. hand-clasp, and,
looking straight into
the young fellow’s
honest and expressive
eyes, seems to have

’ read the desire, sin-

cerity, and integrity
that lived in the young
Frenchman’s soul.
Washington must
have studied him, too,
in his quiet, searching

way. For, after the dinner, he took Lafayette aside and
in kind and appreciative words told the young man how

highly he regarded his spirit and actions.

“You have made the greatest sacrifices for our cause, my
dear marquis,” he said; “your zeal and generosity interest me
deeply, and I shall do my part toward making you one of us.
HOW HE WON THE COMMANDER-IN- CHIEF. 115

I shall be greatly pleased to have you join my staff as a
volunteer aid, and beg you to make my headquarters your
home, until events place you elsewhere. I beg you to con-
sider yourself at all times as one of my military family, and
I shall be pleased to welcome you at the camp as speedily as
you think proper. Of course, you will understand, my dear
marquis, that I cannot promise you the luxuries of a court,”
—and Washington smiled as he thought of the meagrely
supplied and poorly conditioned camp of the American army
at Schuylkill Falls, —“ but,” he added, with another of his
kindly smiles, “as you have now become an American
soldier, you will doubtless accommodate yourself to the fare
of an American army, and submit with a oo grace to its
customs, manners, and privations.”

It needed not Lafayette’s halting and broken English
speech to put into words his happiness at this gracious
reception and his immediate affection for the American
commander. His eyes, his whole face, usually so quiet and
unmoved, displayed his feeling, and told the story of his
pleasure. And when, next day, Washington invited. the
young Frenchman to accompany him on a visit of inspec:
tion of the fortifications which were relied upon to defend
Philadelphia against the anticipated approach of the British
fleet, the regard on both sides became mutual. Wash-
ington had shown his most kindly and gracious side to
the young stranger from France, and had entirely captivated
him; while Lafayette, by his modesty, interest, enthusiasm,
Elo HOW HE WON THE COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF.

and sincerity, had quite won the affection of the commander-
in-chief. Upon that last day of July, in the year 1777, was
begun another of the world’s beautiful and historic friend-
ships, which continued steadfast and unbroken until the
death of the great American changed the noble Frenchman’s
friendship into reverence and devotion.

The American army, early in August, 1777, began its
march from the vicinity of Philadelphia to the eastward to
cut off any British move about New York; but on the news
that the British fleet was hovering off the Delaware coast,
Washington, alert but uncertain just what his opponent
intended to do, suddenly halted in his march to the eastward
and went into camp along one of the few highways of that
day, known as the old York Road, near to the present village
of Hartsville in Buck’s County, Pennsylvania.

It was here that, on the twenty-first of August, 1777,
Lafayette joined the American army. Washington expected
his arrival, for the young marquis had sent on his servant
and his horses in advance; but the commander-in-chief was
not a little perplexed just how he was to arrange with this
boy major-general who was major-general only in name, be-
cause of his appointment by Congress without occupation or
command.

General Washington was a very particular man, and
what is called “methodical” in all his plans and actions.
He liked the young marquis personally and, as we have
seen, was strongly attached to him; but, with the com-
HOW HE WON THE COMMANDER- IN- CHIEF. 117

mander-in-chief, “business was business,’ and just what
Lafayette’s “ business” really was he did not know.

“As I understand the Marquis de Lafayette,” he wrote
to Benjamin Harrison, member of Congress, signer of the



WHERE LAFAYETTE JOINED THE ARMY.

On the banks of Neshaminy Creek, near Hartsville, Pennsylvania.

Declaration of Independence, father and great-grandfather
of two future Presidents of the United States, “it is certain
that he does not conceive that his commission is merely hon-
orary, but is given with a view to command a division of this
army. It is true he has said that he is young and inexpe
rienced; but at the same time he has always accompanied it
118 HOW HE WON THE COMMANDER-IN- CHIEF.

with a hint that, so soon as I shall think him fit for the com-
mand of a division, he shall be ready to enter upon his duties,
and in the meantime has offered his services for a smaller
command. What the designs of Congress ‘respecting this
gentleman were, and what line of conduct I am to pursue to
comply with their design and his expectations, I know not
and beg to be instructed. . . . Let me beseech you, my good
sir, to give me the sentiments of Congress on this matter,
that I may endeavor, as far as it is in my power, to comply
with them.”

To this query Mr. Harrison replied that Lafayette’s
appointment was merely an honorary one, and that General
Washington was to act as he thought best,

Washington greeted the young man cordially and frank
and, knowing the almost destitute condition in which the
American army really was, he said to the newcomer, as if
apologizing for the unmilitary appearance of the soldiers of
liberty, “It is somewhat embarrassing to us, sir, to show
ourselves to an officer who has just come from the army of
France.”

Others of the foreign soldiers who had come to America
to seek service and command were very critical and superior
in their attitude, and would have replied to such a remark in
a patronizing or self-glorifying way. But Lafayette was
not of this character. |

“YT am here, your Excellency, to learn and not to teach,”
he replied, modestly.
HOW HE WON THE COMMANDER-IN- CHIEF. 11g

This wise young Frenchman could always be relied upon
to say just the right thing. It was one of the traits of his
whole career, and in this instance it won for him the admira-
tion, respect, and appreciation of the American general. Wash-
ington felt that here was a young fellow whom it would pay
to cultivate, and at once he invited him to attend, as a major-
general in the American service, a council of war at head-
quarters, to which the commander had just summoned his

general officers. So, you see, part of what he had prophesied
to his wife did really come true, at once.

The council decided that if the British were aiming to
invade the Carolinas it was useless to follow them to the
South, but that the army might better occupy the valley of
the Hudson and perhaps recapture New York. But, just
then, word came that the British fleet was in Chesapeake
Bay and, at once, General Washington decided to move his
army to the south of Philadelphia and make a stand for the
defence of that threatened city.

The American army was indeed a vastly different body
of men from the gorgeous grenadiers of France, and from
those Musketeers of the King in which Lafayette had held
a command. As the young French soldier first saw our
patriot army' it comprised, so he said, “about eleven thou-
sand men, rather poorly armed and much worse clad, who
presented a singular appearance. In the midst of a great
variety of clothing, sometimes even of nakedness, the best
garments were a sort of hunting shirts, loose jackets made
120 HOW HE WON THE COMMANDER-IN- CHIEF.

of linen... . In spite of their disadvantages, however, they
were fine soldiers, led by zealous officers. Bravery took the
place with them of science, and every day improved their
experience and discipline.”

In the march through Philadelphia, for which the ragged
army “spruced up” as much as possible, and, with sprigs
of green in their hats, stepped off to the music of the fife
and drum, they presented, so the marquis declared, “a
creditable appearance.” Lafayette rode by the side of Wash-
ington and really begun to feel that he was to see service at
last. .

His “service” came speedily. Landing at the head of
eighteen thousand veteran British and Hessian troops near
what is now Elkton in Maryland, General Howe, with Lord
Cornwallis, and General Knyphausen the Hessian, advanced
at once upon Philadelphia. To oppose his march, Washing-
ton with his illy prepared army took up a position on the
ninth of September at Chadd’s Ford on the Brandywine, a
forked and shallow stream, hardly more than a creek, which
winds in and out through sloping green fields, in a pleasant
but then heavily wooded farming country — hills on the right
bank, meadows on the left. |

Misled by confusing reports and by the approach of the
British troops in two encircling columns, Washington was
forced to divide his numbers, and therefore fought at great
disadvantage. But though the American advance was beaten
back at the lower ford, and the right wing was only saved
HOW HE WON THE COMMANDER-IN- CHIEF. 121

from panic by Washington’s personal presence and will, the
Battle of Brandywine was not the disastrous rout that Howe
had planned it to be; for the Americans made a stubborn
resistance, and at last, but only when
darkness came, fell back in good order
to Chester.

Two years ago I drove over that
battle-field, now a peaceful and _ pros-
perous farming section, rich in Revo-
lutionary memories. And there, on
the ridge above the little village of
Chadd’s Ford, not far from the plain
old Quaker church known as Birming-
ham meeting-house, I] came upon a
modest little monument of terra-cotta,
erected, so the inscription told me,
“by the citizens and school children of
Chester County,” because, “on the
rising ground a short distance south



, THE MONUMENT ON BRANDY-
of this spot, Lafayette was wounded WINE BATTLE-FIELD.

at: thes Battle of (Brandywine, (Sep. fecetimes te cet ater Lazer.
tember 11, 1777.” |

For there, even as the monument records, the young
French marquis received his “baptism of fire.” Riding into
the action, upon his earnest solicitation, as a volunteer aid to
General Sullivan he met the Hessian advance where, near the
Birmingham meeting-house, it fell upon Sullivan’s division,
122 HOW HE WON THE COMMANDER-IN- CHIEF.

and, supported by Cornwallis’s division, broke and shattered
the American right. In the confusion and panic of this
disaster, Lafayette threw himself from his horse, and, plung-
ing into the panic, tried by sword and voice, example and
command, to change the American rout into a determined
and victorious stand. .

His valorous action checked the retreat for an instant;
other troops came to his support, and the British advance
was actually stayed for a moment. Then Cornwallis’s bri-
gades swept against the Americans in a resistless charge.
Lafayette and his men could not withstand the shock of
fresh troops and superior numbers; but the young French-
man held his ground until the British were almost upon him,
when he plunged into the woods to the south of the road,
unconscious of the fact, in the excitement of the battle, that
he had been wounded in the leg. They will show you that
very spot in the woods at Chadd’s Ford, to-day.

Even then he would not desert his column until night
fell, and when, by Washington’s supreme exertions, the
outnumbered Americans had fallen back in good order to
Chester. In that quaint old town on the Delaware, Lafayette
had his wound dressed, and from there Washington, writing
to Congress his account of the Battle of the Brandywine,
took especial pleasure in mentioning the bravery and the
ability of the Marquis de Lafayette.

The young Frenchman had indeed done gallant work in
his first battle. He had well maintained the honor of the


LAFAYETTE AT BRANDYWINE.

example and command,

to the panic, tried by sword and voice,

7H
to change the rout into victory.

a, plunging

He threw himself from his horse an

“

”








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a
. : ‘ :
HOW HE WON THE COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF. 125

name of the Lafayettes as brave soldiers and daring fighters.
His courage had sent him into the thick of the fight; his
valor had stayed the rout, and held the victorious foe in.
check; his discipline had brought some sort of order out of
chaos and organized a systematic retirement toward Chester ;
and on Chester Bridge his waning strength had flamed out
in a last determined union of wisdom and courage as he
there stood against the retreat and held the fugitives in
order until Washington came up with the rear-guard and
saw the whole retreating army safe into Chester town. Then,
at last, Lafayette thought of himself, and had his wound
dressed. .

In fact, like the noble young Prince Emilius of whom
Miss Yonge has told us in her “ Golden Deeds,”

“ His valor shed victorious grace on all that dread retreat ;”

his daring and excellent leadership secured for him the affec.
tion of the rank and file of the American army; better still,
his conduct and ability completely won the commander-in-
chief, who, from that time, never questioned the sincerity,
the courage, or the soldierly qualities of this valiant young
French enthusiast who had crossed the seas to fight for the
liberties of America.

“The honor to have mingled my blood with that of
many other American soldiers on the heights of the Brandy.
wine has been to-me a source of pride and delight.”

These are Lafayette’s own words, engraved upon the
126 HOW HE FOUGHT FOR LIBERTY IN AMERICA.

‘modest monument erected to his memory on the field of his
first battle, by the school-children to whom he has ever been
a young and dashing hero. And though that first battle
was a defeat, it was, in reality, a victory; for while it simply
strengthened determination in the defeated Americans, and
made the British commander so overcautious that he be-
came, finaily, too cautious, and so lost his chance, it also, for
Lafayette, gained the recognition of his associates and the
affection of his followers, while, what was to him more than
all, it won for him the respect and confidence of the great
commander-in-chief.

CHAPTER VII.

HOW. HE FOUGHT FOR LIBERTY IN AMERICA.

ai American defeat at the Battle of Brandywine meant

the loss of Philadelphia. At once Congress fled from
the threatened city and reassembled at York, one hundred
miles to the west.

Lafayette, who had been taken with the wounded to
Philadelphia, was sent up the Delaware River to Bristol, and
from that town, Henry Laurens, that firm old patriot who,
succeeding John Hancock, was at that time president of
Congress, took the wounded marquis in his own travelling
carriage, and rode away with him to the safe and healthful
HOW HE FOUGHT FOR LIBERTY IN AMERICA. 2

security of the Moravian community at Bethlehem, fifty
miles north of Philadelphia.

This religious community of German and Austrian Bare
tans had, like the pilgrims of Plymouth, built, in 1741, on
the banks of the Lehigh River, a refuge from persecution;
and in this quiet community life, where all lived like one
great family of brothers and sisters, Lafayette was nursed
back to health and strength. The only thing that delayed
his speedy recovery was his anxiety to get back to the army.
He reached the Old Sun Inn of Bethlehem on Sunday, the
twenty-first of September; he left the community, healed,
but with a wound which always affected his walk, on the
eighteenth of October. But if his leg was disabled his mind
was not; for he spent much of his time in planning what
he would do when he was well, and dreaming of invasions
and conquests which he would lead, with the help of France
and for the benefit of America, into the East Indian and
West Indian possessions of England.

Of course he wrote often to his wife, making light ei
“what I pompously call my wound,” —~so he spoke of it to
her.

« Be entirely free from anxiety as to my wound,” one of
his letters said, reassuringly; “for all the doctors in America
are aroused in my behalf. I have a friend who has spoken
for me in a way to ensure my being well taken care of; and
that is General Washington. That estimable man, whose
talents and whose virtues I admired before, whom I venerate
128 - HOW HE FOUGHT FOR LIBERTY IN AMERICA.

the more now as I learn to know him, has been kind enough
to me to become my intimate friend. His tender interest in



THE OLD SUN INN OF BETHLEHEM.

Where the wounded Lafayette was taken after the Battle of Brandywine. As it looks to-day.

me quickly won my heart... . When he sent his surgeon-
in-chief to me, he directed him to care for me as I were his
HOW HE FOUGHT FOR LIBERTY IN AMERICA. 129

son, because he loved me so much; and having learned that
I wanted to join the army too soon again, he wrote me a
letter full of tenderness in which he admonished me to wait
until I should be entirely well.”

The man who could display such a “tender interest” in
-a wounded young foreigner was just then having a hard
time of it, what with the British, the foreign officers, and his
own envious and critical countrymen. The British he
could fight openly; and he did so, profiting by the defeats
he suffered even as by the victories he won. But the
grumblings and bickerings of the foreign officers, joined
to the jealousies and plotting of envious and ambitious
Americans, well-nigh ground that grand soul to despair,
sO wearing, so annoying, and so underhanded were
they all.

“These people,’ wrote Baron de Kalb of the French
officers in the army, “think of nothing but their incessant
intrigues and backbitings. They hate each other like the
bitterest enemies, and endeavor to injure each other when-
ever an opportunity offers. Lafayette is the sole exception.

. Lafayette is much liked and is on the best of terms with
Coen.

Lafayette himself, generous and kindly spirited though
he was, made the same complaint. “All foreigners now
employed here,” he wrote, “are discontented and complaining.
They are filled with hatred toward others and they are hated
themselves. They cannot understand why I, of all the
130 HOW HE FOUGHT FOR LIBERTY IN AMERICA.

foreigners in America, should be well treated, whilst I do not
understand why they should be disliked.”

All this foreign place-hunting and jealousy annoyed
Washington exceedingly and made him all the better satis-
fied with Lafayette, of whom he wrote to Congress, “his
conduct stands in a favorable point of view. He is sensible,
discreet in his manners, has made great proficiency in our
language, and from the disposition he discovered at the
Battle of Brandywine, possesses a large share of bravery
and military ardor.”

This bravery and military ardor the young Frenchman
was to have renewed opportunities to display. In the last
week of October, 1777, he rejoined Washington at head-
quarters at Methacton Hill, near the Schuylkill River. On
the twenty-fifth of November, while accompanying General
Greene as a volunteer to test the strength of the British
advance from Philadelphia, he disclosed the British position
near the town of Gloucester, and with a force of but three
hundred and fifty men attacked and routed the Hessian
advance with such spirit that Cornwallis supposed himself
assailed by Greene’s entire division, and with his five thou-
sand men retreated in hot haste to the security of the main
army. 7

This was really the first opportunity which Lafayette had ©
to show his ability in leading men and in displaying what is
called strategy and skill in attack. General Greene was so
delighted with the success of his young volunteer aid that


THE BEST FOREIGN OFFICERS WHO SERVED IN THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION.

The Baron Steuben, of Prussia, The Baron DeKalb, of Alsace,
Inspector-Generai. ‘ The Marquis de Lafayette, of France, Major-General.
The Count Pulaski, of Poland, Major-General. Thaddeus Kosciusko, of Poland,

Brigadier-General of Cavalry, Brigadier-General and Chief of Engineers.

HOW HE FOUGHT FOR LIBERTY IN AMERICA. 133

he wrote General Washington an account of the action, and
added, “ The marquis is charmed with the spirited behavior of
the militia and rifle corps. They drove the enemy above a
mile and kept the ground until dark... . The marquis is
determined to be in the way of danger.”

This, you see, was quite a departure from the words the
young Frenchman had written his wife, before he landed
on American soil. A “major-general,”’ indeed, could be in
real danger, as he had again and again discovered.

The affair at Gloucester was additional proof of the valor
and wisdom of the young volunteer as a leader of American
troops, and Washington was so strengthened and pleased by
it that he at once wrote Congress asking that Lafayette be
granted his desire. This was, as you know, an appointment
to a regular command in the American army.

“There are now some vacant positions in the army,” said
Washington, “to one of which he may be appointed, if it
should be the pleasure of Congress. I am convinced he
possesses a large share of that military ardor that character-
izes the nobility of his country.”

Congress acted upon Washington’s recommendation at
once, voting that “the Marquis de Lafayette be appointed
to the command of a division in the Continental Army,”
and on the fourth of December, 1777, Lafayette, to his
great delight and to the satisfaction of all those who
had learned to respect and love this ardent and active
young Frenchman, was assigned to the command of the
134 HOW HE FOUGHT FOR LIBERTY IN AMERICA.

Virginia division,—a major-general in actual and active
command at twenty!

« At last,” he wrote to his father-in-law, the Duke d’Ayen,
who had tried so
hard to keep him
away from America,
“JT have what I have



always wished for,
—the command of
a division. It is
weak in point of
numbers; it. is al-
most naked, and I
must make both
clothes and recruits;
but I read, I study,
I examine, I listen,
I reflect, and upon
the result of all this
I make an effort to
form my opinion and









GENERAL NATHANAEL GREENE, OF RHODE ISLAND.

to put it into as The greatest soldier of the American Revolution next to Washington.
much common sense
as I can,... for I do not want to disappoint the confi-

dence that the Americans have so kindly placed in me.”
He did not: Amid the hardships and rigors of that
woful winter at Valley Forge, this wealthy and tenderly
HOW HE FOUGHT FOR LIBERTY IN AMERICA. 135

reared young nobleman set his own suffering men the ex-
ample of devotion, frugality, self-denial, and courage under
privation; and when, in the midst of all this struggle for
existence, that miserable combination of jealous officers, self-
seeking foreigners, and fault-finding Congressmen, uniting in
what is known in American history as the miserable and
treacherous “Conway Cabal,’ sought to force Washington
from the chief command and to use Lafayette as a catspaw,
the wise and chivalrous young Frenchman divined their pur-
pose and remained loyal and brave in support of his beloved
commander.

Congress, at the instigation of these conspirators, deter-
mined upon an invasion of Canada, the command of which
was to be given to Lafayette. This was deliberately planned
to separate him from Washington’s influence. But the mar-
quis refused to lead except under the orders of Washington
as commander-in-chief, and with De Kalb as his second in ~
command. He so insisted upon these points that Congress
yielded to his demands. The conspirators who hoped, by de-
taching Lafayette from Washington, to win him to their side
and strengthen their plans, were dismayed and cornered, and
the conspiracy, punctured by one quick, calm, significant stab
from Washington, fell harmless to the ground, with the chief
plotters almost falling over each other in their haste to ask
Washington’s pardon and cry “it wasn’t my fault.”

And almost the first blow given to the hateful conspiracy
was when Lafayette was invited to York to meet the generals
136 HOW HE FOUGHT FOR LIBERTY IN AMERICA.

and Congressmen interested in the Canadian invasion — but,
really, the leaders of the plot against Washington.

At that dinner, given in his honor, Lafayette, as I have
told you, refused to lead except as a subordinate to Wash-
ington, and unless De Kalb, his own and Washington's
friend, was made his right-hand man. This quite upset the
“Cabal;” but when, rising in his place, Lafayette lifted his
glass and proposed a toast which all, he said, would of
course drink with enthusiasm and love: “The health of
George Washington, our noble commander-in-chief!” the
dismayed conspirators were altogether “rattled,” as we say,
and had no alternative except to drink the toast in silence
and in shame. Thus they were convicted in their own
assembly by this wise young Frenchman who had so skil-
fully turned the tables upon them.

But the invasion of Canada, being officially ordered a
Congress, had to be attempted, even though the plots of the
conspirators who planned it had all gone wrong. So, elated
with the fact that one of his dreams was about to come true,
and that the chief French-speaking possession of England
was to be wrested from her under his direction and by his
campaign, Lafayette set out for Albany in February, 1778, to
take command of the army of invasion that was gathering
there.

The army of invasion, however, proved to be no army at
all. The plans were all in the air, and the Board of War
appointed by Congress (really the chief men of the Conway
HOW HE FOUGHT FOR LIBERTY IN AMERICA. 137

Cabal), had done nothing at all. Lafayette was greatly
disappointed. He tried to recruit some sort of an army.
Twelve hundred ill-conditioned and unprepared men were all
he could get together, and, at last, the loudly announced
“invasion of Canada” fell through entirely, and Lafayette
went back to Valley Forge, disappointed, disgusted, and



LAFAYETTE AND THE CABAL,

“
more firmly convinced than ever that upon George Wash-
ington depended all the hopes of America.

“Take away for an instant,’ he wrote to Washington,
“that modest diffidence of yourself (which, pardon my free-
dom, my dear general, is sometimes too great, and I wish
you could know, as well as myself, what difference there is
138 HOW HE FOUGHT FOR LIBERTY IN AMERICA.

between you ‘and any other man), and you would see very
plainly that, if you were lost for America, there is no one
who could keep the army and the revolution for six months.
... Tam now fixed to your fate, and I shall follow it and
sustain it as well by my sword as by all means in my power.
You will pardon my importunity in favor of the sentiment
which dictated it.”

“ However sensibly your ardor for glory may make you
feel this disappointment,” said Washington to him, after the
Canadian failure, “you may be assured that your character
stands as fair as it ever did, and that no new enterprise is
necessary to wipe off an imaginary stain.”

Congress was quick now to follow the lead of Wash-
ington. It voted that it entertained “a high sense of the
prudence, activity, and zeal of the Marquis de Lafayette,”
and that it was “fully persuaded nothing has, or would have
been, wanting on his part or on the part of the officers who
accompanied him to give the expedition the utmost possible
EHecix:

So Lafayette went back to Valley Forge, and there his
own disappointment was soon turned to joy as the tidings
came, early in May, 1778, that, thanks to Franklin’s wise
exertions and his own strong letters and appeals, the French
nation had determined upon “armed interference” in the
affairs of America, and that a “treaty of commerce and
alliance” had been signed between the United States of
America and the king of France.
HOW HE FOUGHT FOR LIBERTY IN AMERICA. 139

Valley Forge went wild with rejoicing, and so did Lafay-
ette. Washington announced a holiday and held a grand



LAFAYETTE’S HEADQUARTERS AT VALLEY FORGE.

From avrecent photograph.

review; but, in the midst of it all, he had in contemplation
a sudden and vigorous movement to delay or defeat the
I40 HOW HE FOUGHT FOR LIBERTY IN AMERICA.

operations which he felt certain the British commander
would put on foot.

He was quite correct in this. For the British, fearing
French as well as American attack, speedily decided to give
up Philadelphia and fall back upon New York, which they
would make the centre of their power in America.

Washington was certain of this almost as soon as it was
determined upon. So, to keep a check upon the movements
of the British army, he sent a strong force under the com-
mand of Lafayette to get as near to the British lines as
possible in order to watch, disturb, and annoy the enemy.

Lafayette, proud of the confidence thus placed in him by
Washington, led his command of two thousand picked men
from the camp at Valley Forge to a dry ridge overlooking
the Schuylkill. This was called Barren Hill. It was three
miles to the east of the present town of Conshohocken and
about nine miles from Philadelphia. It was a well-chosen
point, for it overlooked both the river and the Philadelphia
highway, and Lafayette proceeded to protect and fortify his
camp.

But the British generals, when told of this encampment
of Lafayette, felt sure that they now had this “hot-headed
French boy” in their grasp; and, knowing that Lafayette’s
capture would have great weight in Europe, they prepared to
first defeat and then capture him. Indeed, Generals Howe
and Clinton were so certain of success that they issued invi-
tations to their especial friends in Philadelphia to dine with
HOW HE FOUGHT FOR LIBERTY IN AMERICA. I4I

them at headquarters next day “to meet Monsieur the
Marquis de Lafayette.”

So, on the morning of the twentieth of May, 1778, eight
thousand British and Hessian troops with fifteen pieces of
artillery marched out of Philadelphia by one road to take
Lafayette in the rear; by another road, a column of
grenadiers and cavalry marched to attack his right, while
a third column, led by Generals Howe and Clinton in person,
with the British admiral, Lord Howe, as a volunteer “just
to enjoy the sport,” went by a third route to attack the mar-
quis in front. The young Marquis de Lafayette was es-
teemed quite an important person, you see, when the flower
of the British army, led by its commanding general, came
stealing out to trap him.

Lafayette, it must be confessed, came very nearly being
thus entrapped. For he was actually almost surrounded by
the three divisions of the British army before he awoke to the
real danger of his position. He expected attack along one
line; he hardly counted upon the honor of making a three-
cornered fight against an overwhelming force.

In fact, fighting was not to be thought of. This was a
case for strategy. So, strategy he tried. Along the road
over which the main British column was marching, Lafayette
threw out what were called “false heads” of columns, — that
is, a few men, marching from the woods at different points as
if the whole army were advancing to battle. The British
general saw these “false heads” and, supposing them to be
142 _ HOW HE FOUGHT FOR LIBERTY IN AMERICA.

real ones, halted to form his battle line, while Lafayette, who
had placed the bulk of his troops upon the only piece of unoc-
cupied road left, under the hill and quite out of the enemy’s
sight, hurried them off to Valley Forge in quick order, him-
self bringing up in the rear. He forded the Schuylkill and
reached the camp without the loss of a man, while the three
British columns marching up the hill came face to face with
their own red-coated brothers. So they marched down again
in mortification and disgust. The “French boy” had shrewdly
given them the slip, and the dinner engagement “to meet
Monsieur the Marquis de Lafayette” was declared off !

Washington was delighted. He complimented Lafayette
on his victory — for a well-conducted retreat is often a bril-
liant victory —and advised Congress of the young French-
man’s “timely and handsome retreat in great order.”

Soon after this, affair, on the eighteenth of June, 1778, the
British evacuated Philadelphia, and, stringing across New
Jersey, bag and baggage, retreated to New York. Washing-
ton determined to stop, annoy, or attack and defeat them at
once. But certain of his generals objected to this as Clin-
ton’s army was so much larger than his own. One general
especially vigorously opposed his commander’s plan. This
was General Charles Lee, the most persistent of all the
foreign adventurers, who by his exertions and bravado and
his record of European service had raised himself to the
second in command, or next in rank to Washington.

There is now no doubt that Charles Lee, preyed upon by
HOW HE FOUGHT FOR LIBERTY IN AMERICA. 143

jealousy, ambition, and disappointment at the failure of the
Conway Cabal, had determined to break his oath of alle-
giance to America and play into the hands of the British.
He obstructed every move of Washington’s; he objected to
every suggestion and plan of action, and did all in his power
to restrain the American army from attacking the British on
its way to New York.

In the Council of War at Hopewell, in New Jersey,
Lafayette made a bold and stirring plea for immediate and
aggressive action. But Lee’s experience as a soldier and his
cleverly constructed argument partly carried the council and
it was decided, against Lafayette’s protest and Washington’s
judgment, to strengthen the American line, but not to bring |
on a general engagement.

This was precisely the end for which Lee was working ;
so, when Clinton’s advance threatened one of the American
detachments, and Lee, as second in command, was ordered to
check this with the American advance, he declined to do it
as against the advice of the Council of War. But Washing-
ton knew that his own judgment was best, and, indeed, the
most of his advisers had come to his views. As Lee declined
_the leadership, the appointment was given to Lafayette, who
felt that the chance had come to prove his own ability and
generalship.

Lafayette rode enthusiastically forward leading the ad-
vance. But when Lee saw that, in spite of his plans, the
active movement was to be made and that the honors would
144 HOW HE FOUGHT FOR LIBERTY IN AMERICA.

fall to Lafayette, whom he disliked because Washington
loved him, at once he changed his mind and appealed to
Washington to replace him in the command, as was his
right as second in rank. His motive may have been to bring
about an American defeat. At any rate he went at once to
Lafayette and begged him to retire in his favor.

“T place my fortune and my honor in your hands,” he
said to the young Frenchman; “you are too generous to
destroy both the one and the other.”

It was indeed an appeal to Lafayette’s generosity which
the chivalrous young marquis could not refuse. So, although
it was a grievous disappointment to him, he gave back the
command to Lee, while Washington arranged a compromise
by which Lee should command and Lafayette lead the
advance.

Washington ordered an immediate attack upon the
British at Monmouth Court House, and at half-past five
on the morning of the twenty-eighth of July, 1778, the battle
of Monmouth began. Its result was a sorry ending to a
skilfully conceived plan, and one which, had Washington
been obeyed and had Lafayette kept the command, would
have proved a brilliant victory. But Lee deliberately
delayed; he held back his advance, snarled up his officers by
contradictory orders, and at last ordered a disgraceful retreat
that was only saved from utter rout by Washington’s prompt
and vigorous action, as, superb in his wrath, he met the
treacherous Lee among the retreating troops. Straightway
HOW HE FOUGHT FOR LIBERTY IN AMERICA. 145

he expressed his opinion of the jealous adventurer in lan-
guage as forcible as it was merited; then, assuming the
command himself, he faced the retreating army to the right
about, checked the British advance and assault, plucked the
day from disgrace, and manceuvred his army out of disaster,
and once again saved the American cause. |

Lafayette, you may be sure, fretted and chafed under
Lee’s singular and criminal action. Unselfishly giving up
his command, he was really but a volunteer in the fight; but
again and again, whenever the opportunity offered, he dashed |
into action — now leading the cavalry in a desperate charge,’
now urging Lee to action, now stemming the tide of unneces-
sary and headlong retreat, and, finally, supporting Washing-
ton’s rapid change of front by rallying the re-formed second
line upon a hillslope, facing the enemy where a charge and
battery support effectually stopped and drove back the
British advance. .

Then night came on. Lafayette, wrapped in his cloak,
slept beside Washington at the foot of a tree, and woke to
find that the British army, like the Arabs, had “silently
stolen away ” in the night. The honors of war at Monmouth,
after all, were with Washington, the masterly general, and
with Lafayette, his loyal aid.

Thanks to Lee’s treachery, the British escaped to New
York; but there they found fresh trouble. For, as the first
fruits of the treaty of alliance with France, a French fleet of

'See Frontispiece.
146 HOW HE FOUGHT FOR LIBERTY IN AMERICA.

fourteen frigates and twelve battle-ships sailed into American
waters, located the English fleet in New York harbor, and
threatened to engage and destroy it.

But without sufficient or reliable pilotage the entrance
to New York harbor was not safe for the French admiral’s
big battleships; so, after communicating with Washington,
and Lafayette, the admiral sailed away to attack the British





























NEW YORK CITY AND HARBOR.

From an old cut taken about the time of the Revolution.

force stationed at Newport in Rhode Island, while Lafayette
at the head of two thousand men marched overland from the
Hudson to Providence to support the French naval attack. _

The New England militia hastened to join the Conti-
nental troops, and a formidable force was thus collected for
the assault; but, as was so often the case in the American
Revolution, the rival claims of differing nationalities, the
arrogance ef the French allies, and the ever-existing Anglo-
HOW HE FOUGHT FOR LIBERTY IN AMERICA. 147

Saxon hostility to those of other speech and blood, upset all
Washington’s plans and overthrew all Lafayette’s desires.
The French officers were jealous of their own leader, the
Count d’Estaing, a relative of Lafayette, because he, a land
officer, had been made the chief of a naval expedition; a
storm disabled and endangered the fleet, and, greatly to
Lafayette’s disappointment, the fleet sailed away to Boston
for repairs without striking a blow, and the Americans found
that they did not like their French allies as much as they
thought they did.

Lafayette galloped to Boston, and tried hard to induce
his kinsman to assist the American army. The Count
d’Estaing at last promised to land his sailors and march
them across to Newport; but before he could do this the
British were heavily reinforced, and Lafayette had to gallop
back to protect his own rear guard, and lead the now imper-
illed American army out of danger. This he did in his custo-
mary vigorous and strategical manner.

Worn out by these misunderstandings; disappointed and
distressed at the overthrow of his plans; homesick and sad
over his home news of the death of his little girl; convinced
by the knowledge that England had declared war against
France that his duty to his king was even greater than his
duty to the American Congress, and that affairs in France
demanded his presence there, Lafayette at last decided to ask
for a leave of absence and go home to France on a furlough.

~ His request was seconded by Washington, who, while he
148 HOW HE FOUGHT FOR LIBERTY IN AMERICA.

disliked to have the young man leave him, still felt that his
presence in France might be of advantage. Congress granted
the furlough, with its official thanks and the gift of “an
elegant sword;” ordered its best war-ship, the frigate “ Alli-



“LAFAYETTE BADE GOOD-BYE TO WASHINGTON,”

ance,” to convey the marquis to France, and in every way
showed its appreciation of his services and his self-sacrifice.

So, in October, 1778, Lafayette bade good-bye to Wash-
ington and rode away from the camp, to go on board the
“ Alliance” at Boston, homeward bound at last.
HOW “THAT BOY” SERVED THE EARL. 149

CriUN Ea ER SVE
HOW “THAT BOY” SERVED THE EARL.

Ne Lafayette, homeward bound, rode into the old town of

Fishkill-on-the-Hudson on a chilly and rainy October
day, the fever was in his bones. He was a French moun-
taineer, brought up in the rugged Auvergne country and
seasoned by continued exposure and privation; but malaria
unnerves even mountaineers, and “chills and fever” can
conquer the stoutest campaigners.

The people had cheered him and made a-hero of him all
the way from Philadelphia to the camp on the Hudson, and
he had kept up through all the receptions and festivities, as
every hero must. But at Fishkill he gave up at last. The
fever conquered the hero, and for days he lay so low that his
death was expected and even reported.

Washington was deeply grieved. From his camp, eight
miles away, he rode daily to Lafayette’s door to inquire after
his condition, fearing to ask to see his young friend lest his
presence should excite the weakened invalid. It is a touching
instance of real friendship, and we can almost see the noble-
hearted American leader, distressed over his friend’s serious
condition, riding away from the door at Fishkill with bowed
150 HOW “THAT BOY” SERVED THE EARL.

head and sorrowing face, fearing that the marquis was indeed
to sacrifice his bright and valuable young life for the land he
had fought to free.

Lafayette, too, was certain he was going to die; and his



WHERE LAFAYETTE FOUGHT DEATH.

The Old Manor-house at Fishkill-on-the-Hudson.

only prayer was that he might live long enough to see or
hear from his dear ones once more—or, for just three
months more of life, if, in that time, he might hear of the
success of America.

He was to live much longer than the coveted three
HOW “THAT BOY” SERVED THE EARL. I5!I

months. Washington’s own physician took him in charge
and “ pulled him through” all right. The fever spent itself;
recovery came. Washington cared for him in his convales-
cence like a father, parted from him tenderly, sent him on to
Boston in charge of his own physician, and wrote him as a
good-bye word, “I am persuaded, my dear marquis, that there
is no need of fresh proofs to convince you either of my affec-
tion for you personally or of the high opinion I entertain of
your military talents and merit.”

The war-ship was waiting for him at Boston, and, with a
crew hastily gathered upon the young man’s arrival by filling
it out to the required number with British deserters and
prisoners, it finally sailed away on the eleventh of January, —
L712:

And the last thing Lafayette did was to add a third post-
script to a final letter to Washington. “The sails are just
going to be hoisted, my dear general,” he wrote, “and I have
but time to take my last leave of you. . . . Farewell. I hope
your French friend will ever be dear to you; I hope I shall
soon see you again, and tell you myself with what emotion I
now leave the coast you inhabit and with what affection and
respect I am forever, my dear general, your respectful and
sincere friend, Lafayette.”

The « Alliance” was just a month making its voyage to
France. It came very near to not getting to France at all;
for the British deserters and prisoners who had filled out the
crew conspired to seize the vessel, kill the officers and pas-
. 152 HOW. “THAT BOY” SERVED THE EARL.

sengers, and, taking the “ Alliance” into an English port, sell
her as a rebel prize, and line their pockets with the proceeds.

The plot came dangerously near to success. Instead of
carrying out their intentions on the morning of the day set
for the meeting, the conspirators put it off until afternoon.
During the day one of their number “told on” his associates.
The French and American sailors, who had no part in the
plot, backed up Lafayette and the ship’s officers; the thirty-
three mutineers were cornered, captured, and clapped into
irons, and the “ Alliance,” saved from disaster, sailed, a week
later, into the French harbor of Brest.

All France turned out to welcome this plucky young
Frenchman who, braving the king’s commands and the wrath
of his own family, had run away to America with a ship-load
of supplies to fight for the cause of liberty, and had been
returned to his native land in a war-ship of the new American
republic.

They hailed him as hero and paragon; they overwhelmed
him with attentions and swarmed about him at receptions
and festivities. The queen stopped him in the palace gar-
dens to talk with him; the king ordered him into arrest as a
deserter — but his prison was his father-in-law’s grand house
at Paris, his jailer was his wife!—and then publicly forgave

’

and congratulated “the deserter ;” ministers and nobles called
upon him to consult him about America and the opportu-
nities it afforded for revenge on England, and Lafayette, like

all heroes, enjoyed and was perhaps a bit wearied by these
HOW “THAT BOY” SERVED THE EARL. 153

attentions. “I had the honor,” he says, “of being consulted
by all the ministers and, what was a great deal better, of
being kissed by all the women.” ‘The experiences of heroes
are about the same, you see, in all ages, from Horatius at the



LAFAYETTE ‘¢HOME AGAIN.”

“The queen stopped him in the palace gardens to talk with him.”

Bridge to Hobson from the “ Merrimac” —and Lafayette
was no exception.

His father-in-law, the Duke d’Ayen, forgave and wel-
comed him; his wife, Adrienne, loyal to him in all his high
plans and. desires, was overjoyed to see him; the actors in
the theatres put extra words in their parts to honor Lafay-
ette and “bring down the house;” and this young man of
154 HOW “THAT BOY” SERVED THE EARL.

twenty-one would surely have “ had his head turned ” if that
head had not been such a very level one.

Instead, he steered all this hero-worship into one channel
—help for America. “In the midst of the whirl of excite-
ment by which I was carried along,” he said, “I never lost
sight of the revolution, the success of which still seemed
to me to be extremely uncertain; accustomed as I was to
seeing great purposes accomplished with slender means,
I used to say to myself that the cost of a single féte would
have equipped the army of the United States, and in order
to provide clothes for them I would gladly have stripped the
palace at Versailles.”

He did something more than wish; he accomplished. He
went to work practically. With the great Doctor Franklin
and the famous American sea-captain, John Paul Jones, he
planned an expedition in which he should lead the land
forces and Paul Jones should command the war-ships; the
expedition, under the American flag, was to attack and cap-
ture English ports and English cities. Then a still greater
plan was considered; this was the union of France and
Spain for an assault on England in behalf of the colonies.
John Paul Jones sailed away in the “ Bon Homme Richard”
and had his famous sea-fight with the “ Serapis,” while this
plan was maturing; but Spain was dilatory and behindhand,
as she has always been, and the invasion of England fell
through.

So Lafayette joined the French army again and was
HOW “THAT BOY” SERVED THE EARL. 155

made colonel of the King’s Dragoons; but inaction did not
satisfy him when he had the cause of America so much

at heart, and he set about urging the preparation of a big

French expedition of
soldiers and sailors for
the immediate help of
America.

King Louis XVI.
did not love America;
Queen Marie Antoi-
nette did not favor the
cause of liberty. For
Bourbon kings and
Austrian princesses
did not care to foster
the spirit of inde-
pendence. But they
had been carried into
the treaty of alliance
by the French people,
who hated England
and loved the idea of
liberty, and- now,



LAFAYETTE’S “NAVAL AID.”

John Paul Jones, the famous captain with whom Lafayette arrangeag
a joint attack on England.

backed by the popularity and the persistence of Lafayette,
the French people called: upon their king to help the cause

in which Lafayette had won so glorious a renown.
His persistency at last carried the day. The court of
156 HOW “THAT BOY” SERVED THE EARL.

France decided to send an army to the assistance of Amer-
ica, and Count de Rochambeau, lieutenant-general in the
army of the king, was despatched with a fleet of war-ships
and transports and six thousand picked soldiers of France
to the help of the Americans.

Lafayette was sent on.in advance to carry the good news
to Washington and to Congress, and especially to let Wash-
ington know that there could be no more of the jealousies
and rivalries that had ruined the success of the first French
expedition. For, at Lafayette’s earnest request, it was
ordered that the French troops, while in America, should be
subject to the orders of General Washington; that they
should always yield the honors of advance and leadership to
the American army in action, and that American officers should
be recognized as having equal rank with French officers.

This arrangement really did much toward the final tri-
umph of the American Revolution; for harmony is the
surest road to success; and, thanks to Lafayette, harmony
was established and maintained between the allied armies of
France and America.

So Lafayette came to America the second time. Not
now as a runaway and an unwelcomed recruit did he come;
but as a major-general in the American army and as the
official representative of the court of France, sent to prepare
the way for the help which the court of his king, even against
the royal will, had, at his solicitation, sent across the sea to
aid the cause of American liberty.
HOW “THAT BOY” SERVED THE EARL. 157

The French frigate, “ Hermione,” with Lafayette on board,
ran into Boston harbor on the twenty-eighth day of April,
1780. And when the people of Boston knew that the French
frigate bore “the marquis,” as Lafayette was commonly
called in America, all the town turned out to welcome him,
and he was escorted with shouts and cheers to the stately
mansion of Governor John Hancock on Beacon Hill. And
this time “Mr. Hancok” did not turn him over to some one
else as a “foreign affair!”

Washington soon received news of the arrival of “his
young soldier,” as Lafayette loved to style himself, and
hastened to summon him to his side. On the tenth of
May, 1780, Lafayette joined his beloved commander-in-chief
at the headquarters in Morristown, and there informed Wash-
ington privately what no one in America yet knew, of the
coming of the military and naval expedition from the king of
France to the aid of America.

Washington was overjoyed at the news, especially when
he learned that Lafayette had so arranged the alliance as to
remove cause for jealousies and rivalries. But he knew that
even this mighty help from France would be of no profit
to America unless the ‘American people prepared to do their
share. So, while Lafayette hurried to Philadelphia to report
to Congress, Washington set himself to the task of urging
Congress and the country to respond, by renewed efforts and
sacrifices, to the generous offers of France.

Energetic measures were at once set on foot, in which
158 HOW “THAT BOY” SERVED THE EARL.

both the French and American troops were to bear part.
Lafayette’s pet scheme was renewed,—the invasion of
Canada by French soldiers under the combined flags of
France and the United States. But Benedict Arnold, the
traitor, was already laying his dastardly plans for his great
and hateful crime, and, being entrusted with the details of
the Canadian invasion, he promptly reported them to Sir
Henry Clinton, the British commander, and again Lafayette’s
cherished scheme was upset.

Half-clothed, half-fed, with but four ioueand out of its
six thousand soldiers fit for duty, the Continental army was
in so desperate and deplorable a state that, as Lafayette
declared to the president of Congress, “though I have been
directed to furnish the French court and the French generals
with early and minute intelligence, I confess that pride has
stopped my pen and, notwithstanding past promises, I have
avoided entering into any details till our army is put in a
better and more decent situation.” |

But America’s sure stand-by and security in this, as
in all other critical times, was George Washington. His
action and his energy aroused Congress and the land to
courage, and by the time the French ships and soldiers
arrived, the American army had been strengthened and
improved.

On the tenth of July, 1780, the Count de Rochambeau,
with the French army of assistance, arrived at Newport in
Rhode Island, and the French commander, informing Wash-
HOW “THAT BOY” SERVED THE EARL. 159

ington of his arrival, announced, as the king had directed
him, “ We are now, sir, under your command.”

But there was much to be done before this French alli-
ance brought victory or even action; campaigns moved slowly
in those days, and
Americans who, to-day,
can within three months
organize and push to
triumph a campaign of
assistance and deliver-
ance in behalf of a per-
secuted people, would
have but little patience
with a campaign of such
deliberation as was that
of the French alliance
of 1780, when America



was in desperate state,
and Lafayette fretted
over the delays that

wasted a year in prepar- THE OLD MILL AT NEWPORT.
at ion. Near Rochambeau’s headquarters ; said to have been built before

the time of Columbus.
On the twentieth of
September, at Hartford in, Connecticut, Washington, with
Lafayette and Knox, met the Count de Rochambeau and
Admiral de Terney, commanding the French fleet, and a
plan of operations was arranged, which, however, because


160 HOW “THAT BOY” SERVED THE EARL.

of vexatious delays and disappointments, could not be put
into effect until a new year had opened.

One of these causes for delay was the most dramatic and
tragic occurrence of the American Revolution; and in this
Lafayette, too, had part.

Upon the very day that Washington and the marquis met
the French commander. at Hartford, Benedict Arnold and
Major John Andre were also perfecting their plan of arrange-
ments which, if successful, would have been as disastrous to
America as those of Washington and Rochambeau were
to be helpful. Lafayette was with Washington, when, on
reaching West Point, on his return from Hartford, Arnold’s
treason was discovered; he it was who tried to comfort and
control Mrs. Arnold when the news of her husband’s disgrace
drove her, as Lafayette reported, “into such eae convul-
sions that she completely lost her reason;” he it was who,
with the other general officers, sat at a court-martial in the
headquarters at Tappan “ up the Hudson,” and, after a fair and
honorable trial, convicted and sentenced John Andre, adjutant
general of the British army, as a spy, and hung him, in right-
eous and merited punishment, upon the green hillside at
Tappan, with which for a hundred and twenty years his sad
story has been associated.

“TI hope he will be hung,” wrote Lafayette, upon the news
of Andre’s capture ; “ for he is a man of influence in the Eng-
lish army, and his distinguished social rank will act as a
warning to spies of less degree.”
HOW “THAT BOY” SERVED THE EARL. 161

“He was a very interesting man,” wrote Lafayette, after
Andre’s death; “ he conducted himself in a manner so frank,
so noble, and so delicate, that I cannot help feeling for him
an infinite pity.”

And those two recorded judgments of the treason-hating,



LAFAYETTE AND MRS. ARNOLD.

“ He tried to comfort and control her when the news of her husband’s disgrace nearly crazed her.”

spy-detesting, courage-loving marquis have stood as the opin-
ion of all thinking men since the days of Andre’s sorry but
righteous fate. |

Lafayette was not yet through with Benedict Arnold. In
1780 the British invaded, overrun, and apparently conquered
the Southern States. The Baron de Kalb, Lafayette’s fellow
aeLOZ HOW “THAT BOY” SERVED THE EARL.

runaway and fast friend, fell in battle at Camden, in South
Carolina, where you may to-day (as you may also at Annapo-
lis, in Maryland) see the monument erected to his memory,
and Cornwallis, the British commander, prepared to hold the
Carolinas in a relentless grasp.

To enlarge his opportunities for conquest Sir Henry |
Clinton, the British commander-in-chief, sent a British army
to invade Virginia and connect with Cornwallis; the British
detachment was placed under the command of Benedict
Arnold, now, in payment for his treason, a general in the
British army. To meet and drive out Arnold, Washington
at once directed General Greene to send Lafayette with
twelve hundred Continental troops to Virginia. The French
fleet was to support him; but at the entrance to Chesapeake
Bay it was met, defeated, and driven back by the British»
fleet, and Lafayette had to carry out his land operations
unaided. |

So well did he conduct these operations that both Arnold
the traitor and Phillips (that British general, by the way,
who was said to have killed Lafayette’s father in the Battle
of Hastenbeck), sent to support him, were outgeneralled and
beaten back. Lafayette manceuvred about Richmond so
cleverly that the British gave it up after its capture and
brief occupation, and he led them so uncertain and unprofita-
ble a march up and down the James that Virginia was
unconquered still, and Cornwallis, hot with anger at the lack
of results, determined at once to march through the Caro-
HOW “THAT BOY” SERVED THE EARL. 163

linas, where Greene was making it most uncomfortable for
him, and cage and capture “that boy Lafayette” among
the hills that encircle and defend the fine old town of
Richmond.
Major-General
Charles, the second
Earl Cornwallis, after-
ward governor - gen-
eral of India and
conqueror of Tippoo
Sahib, was forty-
three years old and
a soldier with a pretty
good opinion of his
own abilities. He
believed that he had
an easy task to “ whip
that boy Lafayette,”
as he announced it
to be his intention,



and he set out with

LAFAYETTE’S ANTAGONIST.

the greatest confi- “ Charles, Earl Cornwallis, Commander of the British forces at

dence upon welt York and Gloucester.”

proved the most disastrous venture of his long and ven-

turesome life.
Cornwallis joined his forces with those of Arnold at

Petersburg and, on the twenty-fourth of May, 1781, he
164 HOW “THAT BOY” SERVED THE EARL.

marched out with his whole force to attack Lafayette at
Richmond.

At Byrd’s Plantation (that fine old colonial mansion in
whose noble rooms this English “gentleman” stabled his
cavalry horses!) the earl wrote to his commander-in-chief,
“The boy cannot escape me.” .

“Lord Cornwallis,” said Lafayette, “marches with amaz-
ing celerity. But I have done everything I could, without
arms or men, at least to impede him by local embarrass-
ments.”

These “embarrassments’”” were so skilfully arranged that,
spite of the noble earl’s assurance, the “boy” certainly did
escape him, and led him so vigorous a dance up and down
that fair land that lies along the James and the York, that
Cornwallis, like Phillips and Arnold, was fairly outmanceu-
vred by Lafayette and, with one desperate cry to Clinton for
relief, fell into the trap laid for him by Lafayette; for, cor-
nered at Yorktown, he speedily found the door of his cage
shut and barred by the unexpected arrival of the combined
forces of Washington and Rechambeau.

In the old Livingston manor-house at Dobb’s Ferry on
the Hudson—as the granite shaft there erected informs
every passer-by — Washington and Rochambeau. on the
fourteenth of August, 1781, met and planned the campaign
at Yorktown; and within and about the old capital of Wil-
liamsburg the allied armies, by rapid marches, sat down to
besiege the British defences at Yorktown, that old Virginia
HOW “THAT BOY” SERVED THE EARL. 165

town, now sadly gone to seed. On the twenty-sixth of Sep-
tember the siege began. It had been quick work for those
days of no railroads and no facilities for army transporta-
tion, while at the entrance to the fair, broad river, below



WHERE WASHINGTON JOINED LAFAYETTE.

Headquarters of General Washington at Williamsburg, in Virginia.

the “heights above York,” the French fleet under Count de
Grasse blocked the way for English relief by sea.
Lafayette had accomplished his desires. He had _ pro-
tected Virginia, forced Cornwallis into a corner, held him
there until the allied armies arrived, and permitted neither
166 HOW “THAT BOY” SERVED THE EARL,

impatience, anxiety, rivalry, nor the demands of the French
admiral that he and Lafayette go in and finish up the Earl
Cornwallis, to change his own’ determination that Wash-

ington himself and no other man should command the com-



THE COUNT DE ROCHAMBEAU.

“ Commanding the auxiliary troops of His Most Christian Majesty in
America.”

bined French and
American armies
in the final strife
at Yorktown.
This noble trait
of generous self-
ishness in the
cause of “his
dear general,’ is
one of the bright-
est spots in this
young French-
man’s’ character.
He might have
won all the hon-
ors and finished
up the fight; but
he loyally held
back the fall of
the curtain until
the central figure

and chief actor in the great drama came upon the stage.

The end of the play now came speedily. Steadily the
HOW “THAT BOY” SERVED THE EARL. 167

opposing French and American entrenchments drew closer
to the British parallels. They came, finally, within three
hundred yards of each other; then, on the evening of the
fourteenth of October, Lafayette’s men, led by Alexander
Hamilton, charged the British works on the left; while the
French grenadiers stormed the British redoubt on the right,
and all the outer works were won. It was the last battle of
the American Revolution; and it was won by Lafayette’s
fighters and under his personal direction.

The next night Cornwallis endeavored to cut his way
out, and escape across the York River to Gloucester; but
American watchfulness and a Virginia storm drove him
back, and on the seventeenth of October a British drummer
boy appeared on the ramparts and beat a parley. One
French and one American officer met two British officers
at Mr. Moore’s farmhouse, still standing in Yorktown.
Articles of capitulation were drawn up and accepted, and
on the nineteenth of October, 1781, on the green plain
beyond Yorktown, where to-day a modest little brown shaft
of German cement marks the exact spot, the British
troops laid down their arms in surrender, while their
drums beat the suggestive air of “The world turned upside
down.”

And the French commissioner who prepared the articles
of capitulation at Mr. Moore’s house was the Vicomte de
Noailles, brother-in-law to Lafayette and one of those two
young men whom, three years before, Lafayette had roused
168 HOW “THAT BOY” SERVED THE EARL.

from bed in Paris with the cry, “Wake up! wake up! T’m
going to America to fight for liberty!” .

Upon the most sightly point of the green “ heights above
York” there stands to-day a splendid marble monument
encircled with stars, ringed by thirteen joyous female figures,
and topped by a welcoming and victorious Liberty. mark for all that region, it overlooks alike the broad river
and the green fields of York, a memorial erected by the
American people to commemorate the final triumph at
Yorktown.

On the southern tablet you may read these words: “ At
York, on October 19, 1781, after a siege of nineteen days, by
5,500 American and 7,000 French Troops of the Line, 3,500
Virginia Militia under command of General Thomas Nelson
and 36 French ships of war, Earl Cornwallis, Commander
of the British Forces at York and Gloucester, surrendered
his army, 7,251 officers and men, 840 seamen, 244 cannons
and 24 standards to His Excellency George Washington,
Commander in Chief of the Combined Forces of America
and France, to His Excellency the Comte de Rochambeau,
commanding the auxiliary Troops of His Most Christian
Majesty in America, and to His Excellency the Comte
de Grasse, commanding in chief the Naval Army of France
in Chesapeake.”

Nothing of Lafayette in that grand and sonorous record
of victory on the splendid surrender monument at York-
town! And yet it was largely because of Lafayette that
!
HOW HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE THIRD TIME. 169

the splendid shaft stands where it does to-day. For “the
boy” had fooled the earl! He had fairly outmanceuvred
and outgeneralled him, and, with an inferior army, had kept
him dodging and doubling all over the fair York peninsula,
until, cooped up in his entrenchments at Yorktown, Wash-
ington and the end found Cornwallis at last. The “noble
earl,” who so confidently declared that “ the boy cannot escape
me,” was forced to admit, as he frankly did, that the earl
could not escape the boy and his backers; and, at last, in
despair he yielded up his sword in surrender, and brought
to a close that long struggle for liberty in America to which
“the boy” had pledged, like the signers of the immortal
Declaration of Independence, “ his life, his fortune, and his
sacred honor.”

Cl Paar Rei,

HOW HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE THIRD TIME.

t Aas play is over, Monsieur le comte,” wrote Lafayette
to the French minister; “the fifth act has just come
to an end. I was somewhat disturbed during the former
acts, but my heart rejoices exceedingly at this last, and I
have no less pleasure in congratulating you upon the happy
ending of our campaign.” |
When the curtain fell at Yorktown the players began to
disperse. It was fully two years before the lights were put
1j7O AO HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE THIRD TIME.

out and the theatre was emptied, by the final departure of the
British from New York on that famous Evacuation Day of
November twenty-fifth, 1783. But among the earliest to
depart was the Marquis de Lafayette.

It was felt, equally by Lafayette and by Congress, that
the presence of the popular young marquis in France would
lead to continued assistance in the way of men and money
from the king of France in the next campaign in America.
For, you see, although Yorktown really did end the Revolu-
tion, no one could tell at that time whether King George
would give up the fight or whether he would keep obstinately
on until another British general had followed the disastrous
examples of Gage and Howe and Clinton and Burgoyne and
Cornwallis.

So, with Washington’s consent and the approval of Con-
gress, it was agreed that “ Major-General the Marquis de
Lafayette have permission to go to France and that he return
at such time as shall be most convenient to him.”

And, in the “resolve” that granted his furlough, Con-
gress also voted that he “ be informed that, on a review of his
conduct: throughout the past campaign and particularly dur-
ing the period in which he had the chief command in Vir-
ginia, the many new proofs which present themselves of
his zealous attachment to the cause he has espoused, and
of his judgment, vigilance, gallantry, and address in its
defence, have greatly added to the high opinion entertained
by Congress of his merits and military talents.”
HOW HE CAME TO AMERICA LOR THE THIRD TIME. 171

Things had changed, you see, since he stood a suppliant
at the door of Congress, looked upon simply as a young
French adventurer whom it was risky to recognize and
undesirable to employ. The plucky and determined young
Frenchman had “ proved his faith by his works” and Con-
gress was grateful for his services, proud of his loyalty, and
prompt to recognize and acknowledge his success.

“T owe it to your friendship and to my affectionate regard
for you, my dear marquis,” said Washington, “not to let you
leave this country without carrying with you fresh marks of
my attachment to you and new expressions of the high sense
I entertain of your military conduct and other important
‘services in the course of the last campaign, although
the latter are too well known to need the testimony of
my approbation, and the former, I persuade myself, you
believe is too well riveted to undergo diminution or
change.”

What young man of twenty-four would not have been
proud to receive such expressions of friendship and apprecia-
tion from George Washington? But Washington, as I have
told you, was quick to see and prompt to acknowledge worth
and merit in young men. He never said very much; with
him, indeed, actions spoke louder than words; but, to the
Marquis de Lafayette, he put his appreciation and affection
into words, again and again. ’

The young Frenchman was not so reserved and reticent
as the great American. He fairly bubbled over with love for
172 HOW HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE THIRD TIME.

“his dear general,” and his last words to Washington read
quite like a love letter.
« Adieu, my dear general,” he said. “I know your heart



LAFAYETTE WRITING TO WASHINGTON.

“ Adieu, my dear general. My love, my respect, my gratitude for you are above expression.”

so well that I am sure that no distance can alter your attach-
ment tome. With the same candor I assure you that my
love, my respect, my gratitude for you are above expression ;
that, at the moment of leaving you, I feel more than ever the
struggle of those friendly ties that forever bind me to you,
and that I anticipate the pleasure, the most wished-for pleas-
HOW HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE THIRD TIME, 173

ure, to be again with you, and, by my zeal and services, to
gratify the feelings of my respect and affection.”

Then “the hero of two continents,” as people began to
call Lafayette, went back to his own people the second time.
The same frigate “Alliance” which had been detailed by
Congress to carry him back to France upon his first return
—when a mutiny, as you remember, very nearly kept him
from getting home at all—swung at its moorings in Boston
harbor, under orders to bear the marquis back to France,
and on the twenty-third of December, 1781, Lafayette sailed
away from Boston-town, homeward bound.

Even before he sailed the rewards from France Bees
with the words of appreciation from America.

“Our joy is very great here and throughout the nation,”
wrote Vergennes, the great French Secretary of State, “and
you may be assured that your name is held in veneration.

. I have been following you, M. le Marquis, step by step,
throughout your campaign in Virginia; and I should fre-
quently have been anxious for your welfare if I had not been
confident of your wisdom. It required a great deal of skill
to maintain yourself, as you did, for so long a time, in spite
of the disparity of your forces, before Lord Cornwallis, whose
military talents are well known. It was you who brought
him to the fatal ending, where, instead of his making you a
prisoner of war, as he probably expected to do, you forced
him to surrender.” |

‘This was quite a change in tone, was it not, from the
174. HOW HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE THIRD TIME.

expressions of impatience from the same high officer of state
who, four years before, complained that Lafayette had “run
off again,” but declared slightingly that “his age may, per-
haps, justify his escapade,” thus echoing the equally slighting
remark about “the boy adventurer” made by the French
ambassador in London, “ Fortunately for him, his youth may
shield him from the responsibility of his thoughtless acts.
This is the only consolation left to me in the chagrin I feel
in view of his most inconsiderate behavior.”

The “chagrin,” you see, wore off very quickly in the light
of Lafayette’s record of achievement. The “inconsiderate
behavior” became triumphant heroism. Nothing succeeds
like success, it is said, and the story of Lafayette is further
proof of the old adage.

The king of France, too, who had disapproved as strongly
of Lafayette’s course as he had of assisting America; who
had ordered him home when he tried to get away; who
had sent messengers and detectives to hunt him down and
force him back on the very eve of departure; who had called
him a deserter for leaving his regiment and a spendthrift
because he had “squandered” money on America; who had
ordered him into arrest upon his first home-coming and for-
bade him to show himself publicly at the court, because of
his “ disobedience,” now hastened to recognize and reward the
services of “ his young soldier ” in America, and wrote through
his minister of war: “ The king, having been informed, sir, of
the military skill of which you have given repeated proof in
HOW HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE THIRD TIME. 175

the command of the various army corps entrusted to you in
America, of the wisdom and prudence which have marked
the services that you have performed in the interest of the
United States, and of the confidence which you have won
from General Washington, his Majesty has charged me to
announce to you that the commendations which you most
fully deserve have attracted his notice, and that your conduct
and your success have given him, sir, the most favorable
opinion of you, such as you might wish him to have, and
upon which you may rely for his future good-will.”

And thereupon the king of France announced that he
had promoted Monsieur the Marquis de Lafayette to be
“Maréchal de camp” (the same rank as major-general in the
regular service, with us), the appointment to date from
the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown. A marshal of
France at twenty-four! That was a distinct advance for
the boy who had run away from home under the ban of
his king only four years before, was it not?

On the seventeenth of January, 1782, Lafayette landed
in France. The tone of appreciation and glorification that
appeared in the letters of the king and his ministers became
enthusiasm and popularity with the people, and the young
Marquis de Lafayette was more of a hero than ever.

“Conqueror of Cornwallis!” “Savior of America with
Washington!” These and other extravagant expressions
were showered upon him. Hero-worship, you see, is about
the same in every age, and the same spirit which in old Bible
176 HOW HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE THIRD TIME.

times cheered the young general David and cried, “Saul hath ~
slain his thousands and David his tens of thousands,” hailed
Lafayette as “ Savior of America,” even as it sought to give
precedence in our latest and shortest war to some one doer
of valiant deeds as a hero beyond all others. But history
rights all this in time.

Though a queen came to visit him and the people cheered
themselves hoarse; though the marshals of France gave him,
as their comrade, a banquet and a reception, and he was at
once the lion of the day and hero of the hour, Lafayette
seems to have been a calm and level-headed young man, and
did not permit all this overpraise and hero-worship to turn
his head. But it must be confessed that he did enjoy it all!

John Adams, to be sure, did go out of his way to declare,
with somewhat vinegary tongue, that “ Lafayette will think
himself the one person necessary.” But John Adams, Ameri-
can commissioner to France, though a very great man and a
very noble American and one to whom the republic owes a
deathless debt of honor, did have a way of saying unjust and
uncomfortable things about other men of prominence. Count-
ing Lafayette as little more than a boy, he would occasionally
try “to take him down” lest the young Frenchman should
feel his importance too much. But Lafayette never had a
word to say against fussy John Adams.

Good Doctor Franklin, however, also American commis-
sioner to France, who always looked on the bright side of
things and said the best of every one, wrote home, “ The Mar-
HOW HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE THIRD TIME. 177

quis de Lafayette daily gains in the general esteem and affec-
tion, and promises to be a great man here. He is extremely
attached to our cause; we are on the most friendly and con-
fidential footing with each other, and he is very serviceable
to me in my application for additional assistance.”

So serviceable, indeed, did he prove to the American
representatives who were seeking to strengthen the American
cause in France, that, at their request, he remained in France
longer than he intended. For Lafayette considered himself
as at home only on a furlough, and he greatly desired to re-
join the army in America as soon as active operations
against the British should again be commenced.

But these operations were never again to be active.
Although negotiations moved slowly, and the road to peace
was long, it came at last, and France was not again called
upon to fight the English in America.

“ As a discourager to hesitancy,” however, as Mr. Stock-
ton would call it, France and Spain, in the fall of 1782,
agreed to make a joint expedition and attack against the
British power in America. Forthwith, a strong fleet and
army were gathered — sixty big battle-ships, and twenty-four
thousand soldiers —with the avowed purpose of sailing
from the Spanish port of Cadiz to capture the English
island of Jamaica, and attack New York and Canada.

Lafayette was made chief of staff of the joint expedition,
which was to be under the command of his relative, the
Count d’Estaing; and, wearing the uniform of an American
178 HOW HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE THIRD TIME.

general, he set out for Cadiz to join his command, anxious,
as he wrote Washington, for the time to arrive when he
might once more be united with him in a fight for “our



LAFAYETTE IN 1784.

“ Wearing the uniform of an American general he set out for Cadiz.”

dear old colors.”
But Spain, with
her customary slow-
ness Of “Action;
change of plans, and
general manana, dil-
ly-dallied so long
that the great ex-
pedition did not sail
atrealles for, before

. the close-of 1782; the

protocol was signed
at Paris; peace was
assured, and _ the
final and definitive
treaty of peace, as
the most of you
know, was signed
on the third of Sep-
tember, 1783, and the

American Revolution ended in acknowledgment and peace.

As soon as the promise of peace became fact, Lafayette

borrowed a war-ship from the Count d’Estaing, — appropri-
ately named the “ Triumph,’—and hurried it off to Phila-
HOW HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE THIRD TIME. 179

delphia with the first news of the protocol. And, by the
same ship, he sent a joyful letter to Washington. “As for
you, my dear general, who can truly say that all this is your
work,” he wrote, “what must be the feelings of your good
and virtuous heart in this happy moment? The eternal
honor in which my descendants will glory, will be to have
_had an ancestor among your soldiers, and to know that he
had the good fortune of being a friend of your heart. To
the eldest of them I bequeath, as long as my posterity shall
endure, the favor that you have conferred upon my son
George, by allowing him to bear your name,’ —for the
marquis had named his only son George Washington
Lafayette.

Having thus despatched the “ Triumph” with the first
tidings of good news, Lafayette hastened to Madrid, where
the court of Spain was conducting itself in its customary
“nasty” manner, as the English would say, and by his
energy and personal influence straightened things out, and
even threatened Spain with the unfriendliness of France
and the life-long enmity of America, if she did not at once
properly and‘duly recover and recognize the American repre-
sentative, and put matters on some reliable sort of footing.
A good deal of a prophet as well as a diplomat was the
Marquis de Lafayette.

Back in France again, he did all he could to hasten the
affairs of America to a successful conclusion, putting mean-
while to practical account the lessons of liberty he had
180 HOW HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE THIRD TIME.

learned so well in America. For, besides working with his
beloved and loyal wife to better the condition of the French
people on his own farm lands and estates in Auvergne and
other parts of France, he also set on foot a movement for
the abolition of slavery in the colonies of France, buying a
plantation in the South American colony of Cayenne, in
order that he might try to show what he could do by making
his slaves free men.

But before he undertook this last experiment in South
America, he had once again set foot on the soil of North
America.

That expressed desire for a “safe return in the spring to
my dear marquis, your affectionate friend, George Washing-

d

ton,” with which “his dear general’s” good-bye letter had
concluded, was not to be at once fulfilled; but at last, on
the first of July, 1784, after months of anticipation, Lafay-
ette sailed from the French port of Havre, on a visit to his
friends and comrades, the Americans.

This visit had been all the more wished for by him
because of Washington’s evident desire to see him. The
two men kept up a continual correspondence, and rarely has
a friendship between a man of fifty-two and one of twenty-
five been more sincere or devoted.

Washington urged Lafayette to visit him, and begged
Madame Lafayette, also, to accompany her husband.

“Come then, let me entreat you,” he wrote her. “Call
my cottage your own; for your own doors do not open to
HOW HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE THIRD TIME. 181

you with more readiness than would mine. You will see
the plain manner in which we live, and meet with rustic
civility; and you will taste the simplicity of rural life. It
will diversify the scene, and may give you a higher
relish for the gayeties of the court when you return to
Versailles.”

But Madame Lafayette was a great home-body, and as



MOUNT VERNON, THE HOME OF WASHINGTON.

“¢Call my cottage your own, he wrote to Madame Lafayette.”

much of a home-lover as Washington himself. Versailles
really had no attractions for her, and the most of her time was
Spent in the gray old castle or chateau of Chavaniac, where
Lafayette had spent his boyhood, hunting for wolves and
dreaming of liberty, and she did not dare or care to risk
182 HOW HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE THIRD TIME.

what, in those slow-going days, was, sometimes, the terrible
voyage to America.

So Lafayette came alone. But he came to a land which
welcomed him as a brother; to a chief who greeted him as
ason. From the day of his landing in New York, on the
fourth of August, 1784, to the day of his departure from the
same port, on the twenty-fifth of January, 1785, his Ameri-
can visit was one series of ovations, one continuous round
of cheers. Lafayette was, as Washington declared, “ crowned
everywhere with wreaths of love and respect;” and not the
least fragrant of these wreaths was the welcome which
the great American himself gave to “his young soldier,”
and the happy days spent at Mount Vernon under what
Washington called “the shadow of my own vine and my
own fig-tree.”

More like a royal progress than a leisurely American tour
was Lafayette’s march across America. Multitudes wel-
comed him everywhere. From New York to Philadelphia,
to Richmond (where Washington met him), to. Williams-
burg, Yorktown, and Mount Vernon, revisiting the scenes of
his Virginia campaign; from there, northward again, to Balti-
more, Philadelphia, and New York he progressed ; then, up
the Hudson to Albany, where he went with the Indian com-
missioners to talk with the dissatisfied Indians of the free
nations, and made so good a speech to his “red brothers ”
that the commissioners were actually jealous of him, he jour-
neyed on. Then, across country he went to Boston, hailed
HOW HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE THIRD TIME. 183

with cheers, and there he was given a grand reception and

banquet in Faneuil Hall, where, when a great portrait
of Washington was unveiled behind him at table, the
gallant marquis sprang to his feet and led off the burst of

cheers. He travelled
through New Eng-
land as. Gat) cas
Portsmouth, and
then with a last trip
south, for a farewell
visit to Washing-
ton at Mount Ver-
non, he worked his
way back to New
York, and on Christ-
mas day sailed
home to France.
Washington
bade him good-bye
at Annapolis, and
then went home to
Mount Vernon to





POHICK CHURCH, NEAR MOUNT VERNON.

Where Washington and Lafayette went to church together, in 1784.

write him a farewell letter. “In the moment of our separa-
tion,” he said, “upon the road as I travelled and every hour
since, I have felt all that love, respect, and attachment for
you, with which length of years, close connection, and your
merits have inspired me... . It is unnecessary, I persuade
184 HOW HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE THIRD TIME.

myself, to repeat to you, my dear marquis, the sincerity of
my regards and friendship, nor have I words which could
express my affection for you, were I to attempt it. My
fervent prayers are offered for your safe and pleasant pas-
sage, a happy meeting with Madame de Lafayette and family,
and the completion of every wish of your heart.”

Pee Aciicumadicuemiy, dear general,” wrote the marquis in
reply. “It is with inexpressible pain that I feel I am going
to be severed from you by the Atlantic. Everything that
admiration, respect, gratitude, friendship, and filial love can
inspire is combined in myvaffectionate heart to devote me
most tenderly to you. In -your friendship I find a delight
which words cannot express. Adieu, my dear general. It
is not without emotion that I write this word. Be attentive
to your health. Let me hear from you every month. Adieu,
adieu.”

Then our loving young ally, the friend of America, the
hero of two continents, sailed out of the broad and beautiful
harbor of New York, homeward bound once more, but
looking forward with his customary optimism to a return at
no distant day. It was many a day and many a year, how-
ever, before the foot of Lafayette again trod the land he
had helped deliver; much was to happen to himself
and his own fatherland before he revisited the land of
Washington.
HOW HE TRIED TO MAKE AN AMERICA OF FRANCE. 185

~

GEA PARE Kone

HOW HE TRIED TO MAKE AN AMERICA OF FRANCE.

‘ee Marquis de Lafayette was a young man who always

wished to be doing something. He could not bear to
keep still and he liked especially to interest himself in the
advancement and bettering of the human race.

This much his story must have told you from its very
start. From the time when, as a small boy, he went boldly into
the forests that encircled Chavaniac seeking to kill the wolves
that annoyed his peasants, he seemed to be ever ready to go
into the world, sword in hand, to slay the wolf of oppression.
It was this noble desire that had sent him across the sea to
America; that impelled him to work for the abolition of
slavery, for the improvement of the conditions of the down-
trodden peasants of France, and for the relief of the per-
secuted Protestants who, from the days of the terrible
Massacre of St. Bartholomew and the Revocation of the
Edict of Nantes (both of which you may read of in French
history), had no rights as citizens or as Frenchmen in their
own home land.

«Whatever be the complexion of the enslaved,” he said
to John Adams in 1786, “it does not in my opinion alter the
186 HOW HE TRIED TO MAKE AN AMERICA OF FRANCE.

complexion of the crime the enslaver commits.” To deprive
any man, black or white, Catholic or Protestant, of his God-
given right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness was
to the Marquis de Lafayette a wrong that must be righted,
and he set himself to do the righting. He was one of
the earliest exponents of what we call to-day “taking up the
white man’s burden.”

It was this deep-rooted love for liberty that led him to
take and to lead the popular side in the great and tragic
events that were soon to happen in the stirring story of
France and her fight for freedom.

Lafayette’s experience in America, his knowledge of the
American people and his share in their bold and triumphant
stand for liberty, his admiration for Washington and his
enthusiasm for the Declaration of Independence, and all that
it had brought about, kept him deeply interested in America
even after his return to his home, and led him to desire a
similar happiness for France as a land where all men should
be, what they never yet had been, free and equal.

Thomas Jefferson was American minister to France.
Lafayette had known him well in America, for the minister
had been Governor Jefferson when Lafayette was getting the
British in Virginia into a corner, and both the governor and
the general had gone through many trying war experiences
together. Then, too, Jefferson was the author of the Dec-
laration of Independence; that, alone, would have made
Lafayette his firm friend.
HOW HE TRIED TO MAKE AN AMERICA OF FRANCE. 187

. He certainly was a firm friend to the American minister
and the young nation the minister represented in France.
“The Marquis de Lafayette is a most valuable auxiliary
to me,” Jefferson wrote to Washington in 1786. “ His zeal is
unbounded and his weight with those in power is great. .
He has a great deal of
sound genius, is well
remarked by the king,
and rising in popular-
ity. He has nothing
against him but the
suspicion of republi-
can principles. I think
he will one day be of
the ministry.”
There were many
questions regarding



the new American re-

THOMAS JEFFERSON.

public, Ue eS, coming From the portrait by Gilbert Stuart.

up for arrangement

and action in Europe, where France was as yet the only
really friendly power, and the American minister to France
had much hard work in conducting and settling these matters
in the interest of his American countrymen. It was in
these affairs that Lafayette’s aid was valuable. He ob-
tained concessions for Americans in regard to the importa-

tion and sale of oil and tobacco, and his efforts in behalf
188 HOW HE TRIED TO MAKE AN AMERICA OF FRANCE.

of the American whale fishery were so acceptable that the
citizens of Nantucket, in town-meeting assembled, voted that
every man in Nantucket who owned a cow should give all
of one day’s milk toward making a monstrous cheese which
should be “transmitted to the Marquis de Lafayette as a
feeble but not less sincere testimonial of their affection and
gratitude.”

The cheese weighed five hundred pounds and was really
as fully appreciated by Lafayette as were the busts of him
made by order of the State of Virginia by the sculptor
Houdon and placed, one in the State Capitol at Richmond
and the other in the City Hall at Paris.

Lafayette’s own desires and his close association, while
they were in France, with such prominent American citizens
and believers in the liberty of the people as Benjamin Frank-
lin, Thomas Jefferson, and Gouverneur Morris had developed
in him something more than “ the suspicion of republican prin-
ciples,” which Jefferson said were laid to his charge. He had
the republican principles indeed very strongly developed; and
in the growing thirst for liberty which America’s success had
given France, Lafayette began to see a realization of his boy-
ish dreams, when, with his young wife, he planned great
schemes for the happiness of the world in general, and for
their own dear France in particular.

But France was not America. The English colonists
across the sea had, from their very beginning, been very
nearly free and independent — in fact, if not in name. It was
HOW HE TRIED TO MAKE AN AMERICA OF FRANCE, 189

only when the obstinate George III., king of England, with
his absurd notions that he was not a king if he could not
have absolute control in all portions of his dominion, him-
self played the rebel and set himself against all the sworn
and promised guarantees to the American colonists, that
those colonists protested against his invasion of all their
inherited rights, and announced their determination to
struggle for those rights to the end, even if it led to absolute
independence of English rule and authority. And this was
what they won.

In France, things were ae different. A few pure-
minded men and enthusiastic philanthropists, like the Count
de Segur and the Marquis de Lafayette, had dreams of
liberty, or rather of equal rights in France, in which the
king should be a sort of lawful head or perpetual president;
but very few among the upper class, and none of the nobles
who lived on the king as courtiers, had any faith in or
desire for such a result as this. The people of France, down-
trodden and neglected for centuries, used only as something
to be drawn upon by the upper classes for labor or for
money, had but one idea of freedom,
they pleased, and to “get square with” the nobles who had



the liberty to do as

ground them down through generations of toil and service
and slavery.

So, when the dreamers about liberty — both those who
really desired that France should have a constitution and
manhood freedom as in America, and those who liked to
190 HOW HE TRIED TO MAKE AN AMERICA OF FRANCE.

talk about liberty but did not really wish to see it—set the
people of France to thinking, to hoping, and at last to
demanding, things went wrong in France, simply because
they were not started right. Progress to be real progress
must begin right; otherwise it will become brutality before
it is really set going on the right track; for, remember this,
the right track will surely be found at last; the world never
goes backward. The people of France had wrongs ten
thousand times heavier than those of the people of America.
But the Americans were self-educated in liberty; the
French plunged into it headlong.

It must be admitted that one of the men who helped
toward this headlong plunge was the Marquis de Lafayette.
- He did not intend it to come as it did; but he was, as you
know, impulsive, enthusiastic, and just a bit headstrong; he
was an ardent believer in the liberty of the people, —in
«“ liberty, equality and fraternity,” as the old watchwords used
to run. But he only believed in liberty brought about and
established through reason and order and law. He saw in
what trouble and disorder the United States of America,
were after the Revolution had secured the independence
they found it hard to maintain until a constitution and a
president gave them union and order. So Lafayette desired
for France first a constitution and a constitutional king, in
order that the liberty of the people and the real freedom of
the nation might be both guarded and guided.

But to desire and to have are quite different things.
HOW HE TRIED TO MAKE AN AMERICA OF FRANCE. IQ]

France had no Washington as a guiding hand. Her king
was weak and a Bourbon, — history will tell you what that
means; her queen was frivolous and aristocratic; her ruling
classes were haughty and arrogant; her people down-trodden
and brutalized; and, between the highest and the lowest
orders, stood the great middle class, swayed now this way
and now that, as their desires changed, thinking only of
‘Number One, and uncertain as to what they really did want.
It was this conflicting, divided, envious, and hostile confusion
of elements out of which young Lafayette hoped to bring his
grand ideal of liberty. But even Lafayette was not Wash-
ington, as France was not America.

But Lafayette struggled nobly. In the Chief Council of
the nation, styled the Assembly of Notables, he labored hard
to bring the nobles and landowners of France to make
France really free, and when the greater convention or con-
gress of the people met, known as the National Assembly,
in 1789, he brought before it a “declaration of rights” drawn
up by him and founded upon, as it was copied after, Jeffer-
son’s Declaration of Independence. America, you see, was
his idea of popular liberty.

But the king and the nobles, stupid in their obstinacy,
and clinging foolishly to what they called their inherited and
“God-given” rights, would have none of Lafayette’s
Declaration of Independence; the people, just awakening to
a knowledge of their own power, would go far beyond Lafay-
ette’s orderly independence. So the struggle, urged on by
192 HOW HE TRIED TO.MAKE AN AMERICA OF FRANCE.

dissension, misunderstanding, selfishness, and greed, —to
which+was added that dawning knowledge of real power like
that which: can change a well-broken horse into a furious
runaway, — finally burst into that dreadful time of horror,
crime, and death, known as the French Revolution — the
bloody Reign of Terror. It was a dreadful chapter in the
world’s story; but as, out of evil, good at last may come, so
even the Reign of Terror served a glorious end, and helped
secure, for all the world, that broader liberty, toward which
for centuries the world had been struggling and which, in
America, found its grandest success. ]

But, in France, liberty did not come in the right way,
and though all France turned Benjamin Franklin’s optimis-
tic saying, “ Go it! things will come ’round all right,” into
the popular song “ Ca zva” (go it), Lafayette felt it was not
“going” the right way, and nobly tried to stem the sis
tide of lawless revolution.

He could not do it. The people rose against the king,
against the court, against the nobility. First protected and
then imprisoned by his own soldiers and his own subjects,
the weak King Louis XVI. gave in when he had to, ran off
when he could, refused to die defending what he called his
“rights” as he might have done like a hero, and finally mis-
erably ended his life on the scaffold, — the sad spectacle of
a king who was no king murdered by subjects who refused
to be subjects.

In the interest of law and order Lafayette strove in the


ONE OF FRANCE’S HOLIDAYS.

Annual celebration in Paris of the Fall of the Bastile ; July r4, 7790.


HOW HE TRIED TO MAKE AN AMERICA OF FRANCE. 195

Assembly as the protector of the liberties he pleaded for,
and of the constitution he helped to make. He accepted the
command of the National Guard,—the volunteer army of
France, numbering nearly three millions of men. But when
the people, realizing their strength, broke over all bounds and
Swept away king, throne, law, and order, Lafayette strove
valiantly to protect the weak and defend the defenceless,
“the minister of humanity and order,’ so Mr. Bigelow
describes him, “among a frenzied people who had come to
regard order and humanity as phases of treason.”

Again and again with his National Guardsmen he
defended the king and the palace from assault and rescued
the queen, “that Austrian,’ the people called her, from the
infuriated mobs of Paris.

And yet, for all its terrors, this rising of the people had
its grand side, and one that must have appealed strongly
to such a liberty-lover as Lafayette. It had its picturesque
side, too, as when, led by Lafayette, three hundred thousand
Frenchmen before a monument to Liberty swore to defend
the constitution —the king and queen of France last of
all taking the oath of patriotism. It had its dramatic side,
also, as when, on the fourteenth of July, 1790, the people of
Paris stormed and captured that hated stronghold of tyranny,
the Bastile, or political prison of Paris, the key of which you
may to-day see, as it hangs in the mansion at quiet Mount
Vernon, the gift of Lafayette to Washington.

But the time came when even Lafayette could not hold
196 HOW HE TRIED TO MAKE AN AMERICA OF FRANCE.

back the storm. Gathering strength with their success, the
people grew bolder and demanded more and more. The old
monarchy was destroyed; the constitution was established,
the king and queen were at the mercy of the people, — ruled
instead of ruling. In all of these things Lafayette believed.
His American experience showed him the uselessness of
aristocracy and the vanity of caste. When, in the National
Assembly, a delegate demanded the abolition of titles of
nobility, Lafayette at once agreed,

“Say not,” he cried, “‘Such a one has been made noble
and count for having saved the state on such a day.’ Say
only, ‘Such a one saved the state on such a day.’ It seems
to me that these words have something of an American
character, precious fruit of the New World, which ought to
aid much in rejuvenating the old one.”

And, sincere in what he demanded, the Marquis de
Lafayette dropped from his name both the “ marquis” and
the “de,” titles that indicated so-called noble birth. He never
used them again; and when, after the French Revolution
was over, and emperors and kings ruled again in France, all
titles of nobility were restored, Lafayette, true to his con-
victions, never called himself nor suffered himself to be
addressed as the Marquis de Lafayette. To the day of his
death he knew himself only as General Lafayette.

Faster and heavier the billows of revolution and disorder
broke against the throne of France. The throne itself tot-
tered and fell ; the king and queen were persecuted, imprisoned,
HOW HE TRIED TO MAKE AN AMERICA OF FRANCE. 197

and killed; from doing away with titles of nobility the peo-
ple passed to doing away with the nobles themselves; fanatics
and madmen took the place of republicans and patriots; the
thirst for blood ran high in the unbridled people; murder
and brutality came cruelly instead of law and order, and
Lafayette, unable to stay the storm that he himself had helped
to raise, resigned his position as commander of a guard he
could not command, and, from the most powerful man in all
France, became the most hated, — by the nobles and royal-
ists, because they held him responsible for all their troubles ;
by the people and their leaders, because he would not follow
them across the borders of order and of law into anarchy
and crime.

But when the nobles and royalists who could escape from
France went about Europe stirring up trouble and urging the
kings of other nations to take up arms against the French
people, and war was actually declared, Lafayette rallied the
soldiers of France to defend their home land from Austrian
invasion and kingly assault. He took the field at the head
of his army, and, as he marched through Paris to the
defence of the borders, the National Assembly bade him
Godspeed, while its president solemnly declared that “the
French people, which have sworn to conquer or die
in the cause of liberty, will always confidently oppose
to the world and to their enemies the Constitution and
Lafayette!”

That was all “very French,” as we say, of course; but you
198 HOW HE TRIED TO MAKE AN AMERICA OF FRANCE.

see, for the moment again, Lafayette had become the nation’s
hero and its chief reliance.



NAPOLEON BONAPARTE.

At the age of 22. From Greuze’s portrait.

But where was the use of opposing “ the Constitution and
Lafayette” to enemies when those enemies were in force
HOW HE TRIED TO MAKE AN AMERICA OF FRANCE. 199

within the nation’s councils, — when they were, in fact,
the nation itself? The French people in the year 1780,
like the runaway horse to which I have compared them, had
taken the bit in their teeth; they broke free from all con-
trol, flung aside or trampled down those who would have
restrained or guided them, and dashed away in a reckless
and headlong gallop toward destruction, from which only a
firm and masterful hand at last caught and saved them, —
the hand of Napoleon Bonaparte.

Among those thus flung aside was teens When
Liberty became lawlessness and the rule of order became the
reign of blood, Lafayette, distressed and disgusted, seeing
that, because of the people themselves, he could not hope
to make an America of France, turned upon the chief repre-
sentatives of disorder, denounced them to their faces, and
called upon the National Assembly, the direct representatives
of the people, to suppress and punish them. But the chiefs
of disorder—the Jacobins as they were called—were the real
rulers of France just then, and the Assembly dared not and
could not restrain them even had it wished. Instead, the
hatred and anger of the Jacobins were turned upon the brave
Lafayette who dared to withstand and denounce them; the
hero of the nation, the friend of America, the valiant young
general of France, became an exile and an outcast, denounced
as a traitor by the Assembly he had helped to create, dis-
missed from his command of the army by the rulers he had
dared to defy, and, with no choice except submission or death,
200 fROM THE FRYING-PAN INTO THE FIRE.

turned his back on his country and fled for refuge into Bel-
gium, there to remain, so he declared, “until he could some
day be again of service to liberty to France.”

His dreams of Americanizing France had come to a
sad and sorry end. Once again he was'a runaway from
France, flying not to the aid of liberty, but from the curse
of lawlessness.

Creal ae Ol

HOW HE FELL FROM THE FRYING-PAN INTO THE FIRE.

Wy ete a few comrades, officers of the army who, like him,
had been proclaimed traitors because they dared to
criticise the overthrow of the constitution, the murder of the
king, and the reign of lawlessness and _ blood, Lafayette rode
sadly out of France, unable even to see or to counsel with
the faithful wife and dear children among the Auvergne hills.
From Sedan, where he had been stationed and where the
empire he labored to prevent came to a disastrous end, eighty
years later, Lafayette and his companions crossed the border
into Belgium at the little town of Bouillon. Lafayette had
almost decided to make his way to England and there take
ship to America; for he knew that, hated as much by the
exiled nobility as by the fierce revolutionists of France, a
home on either side of the French border was full of risk and
FROM THE FRYING - PAN INTO THE FIRE. 201

danger. Even the path along which he and his companions
rode was as dangerous as an ambush; for hidden foes lurked
everywhere.

Austria was at war with France. Austrian troops and
their Prussian allies threatened the borders of France
and garrisoned the outposts of Belgium. At one of these
outposts, the town of Rochefort in Belgium, Lafayette and
his party were stopped because they had no papers or pass-
ports permitting them to proceed. So, one of Lafayette’s
friends rode to the nearest large town, Namur, to procure
the proper passports. But when he told the authorities that
these papers were desired for General Lafayette and his
friends, at once there was trouble.

“Lafayette! the enemy of the monarchy and of estab-
lished order? Never!” and fast on the heels of this refusal
came orders from the Austrian headquarters to arrest and
hold as prisoners Lafayette and his companions.

They were found at Liége; there they were arrested, and,
in spite of Lafayette’s indignant protest, and his claim that
he was on neutral territory in Belgium, the party was held as
prisoners; but Lafayette was made to understand by a secret
message that if he would “recant,” — that is deny and give
up his republican principles, — and if he would give the ene-
mies of France information by which they could push the
war to success, he would be granted his liberty.

Of course you know the one indignant word that Lafay-
ette would give as his answer to this hateful proposition.
202 FROM THE FRYING-PAN INTO THE FIRE.

The man who had risked his life and given so much of his
fortune for liberty in America and freedom in France, who
had stood beside Washington through the dark days of
Arnold’s treason, and had signed the death-warrant of Andre
the spy, could make but one reply.

“Never!” he cried, indignantly, and then went s gulltinele
into the damp dungeon of the Prussian fortress at Wesel on
the Rhine, where Charlemagne had battled for his homeland
and German patriots had died for liberty. He who, had he
been supported, would have saved France from ignominy
and the king and queen from death; who had been hailed
by his fellow countrymen as “ Lafayette, for America and for
Europe, the standard of liberty,” was delivered into the hands
of the enemies of liberty by the hatred of the friends of law-
lessness.

Lafayette was thrust into a cold, damp cell and left there
neglected and poorly fed until his health began to suffer,
when he was again offered comforts and freedom if he would
give up to the Austrians the public treasure which they
charged him with taking from France, and would disclose
to the enemy the military plans of the republican army. To
the charge of embezzlement he replied with haughty con-
tempt; to the bribe for treachery he again returned an
indignant No.

The enemies of France felt that they had secured so im-
_ portant a French prisoner,—for to Lafayette, as the chief
apostle of liberty, the royalists of Europe charged all the
FROM THE FRYING-PAN INTO THE FIRE. 203

upheaval in France,—that they removed him for greater
security from the military prison at Wesel to the strong and
famous fortress at Magdeburg on the Elbe, where Tilly
wrought such horrors in the Thirty Years’ War, and where
Luther had sung in the streets for bread.

There for five months Lafayette lay in a damp and
mouldy cell, only eight feet by four in size, into which never
came the light of the sun. But his honor and integrity
were proof against persecution, threat, or bribe, and, as Prus-
sia began to fear the strength of France, Lafayette was given
into the keeping of France’s bitterest foe, the emperor of
Austria, and was by his Austrian captors secretly smuggled
across the frontier. Then, with his name suppressed, identi-
fied only by a prison number, his very existence known
to but a few trusted prison officials, the friend of America,
the companion of Washington, the hero of two nations, was
thrown into the secret, grave-like prison of the old convent
at Olmutz, a fortress town of Moravia in Central Austria,
hidden away from the reach of either friend or foe.

Both friends and foes of Lafayette existed in plenty. At
first the foes seemed in the majority, for alike the embittered
refugee royalists and the enraged republican fanatics of
France threatened not only his own life but the lives of
those he held most dear.

His devoted wife was arrested in the old chateau at
Chavaniac, and but for her firm stand, her defiance of the
madmen in power, and her stirring use of Lafayette’s name
204 FROM THE FRYING-PAN INTO THE FIRE.

and of the sacrifices he had made for liberty, both her own
and her children’s lives would have gone to swell the terrible
lists of victims which have made the crimes of the Reign of
Terror well-nigh blot out all the wonderful good that the



THE AUSTRIAN PRISON OF LAFAYETTE.

The Theresienthor gate of the Convent-Castle of Olmutz. Lafayette’s dungeon was beneath this gate.
From a photograph taken in May, 1899.

uprising of the French people really accomplished for liberty,
humanity, and progress. But France, let me again remind
you, was not America; where one people was sent to school
to liberty, the other was thrust into it so suddenly that,
naturally, as I have told you, they did the wrong thing first.
FROM THE FRYING-PAN INTO THE FIRE. 205

And Madame Lafayette very nearly fell a victim to the un-
checked rage of that wrong thing. The story of the wife of
Lafayette should be known to every girl and boy, for it is
one of heroism, devotion, and self-sacrifice sufficient to enroll
her among the noble and historic women of the world.

She was imprisoned, persecuted, and threatened with
death; but, though pressed hard by poverty when the state
denounced Lafayette as an émigré, or runaway, and confis-
cated all his property and income, though she saw her friends
and relatives die, one after another, beneath the knife of the
murderous guillotine, as “enemies of France,’ Madame La-
fayette still kept calm, determined, and high-spirited, working
hard, first to discover the whereabouts of her captive hus-
band, and next, to secure his release.

Through the American ministers resident in Europe she
implored America to help her. She wrote to Washington,
then President of the United States, begging him to inter-
cede with the powers of Europe for Lafayette’s release. And
when, at last, she learned the place of her husband’s secret
imprisonment, through letters smuggled to her through the
American minister, she begged of the republican tyrants of
France and the imperial tyrant of Austria the privilege
of sharing her husband’s imprisonment.

You would have thought this example of devotion and
self-sacrifice would have softened the hearts of her persecu-
tors. But it did not. Chavaniac was put up for public
sale. Madame Lafayette, as the wife of a “runaway,” and as
206 FROM THE FRYING-PAN INTO THE FIRE.

herself an “aristocrat,” was torn from her children and flung
into the overcrowded district prison, from which at last she
was transferred to Paris, and imprisoned in that very Convent
of de Plessis, where, you may remember, her husband as a
boy had once gone to school; and there she was again and



THE WIFE OF LAFAYETTE.

Madame Adrienne de Lafayette. Frontan etching by
Rosenthal.

again brought face to face
with death — for her nobility!

The condemnation, how-
ever, did not come. The
American minister, Gouver-
neur Morris, of New York,
to whom, you may remember,
Lafayette first applied for
service in America, and who,
from lending her money in
her poverty to standing up
bravely in her defence at the
risk of his own life as well as
of hers, had done all he could
to lessen the sufferings and
save the life of the wife of

Lafayette, now boldly dared the Committee of Safety, who
were the chief butchers of France, to lay a hand on the
wife of Lafayette. It was this last word of Morris, as he
was sent back to America because he had too much sym-
pathy with the victims of French “liberty,” that saved

Madame Lafayette’s life.
FROM THE FRYING-PAN INTO THE FIRE. 207

“Tf you kill the wife of Lafayette,” he said to the blood-
thirsty “Committee of Safety,” which was considering her
case, “all the enemies of the Republic and of popular liberty
will rejoice; you will make America hostile, and justify
England in her slanders against you.”

It was bold talk and, as I have told you, it cost the brave
Morris his office; but it had its effect. On the day of her
examination in court the Chief Commissioner was especially —
insolent.

“T have old scores against you,” he said to the wife of
Lafayette. “I detest you, your husband, and your name.”

Madame Lafayette never faltered in her high spirit.

“T shall always defend my husband,” she answered, fear-
lessly, “and as for a name —there is no wrong in that.”

“You are insolent,’ shouted the angry commissioner ;
but he did not order to execution the wife of Lafayette!

‘Then, suddenly, came a revolt against the leaders, as one
party in France rose against the other. On the twenty-
second of January, 1795, the prison doors were opened and
Madame Lafayette was set free.

She hurried at once to Chavaniac, which had been pur-
chased for her by one of her friends, gathered her children
together, sent her only son George flying to America to the
care and guardianship of Washington, and then, as another
Reign of Terror seemed approaching in the fierce war of
party hatred, she obtained permission to leave France. At
once she crossed into Germany, where she was helped with
208 FROM THE FRYING-PAN INTO THE FIRE.

money and papers by the American consuls, and travelled
under the name of “Mrs. Motier, of Hartford, in Connec-
ticut,” to the Austrian frontier, proceeding at once to Vienna,
and demanding of the emperor one favor only, — permission
to share her husband’s captivity.

Meantime, that captivity had not been without its excite-
ments. Imprisoned in a dark, damp fortress; never addressed
by name, and known only by a number; separated from his
comrades in misery, allowed neither knife nor fork for fear
he might kill himself; deprived of his books, his liberty, and
his name, Lafayette’s naturally strong constitution weakened
under the strain and he fell seriously ill, after a few
months of this imprisonment.

But though his constitution weakened, his spirit and his
faith did not diminish. With his only pen, a toothpick
dipped in lime-juice, dirt-made ink, or even in blood, he wrote
these words: “The cause of the people is, to me, as sacred
as ever. For that I would give my blood, drop by drop; I
should reproach myself at every instant of my life that was
not devoted to the cause.” And, alone, in his dreary cell he
remembered the birthday of American freedom, and kept the
Fourth of July as a holiday and a holy day.

At last his health became so bad that the prison author-
ities, not wishing to lose so illustrious a prisoner, permitted
him to take the air every day, walking or riding, but strongly
guarded. Then it was that an escape was planned.

There was living at that time in Vienna a young fellow
LROM THE FRYING-PAN INTO THE FIRE. 209

whose name you may recall, — Francis Kinlock Huger. He
was the young American who, as a small boy, had stood
beside his father in the open doorway of a South Carolina
seashore mansion and, at midnight, amid his dogs and his
torches, had welcomed Lafayette to America. His father had
been a continental colonel attached to Lafayette’s command
in Virginia, and young Frank Huger had retained so deep an
admiration for his hero that here he was in Vienna, trying to
obtain tidings as to his whereabouts.

These came at last. For there met him in Vienna a
certain German physician and admirer of Lafayette, Doctor
Bollman by name, a stranger to young Huger, but holding
a kindred sentiment, admiration for Lafayette.

“Lafayette is in Olmutz,” the doctor told Frank Huger.
and then he explained how he had ferreted out the hiding-
place of their hero. He had misled and shrewdly used, as a
go-between, the physician who was visiting the sick man in
prison, and by means of chemical paper and sympathetic ink
he had actually communicated with Lafayette (whom, by the
way, he had never seen) and arranged a plan of escape to be
attempted on some day when the prisoner was taking his
“constitutional.”

Young Frank Huger entered heartily into Doctor Boll-
man’s plot, and together the two conspirators made ready
their signals, their horses, and their plan of attack and way
for escape. By ink and candle Lafayette had read their
secret writing; he had thus learned part of their plans ir
210 FROM THE FRYVING- PAN INTO THE FIRE.

his behalf, and one day, in November, 1794, as he rode out,
accompanied by an officer and two soldiers as his guard,
Doctor Bollman and Frank Huger made their effort at res-
cue. Lafayette and the officer left the carriage for a walk
along the road; the carriage, with the soldiers, drove on
~ ahead; then, when it was far in advance, Bollman and
Huger, watching from their saddles for just this opportu-
nity, charged swiftly upon Lafayette’s companion while the
prisoner, turning upon him, snatched at his unsheathed sword
and tried to disarm him. But the Austrian was plucky and
fought his assailants savagely; for while Huger held the
horses the doctor ran to the assistance of the marquis, whose
strength had been sapped by his sickness and imprisonment,

The guards, alarmed at the attempt at rescue, made no
effort to support their officer, but drove madly off for help;
the officer fought so desperately that he bit and wounded
Lafayette in the hand; but he was at last thrown to the
ground and held there by the German doctor.

Frank Huger, still holding both the restless horses with
one hand, helped to gag the overpowered Austrian with his
handkerchief. Being thus single-handed he could not hold
both the horses, and one of them, with a jerk, broke from the
young man’s grasp and dashed away. Bollman thrust a
purse with money into Lafayette’s hand and, still holding
down the struggling Austrian, cried out to Lafayette in
English, so that the officer might not understand his words:

MG ct toutot! MGct.toy ots
FROM THE FRYING-PAN INTO THE FIRE.. 211

Lafayette, excited and upset by what looked like a suc.
cessful escape, was too intent on getting away to take special
notice of the doctor’s directions. He supposed him to be



THE ESCAPE FROM OLMUTZ,

“ Stringing to the saddle, he galloped off a free man.”

merely saying, “ Get off; get off,” and, with Frank Huger’s
help, springing to the saddle of the remaining horse, he gal-
loped off a free man. But never thinking about Hoff, at
which town his rescuers had arranged for fresh horses,
212 FROM THE FRYVING-PAN INTO THE FIRE.

Lafayette took the first and, of course, the wrong road.
It led to Jagerndorf on the German frontier, and the relay
of horses at Hoff was missed. But before he reached
Jagerndorf his horse gave out and, while trying to get a
fresh one in the unfamiliar town, he was _ recognized,
arrested, and taken back to his dreary prison cell at
Olmutz.

Bollman and Huger, disappointed in their plans by
this unfortunate mix-up of the German “Hoff” and the
English “ off,” were also arrested while searching for the lost
Lafayette. They were at once thrown into prison, chained,
starved, and nearly tortured to death, while Lafayette in
his solitary cell was persecuted with fresh punishment, for-
bidden to speak or be spoken to, and, neglected, ragged and
in solitude, lost alike his health and his spirits, believing
himself forgotten and forsaken by all the world.

The only words spoken to him were the lies of his guards
as to the fate in store for his friends, the doctor and the
young American, and the hints as to his own fate.

It is pleasant to know, however, that the two men who
made so gallant an attack at rescue did not die in an Austrian
prison. After eight months in their dungeons they were set
free by the clemency of an Austrian magistrate and exiled
from the country. They both went to America, where Doctor
Bollman became a political adventurer and Aaron Burr's
right-hand man in his unsuccessful conspiracy against the
republic. He would have been seriously punished had not
FROM THE FRYING-PAN INTO THE FIRE. 213

Lafayette remembered his attempted services at Olmutz and
begged President Jefferson to set the doctor free. Young
Frank Huger lived to welcome the hero he so admired when,
in 1824, Lafayette made his last visit to America.

But if Lafayette’s rescuers were set free, the general was
not. Closely and cruelly guarded, he dragged on a miserable
existence in his Olmutz dungeon until the first day of October,
1795. Worn out, alike in mind and body, he was sitting, in
the early morning, in the solitude of his cell when, with a
rattle and a clank, the bolt of his cell door was pushed aside.
It was not the hour either for guard or doctor.

“Tt is my summons to execution,” Lafayette said to
himself, — a summons he was always anticipating. So,
calling up all his courage, he rose to face his fate like the
hero that he was.

The door swung open, the guards lined the entrance, and
there, beneath the crossed swords of the soldiers, Lafayette, |
as if in a dream, saw advancing to meet him, his wife and
his two young daughters !

Can you imagine anything more dramatic or dumfound-
ing? The poor man was simply speechless with surprise
and joy; the reaction and the surprise quite overcame him,
and it was hours before he could talk with his wife and chil-
dren, and a whole day before he dared to ask of France and
her condition.

Madame Lafayette had carried her point. She saw the
emperor of Austria, won him over by her determined devo.
214 FROM THE FRYING-PAN INTO THE FIRE.

tion, and secured from him permission to share, with her
daughters, her husband’s captivity.

They drove at once to Olmutz, and, as the walls of the
fortress came in sight, the devoted and noble woman, even
though on her way to prison, broke out with the chant of
thanksgiving she had learned as a girl in her convent school
to sing in acknowledgment for mercies received from
heaven: “ Blessed be God that liveth forever, and blessed be |
his kingdom; I will extol my God and my soul shall praise
the King of Heaven.”

Lafayette’s health and spirits returned in these new con-
ditions and, with his wife and daughters, he made for a time
a happy home, in spite of all the discomforts of that dreary
prison of Olmutz. But the taint of prison-life soon touched
them all. The girls fell ill of prison-fever, and their mother
of blood poisoning. But when at last she felt that some-
thing must be done, and appealed to the emperor for permis-
sion to visit Vienna and consult a doctor, the heartless reply
came, “Only on condition that you do not go back to
Olmutz.” |

She would not desert her husband.

“T will never expose myself to the horrors of another
separation from my husband,” she declared; and so she and
her daughters stayed on, enduring privation, sickness, and
the risk of death rather than abandon the father who would
not yield up his principles for his liberty.

“ Swear to me,” demanded Lafayette, of his friends, who
LAFAYETTE SURPRISED IN PRISON.

“ Beneath the crossed swords Lafayette, as if in a dream, saw, advancing to meet him, his wife and daughters.”



FROM THE FRYING-PAN INTO THE FIRE. 217

urged the emperor to release him “not to plead for me on
any occasion except in a way compatible with my principles.”

The whole civilized world became interested in the
Lafayette case. England and America joined hands in
attempting to secure the patriot’s release. The British gen-
eral whom he had fought at Brandywine moved Parliament
again and again to interfere in behalf of Lafayette; and Fox,
the great English orator, added his eloquence to plead “in
favor,’ so he said, “of a noble character, which will flourish
in the annals of the world, and live in the veneration of pos-
terity, when kings, and the crowns they wear, will be no more
regarded than the dust to which they must return.”

This, from the generous foe in England; and from
America came appeal after appeal. Washington, setting
aside his expressed determination never to mix in European
politics, wrote to the courts of Prussia and Austria implor-
ing and demanding the release of his friend. Jefferson and
Jay, Morris and Marshall and Monroe, worked and labored
for the same end; but America was not loved in the tyranni-
cal courts of Europe, and neither English eloquence nor
American petitions moved the jailers of Lafayette.

But a new star was rising in the skies of France while
Lafayette lay in the dungeon of Olmutz. Napoleon Bonaparte
was springing into fame and striding on to power. In 1796
he crossed the Alps into Italy, overthrew and crushed the
might of Austria, and, almost before the walls of Vienna,
dictated terms to which the humbled emperor of Austria was
218 FROM THE FRYING-PAN INTO THE FIRE.

obliged to submit. And the only condition upon which
Napoleon would sign the treaty of peace was the instant
liberation of Lafayette.

It was a bitter pill for the emperor of Austria to swallow.
He hedged and dodged and hesitated. But he was forced to
come to it at last; and on the seventeenth of September,
1797, after five years of imprisonment, Lafayette with his
wife and children walked out of Olmutz prison a free man.
But the emperor of Austria was an obstinate man; he would
not acknowledge the murderers of Marie Antoinette, as he
deemed the French. So Lafayette was formally delivered
by the Austrian authorities to the charge of the American
consul, with the assurance of the emperor that “ Monsieur the
Marquis de Lafayette was released from imprisonment
simply because of the emperor’s desire to favor and gratify
America !”

But all the world knew that the real deliverer was not
America, but Napoleon Bonaparte, the young Corsican con.
queror, whom Austria feared — but obeyed and hated.
WHY HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE FOURTH TIME. 219

CHAPTER XII.
WHY HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE FOURTH TIME,

Nee BONAPARTE had liberated Lafayette
from an Austrian prison, not because he loved Lafay-
ette, but because he was a shrewd man bent on strengthening
his popularity at the expense of Austria and Germany, and
in apparent concession to the wishes of France and America.
It was a splendid exhibition of the power possessed by
this young general of the army of France, whose success
had already surprised and startled the world. But the ban
of exile and the sentence for treason passed upon Lafayette
by the rulers of France was not at once removed, and,
though freed from prison, he could not return to France.
He came from his Olmutz dungeon poor in health, in
pocket, and in opportunity. Kings and nobles hated him
“as the mainspring” of republicanism; the democrats of
_ France were enraged against him because he boldly opposed
their methods. He had no place to call his home; his for-
tune was swept away; he was even dependent upon others
for the necessaries of life.
But friends Lafayette never lacked. They seemed to be
raised up for him always in times of need. Washington,
220 . WHY HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE FOURTH TIME.

you remember, had sent Madame Lafayette money in her
deepest distress ; he had welcomed and provided for Lafay-
ette’s son when the boy was shipped off to America. As
soon as he heard of Lafayette’s release, he sent the lad home
at his own expense, and with a loving letter to Lafayette.
Other Americans hastened to show their appreciation, while
two Englishwomen, strangers to the illustrious exile, oppor-
tunely died and, in their wills, left to Lafayette legacies
amounting to over fifteen thousand dollars.

Holland, the only nation in Europe that was not influ-
enced by envy or hatred, offered to Lafayette the exile, as
generations before she had offered to the fugitive Puritans
of England, a refuge and a home. In the town of Vianen,
in Central Holland, not far from the city of Utrecht, the
Lafayettes made their home. After awhile, however,
Madame Lafayette discovered that there was a chance to
save some of her own property; so she went to France to
recover what she could, to turn what she might into money
to relieve her husband of the debts he so detested, and to re-
port to him on the political condition of France, and when
it would be safe for him to return.

The political conditions soon took on a new phase.
Victorious over the enemies of France and over France’s
republican rulers, Napoleon Bonaparte, after his dazzling
though disastrous campaign amid the Pyramids, returned to
France from his Egyptian campaign in 1799, to take a hand
in the political upheaval in France, and to put a stern and
WHY HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE FOURTH TIME, 221

sudden end to the long reign of blood and terror there. He
overthrew the Directory, as the rulers of France were called;
he drove back the allied armies that were threatening France,
and, himself, took the chief position as head of the nation.
He called himself First Consul of the Republic; but he was
really, however, dictator and absolute ruler. The nation
was tired of blood and welcomed the strong hand of a
master. Again, as you see, France was not America.

Lafayette was delighted. He did not yet see through
the real Napoleon; he saw only the liberator, — the soldier
who had saved the republic from anarchy, and placed it, as
he believed, on the road to popular liberty. He was soon to
learn the real truth.

Madame Lafayette in France had already, by her shrewd-
ness and ability, rescued so much of her own property from
the wreck that she was able to make a home out of the
chateau of Lagrange, about forty miles from Paris, left her
by her murdered mother; and now that the Directory, to
which Lafayette would not yield, seemed about to be over-
thrown by Bonaparte, she worked hard for her husband’s
return to France.

At his wife’s suggestion, Lafayette wrote to Napoleon a
letter of thanks and confidence, although, as he declared, he
wrote it to please her rather than himself; for Lafayette
never would and never could surrender his principles, and
Napoleon was still a puzzle to him.

Scarcely had that letter been received by Bonaparte,
222 WHY HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE FOURTH TIME.

before he seated himself in the chair of state as First
Consul. Rumor had it that Lafayette was to be made
general of the armies of France; the republican governor of
the Dutch city of Utrecht gave as the password for the day
«Liberty, Paris, and Lafayette,” and the fugitive, feeling that
his long exile was indeed over, crossed the borders into
France, and was soon in Paris — home again!

But he had been, as you boys say, “too previous.”
Liberty —the liberty Lafayette desired —had by no means
come to France. Napoleon aimed to be the master and not
the servant of France, and although, for policy, he had freed
Lafayette, he had no wish to see the former hero of France
—the father of France’s constitutional liberty——at home
again where he might, by his influence and his actions, be
able to put obstacles in the path of Napoleon Bonaparte’s
progress to a throne.

So when the First Consul heard that Lafayette had
returned to France, he was very angry, and began to
threaten and scold; but once again Madame Lafayette,
watchful for her husband’s safety, went to Napoleon, and,
while not lowering Lafayette’s dignity nor excusing his
principles, pleaded so earnestly for his comfort and spoke
so eloquently of the love he bore for: France and the sacri-
fices he had made for his country, that Napoleon’s anger was
dispelled and his jealousy conquered. When, too, he felt
assured that Lafayette had no desire to set himself against
the First Consul nor to force his way into politics, the
WHY HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE FOURTH TIME. 223

master of France restored to the exile his citizenship, his
property, and his rank in the army, all of which had been
taken from him by the republican tyrants of France.



ES
MADAME LAFAYETTE AND NAPOLEON.

“She pleaded so earnestly that Napoleon's anger was dispelled.”

But Lafayette was not the man to sit quietly by and see
the republic turned into an empire. The Consul and the gen-
eral became friends, to a certain extent, because each one saw
the strong qualities in the other. Napoleon, indeed, really
admired, even though he distrusted Lafayette; and the patri-
224. WHY HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE FOURTH TIME.

otic Frenchman felt that, if but the First Consul were true to
his promises, the French republic might be made as free and
independent as the United States.

“T have but one wish, general,” said Lafayette to Napo-
leon, —“‘a free government and you at the head of it.”

He soon discovered, however, that his idea of freedom
was quite different from that of Napoleon. Each felt a fear
as to the possible actions of the other, and their friendship
was neither deep nor lasting. Lafayette soon began to fathom
the ambitious designs of Napoleon, and he could not be
bribed by the advances or offers that were made him. Napo-
leon wished him to take office under the government; he
asked him to become a senator or to accept the agreeable
post of ambassador to the United States; but none of these
would Lafayette take, fearing lest an obligation be attached;
and when he was made, by the vote of his neighbors, an
“elector” of his department he won the enmity of Napoleon
by refusing to vote to make the First Consul a dictator — or,
as the title ran, “ Consul for life.”

Gradually these two men who, had they but been able to
work together for good results, might have done so much for
France and liberty and human progress, drew apart more and
more. Napoleon, bent upon his personal advancement, could
not forgive Lafayette’s hostility to his plans. He called
Lafayette a “noodle,” and yet he wished for his good opinion
above that of any man in France. He took a petty revenge
by personal slights, such as withholding promotion from
WHY HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE FOURTH TIME. 225

Lafayette’s son George, who had become a gallant soldier
of France; and yet, beneath his hostility, Napoleon had so
great a respect for Lafayette’s abilities that he would have
purchased his friendship at almost any price.

But, as you do not need to be told, Lafayette’s friendship
could not be purchased; the love he gave to Washington the
liberator could not be won by Napoleon the dictator. His
love of real liberty was “not transferable.”

« Every time, General Bonaparte,” said Lafayette one day,
when the Consul complained of his attitude toward the goy-
ernment, “that I am asked whether your government accords
with my ideas of liberty, I shall answer No; because, when
all is said and done, general, though I wish to be a prudent
man, I will not be a false one; I will not be a renegade.”

That was Lafayette’s chief characteristic, — unflinching
integrity and absolute loyalty to his convictions; it is what
has made good men great, as it made Washington and
Lincoln the greatest of men.

When at last Napoleon Bonaparte’s ambition and greed
for greatness led him to the final step of usurpation; when
he yielded to the temptation that only Washington was great
enough to resist; when the little Corsican lieutenant ascended
the throne of France as the Emperor Napoleon, the last hope,
to which, in spite of all, Lafayette had held in this remarkable
man, fell to the ground. He was disappointed, disgusted, dis-
tressed. He resisted all attempts that were made to bring
him over to the emperor, and, retiring to his estates in the
226 WHY HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE FOURTH TIME.

country, at Lagrange and Chavaniac, he devoted himself to
farming and tried to forget the sad ending to his lifelong
dream of a free French republic.

Napoleon was so deeply hurt by Lafayette’s action that
he was infuriated. Probably, too, he knew in his heart
that Lafayette was as right as he was steadfast, and that
increased his anger.

“Gentlemen,” he said, hotly, to his chief councillors, in
the midst of a tirade against the men who had first upset
the monarchy and brought about the Revolution in France,
“this talk is not aimed at you; I know your devotion to the
throne. Everybody in France is corrected. I was thinking
of the only man who is not,— Lafayette. He has never
retreated an inch.”

It was a compliment to Lafayette’s courage and loyalty,
was it not? It was an acknowledgment of his greatness
even while it was an attack upon him. To what extent
Napoleon would have gone in his anger at Lafayette I can-
not say. He would certainly have arrested and imprisoned
him had he dared. But even this self-seeking emperor dared
not go too far and touch the man who was still a hero
to the French people—a hero because always a soldier of
liberty.

There came a great plot against the life of Napoleon, and
the emperor would, if he could, have charged Lafayette with
being concerned in it.

“Don’t be afraid,’ said his brother Joseph. “ Wherever
WHY HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE FOURTH TIME. 227

there are aristocrats and kings you are certain not to find

Lafayette.”

In the midst of his troubles with the emperor came more

serious ones at home. Lafayette, by a fall on the ice, broke

his thigh-bone, and was only saved by the torture of an

unskilful surgery which kept
his leg whole but left the
general lame for life.

“Never mind,” he said,
after the worst of the blunder
was over; “humanity will
benefit by the experiment. I
am glad of it.”

Next his wife fell ill.
Her terrible prison experi-
ences in Paris and at Ol-
mutz- shade “made her Ga
hopeless invalid and slowly
sapped her strength, until,
on Christmas eve in the
year 1807, she died—as
noble an example of a real



LAFAYETTE MOURNING FOR HIS WIFE.

“He mourned her death deeply, and the tribute he paid her
was at once tender and strong.”

woman and of entire self-sacrifice as any we can find in

history.

Lafayette mourned her death deeply, and the tribute he
paid to her memory was at once tender and strong.
“During the thirty-four years of a union, in which the
228 WHY HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE FOURTH TIME.

love and the elevation, the delicacy and the generosity of her
soul charmed, adorned, and honored my days,” he says, “I
was so much accustomed to all that she was to me, that
I did not distinguish her from my own existence. Her heart
wedded all that interested me. I thought that I loved her
and needed her; but it is only in losing her that I can at
last clearly see the wreck of me that remains for the rest of
my life; for there only remain for me memories of the woman
to whom I owed the happiness of every moment, undimmed
by any cloud.”

Her portrait, in a medallion, hung ever after about his
neck. The anniversary of her death was always spent by
him as a solitary and sacred anniversary, and the world can
add to its regard for Lafayette the hero a yet deeper regard
for the appreciative husband who could bear so closely
on his heart the memory of “ Adrienne,’ — his loving, faith-
ful, devoted helper, friend, and wife.

Through all the glory and all the grandeur of the Em-
peror Napoleon’s reign Lafayette remained in retirement at
Lagrange. Amid the wreck and ruin of that dazzling empire
Lafayette’s first thought was for his dear France. When
Napoleon was driven from France and the allied armies of
Europe entered the conquered capital, the general who once
had saved the city wept over its present downfall and cap-
ture. Then, when the brother of the murdered King Louis
sat upon the throne as Louis XVIII, Lafayette dreamed
again that a new France with a constitutional king might
WHY HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE FOURTH TIME. 229

arise out of the ruins of Napoleon’s empire, and he hastened
to offer his services to the new king.

But Louis XVIII. of France was that same Count of
Provence whom Lafayette, in his youth, as you may remem-
ber, took pains to anger in order that he need not be
attached to his person as a follower and courtier at the
court of France. The new king, like the Bourbon he was,
never forgot nor forgave. He hated Lafayette and his
republican principles, and did not wish his services even
while he felt that it would not do to belittle or make an
enemy of the most independent man in France.

And Lafayette, it must be confessed, did not like King
Louis XVIII. But, even before this new King Louis had
a chance to try his hand at governing, the exiled emperor at
Elba came again to France, and by the strength and splen-
dor of his name sent the weak Bourbon king flying for
his life, and aroused all France to a brief but vociferous
welcome for “the emperor =

Lafayette could not believe in the pledges and promises
that Napoleon, again on the throne, made to the people
of France. But they sounded well; so, hopeful as
ever, the patriot of the Revolution became what he had
refused to be under the absolute emperor,—a member
of the Chamber of Deputies; largely, however, it may
be said, in order to restrain and check the power of the
returned exile.

Then came Waterloo and Napoleon’s final downfall.
230 WHY HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE FOURTH TIME.

Lafayette had firmly demanded his abdication, and when
the “Little Corporal” was sent a prisoner to St. Helena,
and a provisional government was formed in France,
Lafayette, the veteran of two revolutions, tried to remake the
~ government under the same Declaration of Rights he had
prepared for it in 1780.

But times had changed; and when Lafayette was sent by
the government to make terms with the allied armies, the
provisional government itself played false with him; for,
while he was striving for an honorable peace, they brought
back the Bourbon King Louis XVIII., in whom Lafayette
had no faith.

The old patriot again found himself deceived in the
rulers of France, who, to him, seemed blind to real liberty,
and bent only on their own selfish desires. He was speedily
stung to action by the stupid follies of this Bourbon king,
whom he had as good as called a fool in his boyhood, and
by those of his councillors who tried to help the king put
things back where they were before the Revolution —as
if things could ever be put back! Still dreaming only of
the welfare of France, Lafayette conspired for the overthrow
of the Bourbon king, and had very nearly accomplished his
purpose, when the plot was discovered. Again he tried, and
again, by blunders, was the conspiracy brought to failure.
Lafayette was known to be connected with these plots, but
no convicting evidence could be found, and neither the king
nor his ministers dared to make a prisoner of him or even
WHY HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE FOURTH TIME. 231

to call him to account. The old hero, you see, was still
a very important man in France.
Again he withdrew from public life and went to live

So SN

;
ar



THE HOME OF LAFAYETTE’S OLD AGE.

The Chateau of Lagrange, forty miles from Paris.

among his children and grandchildren in the chateau of
Lagrange. He was sixty-six years old; but, even as. he
was a man among men, so he was a child with the children;
adored and reverenced by them all; the joy and centre of the
big family which he gathered about him on his estates. Then,
232 WHY HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE FOURTH TIME.

suddenly, he determined to go over the sea and again revisit
‘America.

Through all the ups and downs of his eventful life, while
France alternately exalted and exiled him, and her terribly
changing story changed his life as well, one land steadfastly
honored, loved, and appreciated him,—the land for whose
independence he had risked his life and fortune, in whose
service he had been wounded, and in whose liberation he had
borne a foremost part: America.

Lafayette's correspondents in America were many, from
Washington down. He watched America’s steady growth
and progress, rejoiced at it, and felt himself part of it. Her
festival anniversaries were also his; and even in the gloom
of his prison at Olmutz, as I told you, two July holidays
were always fervently kept by him,—the fourth of July
which gave America independence, and the fourteenth of
July when the destruction of the Bastile (that terrible prison
of Paris) opened the way to French liberty.

When France misunderstood and banished him, when
the royalties of Europe feared and imprisoned him, and the
loss of his large estates, swept away by confiscation, reduced
him to poverty, it was America that remembered and sought
to aid him. Morris and Monroe, American ministers to
France, helped his wife with money and with protection in
time of danger. Washington, as you know, again and again
applied for Lafayette’s release, or sought to lighten the
horrors of his imprisonment, and there are few things that
WHY HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE FOURTH TIME. 233

better show the delicacy, tact, and generosity of our noblest
American than his letter to Madame Lafayette, accompany-
ing the money sent for her necessities.

_ “Madame,” he wrote her from Philadelphia, where in
1793 he was living as President of the United States, “if I
had words that would convey to you an adequate idea of my
feelings on the present situation of the Marquis de Lafayette,
this letter would appear to you in a different garb. The sole
object in writing to you now is to inform you that I have
deposited in the hands of Nicholas Van Staphorst, of Amster-
dam, two thousand three hundred and ten gilders, Holland
currency, equal to two hundred guineas, subject to your
orders. This sum is, I am certain, the least I am indebted
for services rendered to me by the Marquis de Lafayette, of
which I have never yet received the account. I could add
much, but it is best, perhaps, that I should say little on this
subject. Your goodness will supply the deficiency.”

What those “services” were Washington knew, although
there was no account of them on paper; and those services
were equally appreciated by the American people whose
sympathy went out to “the marquis” in all his troubles and
sacrifices. Congress voted him money to pay an unclaimed
salary for his services as a general in the American army;
eleven thousand acres of Ohio lands were voted him as a
further compensation; a large tract in Louisiana was given
him, and when the vast territory of Louisiana came by pur-
chase into the possession of the United States, Jefferson,
234 WHY HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE FOURTH TIME.

then President, urged him to come to the new territory,
which he would find to be, in its welcome to him, “a land
trembling beneath his feet.” The representatives of the
United States in France followed up President Jefferson’s
request by a formal invitation to Lafayette to become the
governor of the great Louisiana territory, and friends,
in Congress and out, begged him to make America his
home.

But Lafayette was, as you know, first of all a French-
man anda patriot. To him,.even in defeat and exile, his
duty was to serve France, and what Lafayette believed to be
his duty he did, unhesitatingly and devotedly.

When, in 1798, France and America seemed on the
verge of war, Lafayette was deeply distressed, and he wrote
to Washington assuring him that France, most of all,
desired peace with America, though its exiled aristocrats
and its foemen of England would do their best to force the
two republics into war by their plots and schemes.

“ But you are there, my dear general,” he said to Wash-
ington, “ independent of all parties, venerated by all; and if,
as I hope, your informant leads you to judge favorably of
the disposition of the French government, your influence
ought to prevent the breach from widening, and should
ensure a noble and durable reconciliation.”

The reconciliation came through the wisdom and will
of the rising master of France, Napoleon Bonaparte, who
saw the folly and the danger of a war between the former
WHY Hk CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE FOURTH TIME. 235

allied nations, and Lafayette, still an exile from his native
land, rejoiced greatly.

So, through all the changes and experiences of those
forty eventful years that had passed since he left America
(“soon, however, to visit you again,” as he had assured
Washington in his farewell to the United States), his interest
and affection alike had turned toward the land which had
remembered him in misfortune, which had welcomed his son,
a fugitive from France, and assisted his wife in her poverty,
her privation, and her noble self-sacrifice. .

The republic too, you may be sure, had not forgotten the
friend and hero of its days of struggle. The thirteen
colonies had grown into twenty-four free, independent, and
prosperous States; their population had increased from three
millions to twelve; and their possessions stretched from sea
to sea. The President of the United States of America was
that James Monroe, soldier of the Revolution and minister
to France, who had helped the Lafayettes in distress, and
who loved “the marquis” as a brother and a patriot.

The first half century of American independence drew
near, and the Congress of the United States, recalling the
stirring days that led to liberty and Lafayette’s wonderful
part therein, voted unanimously that President Monroe be
requested to invite General Lafayette to visit America as the
guest of the United States.

President Monroe joyfully and very happily acted as
Congress desired, and placed at the service of Lafayette
236 WHY HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE FOURTH TIME,

a war-ship of the American navy to bring him across the

sea.
Lafayette received the invitation with pleasure. He was



THE INVITATION FROM AMERICA,

“ Lafayette received the invitation with pleasure.”

sixty-seven years old and had gone through many harsh and
sad experiences. But his heart was as young, his desire as
great, his love for the United States as strong as ever. The
sea voyage had few terrors for him in view of the welcome
WHY HE CAME TO AMERICA FOR THE FOURTH TIME. 237

awaiting him on the farther shore,— and it must be con-
fessed that General Lafayette did enjoy hero-worship, when
he played the part of the hero.

He declined, however, to accept the proffered war-ship.
He wished to visit the land of Washington without too
much display, and he chose to sail by a regular passenger
vessel, —a ship of peace rather than one of war.

So, on the thirteenth of July, in the year 1824, bidding
adieu to his dear home in France, Lafayette, with his son
George Washington Lafayette and his private secretary,
went aboard the American merchant-ship “Cadmus” at
Havre, and set sail for America.

The French government, with whom Lafayette, as an
“independent,” was no more popular than he had been
under the empire and the republic, took great pains to
prevent any show of popular enthusiasm for the famous
Frenchman as he left his native shores.

But as he sailed out of Havre, the American vessels in
the harbor ran up all their flags in his honor, and fired their
guns in joyful salute; and with this intimation of America’s
rejoicing at his visit greeting his eyes and ears even as he
left his silent fatherland, Lafayette sailed over the seas to
the mightier welcome that was awaiting him on the shores
of the great republic for whose independence he had fought,
and in whose glory he had lot and part.
238 HOW HE RETURNED TO FRANCE AND FAME,

ClsUMeINS IS UU
HOW HE RETURNED TO FRANCE AND FAME.

fae famous visit of Lafayette to the United States in

1824 is one of the brightest spots in the history of
America. It was the spontaneous welcome by an apprecia-
tive people extended to a man whose story was familiar to
alleancdedean tora:

They were the sons and successors of the men by whose
side the young Frenchman had fought for independence. He
was an old man now. The chief actors had passed away;
only a few remained, after forty intervening years, to recall
the old associations and extend a comrade’s welcome to the
gallant Frenchman whose whole life had been a struggle for
popular liberty.

But that welcome, extended by the sons of those who
had known him, and by the land he had helped to free, was
enthusiastic and American from the instant of his arrival in
New York harbor on the fifteenth of August, 1824.

Along the Battery-line thousands of soldiers were drawn
up in salute; behind them, forty thousand people gathered
in welcome, and as the steamboat “ Chancellor Livingston,”
bearing the nation’s guest from the “Cadmus” off Staten
HOW HE RETURNED TO FRANCE AND FAME. 239

Island, and escorted by four other gaily decorated craft,
brought Lafayette to the Battery-landing, the noise of
echoing cheers, booming cannon, and stirring music told
“the marquis” that America had not forgotten his services,
and was proud to recall and commemorate them in this
vociferous welcome.

From one end to the other of the thirteen colonies which
he had helped make into twenty-four sovereign States, from
Maine to Georgia the nation’s guest travelled in one continu-
ous “ personally conducted tour.” He revisited the old places
dear to him by the memories and associations of his early
days. He pointed out the spot where, in his first battle, he
fell wounded upon the field of Brandywine; he traced the
lines of the old redoubt at Yorktown, against which his sol-
diers charged in triumph; at Camden, in South Carolina, he
laid the corner-stone of the monument erected to the memory
of the famous German “baron” who had been his com-
panion in his runaway voyage to America, the brave and
mysterious De Kalb; on the crest of Bunker Hill in Massa-
chusetts he laid the corner-stone of America’s most historic
monument; and before the tomb of Washington, at Mount
Vernon, he stood with uncovered head and swiftly falling
tears, with his son beside him, his memory recalling all
that was good and gracious and fatherly and imperishable
in that old-time friendship of the man and the boy — “my
dear general” and “my young soldier.”

Receptions that would have been wearisome had not
240 HOW HE RETURNED TO FRANCE AND FAME.

affection and enthusiasm been their source and spring;
speeches that would have bored a less appreciative soul;



THE LAFAYETTES AT THE TOMB OF
WASHINGTON.

“ He stood with uncovered head and swiftly falling
tears, his son beside him.”

journeys which, in the crude
condition of those days of im-
perfect communications, would
have been fatiguing had not the
French veteran joined to a strong
constitution a curiosity to see new
sections of a growing nation, —
all these and all the other incon-
veniences and dangers as well as
the hospitalities and delights of a
hero’s triumphal progress he ac-
cepted and enjoyed for the space
of a year and a month, and the
memory of that historic visit has
never yet died from the recollec-
tion of Americans. |

Even as I write these words
I clip from a newspaper just de-
livered at my door this extract
from the letter of an eye-witness,
Mr. Freeman Foster, of Arlington,

Massachusetts, now an old man of ninety-two, then a boy of

eighteen :

“JT also took part,” he writes, in proud and garrulous
recollection, “in the welcome extended to Lafayette, in 1824,
HOW .HE RETURNED TO FRANCE AND FAME. 241

by the people of our country. The numbers now are small
who were active at that period. I was eighteen years of age
at that time, and living at Dunstable, now Nashua, New
Hampshire, and, with several other young men, had organ-
ized a band, playing on various musical instruments, clar-
ionets, bugles, fifes, etc. When Lafayette visited the capi-
tal of New Hampshire, the governor ordered out the
Independent Company of Cadets of Dunstable, Captain Israel
Hunt, commander, and they engaged our band for the occa-
sion. We were ordered to escort Lafayette over the line from
Massachusetts into New Hampshire. We went in carriages
from Dunstable, and stayed over night at a tavern in the
town of Bow. The next morning the governor ordered us to
cross the Merrimac River into Pembroke. In a short time
we met the procession escorting the man who stood next to
Washington in the hearts of the people. He was in an
open carriage drawn by six dapplegray horses; his son
followed in a carriage drawn by four iron-grays; his por-
trait was on almost everything at that time, on our handker-
chiefs, as well as in the hats we wore, and even if he had
not been so prominent a figure, we should readily have rec-
ognized him. We halted and saluted him. We then recrossed
the bridge, escorting the procession to Concord, into the
grounds in front of the State House. He entered the build-
ing and addressed the people from the balcony. The day
was warm, and we, tired with the march and our heavy
uniforms, lay down on the grass to rest. If there should
242 HOW HE RETURNED TO FRANCE AND FAME.

be any of that little company still living, this reminiscence
will recall the events of that day to their minds.” So the
present and the past touch hands in grateful memories of
that time of jubilee, and in the hearts of eighty millions of
Americans to-day
lives the memory
of the man who
knew and _ strug-
gled for their in-
dependence when
their wumbers
scarce counted
three millions, and
who rejoiced with





them again when,











within half a cen-
tury, he moved
among those three
millions already
grown to twelve.
It is one of the

LAFAYETTE IN AMERICA. proud memories of

Portrait of Lafayette by Scheffer, painted at the time of Lafayette’s last visit : ‘
to the United States. my own fam ily



that my mother
when a very small girl received a bow from Lafayette as
his carriage paused before her home, and that he took a
glass of water from my uncles hand. And it was on
HOW HE RETURNED TO FRANCE AND FAME, 243

that very day when escorted by a great procession, in the
midst of music and shouts and cheers, he rode on to lay
the corner-stone of Bunker Hill monument and hear from
the lips of Daniel Webster, America’s greatest orator, those
famous words of welcome: “ Fortunate, fortunate man! with
what measure of devotion will you not thank God for the
circumstances of your extraordinary life! You are connected
with both hemispheres and with two generations. Heaven
saw fit to ordain that the electric spark of liberty should be
conducted, through you, from the New World to the Old;
and we, who are now here to perform this duty of patriotism,
have all of us, long ago, received it from our fathers to
cherish your name and your virtues. You now behold the
field, the renown of which reached you in the heart of France
and caused a thrill in your ardent bosom. ... Those who
survived that day and whose lives have been prolonged. to
the present hour, are now around you. . . . Behold they now
stretch forth their feeble arms to embrace you! Behold, they
raise their trembling voices to invoke the blessing of God on
you and yours forever.”

Twice did Lafayette visit Washington, the capital of the
nation; twice did he receive the greeting and the thanks of
Congress, and the treasurer of the United States was directed
to pay to General Lafayette, as a substantial recognition and
appreciation of services that could never be sufficiently
recognized or appreciated, the sum of two hundred thousand
dollars.
244 HOW HE RETURNED TO FRANCE AND FAME.

In the presence of Congress he stood while every mem-
ber sprang to his feet in applauding welcome, and the tall
Speaker of the House, America’s most popular man for a
generation, Henry Clay of Kentucky, towering above the
red-wigged, heavy-featured, homely but gracious and gallant
old Frenchman, extended his hand and raised his voice in
greeting.

“The vain wish has been sometimes indulged,” said
Henry Clay to Lafayette, “that Providence would allow
the patriot, after death, to return to his country and to con-
template the immediate changes which had taken place; to
view the forests felled, the cities built, the mountains lev-
elled, the canals cut, the highways constructed, the progress
of the arts, the advancement of learning, and the increase of
population. General, your present visit to the United States
is a realization of the consoling object of that wish. You are
in the midst of posterity. Everywhere you must have been
struck with the great changes, physical and moral, which
have occurred since you left us. Even this very city, bearing
a venerated name, alike endeared to you and to us, has since
emerged from the forest which then covered its site. In one
respect you behold us unaltered, and this is the sentiment of
continued devotion to liberty, and of ardent affection and pro-
found gratitude to your departed friend, the Father of his
Country, and to you, and to your illustrious associates in the
field and in the Cabinet, for the multiplied blessings which
surround us, and for the very privilege of addressing you
HOW HE RETURNED TO FRANCE AND FAME. 245

which I now exercise. This sentiment, now fondly cherished
by more than ten millions of people, will be transmitted with
unabated vigor down the tide of time, through the countless
millions who are destined to inhabit this continent to the
latest posterity.” ,

So, welcomed by Congress, honored by the people, ringed
about with shouting throngs, by music and salute, reception,
banquet, and hero-worship to his heart’s content, “the mar-
quis,” as Americans persisted in calling the man who had
long since dropped what he esteemed a superfluous title,
passed one happy year in the land where his name was held
highest in esteem and affection. Then he sailed home to
France. An American frigate, named the “ Brandywine,” in
compliment to the hero’s first blow for liberty on American
soil, bore him across the seas and, even as he sailed, there
lingered in his ears the words of farewell spoken, in behalf of
the American people, by the President of the United States,
John Quincy Adams, standing in the presence of those
three Revolutionary patriots and ex-Presidents of the United
States, Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe.

“You are ours, sir,” said President Adams, “by that
unshaken sentiment of gratitude for your services which is
a precious portion of our inheritance; ours by that tie of
love, stronger than death, which has linked your name for
the endless ages of time with the name of Washington.
At the painful moment of parting with you we take comfort
in the thought that, wherever you may be, to the last
246 HOW HE RETURNED TO FRANCE AND FAME.

pulsation of your heart, our country will ever be present to
your affections. And a cheering consolation assures us that
we are not called to sorrow, — most of all that we shall see
your face no more,—for we shall indulge the pleasing
anticipation of beholding our friend again. In the name



LAFAYETTE’S FAREWELL TO AMERICA.

Lafayette, Jefferson Madison, Adams, and Monroe saying good-bye at the White House. From portraits.

of the whole people of the United States, I bid you a
reluctant and affectionate farewell.”

It was a peculiar thing in all Lafayette’s leave-takings
from America, that they were always in the spirit of the
song, “Say au revoir but not good-bye.” It was “ farewell
HOW HE RETURNED TO FRANCE AND FAME. 247)

for the present; I hope to come again.” And even in this
last departure from American soil, the happy, or what is
called the optimistic side of Lafayette’s nature, was dis-
played. For he declared that he really hoped to come to
America again. But he never did.

The liberty he left in America he did not find in France.
The people who had overthrown tyranny were being dragged
within its influence again; for a Bourbon king once more
sat on the throne of France, and the royalists, who hated the
very name of liberty, so disliked Lafayette and resented
the outpourings of welcome which had been showered upon
him by the people of the United States that they gave him
no sign of greeting on his return and sent files of soldiers
to charge upon and drive away the throngs of people
gathered at Rouen to welcome the home-returning hero of
liberty. Indeed, it was only after a long and serious dis-
cussion that the harbor forts at Havre were allowed to
return the salute of the U. S. frigate “ Brandywine,” bringing
Lafayette home to France once more.

But the people were not to be put down by drawn swords
or by sabre-charges, when they were determined to honor a
hero. of the people. Such they regarded Lafayette; for, even
like the king who detested him, the people recognized the
strength and integrity of the one man whose devotion to
liberty was inextinguishable.

“There is a man who never changes,” cried the Bourbon
king. And the people, in quite another spirit, echoed the
248 HOW HE RETURNED TO FRANCE AND FAME,

words of the king and welcomed Lafayette on his return
from America with cheers and enthusiasm.

The government of France feared Lafayette in 1825, just
as Napoleon had in 1805, as the Revolutionists had in 1795,
as the aristocrats had in 1785.

“He will lead away the people!” that was always the
fear with regard to Lafayette that existed in the minds of
the rulers of France. It was to be made a fact before
long.

In 1830, Charles X., the Bourbon king of France, true to
the ill-favored traditions of his family, sought to reénslave
the people of France by violating their liberties and over-
throwing their constitution. Instead, the people of France
overthrew King Charles and his throne, and, rising in
revolution, drove the Bourbon from France.

To do this, they summoned Lafayette from his farm at
Lagrange and asked him to take command of the national
guard, — the Forces of France, as it was called.

“T will not refuse,” said the old hero, without hesitating.
“ T will behave at seventy-three as I did at thirty-two.”

He took possession of Paris, drove out the hired troops
of the king, and so strengthened the cause of the people and
their determination for constitutional liberty, that King
Charles, in fear alike for his own crown and his life, weak-
ened in his stubbornness and humbly sent his surrender to
Lafayette.

“It is too late:now,” Lafayette declared. “We have
















































































GENERAL LAFAYETTE, COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF THE FORCES OF FRANCE,

From a painting by Court.
HOW HE RETURNED TO FRANCE AND FAME. 251

revoked the ordinances ourselves. Charles X. has ceased
to reign.”

It was indeed true. The people, led by Lafayette, had
asserted their rights, and the Bourbon King Charles went

sadly off into exile, saying hard things of “that old republi-
| can, Lafayette,” who had, he declared, “caused all the
mischief.”

It was Friday, the thirtieth of July, 1830, that the king
was dethroned and the Deputies made plans for a new one.
There was no. hesitation in the minds of the people as to
who should stand at the head of the nation either as king
or as governor. They demanded Lafayette.

The French captain of the American merchant-ship that
hurried the discrowned King Charles away from France
himself told the ex-king, “If Lafayette, during the recent
events, had desired the crown, he could have obtained it. I
myself was a witness to the enthusiasm that the sight of
him inspired among the people.”

~ But the old hero of the French people, who had been a
liberty lover from his boyhood, and had learned his lessons
in freedom, integrity, and patriotism by the side of Washing-
ton, that spotless patriot who himself had indignantly
spurned the offer of a crown, as indignantly silenced such
suggestions, and stood true to his convictions and his
principles.

When the deputies offered to the republican prince, Louis
Philippe, Duke of Orleans, the head of the state, under the
252 HOW HE RETURNED TO FRANCE AND FAME.

title of Lieutenant-Governor of the French, the people
assembled in vast crowds before the City Hall of Paris to
shout for Lafayette and the Constitution; but they showed
no enthusiasm for the prince presented to them as their
governor. The French people had grown to be an impor-
tant factor in deciding the affairs of France since the days
of the Revolution, and without the support of the people the
Duke of Orleans would be but a poor figure-head.

To secure this support the members of the Chamber of
Deputies (the Congress of France) marched in procession
escorting Louis Philippe to the City Hall in Paris. There
was Lafayette; there were the troops; there were the peo-
ple; and the cries of “Hurrah for the Duke of Orleans’
were drowned by the swelling “ Hurrah for liberty !” }

All now depended upon Lafayette. Had he said but one

’

word the people would have made him king in spite of him-
self. But the veteran republican felt that at last that golden
hour so long desired by him for France had come. Here
was the opportunity to give to France a constitutional king,
ruling not by divine right nor territorial possession but by
the will of the people, — not merely a king of France but a
king of the French.
The Duke of Orleans had made all necessary promises
and accepted all the constitutional requirements. It now
only remained for the people to accept him. But the
people hesitated; they did not altogether trust a royal
prince. 7
HOW HE RETURNED TO FRANCE AND FAME. 253

Then Lafayette acted. He suddenly appeared upon the

balcony of the City Hall, and as the people recognized the

old patriot they broke into a great burst of cheers. But he

waved them into silence,
and presented to them the
man at his side. It was
the Duke of Orleans; his
arm was linked with that
of Lafayette, and in his
hand he held, not the lily
flag of the distrusted Bour-
bons, but the beloved tri-
color of the French people.

“ Hurrah for the Con-
stitution! Long live the
Duke of Orleans!” shouted
the people, won to the side
of the prince by Lafay-
ette’s presence and words.
And Louis Philippe, Duke
of Orleans, became king
of the French, while La-
fayette had added one
more act of patriotism to
his record. He deliberately
declined the crown he
might have worn, and



LAFAYETTE AND THE DUKE OF ORLEANS.

“Tt was the Duke of Orleans, his arm in that of Lafayette
and in his hand the tricolor of the French people.”
254 HOW HE RETURNED TO FRANCE AND FAME.

himself placed it upon the head of the man for whom he had
won acceptance by the people.

But though the old patriot had seen his principles
triumph his work was not yet done. His presence was
needed at the court. For anew ruler in France has but an un-
stable seat, and with such a one it has ever been as Shake-
speare declared, “ Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown.”

Lafayette knew this as well as any one, and when the
throne of the neighboring kingdom of Belgium, made vacant
by arising of the people, was offered to Lafayette, he again
declined to be a king.

“What would I do with a one exclaimed the old
republican. “ Why, it would suit me about as much as a ring
would become a cat,” and again he pushed aside the offer of
royalty.

In Paris the people still clamored for their rights and
objected to any laws that would restrict their independence.
Mobs threatened the palace and the Chamber of Deputies,
and could only be stilled when Lafayette appeared as Com-
mander of the National Guard and declared that if he were
to be responsible for public order the people must help him
by being orderly.

At once the mobs subsided, and when on an August day
in 1830 Lafayette marched his reorganized National Guard,
thirty thousand strong, in review before the king, he, more
than king or prince, was recognized as the most popular man
in France.


































ONE OF THE LAST PORTRAITS OF LAFAYETTE.

From an engraving by Getlle.
HOW HE RETURNED TO FRANCE AND FAME. 257

In fact, so great was his popularity that both king and
court grew envious, fearing that, after all, Lafayette might be
made king of the French. So they schemed and plotted to
get rid of him or send him into exile; but the people
fathomed their jealousy and again burst out into mobs and -
threatening, only again to be quieted and dispersed by
Lafayette’s personal influence.

But Lafayette, brave patriot and true Frenchman though
he was, could not long stand the strain of thus acting as “a
buffer” between the people and the king. His age and the
exertion and hardships of his life began to wear upon him.
He asked to be relieved of his duties and resigned his office
as Commander of the National Guard.

For awhile as a Deputy he interested himself in national
affairs, distrusting more and more the king he had given to
the people as he saw how the old Bourbon strain of tyranny
would now and then break out. But he preached loyalty to
the government they had founded as the chief duty of the
people, and when, in 1832, a revolution seemed imminent,
Lafayette would have no part in it, and by his stern and
contemptuous words quickly brought it to nothing.

It was his last public effort. A sudden and rapid illness,
due, like that which had killed Washington, to a neglected
and dangerous cold, caught in bad weather, broke his sturdy
constitution and slowly sapped his strength, and, in his city
home in Paris, on the twenty-second of May, in the year 1834,
Lafayette died; and the whole world mourned.
258 HOW HE RETURNED TO FRANCE AND FAME,

Gathered about him in his last hours was his large
family, — children, grandchildren, and great - grandchildren.
And when his body was borne through the streets of Paris,
to be laid beside that of his beloved wife in the obscure little
cemetery of Picpus, in the heart of the great capital, a vast
throng followed him to his grave. As the tidings went
abroad the bells of five nations tolled out their sorrow;
the army and navy of the United States paid to the memory
of Lafayette the same honors they had yielded to Washing-
ton; the Congress of the United States went into mourning
for thirty days, while America vowed never to forget him —
and America never has.

All the world recognized that a great and historic char-
acter had been taken from the scene of his restless and
long-continued activity. France realized the loss of its
leading patriot, its sturdiest defender, its safest guide;
America mourned over the departure of a man who, more
than any other, had connected the present and the past, and
for over half a century had kept alive, by his actual existence,
the memories of those great men who, with George Washing-
ton as their leader, had fought their way to independence,
progress, and power.

The life of Lafayette was, as you have seen, a long and
busy one. Men deny him greatness, and yet few men have
stamped their names and deeds more firmly upon the history
of the world. Neglected in France by the rapid change of
events that have marked the history of that impressible nation
HOW HE RETURNED TO FRANCE AND FAME.

259

since his death, America has ever held the name and memory

of Lafayette in dear and grateful remembrance.

next to that of Washington,
is the favored one selected
by Americans in christening
their children, their towns,
streets, mercantile compan-
ies, and popular enterprises ;
statues and monuments have
been raised to his memory;
and, linked to that of Wash-
ington, the name of Lafay-
ette stands as the embodi-
ment of friendship, valor,
and faith in the days of
the American Revolution.

In his oration at the
dedication of the splendid
surrender monument at
Yorktown on the nineteenth
of October, 1881, Robert C.
Winthrop, of Massachusetts,
said: “It was from the lips
of James Madison under
his own roof at Montpelier



His name,

IN THE NATIONAL CAPITAL.

Monument to the memory of Lafayette, in Lafayette
Square, Washington, near the White House.

that I learned to think and speak of Lafayette, not merely
as an ardent lover of liberty, a bosom friend of Wash-
260 HOW HE RETURNED TO FRANCE AND FAME.

ington, and a brave and disinterested volunteer for
American independence, — leading the way, as a pioneer, for
France to follow, — but as a man of eminent practical ability,
and as great, in all true senses of that term, as he was
chivalrous and generous and good. Honor to his memory
this day from every American heart and tongue.”

That honor has been and will be forever given him by
every American to whom America’s liberty, strength, and
glory are dear. And while appreciating the worth of Lafay-.
ette to Americans as the man to whose unflagging en-
thusiasm, devotion, and _ sacrifices the success of the
independence of the republic was so largely due, let all
Americans also accord to “the marquis,” the friend of
America, that wider meed of praise, too long withheld from
him, as to a great extent the shaper and maker, by his zeal
and his acts, of the progress of France and the enfranchise-
ment of Europe. For these came, through blood and tears,
indeed, but they came at last largely through the influence
and example of the one Frenchman who remained ever true
to the principles adopted by him in boyhood and dear to
him in old age, — the glorious principles of “liberty, equality,
fraternity,” for which he fought beneath the stars and stripes,
for which he contended by the side of Washington, and for
which he labored alike in America and in his own cherished
fatherland, a notable figure in the sight of all the world.




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