Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents

Group Title: Bulletin. Florida Department of Agriculture
Title: Citrus growing in Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00088907/00001
 Material Information
Title: Citrus growing in Florida
Alternate Title: New series bulletin - Florida State Department of Agriculture ; 2
Physical Description: 194 p. : ill., map ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Scott, John M. ( John Marcus )
Publisher: Florida State Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: April, 1939
Edition: revised
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruit industry -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by John M. Scott.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "April, 1939"
General Note: "Prepared and published in cooperation with the College of Agriculture, University of Florida, Gainesville."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00088907
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AME4544
oclc - 41130419
alephbibnum - 002439355

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
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    Table of Contents
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Full Text

a1 nui umilII III



Introduction ----...- ..---- ....---- ................. ... .....---------....-..- ...... .----- 5
Development of the Citrus Industry in Florida.--------..-...........-.......--------..... 6
Citrus Production in Florida......-------.....................------------------------------------ 8
Citrus Plantings in Florida. .......... .........----...... 10
Florida Citrus Plantings --..------.......---.... --.....------.... ----- 12
Total Florida Citrus Plantings--..............- -----------.......................... 13
Total Orange Production by States...........-----....... ..--- -------------------- 14
Total Grapefruit Production by States.. ---....------------ 15
Soils for Citrus ...-- ---.......-....-.. .............--....---- 17
Citrus Growing on the Muck Soils---- --------------................................. 19
Varieties .......................................----- 21
Frost Protection in Florida Groves and Fields.......-------.-------................. 22
Nursery Stock ..... ................. --- --.. .......--- ........-- .--- ... ----- 25
Adaptability of the Principal Citrus Stocks for Florida Groves---- 26
Planting the Trees ......... ----- ------------......................... 27
Pruning -------....... -............... -----.............................--.. ------........- 28
Fertilizing Citrus .........--- ........................... 29
Culture --........... --............ .............. .... --------- 31
Boxes of Citrus Shipped by Counties in 1937-38 .................----- 33
Citrus Propagation ......------------........................................ 35
Cover Crops ---.--...............----- ---.............---.................. ------ ----------- --- 88
Cost of Grove to Bearing Age.... .... ....------------------------------. 96
Citrus Production Costs and Returns for 5 Years on 55 Groves.--- 101
Principal Orange Producing Countries of the World (Chart)-......- 102
Annual Fruit and Vegetable Report--------...................... ..... ---- 106
More Grapefruit Being Produced in All Areas (Chart) ----------- 108


Shipping and Marketing Florida's 1937-38 Citrus Crop ------......... 153
Record of Auction Sales and Unloads ..............-----...-...... ----- 155
Break-Even Returns .....--................---------------.. ....----------- 156
Yield Per Acre Necessary to Cover Production Costs (Graph) ..- 157
March Citrus Report, 1939, by the United States Department
of Agriculture ........................--------.....--- 160
Citrus Canning in Florida .................-------...~.~....------ 161
Diseases and Insects ..........---------..... --....... -----------.........------ ------- 167
America's First Citrus Grove ....................------------...... ------- 168
Florida Total Citrus Shipments, Valuations, and Other Data for
10 Years ....-. .. ------ ..............--- -- ..-..- 174
February Citrus Report .-----------....-- --....--....---------...... -------- 175
Citrus Plantings in Florida.--............... .... -----------------------------176
Report of the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station -..----........-- ----- -- 181
U. S. Standards for Citrus Fruits ...--- --................ ........... 184

Citrus Growing in Florida


With Contributions by E. F. DeBusk, R. W. Ruprecht, Frank Stirling, L. M. Rhodes
H. G. Clayton and C. E. Felix.

THIS bulletin is not a scientific treatise on citrus culture
It does, however, present facts about the industry ii
Florida that the more successful and practical grower
have found to exist.
To the prospective settler and newcomer to Florida, thi
growing of citrus is usually very attractive.
Citrus growing in Florida, however, is in many respect
like apple growing in other sections of the United States. It i
necessary that the citrus grower give systematic attention tc
fertilizer and spraying operations.
The value of the citrus crop has increased each year since,
1896. The returns to Florida from the 1937-38 crop, har
vested and used, showed a gross valuation of $53,285,352
the ten-year average being $49,342,939. From report issue
by Mr. Forrest C. Graves, State Coordinator, Oct. 5, 1934
the total number of bearing orange trees in Florida, four year
and older, was 12,337,573; total non-bearing orange tree
2,034,242; total orange trees, bearing and non-bearing
14,371,815. Bearing grapefruit trees, four years and older
5,190,445; non-bearing 556,687; total bearing and non-bear
ing grapefruit trees, 5,747,132. Total number of bearing
tangerine trees, 1,588,895; non-bearing 44,258; total bearing
and non-bearing tangerine trees, 1,633,153. Grand total al
bearing and non-bearing citrus trees 21,752,100. The tota
acreage of orange trees was 225,775 acres of which 193,81'
were bearing and 31,956 non-bearing. Grapefruit total acreag
90,282 of which 81,540 were bearing and 8,742 non-bearing
Tangerine acreage 25,663 of which 24,961 were bearing anm
702 non-bearing. Grand total acres of all citrus 341,720 o
which 300,320 were bearing and 41,400 non-bearing. An
industry that produces a gross return of $40,000,000 to $70,
000,000 a year to one state is worthy of the consideration an,
attention of the best people in the United States.
*Prepared and published in cooperation with the College of Agriculture, Un
versity of Florida, Gainesville.

Development of the Citrus Industry
In Florida

C ITRUS growing in Florida dates back about two hundred
years. William Bartram,* in an account of his travels
in Florida in 1773, often mentions the orange groves
long the St. Johns river from Cowford (Jacksonville) as far
outh as DeLand. Bartram also mentions passing orange groves
in his trip from the St. Johns river to the Alachua savanna.
kt all of these places he speaks of the magnificent orange trees
covered with golden fruit and fragrant blossoms. At the time
>f Bartram's travels, there were but few white people in Florida,
nd citrus was not grown commercially. The only method of
transportation was by water, and even for this purpose only a
ew boats were available. The demand for citrus fruit was
apparentlyy very slight in the early days.
Citrus growing did not reach a commercial scale until about
870, or something like one hundred years after Bartram's
ravels in Florida. By 1884 production had increased to ap-
)roximately 600,000 boxes per year. The only citrus fruit
planted during 1870 to 1880 was oranges, and plantings were
nade mainly in the territory that is now composed of Duval,
It. Johns, Volusia, Putnam, Alachua and Marion counties. In
act, up to about 1894 the territory around Orange Lake is said
o have produced approximately 20 % of the orange crop in the
;tate. This section not only produced a large amount of the
ruit but it also supplied a good portion of planting stock and
,uds for areas farther south. These plantings were confined to
ocalities close to rivers, as there were few, if any, other means
df transportation. The method of culture, picking, and pack-
ng used by the pioneer grower were very crude when com-
>ared with the present equipment used in handling the crop.
Some of our present citrus growers may perhaps think that
he early orange growers did not have any setbacks or discour-
gements. However, the first freeze in Florida of which definite
record can be obtained occurred in 1835. At this time it was
old enough at St. Augustine to kill mature seedling trees to the
round. A second freeze occurred in 1886, at which time the
rop was injured and many young trees killed. Then came the
wo freezes of 1894 and 1895 that killed a great many orange
rees. The next severe freeze occurred in 1899, at which time
number of young trees were killed.
*Bartram, WinWm., Travels Through North and South Carolina, Georgia. East and
rest Florida. 17-1.


As a result ot tnese breezes, citrus growing nas been pra
tically abandoned in the northern part of the State. Durii
the past thirty years, the citrus section of Florida has be,
moving southward, and citrus growing in Central and Sou
Florida has been a rapid development.
The experience of citrus growers with the freezes in tl
northern part of the State had a tendency to cause them to t
other crops. Truck crops of various kinds were tried and mai
of them have become important crops in the State. In additic
to truck crops, many staple farm crops, such as corn, cotto
peanuts, velvet beans, various hay crops, etc., were tried ar
found to grow successfully. One-crop farming has never be,
entirely satisfactory to the farmers who have tried it. Whe
there is a diversity of crops, the labor and equipment can 1
much more efficiently employed throughout the year than whe
only one crop is produced.
The citrus industry has profited by the experiences of tl


Citrus Production in Florida

Records of yields of orange production in Florida have been
pt since the season of 1884-85. Since that time there has
en a steady increase in production each year, except those
ars following frost injury.

(Oranges, including Tangerines)
Year Boxes
1884-85 ..........-----.......- -------............. .. 600,000
1885-86 .......................... ........-.. .. 900,000
1886-87 .............---------..... .~..- ..---- 1,260,000
1887-88 .........................-----------.---- 1,450,000
1888-89 ......---------.......................---...... 1,950,000
1889-90 ...........-----....................... ------2,150,000
1890-91 .................-........-.......------ 2,450,000
1891-92 ...............----- .......--------............ 2,664,791
1892-93 ........ -- --------................................------ 3,357,507
1893-94 ........................................------ 4,163,849
1894-95 ................................. ... ... 2,808,474
1895-96 ...............-...................--- 147,000
1896-97 ..............................--- ....... 216,579
1897-98 ..............----------------......................... 357,960
1898-99 ------ ..................................-- 1,250,000
1899-00 ................-..........-- .......... 972,589
1900-01 ----................. ---- ---........... 1,350,700
1901-02 ....................... ..... ............ 972,589
1902-03 .....................-----.... ......... 1,465,306
1903-04 ... ............ ........ ............. .. 1,950,823
1904-05 .....................................----- ... 2,363,058
1905-06 ........... ...-.. ... ........ .... 2,961,195
1906-07 ........... .............. ........... 2,899,390
1907-08 ......... .............................. 3,793,126
1908-09 ....... ---- ...- .------ .......... 4,279,000
1909-10 ..... .........................---..... ........ 4,853,000
1910-11 ..........................--- .... .......... 3,749,000
1911-12 ....................... -................ 3,648,000
1912-13 ...............................-----..... .. .. 5,761,000
1913-14 ... .... ....--......... ............ 6,230,000
1914-15 .-- .. -- -..... --.. ................... 7,314,000
1915-16 -..................... ... 6,150,000
1916-17 ......... -... ..... ... ........... ..... 6,933,000
1917-18 -...- -...- .-.- ... ................ 3,500,000
1918-19 ............................... ---... ..... 5,700,000
1919-20 ........................... .. ................ 7,533,000
1920-21 --............. ................ ....... .... 9,457,000
1921-22 ..........-- -- ....- ......................... 8,871,000
1922-23 .....- ..- ----- ... -- ---- ----... ...... 10,897,000
1923-24 --... .. ....---................. ..... 13,262,000
1924-25 ...........................-- -------......... 11,639,000
1925-26 ...................... .....................-........ 10,344,000
1926-27 ..- ...--- ..--- ---.......... 11,512,000
1927-28 .... -.. ..-...... ........... ........ 9.933.000

1930-31 ........--......................................--- 19,211,000
1931-32 ........ ..... ...............-- ..- .. --- 14,220,000
1932-33 -..- .....---- --- .----.. ---- 16,200,000
1933-34 ..-..---- --- ..-- .. ..-- .- 18,100,000
1934-35 .................................... --- ---. 17,600,000
1935-36 .................................... .... 18,000,000
1936-37 .................................... -- ..- 22,500,000
1937-38 -.-- ..-- ... .-- -.. .. -----.- 26,700,000
NOTE: Statistics for Seasons 1884-85 through 1918-19 represent
commercial shipments. For Seasons 1919-20 through 1937-38, figures
present total production, including fruit shipped, consumed locally,
!sed for manufacturing purposes, etc.

Year Boxes
1899-00 ---............................ -- ---........-- 12,000
1909-10 ............ ................... 1,062,000
1918-19 .................. .......................... 3,200,000
1919-20 .................. .. .. .............. ... 5,898,000
1920-21 ............- ..--- ...................---- 6,142,000
1921-22 -............................... ........... 6,644,000
1922-23 .............. .......... ........... 7,766,000
1923-24 ..--- .............- ... .-........ -..... 8,936,000
1924-25 .. ................ .............................. 8,760,000
1925-26 ................................-...... 8,316,000
1 An, -, 0 noO Ann

Showing Number of Citrus Trees by Counties and Varieties as of November 15, 1934.

Total Total
County Orange Trees Grapefruit Trees Tangerine Trees S'ts'm's Misc.*

Bearing Bearing
Non- Non- Non- and Non- and Non-
Bearing Bearing Total Bearing B'ring Total Bearing B'ring Total B'ring Bearing Total
Alachua ........ 55,152 9,938 65,090 3,749 848 4,597 6,056 703 6,759 18,263 3,267 97,976 -
Baker ............ 1,279 132 1,411 187 22 209 25 2 27 23,655 720 26,022 '
Bay** ......... 639 2 641 483 10 493 164 0 164 66,125 357 67,780
Bradford 4,009 739 4,748 297 71 368 82 8 90 15,931 541 21,678 W
Brevard ........ 620,474 75,964 696,438 177,317 37,520 214,837 42.954 1,353 44,307 199 9,031 964,812 3
Broward ....... 84,576 51,119 135,695 17,056 2,843 19,899 6,624 1,815 8,439 112 15.371 179,516
Calhoun** ...... 706 0 706 51 5 56 31 3 34 3,551 113 4,460 -
Charlotte ....... 41,935 4.101 46,036 13,436 396 13,832 5,706 167 5,873 23 6,693 72,457
Citrus ......... 4:3,328 3.893 47,221 6,009 175 6,184 4,736 15 4,751 1,663 2,885 62.704
Clay ........... 6,239 1.430 7,669 773 194 967 378 103 481 45,724 1,210 56,051
Collier .......... 14.796 2.449 17,245 12,55 855 13,510 220 4 224 16 3,542 34,537 O
Columbia ....... 2.775 308 3,083 275 51 326 57 6 63 2,232 409 6,113 r
Dade ........... 204,538 15,885 220,423 345,492 11,376 356.868 26.871 2,388 29,259 168 274,307 881,025
DeSoto .......... 394,932 23,885 418,817 87,359 1,138 88,497 42,508 498 43,006 558 16,161 567,039
Dixie** ........... 359 33 392 9 3 12 2 0 2 50 4 460 0
Duval .......... 28.559 4,824 33,383 3,476 604 4,080 985 62 1,047 22,700 2,707 63,917 [:
Escambia ....... 814 28 842 470 21 491 44 0 44 73,876 1,717 76.970
Flagler .......... 20,489 1,609 22,098 1,634 274 1,908 9,047 157 9,204 558 212 33,980
Franklin ........ 121 4 125 5 0 5 0 0 0 4 7 141 c
Gadsden ........ 602 88 690 99 48 147 28 0 28 3,361 3,794 8,020 r
Gilchrist ........ 1,065 238 1,303 73 50 123 19 3 22 321 133 1.902 -
Glades ......... 3.118 1,045 4,163 596 66 662 180 12 192 1 1,535 6.553
Gulf** ......... 1,534 42 1,576 51 83 134 19! 5 24 1,395 59 3.188 w
Hamilton ....... 7<5 36 831 104 11 115 14 0 14 1.190 137 2,287
Hardee ......... 470,160 37,804 507,964 60,073 1,434 61,507 52,755 459 53,214 855 15,896 639,436
Hendry ......... 33,971 6,324 40,295 14,091 908 14.999' 1,299 134 1,363 31 8,706 65,394
Hernando ...... 93,693 7,661 101,354 26,758 1,077 27.835 60.286 660 60,946 33,986 2,146 226,267
Highlands ...... 595,232 16,343 611,575 365,317 3,051 368.368 62,923 269 63,192 311 47,301 1,090,747
Hillsborough . 945,811 77,678 1,023,489 262,779 8,160 270,939 90,558 834 91,392 2,920 108,070 1,496,810
Holmes ......... 687 0 687 91 0 91 25 2 27 4,617 125 5,547
Indian River .... 261,757 36,446 298,203 374,303 51,217 425,520 35,169 1,611 36,780 26 7,403 767,932
Jackson** ...... 865 0 865 3,62 78 440 83 0 83 174,252 176 175,816
Jefferson ....... 1,104 209 1,313 241 78 406 16 0 16 26,755 13,372 41,862
Lafayette** ..... 660 0 660 16 0 16 2 0 2 37 10 725
Lake .......... 1,187,791 182,828 1,370.619 418,868 49,432 468,300 165,627 8,697 174,324 11,482 36.369 2,601.094

1 .

Non- Non-
Bearing Bearing Total Bearing B'ring Total

Lee ............ 192,759 10,575 203.334 206,807 9,925 216,732
Leon** ......... 6Qy 178 870 239 (i7 306
Levy** ......... 3,431 41 3.472 132 6 138S
Liberty** ....... 212 24 236 14 2 16
Madison ........ 1.579 166 1,745 202 25 227
Manatee ........ 237,465 28.013 265,478 296.836 24.870 321.706
Marion ......... 561,010 107,513 668,523 63,594 4,933 68,527
Martin .......... 56.889 9,796 66.685 37,334 463 37,797
Monroe** ....... 4,671 38 4.709 3.330 12 3.342
Nassau ........... 2,358 897 3,255 165 84 249
Okaloosa ....... 186 1 187 120 4 124
Okeechobee ..... 25,783 1,238 27,021 5,988 136 'i,124
Orange ......... 1,752,416 275,900 2,028,316 273,266 21,411 294,677
Osceola ........ 276,902 27,610 304,512 69,572 4,921 74.493
Palm Beach .... 55,919 6.332 62,251 35,057 2,723 37.780
Pasco ........... 325.157 28,938 354,095 86,719 8,867 95.586
Pinellas ........ 430.042 22,047 452,089 491,875 38.881 530,756
Polk ... ........ 3,351,107 134,234 3,485.341 1,790,313 68,953 1.8592.366
Putnam ........ 279,482 22,769 302.251 32.164 1.917 34.081
St. Johns ....... 35.430 5.610 41.040 3.516 194 3.710

...... 1,817 441
...... 711,683 94.38.
...... 143 41
....... 1.032 11


Showing, in percentage, the relative proportion of trees of various stages of maturity

Tree Ages

20 yrs. & over. .................
16 to 19 yrs................ ..
11 to 15 yrs............. .....
6 to 10 yrs.. ...................
4 to 5 yrs ................... .
Bearing ......... ......... ...
Non-Bearing .............. ...

Early &


Not Full Bearing 10 years
and younger ................ 41.5


Late Total
Pet. Pet.
7.1 18.1
15.7 13.4
29.2 24.1
26.4 22.3
8.5 7.9
86.9 85.8
13.1 14.2

100.0 100.0

Early &






100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

48.0 44.4 3.5 54.5


46.0 42.0

irvey made during the late summer months ar

COUNTY Mid-season Late Total Mid-seas
Trees Trees Trees Trees

Alachua .................... 59,396 2,235 61,631 4,10
Brevard ................... 432,653 219,541 652.194 137.82
Broward .................. 25.348 207,203 232.551 6,63
Charlotte .................. 28,730 10,193 38.923 9,32
Citrus ...................... 44,122 4,663 48,785 5.60
Collier ...................... 4,349 5.158 9,507 11.30
Dade ....................... 14,031 99,666 113,697 172,14
DeSoto .................... 274,518 109,111 383,629 76.12
Flagler ................... .. 10,825 3.116 13,941 69
Glades .................... 1.043 804 1,847 27
Hardee .................... 347,251 153,767 501,018 44,29
Hendryv ................... 18.356 17.777 36,133 10,46
Hernando .................. 47,629 25.921 73.550 21,05
Highlands .................. 166,218 373,536 539.754 190.16
Hillsborough ............... 507,055 400,521 907.576 126,65
Indian River ............... 99,748 120,849 220,597 143,82
Lake ..................... 855.163 486,611 1,341,774 262,12
Lee ........................ 76,577 98,305 174,882 120,43
Levy ...................... 1.171 1.171 4
Manatee ................... 114,492 122,821 237,313 260.58
Marion .................... 577.672 47,794 625,466 42.20
Martin ...... ............. 50.648 1,065 51.713 22.63
Orange ................ 1.140.527 692,349 1.832.876 151,76
Osceola .................... 133,175 57,871 191.046 35,78
Palm Beach ............... 17.631 28.130 45.761 6,00
Pasco ................... 134,236 172,284 306,520 49.27
Pinellas .. ................ 175,613 212.933 388,546 312,04
Polk ...................... 1.,32,679 2,058,281 3.290,960 1,151.00
Putnam ................... 219,140 40,195 259,335 22,81
Sarasota .................. .. 55,741 86,338 142,079 27,42
Seminole ................... 3323.763 77.846 410.609 39.86
St. Lucie .................. 130,216 232.282 362,498 91,81
St. Johns ................... 15.497 2,036 17,533 1,04
Sumter .......... .......... 106,187 12,.861 119,048 5,34
Volusia .................... 525,096 212,256 737,352 70.62
Total Trees ................. 7.975,496 6,396,319 14,371,815 3.633.23
Total Acres ................ 125.292 100.483 225,775 57,07
Estimated boxes per tree ..... 1.5 1.2 1.4 3
Total Grove Properties.... 33.201 Average No. Trees per Propert


*UNITED STATES: Total Orange Production by States, Census
Years 1889, 1899, 1909 and Yearly 1919 to 1937-38
and Estimated 1938-39 Production.

Crop Year Calif. Fla. Tex. Ariz. Ala. La. Miss. Total

1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000
boxes boxes boxes boxes boxes boxes boxes boxes
1889-90..-- 1,245 3,147 .-- ...... 4,392
1899-00.... 5,882 273 ....-- 11 1 6,167
1909-10 ... 14,440 4,888 11 33 1 152 5 19,530
1919-20.... 15,528 7,533 9 80 20 37 31 23,238
1920-21.... 22,547 9,457 -..... 60 82 42 25 32,213
1921-22.... 13,921 8,871 ...... 80 82 50 30 23,034
1922-23.... 21,286 10,897 4 81 190 60 45 32,563
1923-24.-. 24,324 13,262 6 86 225 75 55 38,033

Average .-- 19,521 10,004 4 77 120 53 37 29,816

1924-25.... 18,535 11,639 12 60 2 75 .... 30,323
1925-26..-. 24,200 10,344 10 86 130 100 27 34,897
1926-27.--- 28,167 11,512 41 75 75 150 42 40,062
1927-28.... 22,737 9,933 70 54 110 200 50 33,154
1928-29.... 38,994 15,116 115 99 85 220 30 54,659

Average..- 26,527 11,709 49 75 80 149 30 38,619
1929-30.... 21,483 10,304 261 137 212 187 37 32,621
1930-31.... 35,470 19,211 250 139 3 195 2 55,270
1931-32.... 34,900 14,220 520 145 80 245 54 50,164
1932-33 .-- 34,265 16,200 315 147 120 241 80 51,368
1933-34.... 28,439 18,100 390 143 3 212 2 47,289

Average.... 30,911 15,607 347 142 84 216 35 47,342
[934-35 ... 46,086 17,600 560 170 140 293 88 64,937
1935-36.... 33,049 18,000 747 240 2 244 1 52,283
1936-37.... 29,827 22,500 2,000 220 56 309 26 54,938
1937-38..-. 45,605 26,700 1,440 350 76 238 67 74,476
L938-39t- 47,710 29,900 2,400 360 96 385 80 80,931

Division of Crop and Livestock Estimates, Bureau of Agricultural
*500 boxes or less.
tFebruary 1, 1939 estimate.


*UNITED STATES: Total Grapefruit Production by States, Census
Years 1889, 1899, 1909 and Yearly 1919 to 1937-38
and Estimated 1938-39 Production.

Crop Year Florida Texas Calif. Ariz. Total


1923-24 --......-


1927-28 --.....-..




1937-38 --........-














1,000 1,000 1,000
boxes boxes boxes
18 1 31
123 1 1,186
363 29 6,293
395 34 6,571
360 35 7,039
394 60 8,255
363 95 9,459

375 51 7,523




11,534 1,532 1,357




105 9,463
150 9,266
120 9,846
176 9,578
211 13,250

152 10,281

365 11,169
400 18,934
450 15,147
614 15,149
700 14,243

506 14,929

1,240 21,357
1,800 18,308
1,400 30,440
2,750 31,093
3,000 40,896

Division of Crop and Livestock Estimates, Bureau of Agricultural
*500 boxes or less.
tFebruary 1, 1939 estimate.

S; tCIw c~~u~~ q3- -


Soils for Citrus
ITRUS trees are able to adapt themselves to a wide range
of soil conditions. In Florida, citrus trees are produc-
ing profitable crops on sandy soils, flatwoods soils,
hammock soils, and muck soils. This does not mean that citrus
trees will grow on all soils. They will not grow successfully
on poorly drained land or the heavy clay types of soil, although
Satsumas have been grown with a fair degree of success on
some of the clay soils. The wet, poorly drained land may,
however, be drained so that citrus will grow very successfully.
Many cases are on record where this has been accomplished.
Citrus trees will grow on any of the well-drained loamy
soils of Florida. These soils may be classed as follows: High
pine, flatwoods, high hammock, low hammock, and muck.

Trees grown on good citrus land with liberal fertilization and cultivation produce
abundant crops.
High pine land, as the term would indicate, is land of good
elevation and with a well-drained, sandy subsoil. The original
growth consisted largely of long-leaf pine.
Thli flf-tnri c nrr n l ic nf lnwor plp7vtirnn rnd nntr nitnr11lv


so well drained as the high pine land. The surface soil is of
a dark color, and not quite as sandy as the high pine. The sub-
soil may be either sand, clay or hardpan. The original growth
on the land was long-leaf pine, with possibly an undergrowth
of palmetto and gallberry. A large amount of the flatwoods
soil in Florida has not been drained. Some of it cannot be
drained without excessive cost, but much of it can be easily
and cheaply drained. In some cases the hardpan is too near
the surface for citrus trees to make their best growth. Often,
however, the hardpan can be broken up by the use of dynamite
so that citrus may be grown with some degree of success.
High hammock land is similar to high pine land in many
respects. The surface soil of the high hammock land often
contains a little more humus. The original growth usually
consisted of oak, hickory, magnolia, dogwood, or perhaps some
pine trees or an occasional cabbage palmetto.
The low hammock land closely resembles the high ham-
mock, except that it may not be naturally as well drained as the
high hammock, or perhaps a denser growth of oak and cab-
bage palmetto may have been on it. The soil usually contains
more humus than the high hammock. When the low hammock
can be thoroughly drained, it is very desirable for the growth
of citrus.
Muck lands are those that contain a large amount of organic
matter (humus). Ordinarily they are not well drained. When
drainage is possible, either by ditching or bedding up the land,
very good crops of citrus fruits may be produced. However,
the muck soils are, as a rule, colder and therefore subject to
frost more frequently than the sandy soils.

Citrus Growing on the Muck Soils
General Manager, Flamingo Groves, Davie, Florida
MANY pages have been written on the general subject
of citrus growing, but when an attempt is made to
prepare an article on the subject of citrus growing on
the muck lands, one must take into consideration all of the
characteristics pertaining to the area in question, such as climate,
moisture, location, etc.
It is a well known fact that the most profitable crops can
be produced in an area provided with a fertile soil, sufficient
moisture and plenty of sunshine. In the Everglade muck lands,
nature has been most kind in supplying the soil with favor-
able qualities for growing citrus. The soil contains 75 percent
organic matter, which will enable a tree to grow continually
and produce fruit of an excellent quality at early maturity.
To any horticulturist, the history of citrus growing in
Florida has been exceedingly interesting. When one travels
over the various producing sections of the State, attention is
frequently called to the profitable returns derived from late
types of oranges. On muck lands where a combination of late
varieties and preferred rootstocks and other conditions occur,
the profitable returns from practically mid-summer oranges
appear most outstanding. Investigations have shown that on
muck soils, in sections properly drained, trees will produce
regular crops of a splendid quality returning a profitable revenue
to the grower, and at a cost of production per box less than
that from any other section or soil known to the industry.
Further research has proved the truth of these assertions, and
has made even more clear the fact that nature has supplied the
Everglade soils with practically all of the requirements for the
satisfactory production of citrus fruits.
We have all learned that in order to be successful from
an agricultural standpoint, several important conditions must
be secured. The principal ones are fertile soil, sufficient mois-
ture, and a congenial climate. We find these conditions preva-
lent in the soils of the Everglades, especially near the edges
of the Glade lands in the Davie area. Pioneering along citrus
lines has been carried on over a period of fifteen years in this
section. In the Davie section many outstanding results have
been obtained by such pioneer growers as Messrs. C. A. Walsh,
J. C. Lange, Chas. Stoddard, and others. These growers have
put out plantings of late oranges and have brought the groves
into full bearing without fertilization and without cultivation.
At the same time. the fruit thev produced has been of excellent

- -Tr -TTl- ~-Tl/~TTTlT TXT t A


quality and has brought the highest prices on the Northern
Ordinarily the muck land is not naturally as well drained
as the rolling sandy land in the ridge section of the State. For
that reason it is advisable to plow the land in beds. The beds
are generally thirty feet wide. The idea is to get the tops of
these beds from twelve to eighteen inches above the average
land level. The bedding up of the land is for the purpose of
giving better drainage during extremely wet periods.
It may be necessary to plow the land twice. A "V" shaped
drag is used to advantage in ridging up the beds. The trees
are planted in the center of each ridge. This makes the tree
rows thirty feet apart, and the trees are set twenty feet apart
in the row.
It is interesting to note that cost of production per box
has been kept at a minimum in the Everglades; in fact records
show that fruit has ordinarily been produced at a cost not
exceeding 17 cents per box on the tree. While this may sound
astounding, yet, when one realizes that the cost of planting,
tillage, etc., are cut to the bone, it is not at all out of line. To
begin with, there is no cost of clearing the land, for all that
is necessary is to plow the open glades with a tractor, stake
the land and plant the trees. This involves a total cost of
approximately $80 per acre when using trees of five-eights to
three-quarter inch caliper. In the Davie area, by planting large
acreages, this cost has been cut per acre by fifteen percent. The
trees seem to thrive without any plant food other than that
which is in the soil.
The Glades soil analyzes, according to the State Chemist,
3.17 lime, 2.17 nitrogen, 0.18 phosphoric acid, 0.13 potash,
1.47 iron oxide, 0.18 magnesia, 0.38 soda, 0.51 sulphuric
acid, 75.65 organic matter, and 16.84 moisture. Many fer-
tilizer tests have been conducted on the Everglades land dur-

OTMDTTO 0'D(\11TTT- TT -TT --T- .

eet below the surface of the land, a steady moisture conditic
xists, giving the trees ample water and preventing damage 1
Brought. This results in an almost continual growth of t
rco ,nel ai~roc s bo'na -ran ;I fr-;-, c i- ,A .-_1

During the past several
been made in the muck 1h
west of Fort Lauderdale,
the city of Miami. At F
five thousand acres of citrus
soils. Interest in citrus
rapidly. So it seems to me
which will benefit all, for if
it will mean that our citrus
on throughout practically tl
types in the north and cen
summer types from the Eve
at times that will not inte
tion. One may hope and e)
will materially aid in devel
To the uninitiated or
other sections, the statement
the growers who have inve
citrus on muck land they ai


THE practical grower "
one variety of citrus
of thp world whpro nC

months con
Is adjacer
d in Dad
sent there
roves plan
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tat here m
n industry)
marketing ,
whole ye;
il portion
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iing the ri
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gated the


s found f
grown su
-- r-..- -

derable phl
to Lake
county ni
Ire between
d on Everl
ick land
be a thin
levelops in
If the Stat
.g fruit on
ively witlt
iew citrus
muck lar
ical citrus
seem Utol

m experie
essfully in

ntings have
rthwest of
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s growing
, developed
the Glades,
may carry
and mid-
the market
either sec-
:ection that
growers in
ian, but to
)f growing

.ce that no
all sections


fxaplu striues nave oeen maue in InCe esign 01 neaLing
equipment during the past twenty-five years and today growers
have available to them at reasonable prices the latest scientifically
designed equipment which provides ample and adequate pro-
Few if any sections are entirely free from the danger of
low winter and spring temperatures and every fruit and vege-
table crop of commercial importance is subject to occasional
losses from this cause. The greatest and most frequent losses
occur with the sub-tropical fruits on account of their susceptibil-
ity to frost damage. This is particularly true of citrus and
avocados, which never enter a state of complete dormancy and
which mature their crops during the winter and spring months.
With such types of trees, losses may arise not only from the
destruction of a part or all of the crop but from the killing of
the fruit bearing wood as well. On mature trees the damage to
the fruit bearing wood may be sufficient to delay fruit pro-
duction for several years and young trees are frequently killed
In the citrus industry at least, the danger of losses from low
winter temperatures is widely recognized, and the protection
of the groves against such losses is now generally conceded to be
economically sound. Losses to the community are no less serious
than the losses to the grower. They include decreased employ-
ment among those engaged in the industry as well as reduction
of the general community income and often result in cancella-
tion of orders for materials used in the picking, packing, and
shipping of the crop.
The old belief that smoke in itself was a sufficient protec-
tion against frost damage has been largely abandoned and dur-
ing the past several years every effort has been turned to the
production of heating equipment that produces a maximum in
combustion and a minimum amount of smoke. Oil burning
heaters with radiant stacks have attracted more attention than
any other type of equipment and when this heater is installed
in sufficient number very little if any loss of fruit or fruit
bearing wood is experienced. Growers who have installed suf-
ficient heaters feel that the results obtained well justify the cost
incurred and, that even though there may be no necessity for
firing the heaters more than once in every five years the invest-
ment is sound and the insurance relatively low.
During the past several years State and Federal governments
have maintained a corps of specially trained meteorologists in
the State, whose work has included: (1) predicting the lowest

This orange tree, according to early history of the citrus growing industry, is thI
it is more than eighty years old and has successfully withstood the m<



temperatures to be expected each night in the district where
operations are conducted; (2) giving expert advice to growers
in connection with grove and field heating; (3) conducting
experimental work in connection with frost and fruit protec-
tion. This service, under the direction of Meteorologist E. S.


ery silUL& Is gIuwI1 iuLIIl bC-u d.

Citrus Nu

rocky t
_ 1 --- J-A


are usually transplanted from the seed bed to the nursery row
when about 12 inches tall. When they reach a diameter of
one-half inch or larger, they are budded. The budded trees
normally remain in the nursery row for from 1 to 3 years,
depending upon the size at which they are taken up for plant-
ing. While in the nursery, the trees are staked and pruned and
properly cared for to produce uniform, vigorous, healthy trees
of good shape.
A one to two-year-old bud, calipering three-fourths to one
inch, with a three-year-old root is a very desirable tree for
planting. The measurement for the diameter of nursery trees
is taken an inch or so above the bud.
Cleopatra stock is being used by a number of growers.
However, there are not enough trees in bearing on Cleopatra
stock to enable one to positively determine its value. It is
claimed by some that this stock has all the virtues of both sour
orange and rough lemon, and apparently it is adapted to the
same types of soil as our sour orange and rough lemon.
Trifoliate stock is also recommended by a number of people.
More information is needed before any definite statements can
be made regarding its value.

Adaptability of the Principal Citrus Stocks
for Florida Groves
As Rated by
Formerly State Nursery Inspector
Grapefruit Sour
Lemon Seedling Orange
1. Rapidity of Growth ..... 1 2 3
2. Texture and quality of fruit 3 2 1
3. Prolificness ............ 1 3 2
4. Retention of fruit and juice. 3 2 1
5. Resistance to cold ........ 3 2 1
6. Resistance to root disease... 3 2 1
7. Resistance to top disease... 3 2 1
8. Adaptability of thirsty light
so il . . . . . . . . 1 2 3
9. Adaptability to heavy ham-
mock and reclaimed land
with clay subsoil ...... 3 2 1
10. Adaptability to high pine
rock land in Dade county 1 2 3
11. Adaptability to shell ham-
m ock ............... 3 2 1
Note: The relative adaptability of the stocks is indicated by figures, No. 1
indicating the best of the three for that particular characteristic; No. 2 the second
best, and No. 3 the least satisfactory.


Planting the Trees
HE best time to transplant citrus trees is during Decem-
ber, January and February. During this season of the
year the trees are dormant, or nearly so, and for that
reason stand transplanting much better. Occasionally trees are
transplanted in June or July, although the percentage planted
in Florida during these two months is very small. When trans-
planting is done during June or July, it must be done when
the trees are not putting out a new flush growth. Trees trans-
planted when in flush of growth are not likely to live.
The distance apart to set trees is somewhat debatable. Some
Irr eTv nra0 rf -tho < niiIn tht h In0 y 0 foot 1Q thop mnot


C ITRUS trees require much less pruning than do most
other fruit trees, such as peaches, apples, etc. Very
little pruning is required after the citrus trees are set
n the grove.
When the citrus trees are taken from the nursery they should
ie cut back to a height of eighteen to twenty-four inches. The
hief reason for this is to have the trees headed low. Low-
ieaded citrus trees have several advantages. First, fruit is more
asily picked from low-headed trees; second, there is apt to
>e less damage from winds; and third, the low-headed trees
hade the ground more completely, thereby checking evapora-

Pruning citrus trees.
ion of moisture. It is also much easier to spray and fumigate
he low-headed trees.
After the young trees are pruned back and set in the grove,
hey should require little or no pruning for a year or a year
.nd a half. If any new growth is put out below the bud
inion, this should be pruned off. The only other trimming
he young trees require is to trim just enough to properly shape
he trees, that is, properly balance the top. The lower limbs
should be trimmed up just high enough to keep them off the
ground when they are loaded with fruit.

r ertlllzing Citrus
Chemist, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

T HE question as to how to perfectly feed or fertilize citn
trees has been studied for a good many years not onl
by scientific workers, but also on a large scale by ir
telligent growers. Despite the years of study, however, or
is a long way from being able to state, just what combination
of fertilizer element is necessary in order to produce best ri
suits. This is largely due to the fact that citrus trees are grow
on a very wide variety of soils.
In all fertilizer practices, the action of various fertilize
ingredients must be borne in mind. It must be remember
that ammonia or nitrogen is the material that stimulates le;
and branch growth, that phosphoric acid stimulates root growth
and helps in fruit formation, and that potash is essential f(
the formation of sugars and similar products. Potash als
helps to keep the tree in a healthy condition. Of course, i
addition to these three elements, there are a number of othe:
that are necessary for normal growth, such as lime, sulphu
magnesium, etc. However, practically all of these last are pre;
ent in the fertilizers that are used or are in the soil, so th;
ordinarily it is not necessary to add them to the soil.
Citrus trees are generally fertilized three times a year, i
the early spring, midsummer, and late fall. Some growers pr,
fer to fertilize their young trees four times a year, and sti
others fertilize their bearing grapefruit trees a fourth time.

In the spring, as soon as danger of cold is past, the tre.
should be fertilized so as to start them off quickly. This
also the time the bloom appears and the fruit is set. Therefo
the fertilizer at this time should contain a good percentage (
ammonia and at least two-thirds of it should be derived fro:
inorganic sources, such as nitrate of soda, sulphate of ammoni
Leunasaltpeter, or calcium nitrate. As a general rule, four pe
cent ammonia in this application is sufficient, with six or eigl
percent of available phosphoric acid, and about four percei
of potash. In order to insure having plenty of ammonia avai
able before the bloom appears, it is desirable to get the fir
application on early. It must be borne in mind that if the tr
is suffering from a lack of ammonia when the bloom com
out, it cannot set a full crop of fruit. Ammonia is not the on]
requirement at this time, for lack of moisture may have tl
same detrimental effect.

~illnU3 ~x~VWIIYCT IIY r~vnl~r


In the summer application on bearing trees, it is safe to re-
duce the ammonia content to three percent, provided the trees
ire in a good thrifty condition. For young trees, a four per-

wo-year-old tree should receive two pounds of fertilizer at each
application, while a four-year-old tree should receive four
ounds of fertilizer at each application. If it is found that the
,aves of the trees turn light green or yellow, before the next
application of fertilizer, the amount of fertilizer should be in-
teased. If, on the other hand, the leaves are a rich, deep green
olor and the tree is making a very vigorous growth, it might

oe aavisamle to reauce me amount. ixrter mne trees reacn Dear-
ing age, the amount of fertilizer to use should be gauged by the
amount of fruit the tree is capable of producing.
The best growers in the State are now fertilizing the pro-
ducing tree according to the amount of fruit the tree is expected
to bear. The general opinion is that about four pounds of
fertilizer are required to produce a box of fruit. In addition,
the tree is expected to make more or less new growth each year,
which calls for still more fertilizer. The new growth put on
by the tree each year will ordinarily require an amount of fer-
tilizer equal to that required to produce the fruit. This means
that an amount of fertilizer should be applied for new growth
equal to that applied for production of the fruit. This makes
a total of eight pounds of fertilizer for each box of fruit the
tree is capable of producing. A tree capable of producing five
boxes of fruit should be given forty pounds of fertilizer a year,
applied in three or four applications. Should the trees be fer-
tilized four times a year, about ten pounds of fertilizer would
be applied at each application. If the trees do not present a
healthy, dark green color, it is an indication that they need more
fertilizer, especially more ammonia. On soils that are very
fertile, the amount of fertilizer may be reduced. Also, where
heavy cover crops, especially legumes are grown the amount of
fertilizer may be reduced. No definite rule can be laid down
to cover all conditions, as the general appearance of the tree and
seasonal conditions must be taken into consideration by the
grower. Therefore, the amounts as given above may serve as
a guide, especially on young trees up to eight or ten years of age.


TIRRING the soil, whether it be with a plow, cultivator,
or harrow, is beneficial in the following ways:
1. It loosens the surface soil and allows the air to pene-
trate deeper into the ground, thereby supplying oxygen to the
roots of the plants.
2. More plant food is liberated, as decomposition and
nitrification act more rapidly.
3. It pulverizes the soil, making a soil blanket that tends
to conserve the soil moisture.
4. It destroys grass and weeds which compete with the
trees for food and moisture, and is especially beneficial during
the spring months when moisture is not so plentiful.


Sot prime importance. In short, cultivation
the best possible condition for citrus trees to

ere are many different types of soil, and nat-
rs have never agreed on any one plan of cul-
or all orange groves. A number of the better
inclined to insist on a thorough preparation
planting the young trees. During February
d is usually plowed and a good seed bed pre-
)d legume cover crop is then planted, such as
rpeas, crotalaria, or beggarweed. The cover
be largely a matter of personal choice, de-
t upon which one is best adapted to your par-
:he fall, generally September or October, the
red under. It may be necessary to go over the
harrow once or twice before plowing. After
plowed under, go over the ground frequently
th or acme harrow. This will put the soil
condition, and at the same time conserve the
:he young trees when set out.
a mature grove, that is, a grove that is eight
or older, there is more or less difference of


31,270,340 BOXES OF CITRUS SHIPPED IN 1937-38
(In Boxes)
COUNTY Oranges Grapefruit Tangerines Totals
Alachua .........-------------- 50,607 1,837 556 53,00(
Brevard ............ 797,204 314,826 27,611 1,139,641
Broward ................ 54,739 4,850 1,552 61,141
Citrus --......--......... 16,635 1,685 359 18,67c
Collier ............ 5 6,191 0 6,19(
Dade .............-....... 112,645 127,066 6,581 246,29'
DeSoto .....------....... 357,108 30,467 28,962 416,53'
Duval ........-.....~..- 323,001 73,966 40,126 437,09"
Hardee ..------...... .... 71,877 1,086 11,866 84,82(
Hernando .........----. 54,817 6,590 32,424 93,83:
Highlands --.........--- 507,032 214,879 34,242 756,15"
Hillsborough ........ 848,960 226,729 40,840 1,116,52!
Indian River ........ 313,719 514,136 58,121 885,97(
Lake .................- 2,185,927 690,084 117,238 2,993,24!
Lee ..................... 93,426 125,912 2,672 222,01(
Manatee ..........- 165,614 196,761 833 363,201
Marion ................... 626,409 65,393 12,830 704,63'
Orange ...... .......... 4,663,083 883,265 499,991 6,046,33!
Osceola ............ 108,153 28,662 12,138 148,95'
Palm Beach .........- 28,777 18,006 6,966 53,74!
Pasco ......---...... .... 467,373 192,848 33,356 693,57'
Pinellas .............. 666,008 432,522 43,623 1,142,15;
Polk ................ 6,532,387 3,204,387 751,171 10,487,941
Putnam ..........------ 214,865 31,439 15,073 261,37'
St. Johns ...---........ 16,079 562 413 17,05'
St. Lucie .............. 445,228 446,968 90,090 982,281
Seminole .......--.... 929,998 130,518 48,291 1,108,80'
Sumter ..............-- -.. 41,740 3,781 551 46,07T
Volusia ............... 553,267 69,341 49,635 672,24;
Miscellaneous -..... 7,005 2,690 1,094 10,78!

TOTALS .........21,253,688 8,047,447 1,969,205 31,270,341


..nn nn ittemnt hin hoon midc tn


The sour orange (Citrus aurantium Linn.) was the first of
:he citrus family introduced into Florida. After it was brought
nere by the Spaniards it escaped from cultivation and grew in
thickets in the hammocks. It is well adapted to the moist
hammock soils and grows with such freedom as to lead many
people to believe that it is a native. It also grows well on
moist flatwood soils where the water table does not come too
:lose to the surface. It is extremely resistant to root and crown
diseases and particularly to foot rot, this being one of the fac-
tors that has led to its great success on moist soils where other
species of citrus are severely attacked by this disease. The
quality of fruit produced on sour orange stock is excellent and,
in the opinion of many growers, is better than that produced
by any other. It has been well established as a particularly
desirable stock for Parson Brown and Temple oranges, both
of which show poor adaptation to rough lemon stock and light
soils: it is generally considered an unsatisfactory stock for Sat-
sumas, kumquats, limequats and limes.
The sour orange is very resistant to cold and, to some ex-
tent, conveys this characteristic to the scion, probably because it
induces a more intense dormancy during the winter months.
Nursery stock on sour orange has been observed to stand cold
weather better than stock in adjoining rows on rough lemon.
The chief difficulty with this stock lies in its inability to
make a tree at a satisfactory rate on the more sandy soils. This
difficulty has led practically to the elimination of this rootstock
on such soils, since young trees on this stock may require sev-
eral years to become sufficiently established to produce satis-
factory crops, and in tests on very sandy soils production has
been below that of trees on rough lemon. Also it is less satis-
factory in the nursery than rough lemon, due to the fact that
it does not make a tree as quickly or grow quite so vigorously.

The rough lemon (Citrus limonia Osbeck) is a vigorous
grower, produces trees very rapidly in the nursery and brings
grove trees to size and bearing quickly. It grows well on the
extremely light and sandy soils where sour orange stock will
fail to produce trees in a reasonable length of time. It is not
as resistant to foot rot and similar diseases as sour orange, but


Upinlons are widely nela tnat rougn lemon produces a
quality of fruit inferior to that from sour orange, the rind being
tougher, the texture coarser and the tendency greater to drying
out at the stem end. This conclusion is borne out by experi-
mental evidence derived from trees planted side by side. The
effect on quality is particularly noticeable on light sandy soils
and is greatest with tangerines and Temple oranges and least
with grapefruit. The general opinion of these differences is
somewhat exaggerated, however, due to the fact that rough
lemon is used generally on light sandy soils and sour orange
on heavier soils so that when planted side by side the differences
are frequently not as great as would commonly be expected.
Numerous groves on rough lemon stock on heavier soils have



Fig. 1-One method of insertion.


1111 111
led on



The trifoliate orange (Por.
chiefly as the rootstock for Satsu
is deciduous and highly resistant

cases on lighter soils it has proved unsatisfactory as a stock due
to difficulty in getting trees budded thereon to bear properly.
On the heavier soils this may be overcome, at least partially, by
increased fertilization but on light soils this has not been very
effective. It is less cold resistant than sour or sweet orange.

_Tmlln ~~AT1ITII~ T\I T~T T\n~~

The early groves in this state were planted to seedling sweet
oranges (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and these groves have been
imong the most vigorous growers and producers. They are,
however, subject to foot rot and as the groves have become
Alder there has been considerable difficulty in maintaining them
n a healthy condition. Numerous groves of budded trees have
been planted in which this rootstock was used, and it is found
.o produce a very excellent tree that grows vigorously and yields
i very fine quality of fruit. It has come into greater promi-
nence in recent years as a substitute for rough lemon on the
ight sandy soils where foot rot is less common and probably
would never constitute such a serious menace as it did on the
noist flatwoods and hammock soils. On the sandy soils, young
:rees on this stock have generally been somewhat slower in
growth and lower in production than trees on rough lemon but
have increased in both vigor and production with age. The
quality of fruit on this stock is exceptionally good and with
such fruits as tangerines the period of edibility has been con-
;iderably extended due to delayed drying out. While there are
relatively few groves on sweet orange located on very light sandy
;oils it seems to hold a great deal of promise as a stock, for
angerines and oranges in particular.
It is more cold resistant than rough lemon or grapefruit and
ess resistant than sour orange. It should never be used as a
rootstock where the sour orange will grow satisfactorily, as the
anger from foot rot is too great and no advantages appear to
be gained by using this rootstock in preference to sour orange.
where the latter is adapted.
A number of other rootstocks have been tried to some extent
but have not come into wide use so far. The Cleopatra man
larin has been widely recommended and tried during the last
*ew years and within a few years more it will be possible to
gain a fairly good idea as to its desirability from the existing
plantings. It is a good grower, makes a good nursery tree, both
is to union and growth, and seems to be well adapted to the
ight soils, but has a tendency to make tops budded on it slow
n coming into bearing.
Commercial lemon is frequently found as the rootstock of
occasionall trees in groves presumably budded on rough lemon.
The seed in these cases probably were mixed accidentally with
:he rough lemon seed, as it is not considered to be a desirable
rootstock due to its lack of disease resistance and the short life
)f trees budded on it.
At froCflnt s nllmhIo nf ,hrlhrl.c E0llrh SC citrSn Ie ,nd tn -_

1 __ - __ - 1-r~i lrn


geios are oeing crlea as rootsiocKs, primarily in ine nope uo
finding a substitute for the trifoliate orange. A number of
these hybrids exceed the trifoliate orange in vigor and make


m -

Fig. 4.-Seeds of various species of Citrus and Poncirus.
satisfactory unions, but it will take some time to determine
their suitability in other respects.
The extraction of sour orange seeds has been a sizable in
dustry in Florida, with considerable amounts of seeds shippe,

a juice ext
lip is usua
removed fr(
he gelatin
ie shade on
:erminate rr

lition is
remain -
tings or
s factor

, -I- -

...~ ' ,". . .


Fig. 5.-Nursery seedbed and very young seedlings. (Courtesy Glen St. Mary Nurseries.


lings. It should be provided with irrigation, preferably of the
overhead type, and some nurserymen prefer to cover it with a
lath shade, although this is not necessary and the majority of
seedbeds are planted in the open. The lath shade has a tendency
Lo increase the amount of seedling diseases and makes the seed-
bed difficult to handle from this standpoint but minimizes the
moisture problem (see Figs. 5, 6 and 7). The location se
elected should be well protected from cold and the soil should
be well drained as this will reduce the trouble from seedling
diseases. A fertile soil is of course desirable but it is sometimes
necessary to sacrifice soil quality somewhat for the sake of good
:old protection and good drainage. It is also desirable to use
new land whenever possible and not to plant a bed the second
time without letting it "lay-out" for a while. The same rules
ipply to the selection of land for nursery rows.
A small amount of fertilizer is needed in making up the
;eedbed. This fertilizer should have a high percentage of nitro
gen, largely derived from organic sources. The fertilizer should
be added several weeks before the seeds are planted and worked
:horoughly into the soil.
Where only a small seedbed is desired the seeds are planted
n rows wide enough for hand cultivation, but where a largc
number of seedlings is being grown the rows are laid out wide
enoughh for horse cultivation. The seeds are planted thickly
n the row and are covered with two to three inches of soil.
Sour orange, sweet orange, grapefruit and rough lemon seeds
ire planted after the danger of frost is over, as very young
;eedlings are killed when frozen to the ground. Poncirus tri-
_oliata seedlings are not completely killed by being frozen off.
)ut sprout up from below ground; consequently its seeds can
be planted whenever they are ready.
The number of days required for germination of citrus seeds
will depend upon the soil temperature and moisture and the
conditionn of the seeds when planted. Experiments with fresh
;eeds have shown that the optimum soil temperature for germi
nation is about 90 F. Near the optimum temperature, fresh
:eeds will sometimes germinate in two weeks but when the soil
temperature is below 90 F. a longer time is required for germi
nation. In this connection attention should be called to the
'act that during the winter and spring the soil temperature is
nuch lower than that indicated as the optimum and the time
required for germination is correspondingly longer. The seed
ings, however, are usually up in from three weeks to a month
f the soil has been kept moist and the weather is not too cold.
After the seedlings have come up it is necessary to cultivate
ufficientlyv to keep down weeds and to water enough to keen



l'a::2 ';


the plants growing well but not so much as to cause damping-
off fungi to attack the seedlings. During the growing season
two or three applications of fertilizer having a high nitrogen
content should be made. Before the seedlings are removed from

Fig. 7.-Citrus nursery seedbed under shade. (Courtesy Glen St. Mary Nurseries.)

About one year from the September following the planting
of the seed, making about 18 months in the seedbed, the seed-
lings are transplanted to the nursery row for further growth
and budding. Seedlings are frequently transplanted after a
much shorter period in the seedbed but are harder to handle in
the nursery row because of their small size. The seedlings can
be removed by cutting the tap root 8 to 12 inches below the
--nrf-ro ,xrl-th nnlrcor rn'1o f1tor f irhI;rh th" o coo ll;n-r r,n h,1

'. I s t -'-1

fe~fca^ijfe L K.. s ..,..^A .,.?.

Fi.8.Ctussedig i henrer o


easily lifted. The seedbed should be well watered just before
:he seedlings are removed. At least twice as many seedlings
should be grown as it is intended to plant and only the best
seedlings used.
In transplanting seedbed stock to the nursery row the soil

separate readily from the wood. This condition exists during
most of the spring, summer and fall, but in nursery practice it
is customary to do most of the budding during the fall. Bud-
ding at this time is called dormant budding because the buds
do not start into growth until the following spring. When
the stock is large enough to bud in the fall a delay until spring
will result in three to four weeks loss of growing time in the
budded tree.
Budding in citrus is accomplished by the insertion of a
shield-shaped bud into a "T" slot cut in the bark of the stock.
The leg of the "T" is parallel with the axis of the stock and
the top of the "T" across the stock at either the top or bottom,
thus making either an erect or inverted "T" as desired. The
buds are cut from wood about the size of a pencil or a little
smaller, which has outgrown its angular condition and will
usually be of the flush previous to the one occurring about the
time the budding is done. In Fig. 9 are shown two types of
budwood, namely, the angled wood which is considered unsuit-

luo %j"%JVVVIINYj 1IY PL~nllUX


,s PE



type. In nursery practice, buds are commonly taken trom blocks
of nursery stock of the desired variety. When the block records
are accurate and where the practice of obtaining new budding
material from bearing trees frequently is followed, this prac-
tice is not as bad as it would at first appear. A certain number
of off-type trees will appear but they may also appear in blocks
budded from bearing trees. This practice is quite common and
aside from other considerations has been followed because of the
difficulty in obtaining large amounts of suitable budwood from
bearing trees. If, as has happened in some cases, buds are ob-
tained only from nursery trees and several generations of trees
are produced entirely by transfer of buds from one block to
another, it may easily happen that a considerable number of off-
type trees may appear and if care is not continually practiced.
some mixing of varieties may occur. If buds taken direct from
parent trees are not obtainable in sufficient quantity, it is better
to bud a small block of nursery trees each year from suitable
bearing trees and to use buds from these for larger blocks the
following year. The constant reference back to bearing trees
in this way more nearly approximates the ideal system of ob-
taining all buds from bearing trees.
For the benefit of those just starting in the nursery business
and for those who are raising trees for their own groves, it


-~ I

Ic -:



A knife having a
rounded end is necessa

le should be m
and carefully i
[any very care
with a strop ,
very fine aualit

tor opening up the bark where necessary, but the handle is
seldom used by specialists in budding.
Budding tape for wrapping the buds is made from thin
bleached muslin put up in rolls 6 to 8 inches long and 1 to 2
inches in diameter. These are impregnated with a grafting
wax that will not harden. Of a large number of formulae for
the wax, the one below, taken from Hume's "Cultivation of
Citrus Fruits," is considered very satisfactory for use under
Florida conditions:
R esin . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Ilb .
Beesw ax ............. .4 lbs.


gested or adopted by various budders, according to personal
preferences. A good grade of muslin, put up in proper rolls and
thoroughly impregnated with wax, can be torn to any width
desired, whereas tapes and other materials made a definite width
beforehand lack the flexibility in handling afforded by the
above method of preparation. The cloth should be capable of
withstanding considerable pull and the wax should be one that
will retain a certain softness and not harden on exposure.
Budding in the nursery usually is carried out on seedling
trees from the size of a pencil up to an inch in diameter, but

Budding citrus trees.

trees Vz" to 4 caliper are most desirable: trees that are too
small should be discarded. The trunk of the seedling is pruned
clean of thorns and limbs, ahead of the budder so as to save
time, and the soil is scraped away if the bud is to be placed
close to the soil. With the knife grasped in the right hand and
the edge of the blade downward, a downward cut is made about
an inch and a half long (Fig. 10A). This is a vertical cut
through the bark but no farther into the wood than is necessary
to be certain that the bark has been completely cut. If desired,
this cut can be made upward instead of downward. The knife
is now used to make a cross cut at the bottom of the vertical
cut, thus making an inverted "T" (Fig. 10B). In making


___ ~__~~__~_ __ ___________

Fig. 11.-The final steps in the budding process. D, inserting bud shield in stock; bud
is being held on knife blade. E, bud shield in place in stock; note that it is entirely within
the flaps of bark. F, a closer view of the shield bud in place. G, taping the bud; taping
is started at the bottom in inverted "T" budding and at the top in erect "T" budding.
H taping finished; end of tape is brought back an tape wraps so that it will stick.
(Cf. Fig. 10.)
5 -")?
L: !"


d F

Fig. ll.--The final steps in the budding process. D, inserting bud shield in stock; bud
is being held on knife blade. E, bud shield in place in stock; note that it is entirely within
the flaps of bark. F, a closer view of the shield bud in place. G, taping the bud; taping
is started at the bottom in inverted "T" budding and at the top in erect "~T" budding.
H, taping finished; end of tape is brought back on tape wraps so that it will stick.


tnis cut, the tack or the knite blade is tilted slightly downward
so that the cut is a little upward as well as across the stock.
At the finish of the cut, the knife blade is tilted slightly upward
and given a slight twist to open the bark at the junction of
the horizontal and vertical cuts.
The bud is now cut from a stick of budwood held as in Fig.
1 OC, with the basal end away from the operator. The cut is
toward the operator and is made as nearly as possible parallel
with the axis of the budwood, and with a slight rotating mo-
tion. The knife is held with the blade almost parallel to the
axis of the budwood and the thumb of the knife hand used to
steady the budwood in making the cut. This will give a shield-
shaped piece of bark and wood about 3Y to 1 inch long with a
flat, smooth cut surface. The bud should not be scooped out
as this will cause too much wood to be taken with the bud. As
the cut is finished, the thumb retains the bud on the blade of the
budding knife and at the lower end of the shield. Using this
method of holding the bud, with thumb and knife blade, the
upper end of the bud is inserted in the stock as in Fig. 11D,
Fig. 1 (page 38) showing another method of insertion.
The bud shield when inserted is entirely beneath the bark and
should be pushed far up into the vertical cut (Fig. 11 E and F
and Fig. I). The bud should be handled very carefully so as
not to injure it during the procedure; inexperienced operators
may tear up the edge of the shield in the process of inserting it
under the bark and sometimes will use the point of the knife
to push it into place and badly injure the bud in this way. Con-
siderable practice is necessary to carry out the procedure rapidly
and smoothly so as to insert the bud into place with the edges
of the shield smooth and untorn and the bud uninjured, but
unless this is done the bud has a poor chance of "taking." The
inexperienced worker in watching the experienced budder fre-
quently gets the impression that the work can be rapidly and
carelessly done, whereas the speed really comes from a great
deal of practice so that all operations are done accurately as
well as rapidly.
Taping is started below the bud and the tape wrapped
firmly but not too tightly around the trunk of the tree up to
above the top of the vertical cut (Fig. 11G and H). As the
wrapping is finished the end of the tape should be brought back
onto the cloth, as this will make it adhere more firmly. For
wrapping buds, it is usually found desirable to tear the cloth
in about three-quarter inch strips, but the size of the stock and
other conditions will influence this considerably. It is impor-
tant that the wrapping be sufficiently tight to prevent the en-
trance of water into the wound and to hold the bud and the



I-. '. I *g 3-'~
:: lvf'



pr :

C L~ (1


stock closely together so that callousing will start and a union
be formed. After 10 days to two weeks the buds can be ex-
amined and if still green and showing callous formations in-
dicating that they have "taken," the tape can be removed.

A il .


The distance of the bud from the ground must be deter-


mined by conditions under which the trees are to be used. Sweet
orange scions on sour orange stocks can be affected with foot
rot if water or mud stands above the bud union just as readily
as seedling sweet oranges can be attacked. Where the budded
trees are to be planted in moist locations, the buds should be
high above the ground but when they are to be planted on drier
lands the bud may be within two or three inches of the ground
to facilitate protection against cold by banking. Under Florida
conditions, the buds usually are placed as close to the soil as
it is convenient to work, that is, 2 to 3 inches.
When the bud starts to grow the seedling top is cut off
smoothly just above the bud, thus throwing the growth to the
bud. Dormant budded nursery trees are cut back in January
or February before spring growth starts. When the seedling
is very large at time of budding the top is sometimes "lopped"
when the bud starts, by cutting it partially through. This helps
to start the bud and at the same time leaves some top to sup-
port the roots (Fig. 12). Lopping reduces the chances of the bud
being flooded or drowned by excessive sap flow which may occur
if a vigorously growing top is entirely removed. The cut should
be on the same side as the bud. After the bud shoot has grown
6 to 12 inches high, the old seedling top is entirely removed
.. I r I 1* __-_ - - I-1- ---. -I --- -.1-_ U _3-

but are not ordinarily necessary in citrus. Some of these, such


as ring or patch budding, are particularly adapted to some tre(
that are budded with considerable difficulty, usually due t
a thick and brittle bark, and which will not respond readil
to shield budding, but these methods are not used in citru,
Some variations of the shield bud are used in working stock



ot procedure is frequently used in experimental work where the
wood available is too small for shields to be cut from it.
In budding large blocks of nursery stock the pruner usually
cleans off the leaves, thorns, and limbs where the bud is to be
inserted, ahead of the budder, and the pruner or another helper
will scrape away the soil, if this is necessary. The budder has
a tier working with him who wraps the buds. Under such con-
ditions a good budder may put in as high as 1,500 or more
buds in a day, his efforts being entirely devoted to the highly
skilled operation of cutting and inserting the buds. In nursery
practice the tier always uses budding tape but where small
amounts of work are being done other methods of holding the
bud in place are sometimes used. The bud may be tied in with
raffia or string and the whole wound painted over with melted
paraffin and carnauba wax. In case this method is to be used,
a special lantern containing an alcohol lamp and a cup in which
the wax is melted should be obtained. Special wide rubber
bands also are used occasionally for tying.
In dormant budding it is sometimes necessary to protect the
bud from cold. This can be done by banking the trees with
soil after the wraps are removed, plowing a furrow to each side
of the row. This soil is removed after the danger of frost is past.

Cultivation and fertilization of budded trees should be such
as to promote thrifty growth. The nursery rows are cultivated
frequently to keep down weeds and grass, a horse-drawn culti-
vator being used for cultivating the middles and the rows being
hoed out by hand. In the fall cultivation is reduced so as to
harden the trees before frost. The amount and type of fertilizer
will depend greatly on the type of soil. A fertilizer analyzing
4 to 5 percent nitrogen, 6 to 8 percent phosphoric acid and 4 to
6 percent potash is suitable. Three applications of fertilizer per
season should be made, the first just prior to the start of growth
in the spring, the second in June and the third in late August
or early September. The amounts will vary from 500 to 1,500
pounds per acre per application, depending on the fertility of
the soil. The applications may be made broadcast and worked
in with the cultivator but usually the first is applied by "barring
off" the rows (plowing a furrow away from each side of the row
with a small turning plow) and placing the fertilizer in the
furrow and covering it by plowing the soil back into the fur-
row. Too much fertilization and cultivation should be avoided
as an excess tends to produce too rank and soft a growth.
As pointed out previously, the scion must be tied to the
;take from time to time so that it will have a straight trunk.


g. 15.-Digging nursery trees. A, tee ready for digging. B, pruning back with

ig. 15.-Digging nursery trees. A, tree ready for- digging- B, pruning back with lol

JrrJin1yi1V1N I ur A'j1nl.uikjl un.r.

Ihe height at which it is to be topped to torm the framework
Af the tree will depend on the type of tree desired. Of late years
:he tendency has been to the growing of low-headed trees and
:he scions are usually topped at about 18 to 24 inches. In addi-
:ion to the work of training the scion, sprouts must be removed
From both stock and scion occasionally. When the tree has
developed a strong trunk the stake is removed so that it will not
be in the way when the trees are dug.
Budded trees are allowed to grow at least one year in the
nursery row before being placed in the grove. The grading of
nursery stock after off-type and freak trees are eliminated is
usually done by caliper (i. e., the diameter of the trunk two
inches above the union is measured) and by the age of the trees
From budding. Trees for planting should preferably caliper
Y8 or over after one year from budding. Two-year trees should
De larger. Trees that failed to make satisfactory growth the
first year are commonly left for another year's growth. Some
nurserymen prefer to cut back such trees to the bud and make
in entirely new top the second year but trees that are badly
stunted should be discarded.

Nursery trees are dug as ordered and the selection of the
:rees is based on the size desired to fill the order. In digging
nursery trees the foreman of the crew usually selects the trees
:o be dug and prunes them back with long-handled shears to a
framework or a stub, according to instructions (Figs. 15 and
16C). The remaining leaves and twigs are cut off with a knife
or pruning shears and the lateral roots are cut off in a circle
around the tree by means of long-bladed nursery spades (Fig.
1 6D). A hole is then dug on one side of the tree so that the
;pade can be driven under the tree at the proper depth to cut
:he taproot (Fig. 17E). The tree is then "lifted" with the
help of the spade and the roots are immediately covered to
prevent drying out (Figs 17F and 17G). The trees may be
.oosened as in Fig. 17E but have the roots still left in the soil
intil the truck or wagon comes and then the trees can be quickly
ifted and placed under cover. It is very important that the
-oots should not be allowed to dry out before planting. This
applies not only to the process of digging but also to the haul-
ng and handling of trees, particularly when they are to be
removed by truck or wagon directly to the field where they are
:o be planted.
The practice of handling citrus nursery stock "bare rooted"
s universal in Florida. In California, however, the trees are
'balled" that is, dug with a ball of earth containing the roots



.-i ;1'-;'1 1 '*' r iM* :K 1 . ...

16.-Digging nursery trees. C, tree pruned back for digging. D, digging the tree.
spade; the one on the left is cleaning off the leaves and twigs remaining

-E, cutting taproot of

E, cutting taproot of

with a spade; note depth t
nd with his hand and knee
il; note the fine root system


and this is wrapped with burlap. Difficulties attached to han-
dling trees in this way in the light Florida soils are obvious.
Moreover, the trees grow so readily when transplanted under
Florida conditions that this procedure is found to be unneces-
Nursery trees are packed in various ways for shipment by
freight, express or mail. A large proportion of"the trees now
move by truck direct to the grove site and for short hauls are
commonly dug in the morning and planted in the afternoon.
If the trees are wet down as they are loaded onto the truck
and covered with a wet canvas or burlap cover they can be
handled nicely for short hauls but for longer hauls it is desir-
able to pack the roots in moist sawdust or other materials and
also to cover with a canvas to protect the top from the drying
wind. All methods of long distance shipment make use of some
sort of protection for the roots-such as moist sphagnum moss
or "shingletow" (sawdust from cypress shingle mills). In Fig.
18A is shown a standard crate for the shipment of nursery
trees. As shown in the figure, the crate is lying on its side
and it is placed in this position when the trees are packed in
it. The 2"x2" framing piece for the open side is removed and
the box lined with paper before the packing starts. A layer
of moss or shingletow is placed for the roots and excelsior is
used at the top of the box to protect the trunks against rub-
bing and to keep the packing for the roots in place. The trees
are packed in tightly with alternate layers of packing material
and finally covered with a layer of packing material and paper.
The framing piece is then nailed back in place and a piece of
l"x3" placed across the center of the open side and nailed to
the sides to help hold the trees in place. The side boards are
then nailed on and the box stood on end ready for receiving the
burlap covering to protect the tops of the trees (Fig. 18B).
The tops of the trees are now covered with burlap which is
attached to the crate by means of lath strips nailed to the top
frame and securely sewed (Fig. 18C). The crates shown are
usually 30" high but the side dimensions may vary from
12"xl2" to much larger.
Smaller quantities of trees may be shipped in bales and three
types of bales are shown in Fig. 1 8D. These vary from a paper
covered bale for mail order shipments to coverings of corru-
gated paper and wrapping paper or burlap for express ship-
ments. In all cases the trees are packed in the proper packing
material in much the same manner as described for the crates.
Regardless of the type of package the packing must be done
carefully to avoid drying out of the trees while in transit. For


-" I:


local shipments, shingletow is commonly used around the root
but trees to be shipped to distant points are usually packed ii
sphagnum moss.

oung trees. Fi
Is so as to giv
sometimes done
)n the same tree
f trees are:P R

when trees are "hatracked", and some on sprouts from the root-
stock produced when trees are cut off at the bud union.
The budding of rootstock sprouts will be necessary when
budded trees are killed to the bud by cold and the rebuilding
of the orchard depends on the rootstock sending up sprouts
which can be budded. In top-working relatively young trees
this procedure is often more convenient and efficient than re-
working the tops since there are no trunks and limbs left to
produce sprouts of the original variety and relatively little time
is lost. Moreover, in the case of tangerines which have brittle
wood and a tendency to split in the limb crotches and Temple
oranges which are dwarf in habit and also have brittle wood,
the use of top-working on a framework is of doubtful value,
both due to the effect of the old top on the new top and also
due to the danger of breaking up of the framework after a
heavy top of grapefruit or orange is developed on it. Even old
trees of tangerine or Temple are commonly worked over to
other varieties by cutting back to the bud union.
The procedure for working over young trees (six years old
or less) by this method, is to cut the tree off smoothly at or
just below the bud union. It is usually desirable to start the
cut on the side toward which it is desired to have the tree fall,
cutting about a fourth to a third through and then finishing
it off with a cut from the other side so as to avoid excessive
splitting of the stump. The stump is then dressed to a smooth
cut and it is desirable to cover it with a good wound dressing.
The sprouts that come up are thinned to a suitable number
arising close to the stumo. On a very small tree one snrout can


be left, but on stumps more than two inches in diameter leave
two or more according to the size of the stump. Enough sprouts
should be left so that the stump will ultimately heal over well



Fig. 19.-Budded sprouts from the rootstock of a tree which was cut off at the ground.
This is one method of top-working.


have sti
piece of
way on
work la
a large
result i
tip the
The to]l
and this
is done,

After this
t the point



-~u~s q-lw

vnere the nnal cut was made in order to round out the new
op and to help the process of callousing over the old stump. In
acreage to be handled in this way the trees of adjoining rows can
)e felled toward each other and one stake used for two trees and
he alternate middles kept clear while the first sprouts are being
)udded and started. The old tops will produce some fruit dur-
ng the period while they are left attached to the tree.
Trees budded on Poncirus trifoliata should not be cut off at

usually send up sprouts

Parking old trees is to cur

,W: -

Ki 'fI ^^l

-= -- ---- --- ............ ....- P..YrrL. "' LU7--.Iht III5. apruutS protecieu
by burlap shade.


,arge tree partially cut back preparatory to top-working in t


1i nas tne auvanLage, however
i better condition and producii
while the new top is being devel
seldom used its advantages are

vents splitting. An alternative is to cut the limb off one to
three feet above the point where the final cut is to be made
and then to make the final cut at the proper point. The cut
surface should be smoothed over and painted with grafting wax
or a good wound dressing. The exposed framework and trunk
should be painted with whitewash to protect it from the sun,
otherwise the bark will be killed on the tops of the limbs. In
addition, some growers protect the framework and the new
sprouts with some sort of shade. This is usually a piece of sack-
ing supported on some sticks tied to the framework (Fig. 21).
Even when this is done the framework should be whitewashed.
Whitewashes which will stay on a tree trunk or limb in this
climate are difficult to make. Formulae for several durable
whitewashes may be obtained from the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station at Gainesville or from the United States De-
partment of Agriculture. A very good formula is as follows:
Quicklime ... ...... ...... 50 lbs.
W ater ......... ..... ... 10 gals.
S alt . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 lb s.
Slake the lime with the water in such way as to prevent
burning of the lime and then add the salt. This may be diluted
to a suitable consistency for application. If it is to be used in
a sprayer it will have to be strained through a screen and diluted
more than would be necessary for brush application. Attention
has been called recently by Mr. W. F. Ward to the fact that
the California formula which makes use of a water extract of
cactus in slaking the lime can be successfully used. While they
use there an extract of a particular variety of cactus which does
not grow here the common local prickly pear has proven quite
Make a water extract by placing prickly pear stems in a
tub or bucket and adding sufficient water to more than cover
them, bruise and break them up thoroughly and allow the mix-


:ure to set for at least 24 hours and then pour off the water.
Carefully slake the quicklime with water and cactus extract,
rising about 2 gallons of water to 1 gallon of extract, strain the
paste when cool through a screen and dilute to the desired con-
sistency with water and extract. This makes a very smooth
whitewash with great adhesiveness.
The limbs will sprout freely and after the sprouts have
hardened up they can be budded by following the same pro-
cedure as for nursery stock. Not all of the sprouts should be
budded and some thinning will have to be done. Always bud
some sprouts near the cut end of the branch so that they will aid
n healing the cut surface, and other sprouts can be budded along
:he limbs, selecting such as will help in forming a well shaped
lead on the new tree. After the buds have started the unused
;prouts can be thinned.
Some difficulty may be experienced if the buds are put in
beforee the sprouts have hardened up sufficiently. The large
root system tends to push the growth vigorously and the buds
nay be easily "drowned" if the wood is too soft. Generally, it
s safer to lop the top of the sprout after the bud has taken and
:o make the final cut later. It is also good practice to snip off
:he tip of the sprout at the time the bud is put in. After the
buds have started it will usually be necessary to provide some
support to keep them from being broken off.
When trees are cut back it is common to have the new
growth develop "frenching." If any signs of frenching appear,
t is wise to spray the tree with the usual zinc spray recom-
nended for this purpose. Proper formulae for this purpose
should be obtained from current spray programs.
A number of other methods can be used in top-working but
-he use of budding is generally preferred on account of the fact
:hat a great many workers can do good budding but very few
ire familiar with the methods of grafting adaptable to citrus.
These other methods are useful at times and for this reason a
discussion of them will be given here.
When working large limbs, budding can be used directly on
:he limb if the workman is careful. In case the bark is reason-
ibly soft and pliable, some form of shield budding can be used
is previously described. Often the curved or angled incision
will be found superior to the "T" for this purpose. When the
3ark is thick and will not "work" without splitting, it can be
;haved and scraped to remove the outer hard layers and the
nner bark left for "working." If the buds are slow to "take,"
i partial girdling of the limb above the bud or cutting back
:he top of the branch will help. This sort of budding is difficult
ind not recommended for ordinary use.


Bark grafting is occasionally used in working over stumps
and large limbs. Its chief difficulty lies in a mechanical weak-
ness of the union that may continue for some years. Like cleft
grafting, it gains a year of time on sprout budding. For this
type of grafting the stump or limb is cut off at a right angle
to the axis and the cut surface smoothed up with a knife. Small
scions up to six or eight inches long are given a long slanting

r, < ... .


ig. 23.-Bark grafting. A, scions in place; a brad driven through the scion into ti
runk will help to hold the scion in place. B, bark graft taped and ready to be waxe

Wherever possible, a concave place in the contour of the stump
should be used. If the bark is at all pliable the scion can usually
be shoved under the bark easily but where the bark is hard it
may be necessary to make a short downward cut through the


initial cuts and the splitting is accomplished with the aid of
a mallet (Fig. 24B). The split is then wedged open by the
use of the wedged end of the mallet or a wooden wedge cut
for the purpose. The scions should be six or eight inches long
and cut with a budding knife to a long wedge at the butt end
(Fig. 24C). These wedges should be slightly thicker on one
side than on the other. The scions are inserted in the split and
*Hume gives the following formulae for grafting waxes:
(1) Resin, 6 pounds; beeswax, 2 pounds; linseed oil, 1 pint.
(2) Resin, 4 pounds; beeswax, 2 pounds; tallow, 1 pound.
Directions for preparing them are briefly as follows:
Break the resin into small pieces, cut up the beeswax and place the two to-
gether in a suitable iron pot. Pour the linseed oil over them, or, in case recipe No. 2
is used, place the tallow on top. Sct the pot over a slow fire and allow the materials
to melt. Afterward remove from the fire, pour into cold water, grease the hands
and pull until it is light colored.
If a liquid wax is desired, take 1 pound of resin, 2 ounces of tallow, melt them
together and mix thoroughly. Remove from the fire, cool slightly and add slowly
6 ounces alcohol and 1 ounce spirits turpentine. Keep tightly corked in a wide-
mouthed bottle. Apply with a brush.
Paraffin is very convenient to use instead of grafting wax and a portable lamp
or lantern is manufactured which will keep a small pot of it in the melted condition.
Paraffin is frequently of too low a melting point for satisfactory use in the open
in Florida. This difficulty can be corrected by adding 3% to 5 % of carnauba wax to
the paraffin. For application, the paraffin should be just hot enough to keep it
melted; if too hot it will injure the tissues of the plant.



kUll11U. -3 UnW11YNu 11N rLU1nii.

tIe camluium o01 ne scion anu Lne camMium o01 te StocK carC-
fully placed together with the wood of the scion against the
wood of the stock. The thick edge of the wedge should be the
one lined up with the cambium, as this will bring the pressure
at the point where it is needed. After the scions are in place
the wedge is removed, the stub taped and the cut end covered
with grafting wax or paraffin (Fig. 24D).
This type of grafting gives the union a great deal of mechan-
ical strength from the start and on this account is sometimes
used in working over large trees. Frequently the pressure exerted
on the scion will be so great in large stubs as to tend to pinch
the scion off. Where this is likely to happen, a wooden wedge
should be left in the split to help ease the pressure on the scion.
Success in any of the methods of grafting lies in the careful
carrying out of certain basic principles. Once the cutting is
started, finish up as rapidly as possible so that the cut surface
will not dry out. Be sure that the cambium of the scion and
the cambium of the stock are held firmly in contact. Seal the
wound thoroughly with grafting wax or paraffin. Do the work
when the tree is in active growth; even cleft grafting is more
successful under these conditions. If these things are done
carefully the work will give good results.

Difficulties sometimes develop that make it necessary to give
a tree a new root system. This need occasionally is the result
of an attempt to grow a variety on an uncongenial rootstock
but more often the result of foot rot or some other disease
that girdles or partially girdles the trunk. It is possible under
such circumstances to inarch seedlings or sprouts into the trunk
and thus save the tree. This work is sometimes difficult and
is not usually attempted unless the tree to be saved is valuable.
Where the root system is sound and of a desirable type and
sprouts can be induced to grow, these are to be preferred. Where
this is not possible, seedlings can be planted around the tree
and after they are established they may be inarched into the
trunk. Seedlings are hard to start under the shade of large trees
and will require considerable nursing.
Where the trouble is not caused by a disease, as in the case
of an undesirable rootstock, the inarching should be done as
close to the ground as possible (Fig. 25A), but where it is a
matter of saving a tree attacked by foot rot the work should
be done well above the lesion (Fig. 25B). Foot rot is com-
monest on old seedling trees and under such conditions sour
orange seedlings are to be preferred for inarching and sprouts
from the sweet orange root should not be used as they are


susceptible to tne disease. it tme tree to De inarcnec is neaceci
low, the seedlings may be worked into the limbs instead of
the trunk but it will be desirable to trim the trees up as much
as possible to let light in to the seedling while it is becoming

g. 25-Trees saved by inarching. A, Temple orange tree on rough lemon root inarche

vision in the trunk of the tree and opening the flaps of bark
slightly with the wedge on the budding knife. The sprout

citends to spring away from the trunk of the tree and opening the flaps necesof bark

inthat whenmost instance is toinsecurrted into to the tree wslot the cut surface wnail or


Draa. i nis snoula De driven in so mnar rne cut surface 01 LIn
stock and the wood of the tree trunk are held tightly together.
The whole is then wrapped with budding tape, raffia or string
to help hold it in place and the wound sealed with grafting wax
or paraffin (Fig. 26A and B).


'ig. 26.-Inarching. A, seedling inserted in inverted "T" slot and bradded. B, inarche
tied and paraffined.

The work will have to be done when the bark will slip and
even then more or less difficulty will be experienced in working
the bark. Scraping or shaving the bark to make it more pliable
will help somewhat. If the work is done carefully and the
wound thoroughly sealed, it will usually "take" and after sev-
eral weeks the wraps can be cut but the seal of wax or paraffin
should not be disturbed.
Variations of the above method have been employed but in
general most of these cause the wood of the stock and the
wood of the trunk or limb to be at a sharp angle to each other
(Fig. 27) and results do not seem to be as good as with the
above method. Observations indicate that best results are ob-
tained where the stock and trunk are nearly parallel. This may
be the result of a more natural flow of sap in such unions.
Inarching is one of the most difficult phases of citrus prop-
agation and requires a great deal of practice. The beginner
should not be too sanguine of success when starting. A con-
siderable amount of practice will be necessary before success
can be consistently attained.

5U UITAfLt11fIjN I ur AU.fniUui lun.


i ".

;- .
* f-.i ''
*.'*-IH ^&- <:7




method in
probably be i

matter of scientific interest in this country
iat some groves have been produced by this
Africa. While all varieties of citrus can
with proper equipment and care, lemon and
s of rough lemon root more readily than


w w1 ."

ed from rough lemon cutting (left) and seedling rough lemoi
ie age (one year). (Courtesy J. H. Jefferies.)

... : L -A.





I V ,<,IHSS --
_ Js__________
*. '*:*. '* ^ . ''" 'l b : '. '.,''':' .-.:. -.1 ;.'''' '
, -^S -!U aS'..t^i~^-
''* = [ l^ ~^ --'-: >

^~|-) wrfffvowrwr*^r

Fig. 30.-Electrically heated cutting bed (St
Experiment Station i

rida Agricultt

Annual Report of
1928, pp. 57-59

pruuUeu uy rUL1)iIg d LiULLIi 16 LlUIIIPdilCt WILI1 d 3:kUUIUIIm. 1.
Fig. 29 is shown a small rough lemon plant produced by plac-
ing a leaf with only the petiole attached to it in the cutting box.
In propagating citrus by
cuttings, some sort of bottom
heat is required in the cutting
box and the atmosphere sur-
rounding the cuttings should !
be very moist. An electrically
heated cutting bed, such as is
illustrated in Fig. 30, is very
useful for this work. It will
be found desirable to leave
part of the leaves on the cut-
tings when they are placed
in the bed. Considerable time
is required for the develop-
---. -47 - __tn

-Young tree put on its own root!
g girdled and having soil packet
around the trunk.
(Courtesy J. H. Jefferies.)

*PntacrP of clav This noi

used in producing
Dot system on old tnr
ire almost girdled
ot or other trouble.
about 8 or 10 f(
and a foot or me
s built around the b;
tree and filled in wi
-r ecrl 1rnntrnina

et Fig. 31.
)re by bein
Inrap arorf

of t
A,-1 ,

noum oe Kept mIoist uurlng ury weahr111.
vigorous it will in time put out roots al:


tree. This same system can be used in putting a tree on its own
root if the rootstock on which it is budded is not congenial.
In doing this the trunk is partially girdled at the bud union and
soil is packed around it until a new root system forms. Fig. 31
shows a small tree treated in this way with the resultant de-
velopment of a root system.
Good sized roots of most species of citrus if cut off and the
cut end pulled to the surface of the soil will start a top and
occasionally trees are produced in this way. This procedure
has had no commercial application but may be used under
special conditions.

The moving of large trees has become increasingly popular
during the last few years and considerable acreage has been
planted in this way. When done on a considerable scale, oper-
ators advise that they can
transplant 10 to 15 year
old trees for from $1.00
to $1.50 per tree. While
.4| it involves considerable
work, the large trees will
S" come into bearing much
".a sooner than young trees.
'"W -_ Generally, however, the
,-'a transplanting of large
trees is limited to replace-
ments in groves and for
yard plantings.
Large citrus trees can
be transplanted very eas-
ily if the proper precau-
tions are taken, and there
is practically no danger
of failure. The amount of
root system to be trans-
planted will depend upon
the facilities for moving
the trees and the trees
should be dug with as
little damage to the root
Fig. 32.-Severing tap root after all lateral system as possible. As
roots have been cut. Whitewash has been ap- soon as the tree is dug the
plied as soon as the tree was cut back, roots should be protected
from drying out by wet burlap or other covering and kept pro-
tected until planted. The new hole should be large enough to


contain the root system easily and should be dug just before the
tree is planted so that it will not have a chance to dry out. If
possible, the surface soil and subsoil should be kept separate and
some well decomposed compost and ground steamed bone meal
should be added to the soil as the tree is planted. Injured roots
should be pruned off. The soil should be placed about the roots
so as to leave them in normal position and not bunched up.

Fig. 33.-Tree being lifted by means of wrecking crane. If the tree is
to be moved any distance the roots should be wet down and covered
with a tarpaulin.

Water should be added as the soil is filled in; the soil should be
made firm about the roots, and a heavy final watering given.
The tree should be given plenty of water until it is thoroughly
Methods of digging trees vary considerably, but the follow-
ing method has been found very convenient. After topping the
tree dig a trench around it 18 to 24 inches deep, depending on

-..-,.-.. -. .. J


rWT~nllVI~IY I VI tlUnl~VLIIU~Lr

by using a crane or by hand, loosen the tree
be lifted from the hole. (Fig. 33.) The new
oal -o-l"ror tn tho drnth rnt th-o t-"onrh l- r '- n

:or me taproot
ower lateral rc
ill be less tend(
ere is also les,
, methods of e
:he winter whe
ill have to be

11C11 LIIC I
will rest
for the i
ey are fai
in keep

is let down into this hole the
undisturbed soil so that there w
to settle later. (Fig. 34.) Tf
the subsoil than in the ordinary,
Tre2s can be moved during
dormant, in which case care w

------p -~~- --~ Ly----b I-ltC11-~ I I~CY CUII UIYV

- -oLJ .L'4'.S I L A~fLJ 21 0I


Cover Crops

"Would'st have abundant crops reward thy toil
And fill thy barns, 0 tiller of the soil?
Then ever keep in mind this maxim true,
Feed well the land, and 'twill in turn feed you."
-Author unknown.
F A large number of citrus groves are examined, it will gen-
erally be found that the groves which have made the best
growth and look the best are the ones that have received
the most careful attention. These groves are most likely to be
the ones in which cover crops have been grown almost con-
The feeding of the citrus tree is quite similar to the feeding
of other plants, such as corn, cotton, or apple trees. That is,
if citrus is grown on soils that do not supply all of the neces-
sary plant foods for maximum growth, it is necessary to add
the deficient food to the soil. The growing of a cover crop in
the citrus grove each year, especially if it is a legume, is one of
the most practical ways of increasing the efficiency of the fer-
tilizer that is applied from year to year.
Cover crops increase the humus of the soil, and in this way
increase the water holding capacity of the soil, which is often
an important factor in the growth of a young grove. Then,
too, during the rainy season the cover crop pumps a lot of sur-
plus water out of the soil.
The experience of many successful citrus growers has been
that citrus trees do best, that is, make the best growth, look
more healthy, produce better fruit, and in general have a much
better appearance when grown on soils well supplied with
humus. Our hammock soil is an excellent example of land
well supplied with humus. Very little of the high pine land
contains a sufficient amount of humus for the best growth of
citrus trees. When a liberal amount of humus is added from
year to year, the soil is kept supplied with the bacterial life

-_-_ _I ---------- -- -~ 6V "
A sandy soil on which clean culture is
respond to fertilizer as well as a soil of the ,
a cover crop has been added each year. T
the fact that commercial fertilizer does not
teria to the soil. Soil without abundant
responds to fertilizer or cultivation to the s
the soil that is well supplied with bacteria.

me typ
s is ex
ne exte


Bacterial life in a soil is not only dependent upon the humus
content of the soil, but also upon the moisture content. In
other words, if one is to have an abundant supply of bacterial
life in the soil, it is necessary to have a good supply of both
humus and moisture. However, as the humus content of the
soil is increased, the water holding capacity of the soil is also
increased. These are two very important factors in the pro-
duction of a crop. In many cases moisture is the limiting fac-
tor in the production of a maximum crop. Lack of moisture
in the spring may cause a heavy dropping off of the bloom be-
fore it sets, while lack of moisture later in the year may cause

;ults than velvet beans as a cover cron CocwnPa

used. The second is to leave space enough on each side of the
tree row to allow cultivation of the young trees during the
entire summer if necessary. As the trees become larger and oc-
cupy more of the ground with root growth and spread of limbs,
it will not be possible to use as much of the ground for cover
crops. In the young groves it may be possible to have four or
five rows of a cover crop between each row of trees, but in the
older groves only one or two rows of a cover crop may be
It will be found more satisfactory to plant velvet beans
and cowpeas in rows. The rows of velvet beans should be
about four feet apart and the seed dropped about a foot apart
in the row. Planting in this way, one bushel of good velvet
bean seed should plant about three acres of grove. Cowpeas
should be planted in rows two and a half to three feet apart,
and the seed drilled in the row. It will require about one
bushel of good seed to every two acres of grove. Velvet beans
and cowpeas should be given one or two cultivations after
planting. The cultivation will hasten the growth of the plants
and give them a chance to get ahead of the grass and weeds.
Beggarweed seed should be sown broadcast on a well pre-
pared seed bed and covered lightly with a harrow. Use from
15 to 20 pounds of re-cleaned seed per acre.
Crotalaria should be sown broadcast at the rate of about
eight to ten pounds of seed to the acre. Prepare a good seed
bed before sowing the seed. Cover with a light tooth harrow.
None of the above mentioned legume cover crops will grow
satisfactorily in the shade of the citrus trees. However, the
citrus grower should continue to grow a cover crop in his grove
as long as shade does not make it impossible.
Table I gives the yield of hay in tons of four legumes for
each of three years, and the average for the three years, when
grown at Gainesville, Florida. The variation in the yield of
the legumes is shown to be rather large.

- l- - -~LT T A ll


TABLE I.*-Yields of Four Leguminous Crops in Tons of Air-Dry
Material Per Acre at Gainesville, Florida.
Crop 1924 1925 1926 3-Year
Beggarweed ..--------.....-- 0.79 0.92 0.15 0.62
Velvet Beans ---...--............... 0.98 0.82 0.76 0.85
Cowpeas ..........-.... ---.......... 1.48 1.30 0.52 1.10
Crotalaria .................... 2.59 1.90 4.18 2.89
The yield of the same legume crops when grown at Lake
Alfred, Florida, is shown in Table II, although at Lake Alfred
records of the yield were obtained for only two years. The
average of the two years at Lake Alfred is much better than the
three-year average at Gainesville.

TABLE II.*-Yields of Four Leguminous Crops in Tons of Air-Dry
Material Per Acre at Lake Alfred, Florida.
Crop 1925 1926 Average
Beggarweed --...--......-....-.......-- ---...--------- 2.29 1.78 2.03
Velvet Beans ---..-............--....... ..--.------ 1.27 1.53 1.40
Cowpeas .-................-----------------.... -..------ 1.27 1.01 1.14
Crotalaria ....--...........--------------... -... ----- 4.63 2.76 3.69

*Stokes, W. E., Agronomist, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. Journal
of the American Society of Agronomy, Vol. 19. No. 10, October, 1927.



Gainesville is not, strictly speaking, in the citrus section of
Florida. The yields of the above legumes at Lake Alfred
would, therefore, be more typical of the citrus section, for Lake
Alfred is in the heart of the citrus section.
Table III gives the percentage of nitrogen in each of the
four legume crops grown.
TABLE III.-Percentage of Total Nitrogen (Dry Basis) in Crops
Grown at Gainesville, Florida.*
Crop Tops Roots
Beggarweed ........--.........................-- ........ .. 1.64 1.07
Velvet Beans ................--.... ..-..-............ 2.51 1.48
Cow peas ..---............................... --. --.--.. --... 2.29 1.65
Crotalaria ...................................... ....----- 2.78 0.92
Tables IV and V show how the yield of corn and sweet
potatoes was increased when different legume crops were plowed
under in comparison with a non-legume. These two tables
are given here so that an idea may be obtained as to the value
of legumes in increasing the yield of crops. No data of this
nature is available as to the yield of citrus, but it is reasonable
to expect that results with citrus fruits would be somewhat
similar to the tests with corn and sweet potatoes.
On a two-year average the legume cover crops plowed under
increased the yield of corn all the way from 3.7 to 8.0 bushels
an acre. When sweet potatoes were grown, the legume cover
crops, when plowed under, increased the yield of potatoes from
9.3 to 27 bushels an acre.
TABLE IV.-Corn Yields in Bushels Per Acre Following Non-Legume
and Legumes Turned Under.*
Non- Velvet Beggar-
Year Legume Crotalaria Beans Cowpeas weed
1925 ........... 15.13 21.71 22.99 22.28 19.28
1926 ............ 8.40 17.65 16.66 12.90 11.75
Average .....- 11.76 19.68 19.82 17.59 15.51
TABLE V. -Sweet Potato Yields in Bushels Per Acre Following
Non-Legumes and Legumes Turned Under.'
Non- Velvet Beggar-
Year Legume Crotalaria Beans Cowpeas weed
1925 .- 37.50 78.00 541.50 61.00 55.00
1926 ........... 26.09 39.72 34.33 33.75 27.19
Average ...-.. 31.79 58.86 44.41 47.37 41.09
The y.eld of hay per acre, percentage of nitrogen in the
crop, and the total pounds of nitrogen produced per acre by
each of the four legumes grown at Gainesville are shown in
*Stokes, W. E., Agronomist, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Journal
of the American Society of Agronomy, Vol. 19, No. 10, October, 1927.


Table VI. A cover crop that will add from 17 to 141 pounds
of nitrogen per acre each year will necessarily increase the fer-
tility of the soil from year to year. The citrus grower knows
from actual experience the value of nitrogen. He knows that it
is the most expensive fertilizer element that he purchases.

TABLE VI.-Yields of Hay From Four Legumes Grown at Gaines-
ville, Fla., and Estimated Amount of Nitrogen in Crops Per Acre.
Yields in Tons Pounds of
Three-Year Percentage Nitrogen
Crop Averaget of Nitrogenf Per Acre
Beggarweed ...- ......... 0.62 1.443 17,890
Velvet Beans .........---. 0.85 2.208 37,536
Cowpeas ................... 1.10 2.015 44,330
Crotalaria ................... 2.89 2.446 141,378

Table VII shows how cover crops, when plowed under, in-
crease both the nitrogen and organic matter in the soil. The
results shown in Table VII were not secured in Florida, it is
true, but the test was carried on at Cairo, Georgia. on Norfolk
fine sandy loam. Since there are hundreds of citrus trees in
Florida growing on Norfolk fine sandy loam soil, the results
obtained in Georgia are applicable to Florida soil of this same
type. If such results can be obtained on Norfolk fine sandy
loam, it is reasonable to expect similar results on any good soil
throughout Florida. Table VII brings out the fact that by
plowing under the cover crops, all of which were not legumes,
the percentage of organic matter in the soil was more than dou-
bled in five years, and the nitrogen content was also doubled.

TABLE VII.-Analysis of Soil From a Pecan Orchard on Norfolk
Fine Sandy Loam at Cairo, Georgia, on Which Cover Crops
Were Grown at Different Seasons of the Year.*

Percentage of
e Spring and Summer Fall and Winter Constituents
Cover Crop Cover Crop
Organic Nitro-
Matter gen
1918 I Fallow-........----.........-. Bur Clover.....-....-. 0.64 1 0.031
1919 Cowpeas..................-. I Oats ....-....----.. ... I ......
1920 Beggarweed.......... I--I Rye -.........-....- ...... -
1921 I Cowpeas ...........---.. .... I Rye ...................--- 0.90 0.040
1922 Velvet Beans.....-...- I Rye and Oats .....-.. 1.23 0.050
1923 I Velvet Beans......-...... Rye and Oats ........ 1.39 I 0.061
1See Table I.
U. S. D. A. Department Bulletin No. 1378. Pages 4-5.
SAir-Dry basis.

Organic matter and nitrogen are two very important fac
tors to have in the soil, and it is to the advantage of ever,
citrus grower to see that the percentage of these two constitu
ents is kept as high as possible in all of his land.
Table VIII shows how the water-holding capacity of th
soil is increased when organic matter is added. The table show
that when 5 percent of organic matter is added to coarse sane
the water-holding capacity is increased 40 percent. When 1(
percent of organic matter is added, the water-holding capacity
it increased 85.7 percent.


A good cover crop of crotalaria.
TABLE VIII.-Effect of Organic Matter on Retention of Moistur
in Sand.*

Grams of Increase
Soil Material Water Retained Percent
By 100 grams

Coarse Sand .........---............---..I 13.3
Coarse sand with 5 percent peat-.| 18.6 40.0
Coarse sand with 10 percent peat..| 24.7 85.7
Coarse sand with 20 percent peat..! 40.0 200.7
Peat ..............-----.-... ... ............. 184.0 1,283.4

_rm____ __^______^ ___ __ ____ _

A good cover crop of


up to bearing
greatly in diffe
to give exact figui
in cost is due to t
of clearing the la;
hire, or tractor hi:
The price of
acre, depending u
The better types
shipping point w
grade of soil foul
distance from a s
by truck over an
duces the profits
The cost of cl
to $75.00 or moi
^-. -- - ^- ^ j


r is desirable.

of Grove to Bearing Age

takes about five years to bring a citrus grove
age. The cost to do this, however, varies so
rent sections of the State that it is impossible
res. The chief reason for this great variation
he difference in cost of land, difference in cost
nd, and difference in cost of day labor, team
land may vary from $25.00 to $200.00 an
[pon the location and character of the land.
of soil located on a paved road and close to a
ill naturally cost more per acre than a poorer
or five miles from a paved road and a like
Shipping point. The transportation of fruit
unimproved road to the shipping point re-
very materially.
hearing land may vary anywhere from $15.00
re per acre. This depends on the number of

removed .

>- n -mlm -- I- A T-T T mTTT


N 16ZT

from $1.50 to $4.00 a day. Team and tractor hire varies in
about the same proportion; that is, from $3.50 to $7.00 a day
for a team, and from $15.00 to $30.00 a day for tractor hire.


40 acres of land at $125 ................................ $ 5,000.00
Clearing at $25 per acre ........----------....................... 1,000.00
Fencing 320 rods at 60c ................................... 192.00
528 fence posts split at 25c ............................. 132.00
Digging post holes at 2c .............................. 13.20
Setting posts at 2c ..............................- ... 13.30
Stretching and putting up wire ---.....--------............... 21.00
1 man at $3.00 per day for three days
2 men at $2.00 per day for three days
$ 6,371.50
Breaking land, 40 acres at $5.00 an acre......$-$ 200.00
Discing land twice at $1.00 an acre ...............-. 80.00
Laying off and staking land for trees .............. 44.00
1 man at $5.00 per day for four days
2 men at $3.00 per day for four days
Stakes at 50c per hundred......-....--..... .......--- 11.20
2,240 trees (set 25 by 30 feet) at 75c ........ 1,680.00
Setting trees and watering at 10c each............ 224.00
Banking trees at Ic each ..........----.........-------------------....---- 22.40
Fertilizer, 3 lbs. per tree, 6,720 lbs. at $42.00
per ton ---........................---------- 141.12
Applying fertilizer at $5.00 per ton ------............------ 16.80
4 waterings (wagon, pair mules, and 3 men at
$12.00 per day; 2 days each watering, or 8
days at $12.00) ....-- ..............------- 96.00
Plowing out middles in fall at $3.25 per acre--.. 13.00
Pulling down banks at Ic each.---------...-------- 22.40
Four cultivations at $1.00 per acre each culti-
vation ..----......... .. ------- ..---.... 160.00
Two hoeings of trees and sprouting, 5 men at
$2.50 a day for 2 days.........................--. 25.00
Replacing dead trees, 112 at 75c each ----........ 84.00
$ 2,936.92
Plowing out middles at $3.25 an acre............$-- 130.00
Fertilizer, 6 lbs. per tree, or 13,440 lbs. at
$42.00 per ton ---------- 282.24
Applying fertilizer at $5.00 per ton ...------........ 33.60
25 bushels cowpea seed for cover crop at $2.25 56.25
Replacing dead trees, 56 at 75c ...... 42.00
Planting cover crop, one man and one mule
with planter for 5 days at $4.00 ............. 20.00

_______ ____ ___ ____________

5 days at $4.00 a day for two cultivations_ 40.00
15 cultivations of tree rows with Acme harrow
at 50c per acre each cultivation-----....--....... 300.00
3 hoeings and sprouting at 50c an acre for
each hoeing ..........----......-----------------...........-----...... 60.00
Banking trees at 2c each ....-------------.... -..........----- 44.80
Discing cover crop at $2.00 an acre-..-..---..------........ 80.00

$ 1,088.89

Plowing out middles at $3.25 an acre.----$......... 130.00
Fertilizer, 9 lbs. per tree, or 10.08 tons at
$42.00 per ton ..................... ......-.--------- 423.36
Applying fertilizer at $5.00 a ton ------....... 50.40
Pulling down banks at Ic each --..----..----..~.. -- 22.40
15 cultivations of tree rows with Acme harrow
at 50c an acre, each cultivation-----......-.....-----. 300.00
3 hoeings of tree rows at 50c an acre .....----------.. 60.00
Pruning at $3.25 a day, 6 days....------...---......---..--- 19.50
Banking trees at 3c each--..---........--....---.-------........---. 67.20
300 lbs. beggarweed seed at 50c .....----......-----. 150.00
Planting beggarweed seed, 2 days at $2.25...... 4.50
Discing under cover crop at $2.00 an acre ------... 80.00

$ 1,307.36
Discing middles at $3.25 an acre------...........---.........$ 130.00
Fertilizer, 12 lbs. per tree, 13.44 tons at $42.00
per ton -..--....-------........................ ....-- 564.48
Applying fertilizer at $5.00 per ton......----------......--... 67.20
Pulling down banks at 1z2c each..........------------.......... 33.60
12 cultivations of tree rows with Acme harrow
at 50c an acre ........----------......- --~.~ ..-- 240.00
3 hoeings of tree rows at 50c an acre.---.-........ 60.00
Pruning, 8 days at $3.25 ...---.........--...........- 26.00
3 sprayings, each spraying 2 days at $30.00 per
day for spraying outfit, crew and material 180.00
Discing under cover crop at $2.00 an acre ----..... 80.00
Banking trees at 3c each..........--------.......----.--.......------. 67.20

$ 1,448.48
Plowing out middles at $3.25 an acre..--------......... $ 130.00
Fertilizer, 15 pounds per tree, 16.8 tons at
$42.00 per ton ------.......................------------------..... 705.60
Applying fertilizer at $5.00 per ton.--.----..--..--........ 84.00
Pulling down banks at 2c each....-........--------------.... 44.80
12 cultivations of tree rows with Acme harrow
at 50c an acre .--------..............------.-----------............... 240.00
3 hoeings of tree rows at 50c an acre..----.......-------. 60.00
Pruning, 12 days at $3.25....------------........-------......... 39.00

I______________ __ --U---UVI-U-I~


3 sprayings --..--.....---..... ......-.....-..- .... 200.00




the i

.h I.Ofso.4u

AL INTli CJUU6 UVrilt ;0-YEAK KtIlUU $ 13,Z't>.
RAGE COST PER ACRE.......................... $ 331.
'OTE: Beginning with the sixth year, under ordinary conditi(
returnss from the citrus crop will more than pay operating o

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