Citation
Stories of the old Romans

Material Information

Title:
Stories of the old Romans
Creator:
Knight ( Printer )
Religious Tract Society (Great Britain) ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
London
Publisher:
Religious Tract Society
Manufacturer:
Knight.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
240 p. : ill. ; 19 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Romans -- Biography -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- Rome -- Republic, 265-30 B.C ( lcsh )
Biographies -- 1899 ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1899
Genre:
Biographies ( rbgenr )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
collective biography ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Date of publication from inscription.
Statement of Responsibility:
by the author of "Tales of heroes and great men of old", "Stories and pictures of church history", etc.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
026971226 ( ALEPH )
ALH8453 ( NOTIS )
265031500 ( OCLC )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text




The Baldwin Library

University
mB ss
Florida











THE LEAP OF

MARCUS CURTIUS.

‘See page 154.



















~STORIES

OF THE



OLD POMANS.

BY THE AUTHOR OF

“TALES OF HEROES AND GREAT MEN OF OLD,”

: “ STORIES AND PICTURES OF CHURCH HISTORY,” ETC.
/ . “

LONDON:
THE RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETY,

56, PATERNOSTER Row; 65, Str. Paut’s CHURCHYARD,
AND 164, PICCADILLY. ;

i"











LONDON: KNIGHT, PRINTER, BARTHOLOMEW CLOSE,







PREPAC;

1




(ESE stories of the Old Romans are in-
| tended to form a companion volume to
the “Tales of Heroes and Great Men of
Old” by by the same author. He has endeavoured,
while retaining the chronological order of events,
and so keeping in view their historical connection,
to select such as present the most salient points of
interest, and which also are most suggestive of
moral lessons. The legendary character of the early
stories has been constantly kept in view, as shown
by modern historical criticism; yet they are stories
which the world “would not willingly let die,” and
which, rightly interpreted, may help to make us not
only “sadder,” but “wiser.” If they have not the
richness of poetical fancy which the Greek legends
exhibit, they teach none the less important practical



vi _ Preface.

lessons. Patriotism, courage, and self-sacrifice are
nobly exhibited in some of them; and the writer has '
endeavoured to point out from them the nobler
morality, the higher self-sacrifice, ‘the puter parolee
taught in the Bible. ©

Although the stories thus salocted do not come
down to a period which is commonly considered to.
mark the decline of the Roman “Empire, yet the
causes of that decline, as indicated in the latter days
of the Republic, have, it, is hoped, been sufficiently
pointed out. The inordinate love of ‘wealth, the
growth of luxurious habits, the increasing selfishness
of all classes, the loosening of social bonds which pre-
pared the way for the decay and final destruction of
the mightiest empire the world had then seen, have
been pointedly referred to; not without the hope
that some of the young people at least who may
read these stories may learn that personal goodness
and self-denial are better than external wealth and
self-indulgence, not only for ourselves, but for the
nation to which we belong.

May He who teaches by events in history, as
‘well as by His Word, help both writer and reader
to lay to heart these lessons, and fulfil them in
lives not lived unto themselves, but “to Him. who
died for them, and rose again!”



If.

TIt.

VI.

VII.

Vit.

TX.











CONTENTS.

THe WaNDERINGS oF AINEAS . R ft
How tary Founpep THE City

THE,Goop Kina Numa . : z

. Tue Great FIGHT BETWEEN THE HOoRATIT AND “THE

CURIATII z F We panc ay ee ie
THE WICKED TARQUINS . 2 " a

More asovut Brutus

How Horatius Bravery Derenpep tHE Brice, * .

Muctus Tam LErt-HANDED . . .

Carus Marctus CorRIoLANUS .

. A Nosrz Orp Roman : :

How tar Gauts TooK Rome . 2 ‘

PAGE

ll
23

39

103

131



Vili

XII.

XIII.

XIV.
“xv.
XVI.

XVII.

XVIII.

Contents.

PAGE
How Romer was DELIVERED FROM THE GAULS ‘ 141
How Two Nosie ROMANS GAVE THEMSELVES TO DIE
vor Rome . s : : Wage S158
How Tirus Manurus Torquatus won His NAME. 163
Kine Peaeec AND THE Romans : 5 meat 175
ANOTHER NosLtE Roman . Fi 5 x 195
THE most ELOQUENT OF a Romans . 4 . 205
Jouts Casar, THE First Emperor oF RomE . 225

APPENDIX.—NAMES AND OFFICES AMONG THE ROMANS Teo





Whe WZ anderings of @eineas,













() DIDO AND ANEAS.



Alhe Wi anderings of @Eineas,
—Snegpeta—

D legends tell us that Aineas, one of the
Trojan chiefs, was the founder of the
Â¥) Roman nation. The story of his adven-
tures was written by Virgil, in a poem called the
Aineid, and is as follows:
_ When Troy was burnt by the Greeks, Anchises,
the father of Aineas, who was old and blind, besought
his son to leave him. “Iam an old man,” he said,
“and cannot live long: leave me. I shall not care
for death if you are safe.” ineas refused to do so;
but taking him on his back, and leading his little
son Ascanius with one hand, he made his escape from
the city. Because he thus rescued his father at the
risk of his own life, and also carried with him the
images of the gods, he was called “the pious Aineas.”
After a time he, his father, and his son, with many
friends. and servants, built themselves ships, and set
sail to found a new kingdom. First of all they came
to Thrace. Having stayed here for awhile, they set



oa



12 Stories of the Old Romans.

sail again, and came to Delos, where they asked advice
of the god Apollo as to what they should do. The
priest said they were to go on till they found the
country from which first of all the Trojan people
came, and that there they should found an empire
which should rule over all the world.

Anchises, the father of Aineas, thought Crete was
meant. So they offered a sacrifice to Neptune, the
god of the sea, for a safe voyage, and another to
Apollo for having directed them; a milk-white sheep
to the west wind, and a black one to calm the stormy
seas. Then they set sail, and in due time arrived
safely at Crete.

There they built a city named Pergamos. Buta
pestilence fell upon them; the cattle perished, and
the men fell sick and died. Anchises bade Aineas
consult the god again, but that night he saw a vision. -
He fancied that the gods whose images he brought
from Troy appeared to him, and said: “O Aineas, we
have come to tell thee that which thou wast going to
Delos to know. The country you are in search of is
not Crete, but that which of old was called Hesperia,
but now Italy. Go there.” Then they disappeared.
Aineas started from his bed, offered incense to the
gods, and again set sail. After awhile they reached
the land of the Cyclops, in Sicily, and there Anchises,
the father of Atneas, died.

Although he was so near to Italy yet he did not



The Wanderings of Aineas. 13

_ land there, for his ships were driven by fierce winds,

and many of them, he thought, were lost. But his
own ship, and a few others, came to land, and find-
ing a pleasant and sheltered bay, they went on shore.
Aineas was disappointed, but not disheartened, and
taking his bow and arrows went in search of food
for his starving sailors and companions. Seven fine
stags he slew,—one for each ship; and while they
rejoiced over the welcome food and wine, he said to ..
them with comforting words: “O brave companions,
we have suffered many things together; be of good
courage, the gods will bring these troubles to an end
also. Some day you will be pleased to remember
these hardships. Endure, and you shall conquer.”

As Aineas and his friend Achates were one day
exploring the country, they came to a thick wood.
Here a beautiful woman, dressed as a huntress, met .
them, and said: “Have you, O young men, met any
of my sisters in this wood ?”

‘Then Aineas réplied: “Surely, O virgin, thou art
not a human being, but a goddess. We have not
seen thy sisters; but tell us (who have been driven
hither by the winds and the waves) what country is
this in which we wander ?”

“You are in the kingdom of Carthage,” she replied,
“and Dido is the queen. But whoare ye? and whence.
do you come, and whither do you wish to go 9”

“O goddess,” answered Aineas, with a deep sigh,



14 - Stories. of the Old Romans.

“if I should tell you all you ask, evening would come
before I had finished my sad story. Driven from
Troy, our ancient dwelling-place, we have been borne
by the waves to these coasts. J am the good Aineas,
and I carry in my ships my household gods. I seek
Italy, the country of my fathers.”

Then the goddess, having pity on him, satneragied
him in the midst of his grief, and said: “ Be of good
courage. Your ships, which you think lost, are safe.
The path is before you; go at once to the queen.”

As she spoke, her raiment seemed to change, and
flowed down to her feet ; sweet odours spread around —
her ; and, rising into the air, she departed from their
ne

In due time they arrived at the city, and stood
there gazing in wonder at all they saw; but they
themselves could not be seen, for the goddess had
spread a thick mist around them. Some were busy
building the walls; some making harbours for ships ;
some carving stone for building ; for a new city was
being built by Queen Dido. But while they gazed
they beheld a great throng approaching. Beautiful
youths and virgins surrounded the queen, herself
more beautiful than them all; and there in the midst
of the crowd were their companions whom they.
thought lost in the sea.

While they were wondering has would come to °
pass, Ilioneus, one of their lost companions, came



!
@

ae

The Wanderings of dineas.

15

before the queen, and said: “O Queen, have pity
on us Trojans. We came not to destroy or to steal.
We were seeking the land of Hesperia, the land
of our fathers; but the winds drove us to your
coasts. Suffer not your people to set fire to our
ships. Our king was Aineas, a just and pious man,
and great in war; but we know not whether he be
living or dead. Let us, we pray thee, draw our ships
on shore, shattered as they are by the waves, that we
may repair them, and seek our own land.”

Queen Dido, looking kindly at him, replied: “ Fear
not, Trojans. Who does not know your brave race ?
Draw your ships on shore; I will myself help you,
and give you treasures. I wish, indeed, your king
Zineas also were here.”

‘Then indeed were the hearts of Aineas and Achates
rejoiced. “What more can you desire, O Aineas?”
said his friend. Just as he was speaking, the cloud
which had concealed them vanished in the air, and
Aineas appeared to the view of all, radiant and beauti-
ful as a god. Then he said to the queen: “I am he
whom thou seekest, O Queen! May the gods reward
thee for thy kindness with great honours! Thy
name, thy praise I will ever remember!” Then
turning to his friends, he grasped them one after
the other by their hand with great joy.

The queen gazed in admiration at the noble-looking
stranger, and with kind words asked him and his



16 â„¢ Stories of the Old Romans.
companions to stay with her and be her guests. So
they feasted in her splendid palace that day and
night.

Aineas stayed a long while with Queen Dido, and
almost forgot that he had to go in search of Ttaly, and
found an empire there. Dido was very fond of him,
and he lived with her in great luxury. But Jupiter,
so Virgil relates, was angry that he should waste his
time in idleness and pleasure, and sent Mercury, the.
messenger of the gods, to bid him leave Carthage at
once. Mercury found him wearing a purple scarf
embroidered with gold, and a sword ornamented with
glittering gems, the gifts of the queen, directing the .
building of a wall. He thus addressed him: “What
art thou doing here, foolish man, building the walls of
a foreign city, and forgétting that thou hast to build
thine own? Why art thou lingering here? If neither
glory nor the hopes of fame will persuade thee, yet,
think of thy son, to whom the crown of Rome belongs
after thee.” Then he vanished. Thus Eneas was
taught the great lesson, that we are not in this world
to indulge in idle pleasure, but to do good and noble
work, )

Aineas, terrified, looked like one that was out of his
mind, and he longed to set sail at once from the
pleasures of Carthage. But, like all men who do
wrong, he had put his foot into a snare, and he did
not know how to get out of it. It was easy enough



The Wanderings of dineas. “17

to remain, and live with Queen Dido in her splendid

palace, though it was wrong to do so; but it was not

so easy to get away again. What could he say to
‘ her? and what should he do?

Like many people when they are going to do some-
thing of which they are ashamed, he tried to do it
secretly. He bade his men get the ships ready; and
if anybody found out what they were doing, they were

', to make some excuse, so that the queen might not
hear of it. But she was one of the first to find it out.

Bitterly she reproached him for wishing to leave

‘L— her, and Aineas replied: “O Queen, you have indeed
been very kind to me, and while I live I can never
forget your goodness. It was not my wish to leave
you secretly; but the oracle commands me to go.
Anchises, my father, appears to me in dreams, and
admonishes me with terrible warnings. Besides, Jove
himself has now sent his messenger to me, to bid me
depart. O Queen, the gods command me! Cease,
therefore, to complain or persuade me. I must go,

, though unwilling.”

But these words only made Dido more angry, and
looking at him with flaming eyes, she said: “O false
and hard-hearted man, hard as a rock and cruel as
tigers are; not one tear thou sheddest for my misery,
not one pitying look thou givest me. Go! seek thy
kingdom. No more will I ask thee to stay. But I
hope, if the gods will hear my prayer, that both thou

: Cc



4

18 Stories of the Old Romans.

and thy vessels may find a grave in the shifting sands,
or in the faithless waves, not so faithless as thou art.”
Then she fell fainting on the ground.

Aineas pitied her, and felt troubled in his mind,
because he knew he had deceived her, and behaved
cruelly to her. But he dared not stay; and leaving
her insensible on the couch where her maids had
placed her, he went at once to his companions to bid
them make ready for the voyage. Dido tried again
and again to persuade him, and threatened to kill
herself if he would not stay ; but he would not change
his mind. And he was right. He had done wrong
in deceiving her, wrong in staying so long; but it was
right to go; and if Dido had been a noble, generous-
hearted woman, she would not have tried to keep
him from his duty.

The night before Aineas intended to sail Mercury
again appeared to him, and warned him to depart at
once, for dangers surrounded him. So Aineas arose,
called up his companions, and gave orders to sail.
The rowers laboured at their oars, the great sails
swung out to the west wind, and Aineas and his
companions were soon far away from the Cartha-
ginian shore.

In time he reached the land of his forefathers, and
set to work to build a city, and called the name of it
Troy, after the famous Troy in which he was born.

Latinus was the king of the country on the shore

4,



The Wanderings of Aineas. 19

of which Aineas had landed. We can well believe
that he did not much like to hear that strange men
had come in ships, and were building a city on his
land without his leave. There are two stories about
what happened. One is that King Latinus and his
people came to see the strangers, and made friénds
with them; and that the king gave Aineas his
daughter Lavinia for his wife, for which reason the
name of the city was afterwards called Lavinium.
The other story is that at first the king was friendly ;
but that the Trojans having wounded a favourite stag
belonging to Latinus, they quarrelled and fought,
and Latinus was slain; after which Aineas took his
daughter Lavinia, and made her his wife.

There is another story which is partly told by
Virgil, but no one can say how much is true or
false. Virgil’s story is that King Latinus made
friends with the strangers, in obedience to an ancient
prophecy, which said that strangers would come, and
that the king’s daughter was to be given to their chief
for his wife. Aineas, therefore, married Lavinia, and
called his new city Lavinium after her. But, before .
AMneas came, Latinus had promised his daughter to
Turnus, the prince of the Rutulians. Turnus being
angry, persuaded some of the other princes to join.
him in making war.upon the strangers, and upon
King Latinus, their ally. In the battlé which fol-
lowed, Latinus was’ slain. Then Aineas was made



20 Stories of the Old Romans.

king instead of him, and the Latins and the Trojans
became’ one people. But in the war between Aineas
and Turnus, Turnus was killed; and Aineas, being
defeated, disappeared, and was never afterwards seen.
It was said that the gods took him, and a temple
was raised in his honour on the banks of the little
river Numicius, where he disappeared. His son
Agcanius reigned in his stead, and built Alba Longa,
“the long white town” on the side of the Alban
Lake. There, the legends. say, he and: his sons and
sons’ sons reigned for three hundred years.





Taow they Founded the @fity,









(2) THE SHEPHERD BEFORE THE WICKED KING.





i.

ow they Founded the @fity,
—sasdwetr

‘HEN many years had passed away, after the
Mi] death of Ascanius, Procas was king of Alba
4ei; Longa. He left two sons, Numitor and
Amulius. Numitor was gentle and peaceful, but
Amulius was cruel, and. very fond of power. So he
‘took away his brother Numitor’s share of the king-
dom, but allowed him to live quietly on the lands
and money which his father had given him.

But Amulius, like all evil-doers, was afraid that
some one would repay him for his evil deeds. Es-
pecially he was afraid that Numitor’s son would do
so,—therefore he had him put to death. And, lest
Sylvia, Numitor’s daughter, should marry, and her
children should grow up and punish him, he ap-
pointed her a priestess of Vesta; so that it was
unlawful for her to be married. Then he thought his
kingdom was safe. But kingdoms won by injustice
and crime are never safe, as after a time sao lis
found. And this is how it came to pass.





24 Stories of the Old Romans.

Sylvia, not liking to be a priestess of Vesta, broke
her vows, and had two sons, born at the same time.
When Amulius heard of this he was very angry, for
now he feared lest these children might take away
thé kingdom from him. But as his wrong - doing
made him afraid, so his fear made him cruel, and he .
ordered the mother and her little babes to be thrown
into the river Tiber. We do not hear any more of
poor Sylvia. Of the two little babes we are told what
follows: The river Tiber had overflowed its banks,
so that those who were ordered to put them into the
river could not get near it for the flood. Thinking,
however, they would certainly be drowned, they put
them into the water where it had overflowed the
fields, and there left them. But the flood soon
subsided, and the little ark, or chest, in which they
had been placed was left on dry ground.

But the stories relate still more wonderful things ;
and, though we cannot believe what they tell us, it is
_ worth while to know what used to be believed. They
say that when the poor little babies cried from cold
and hunger, a she-wolf, which had come to the stream
to drink, heard them; and instead of devouring them,
as might have been expected, she lay down close by
them, warmed thém, licked them clean with her
tongue, and gave them food. One day Faustulus, the
king’s shepherd, found them in a cave where she had
carried them. The shepherd, being a kind-hearted



How they Founded the City. 25

man, and perhaps knowing that these were the
children the king had tried to kill, took them home
to his wife, and brought them up as his own sons.

So, roaming in the fields, and among the shepherds
and their flocks, the two boys, whose names were
Romulus and Remus, grew up hearty and strong.
But they did not care for keeping the sheep and
tending the cattle so much as they did for hunting
the wild beasts in the forest. When they grew older,
-they went out and fought with the robbers who came
to steal the flocks, and slew them, so that they gained
great praise and honour among the shepherds.

They were not only brave and strong, but, as all
brave men ought to be, were courteous and gentle.
For if we are brave and strong ourselves, we ought to
pity those who are not so, and try to help them. So
‘St. Paul says,“We then that are strong ought to
bear the infirmities of the weak, and not to please
ourselves.” They also—and especially Romulus, it
is said—tried to be wise as well as strong; for
although they did not know that they were Numitor’s
grandsons, nor that they should ever be kings, they
felt desirous to learn, and it was well they did so.
‘We never know when our knowledge may be of use
to us, So it is wise to get all we can whilst we have .
opportunity.

One day Numitor’s herdsmen quarrelled with the

1 Rom, xv. 1,



26 Stories of the Old Romans.

herdsmen of Amulius, and drove away some of his
cattle. Romulus and Remus with their companions
went after them, beat the robbers, and brought the
cattle back. Numitor was very angry, and tried to
have them punished, for he did not know they were
his grandsons.

But the robbers were angry at being deprived of
their-plunder ; and one day, while Remus was walking
with ‘some of his friends, they attacked him, and
having wounded his companions, took him prisoner,
and carried him before Numitor. They accused him
and Romulus of coming with a band of young men
into his lands, and robbing them,—although they.
were the robbers themselves. Numitor was afraid
to punish Remus because of his brother Amulius, for
he thought, If I punish this young man for taking
flocks and herds to his farms, he may be angry with
me. So he sent him to Amulius to be punished.
Amulius, having heard the complaints of the’ shep-
herds, without inquiring whether what they said.
was true or not, sent Remus back to Numitor, and
told him he might punish him as he pleased. This
shows what sort of man Amulius was. To please
himself, and get power, he had done his brother
wrong; and now to save himself trouble, and please
his brother, he was willing to do Remus wrong.

But what the king meant for his punishment.
turned out for his good. For when Numitor saw



How they Founded the City. 27

him again, he could not Help noticing how different
he looked from the other shepherds. He was, for one
thing, much taller and stronger than they; but he
was also different in this way, that he did not seem
afraid to look him in the face and speak boldly.
Numitor began to wonder who he was. Perhaps he
thought at that time of his own son, whom his
brother Amulius had so cruelly slain, and who used
to look bold and brave, like Remus. Perhaps he
thought of his poor daughter Sylvia and of her little
babes, whom Amulius had ordered to be drowned.
Perhaps he thought, “ What if this should be one of
them?” Then he would think again, “No, that can-
not be.” But he determined nevertheless’ to make
inquiry.

So he began to question Remus, and looking gently
upon him, said, with a kind voice, “Who are you? .
- and who are your parents, and where were you born?
Tell me about yourself.”

Then Remus answered with boldness, but with
a, little more gentleness, for he could not help
feeling Numitor’s kindness, although he knew he
was wrongly accused, “I will hide nothing. from you,
for you behave more like a prince than Amulius.
You inquire into the matter, and he has delivered me
up without inquiry. I have a twin brother, and we
used to think that we were the sons of Faustulus,
the herdsman of the king. But since I have been



28 Stories of the Old Romans.

accused of these crimes I have heard other things.
It is said we were born in secret, that we were ex-
posed to wild beasts and birds, and that a she-wolf

nursed and fed us, after we had been thrown into
the river. I do not know whether it is true, but the
chest in which it is said we lay, is preserved, bound
with brass bands. Perhaps this will show who we are.”

While Numitor was thinking of what he would do,
and how he should find out this-mystery, Faustulus,
who knew the danger that Remus was in, took the
chest to carry it to Amulius. He looked very much
frightened, and some of the king’s soldiers, who saw
him coming, thought there was something wrong,
and began to question him, and that made him-more ~
frightened. Then they saw the chest, which he tried
to hide under his cloak. One of them who knew all
about it, for he was one of those who had put the
little children in the river, went and told the king.
Faustulus was then brought before him.

He was now still more frightened, and did not tell
the king all. But he told him the young men were
alive, and that they were keeping cattle a long way
from Alba, Then Amulius was frightened too, for he
thought, “ Now they will find out all my wickedness,
and come and do to me as I tried to do to them.”
He was in dreadful trouble, afraid that at last his
sin had found him out. And so it had Long long
years ago he thought he had killed these poor little



How they Founded the City. 129

children, and now they were strong men, and would
come and kill him! What should he do? what
should he do? Miserable wretch! he deserved it
all.

’ He hardly knew what he said or did, and sent
some one to make further inquiry. But in his hurry
he sent a good man, who was a friend of his brother
Numitor, to ask him if he knew anything about
the children. When the man came, and saw Remus
before Numitor, he guessed how it was, and took the
side of Remus and his brother. He showed Numitor
that they were really his grandsons, and begged him
to do all he could to keep them from the anger of
the king.

While he was yet talking to Numitor, Roritlne
came. Many of the citizens of Alba were with him.
He had also with him many men armed with swords,
spears, and shields; each band a hundred strong,
headed by an officer, who bore in his hand a pole
with a handful of hay hanging from itt Numitor
acknowledged the young men to be his grand-
children. They then marched at the head of their
men to the palace of Amulius ; and there, after so
“many years of wrong, and so many cruel and unjust
dealings, his judgment came upon him, and he was

1 These were called, manipuli, or handfuls. Ever after, in the
Roman army, soldiers of the same company were called manipulares ;
i.e. belonging to one handful.



30 Stories of the Old Romans.

slain. So he found, as all evil-doers sooner or later
will find, that “wickedness shall not be unpunished.”
Numitor now became king of Alba.

But Romulus and Remus had no wish to remain
idle. They did not think that because they were
king’s sons they had nothing to do but enjoy them-
selves. They wanted work to do, as every man will
who is good for anything in this world. So when they
had seen their grandfather comfortably settled in his
kingdom, and paid all the honour they could to the
memory of their mother, they determined to go and
build a city of their own, where they might live and
rule. They determined to build this city in the very
place where they had been thrown into the water and
preserved from death.

They gathered their friends together, therefore, and
all the Alban people who chose to go with them, and
went to found a new city, the city which was after-
wards to become, though they knew it not, the
‘greatest city in the world.

Sad to say, at this time, the time when the people
were ready to do them all reverence, a dispute arose
between the two brothers as to where the city should
be built, and who should have the honour of giving
it his name. This quarrel led to a sad result, as we
shall see.

Romulus wished the city to be built on the

. 2 Prov, xi, 21.



How they Founded the City, 31

Palatine hill; Remus chose the Aventine; and, as
neither would give way to the other, it was resolved
to choose the place by augury.1 Romulus and his
friends stood together on the hill he had chosen,
Remus on the other with his. A day and a night
they waited, gazing at the sky, looking for the sign
from heaven. The sign, as they thought, came to
Remus. By the light of the stars they saw six
vultures flying, and they flew towards Remus. When
the sun rose, Remus and his friends went-to the
Palatine hill, which was about four miles off, to tell
Romulus; but just as they were telling him, and
Romulus was thinking he should be obliged to give
way to his brother, twelve vultures appeared in the
sky, and flew towards him. Then his friends shouted
aloud, and Romulus said, “See, the augury is in my .
favour; you had but six vultures, I have twelve.”
The friends of Romulus were most numerous, and
Remus was obliged to yield; but he did it with an
angry heart, for he felt his brother was unjust.
Romulus now began to mark out the ground on
which the city was to stand, and it was done in this,
way: To a plough with a copper share two white
oxen were yoked; and then Romulus, guiding the
plough, and praying to the gods, drove it round the
hill where the wall of the city was to be built. As
he drove the plough, lightning flashed from the sky,

1 See chapter on Offices, etc.



32 Stories of the Old Romans.

and peals of loud thunder were heard. The people
rejoiced, for they thought this meant that Jupiter
approved of what they were doing; and in the line
marked by the plough they began to build the wall
of the city.

It was not, at first, much of a wall; and Rants
who was still vexed with his brother, pean to laugh
at it, and say, “That a wall! why, what enemy will
that keep out?” And so saying he jumped over it.
Romulus grew very angry, and in his rage struck his
brother so that he died, saying, “So perish all who
shall pass over my walls!” So sad was the end of
their quarrel; and just see how it came about. First,
instead of trying to decide calmly by reason which
would be the best place for the city, each one tried to
have his own way about it; and when people are
determined to have their own way, whether it is right
or not, some harm is sure to come of it, either to
themselves or to others. Then they were foolish
enough to leave it to the augury of the vultures ;
and, as we might expect, when it was so decided, they
gwere not satisfied. Then Remus was angry because
he thought his brother was not acting fairly ; and he
let this feeling remain in his heart till he became
very bitter against him. Then he was foolish enough
to scoff and sneer at what his brother had done, and
so make him angry. Then Romulus, instead of con-
trolling his anger, gave way to it; and then |—there



How they Founded the City. 33

lay his own brother, whom he had played with on
these hills, who had been brought up with him in the
hut of Faustulus, and who had rejoiced with him
when they were discovered to be the king’s sons,—
dead.on the ground! __

Romulus was bitterly grieved when he found what
he had done. It was perhaps a hasty blow, and
harder than he meant it to be. Some of the stories,
too, say that it was in a quarrel between his friends
and the friends of Remus that he was slain, and that
it was not Romulus who did it; and other stories say
it was a man Celer, who had been set to watch the
walls, and that he killed Remus with his pickaxe.
But, at any rate, his death came out of the quarrel
they had ; and whichever way it was, when it was too
late. Romulus was very sorry. He refused to eat
food, and would not listen when his friends tried to
comfort him. He kissed his dead brother, and wept ;
but no tears could bring him back again. The deed
was done, and could never be undone. They raised a
funeral pile for him, on which his body was burnt,
and Romulus instituted a festival in his honour. He
had also a throne made for him as if he were alive,
and placed it'next to his own; and on it were ae
royal robes, and a sceptre and crown.

In time the city was built, and Romulus was the
first king. It was not a grand city, full of noble
buildings and temples, as-it became afterwards, The -

D



34 Stories of the Old Romans.

houses were little better than huts built of mud and
thatched with reeds. But it was begun, that was
something; for Romulus was-not a man to be idle
when there was anything to do. He also invited
people from neighbouring countries to come and live
there; and he set apart a piece of ground for a place
of refuge, so that any man who had committed a
crime in another country, if he fled to Rome, and
entered this place of refuge, would be safe. In time
a good many people came and dwelt in the city
‘which Romulus began to build’ Romulus ruled
wisely, and gave the people good laws. He also
trained all the men to be soldiers, so that they
could defend the ae if it should be attacked by
an enemy.

At first there were-many more men than 1 women in
the city, for a great number of robbers and: murderers
came to settle there, in order to find protection from
their own rulers. These men wanted wives. The
Sabines, who lived in the neighbourhood, were there-
fore invited to a festival,and came bringing with them
their wives and daughters. When everybody was
eagerly looking on at the games and sports, the soldiers
rushed in and carried off such as they chose.

This led to a war between the two nations. The
Sabines attacked the Romans; a fierce battle was.
about to be fought, when forth from the city gates
came the women whom the Romans had seized and



How they Founded the City. ~ 35

married. With loud cries and weeping they rushed
in between the two-armies. Some called aloud to
their fathers and brothers, beseeching them not to
slay their husbands; some clung to their husbands,
and entreated them. no longer to fight with their
fathers and brothers. For awhile there was silence
and doubt on both sides. Then when both armies
stood still, looking on them in wonder, the women
said, “Why do you make us suffer such miseries? . If
. you conquer,” they said, turning to the Sabines, “we
lose our husbands; if you conquer,” turning to their
husbands, “we lose our fathers and brothers. Better
_we should perish than live either widows or fatherless.
And how can we go back, and leave our husbands and
children?” At length it was agreed that peace should
be made between the two contending peoples, and that
they should live in friendship together.

Romulus reigned many years, fought many battles
with the nations which were enemies to Rome, and
won many victories. Rome under his care grew and
flourished, and became an important city. So wisely
did he rule, and so bravely did he fight, that all the
people loved him, and. especially the soldiers. And,
what is best, though he was a brave warrior, he did
not go to war for the sake of fighting. For many
years during his reign Rome was in peace, neither
fighting foes nor being attacked by them.

At last he died. He had gathered a great assembly



36 Stories of the Old Romans.

,of the people, and was reviewing his troops, when
suddenly a great storm arose. Dark clouds covered
the sky, which was only now and then lit up by
flashes of lightning; the thunder rolled fearfully, and
the rain fell so fast that everything was hidden in a
mist, and the people could no longer see their king.
When the mist cleared away he was gone. Some of
his people thought he had been murdered by the
nobles, who were jealous of him; but most of them
believed he had been carried up to heaven in the

storm.

This is the story of Romulus and Remus, and of
the founding of the city, as the old legends tell it us.
But the great part of it is fable, and we do not really
know whether any of it is true. ;





Fhe Good EXing Tuma,





(3) NUMA AND THE AUGUR.



III.

Alhe Good King uma,
Sd pete

Farrer the death of Romulus, the people of

Rome remained for some time without a

8 king. They could not make up their minds

whom to choose. At last it was agreed that the hun-

dred senators should rule. They were divided into

tens; and one of each ten was to be chosen in turn

to be the chief ruler. They were to rule five days

each. This arrangement lasted about a year; but the

people did not like it, and said they. would rather

have one king than a hundred; and so the question

began again to be asked by them, as they chatted —
together in the forum, or met in the council, “ Who is.
to be king?”

There was at this time a ago and wise man
dwelling at Cures, a city:of the Sabines. The story
afterwards was, that he was taught philosophy by
Pythagoras, one of the wisest men of Greece. But
others say that Pythagoras did not live till many
-years after Numa was dead; and some learned men





_ 40 Stories of the Old Romans.

think that perhaps there never was such a man as
Numa at all. However, the old stories tell us some
very good and beautiful things about him; and, if he
did live, he was a very good and wise man, and one
whom it would be well for all kings, and other men
too, to imitate.

His father’s name was Pomponius, and it is said
that he was born the day that Rome was founded by
Romulus. He was kind, patient, gentle, and willing
to learn; but he was not soft and weak because he

was gentle and patient, but strong, brave, and clever,

Patient and gentle boys, and men too, are often quite
as strong and quite as clever as those who are rough:
and uncouth, and a great deal pleasanter.

As he grew up he sought, by reading and study, to _
grow wiser and better. Both his fellow-citizens and
strangers came to him for advice. All who did so
found him a wise and faithful friend. So much was
he honoured by all, that Tatius, who had become
joint king with Romulus, after the reconciliation
between the Romans and the Sabines, gave him his
daughter Tatia to be his wife. But though he had
married a king’s daughter it did not make him
proud; he continued in his own city, taking care of
his aged father, and still studying and learning. He
and his wife lived together in peace and happiness
for thirteen years, and then Tatia died.

After her death Numa was very sad and lonely



The Good King . Numa. 41

He used to wander by himself in the sacred groves
around the city; and far away sometimes in solitary
places, where he could be quite alone. The people
wondered at this, for they could not imagine that he
would rather think by himself alone than talk with
them; and thus the foolish fable got about that a
nymph who had the gift of prophecy used to meet
him in the woods, and teach him wisdom. Afterwards
it was said that the name of this nymph was Egeria.

This, was the way in which in those old times they
accounted for any man being especially wise. They
thought that some god must have taught him.’ And
although their notions about the gods were very
foolish and wrong, since there is but one living and
true God, as-even some of the heathens knew, yet
they were right in thinking that all true wisdom came
from above. For everywhere and in all times, where-
ever any man truly asks God to give him wisdom and
help him to do right, God hears and answers his
prayer. “If any man lack wisdom,” says the Apostle’
James, “let him ask of God, who giveth to all men
liberally, and upbraideth not, and it shall be given
him.” And thus it was that Numa, and many others
among the heathen, learned to know and do the
things that were right and just and true, though they
did not know them so perfectly as we do who have |
His written word in the Bible} and although they
1 Acts x. 35.



42 Stories of the Old Romans.

had not the gracious promise which He has there
given to us, that He will give His Holy Spirit to them
that ask Him.t

The Romans and the Sabines were still very good
friends; and when they could find no one in Rome
whom they thought fit to be king, some of them said,
“Why not ask Numa the Sabine? He is wise and
good. and just. Let him be king.” They all agreed
to this, and sent ambassadors to him to ask him if he
would come and reign over the Roman people. Numa
was at this time about forty years old.

The ambassadors expected he would have been very
glad when they offered him the crown, and that he
would say “yes” at once. But after they had told
him what they wished, he became silent and thought-
_ ful, as though he did not wish to be their ruler. He
loved the quiet woods and his peaceful home; and |
he feared lest the Romans, who were a warlike race,
would want to keep on fighting; and he desired peace,
not war. So, in the presence of his father, and his
friend Marcius, he replied: “All changes in life are
full of risk, but especially is it dangerous to become a
king. Besides, all my time has been spent in quiet.
I love peace, and I hate war; and you Romans are
fond of fighting. What should I do among a people
who want a general to lead them to battle, rather than
a king to rule them ?”

1. Luke xi. 13.



The Good King Numa. 43

The ambassadors begged him not to refuse. “If
you do,” they said, “the people will have no one else;
and they will be sure to quarrel and fight among
themselves.” So entreating him very earnestly, for
they saw he really did not wish to be king, they left
him, ! '

When they were gone, his father and his friend .
_Marcius talked to him, and tried to persuade him to
accept the crown. “Consider,” they said to him,
“that though you may be quite happy in this quiet
life, yet that a king is a servant of the gods, and has
the opportunity of doing good and just things more
than other men. Besides, perhaps the Romans are
tired of war, and you might teach them to live in
peace; and if you were king of Rome, the Romans
and the Sabines would grow still greater friends.”
Many of his fellow-citizens, too, when they heard. of it,
came to him, and begged 1 aie to accept the offer of
the Romans.

At last he made up his mind that, if it were the
will of the gods, he would be king of Rome; and
after he had offered sacrifice he set out for the city:
When the people and the senators knew he was
coming, they all went out to meet him. They wel-
comed him with blessings and shouts of joy. When
they were come to the forum, the senator whose turn
it was then to rule said to the people, “Do you choose
‘Numa to be your king?” ‘The people all shouted



44 Stories of the Old Romans.

aloud with one voice, “We do.” Then they offered
him the royal robes; but he said, “Stay: when the
city was founded, the gods were consulted by augury;
let it be so now.”

The priests and the augur led him to the hill,
afterwards called the Capitoline, and made him sit
upon a stone facing the south. The augur, with a
curved wand in his hand called a lituus, sat on his
left hand. He then made a sign of dividing the sky -
with his wand; the parts to the south he called the
right, those towards the north the left. When he had
done this, he put his hand on the head of Numa and
prayed: “O father Jupiter, if it is thy will that this
Numa Pompilius, whose head I hold, should be king
of Rome, I beseech thee to give sure and evident signs
of it within those bounds which I have marked.”
The people all stood around in perfect silence; not
one moved or spoke. The augur stood with his eyes

- fixed upon the distant sky. At last he saw, or fancied
he saw, birds appear in the sky, and pass to the right.
Then he declared to the people that it was the will of
the gods that Numa should be king.

All at once the death-like silence was changed for
a loud shout of joy, and Numa came down from the
mount. They put on him the royal robe,—white,
striped with, purple—and the crown of gold. They
also put the ivory sceptre in his hand; and the
twelve lictors marched before him with their axes



The Good King Numa. : 45

bound in rods, and stood by his side as he seated
himself‘on his throne.

He first taught the Roman people to live in peace
with their neighbours, and to be just and true in all
their dealings. He appointed sacrifices and religious
festivals in which he himself took part; so that they
might have something else to think about than
fighting, and might learn to associate pleasantly with
“each other. He set up the worship of a divinity
called Terminus, who it was said presided over
boundaries; and he ordered that every one should
mark the boundary of his own land with stones con-
secrated to Jupiter, at the festival of Terminus, so
that they might keep their own lands, and not
encroach on those of others. He instituted an annual
festival to Fides, that is, honourable and fair dealing
and truth, that he might teach the Roman people to
be true to one another in their words and actions,
and not to tell lies and cheat, as they had been ac-
customed to do. He also taught them to venerate
Tacita, or silence, and called Tacita a goddess; that
they might learn to put a guard upon their lips, and
to keep silence at proper times.

As there was no war now going on, a great many
men who had often been engaged in fighting while
Romulus was king had nothing to do, Numa gave
them the land to cultivate which in former times —
they had taken in fight; and that he might encourage



46 Stories of the Old Romans.

them to be industrious, he used to visit their farms
himself; and if any man showed himself clever and
persevering, he rewarded him by giving him some
honourable office. In these and many other. ways
he encouraged the people to be honest, truthful, and
industrious ; and when they found they had enough
to do, and that it was pleasant to live in peace, they
did not care for going to war, or for quarrelling
among themselves, as they had been accustomed to
do. Thus there was no war in his reign; and the
temple of Janus, which was open when there was
war, and shut when there was peace, was closed the
whole time.*
_ He made many alterations in the religious worship .
of the people, which, perhaps, he thought were right,
and would be of benefit to them, but which he would
not have made if he had known the will of the one
true God. One thing, however, shows us that he
really did know better than many of the heathen at
that time. He forbade the people to make any image
of the gods, either in the likeness of man or beast.
He encouraged them to build temples, and other
- sacred places, to different divinities, but did - not
allow them to place any figure of the god in the
temple; for he said God was not to be seen by men’s
eyes, and was only to be discerned by the mmd. He
taught them that religious worship was to be attended
1 The same thing happened at the time of our Saviour’s birth.



The Good King Numa. 47

to in a solemn manner, and that they should come
prepared for it by meditation at home.

Some of his precepts, too, which have come down
to us are quite worth our remembering now. One
of them was, “Do not sit on a bushel measure.”
_ That means, do not be idle, and sit down when you
ought to be at work. Another was, “Do not stir the
fire with a sword;” which means, if anybody is
angry, do not try and make him worse; or, perhaps,
—put things to their right uses,—don’t use a sword
where a poker is sufficient. And a third was, “Do
not turn back on a journey;” which probably means
that we should persevere in whatever we undertake,
and which it is right for us to do. Three very good
rules for us, and which will help to make our life
happier and more useful if we put them in practice.

He died in a good old age, after reigning more
than forty years in peace and prosperity. All the —
people loved him, and not the Roman people only,
but the nations round Rome who used to be enemies,
but whom he had made friends. A great many of
them came to his funeral, and mourned for him
as if he had been their own king. The Romans
lamented him as if he had been their father rather
than their king, and followed him to the grave with
tears and loud cries of sorrow.

- Now, which was best for the Roman people, which
was most worthy of praise,—that Numa should have



48 ~ Stories of the Old Romans. .

taught them to do justly, and: love mercy, and seek
to be at peace; or that he should have taught them
to fight, and have spent the greater part of his reign
on the battle-field? Ah! it seems a fine thing to
fight, and win great victories; but one gentle word
spoken, one good deed done, one heart taught to love,
is far finer and nobler. The Bible tells us that a
time shall come when men shall learn-war no more.
Tt also tells us that love never faileth, and that a cup
of cold water given for Christ’s sake shall not lose its
reward. J think that when we all stand before the ~
Jjudgment-seat of Christ we shall wish to be like
Numa rather than like Alexander or Napoleon.
Yes! and there is a day coming—let us hope it may
be soon—when to be like the Prince of Peace will be
a greater honour than to be a great soldier, and when
love will be thought more of than the fame of a
thousand battle-fields !





Ane Great Fight between the Woratii
and the @Vuyriatii.







GN PERS
SSS
: =





THE RETURN OF HORATIUS,

(4)



IV.

HEthe Great Wight between the Ta oratii
and the @luriatii,

Setar

Arter the death of Numa, Tullus Hostilius
Re} was chosen king. He was a soldier who
oF # dclighted in war. Instead of waiting till
Rome was attacked by enemies, and seeking to defend
it, he resolved to subdue some of the neighbouring
kingdoms. For this purpose he stirred up strife
between his own people and the Albans. They, like
the Romans, were a warlike race, always ready to
quarrel. As the boundaries of the two nations were
close together, there was a good deal of plundering
going on amongst the herdsmen who lived. on the
borders. The Albans carried off the cattle of the
Romans, and the Romans did the same to the Albans.
There were complaints on both sides, and very little
provecation was needed to cause a war between them:

Soon ‘after Tullus became king the Albans sent
ambassadors to Rome to complain that their cattle
had been stolen. The Romans, on their side, sent an





52 Stories of the Old Romans.

embassy to Alba to make the'same complaint. But
Tullus, who was determined on war, instructed his
ambassadors to go straight to the Alban king, Cluilius,
and demand immediate payment for the stolen cattle.
If he refused, they were at once to declare war against
him. They did as they were ordered. Cluilius would
not submit to their stern abrupt demand. The am-
bassadors, therefore, at once threatened him with the
vengeance of the Romans, in the name of Tullus
Hostilius their king, and they sent word aes saying
what they had done.

When the Alban aanawadors came to Rome
Tullus received them very kindly, and made feasts
for them, and treated them with great honour, so
that they had not the opportunity of delivering
their message. This was just what -Tullus wanted,
as you will see. For when he heard from his own
messengers that they had threatened Cluilius with
war he was glad; and saying nothing about it to
the Alban ambassadors, he told them he was ready
to attend to their business. Then they told him
how the Romans had robbed the Albans, and asked
him to make restitution. Tullus told them it was
too late, that the Alban king had sent away his
- ambassadors, and that war had been already declared
by him against the Albans. The Alban messengers
went home, as we may imagine, very indignant at
‘the way in which Tullus had treated them.



Fight between the Horatéi and the Curiatii, 58

The Albans collected their army in- haste and
anger, and marched at once into the Roman territory,
till they came within five miles of the city of Rome.
There they pitched their tents, and dug a deep trench
to defend themselves from their enemies. Cluilius,
the Alban king, died a short time after this. When
Tullus heard of it he marched in the night past the
camp of the Albans into their country. Mettius, who.
was appointed commander instead of the king, then
led his army back after Tullus. When he had got
near to him he sent a herald to propose a parley,
that they might endeavour to come to some friendly
understanding, instead of fighting one another. Both
armies were drawn up near to each other in battle
array. Tullus and Mettius, and some of their chief
officers, met in the space between them, and Mettius
began thus :—

“T have heard the king Cluilius say that this
war was begun because we refused to restore what we
had taken from the Romans; and you, Tullus, I dare
say, say the same thing. But, if the truth were
told, I think the real reason is because each nation
desires to have dominion over the other. That is
for him to think about who began the war. But
now, Tullus, consider. The Etruscans, our neighbours,
are very strong, and have great fleets and armies;
suppose when we have been fighting together, and
many of our-men are slain, and we are tired and



54 Stories of the Old Romans.

exhausted, they should come and: destroy us both!
Would it not be better to decide without fighting
which of us is to rule the other?”

Tullus would rather have fought; but he could
not help seeing that what Mettius proposed was
best, and at last they agreed upon this plan,

' There were in each of the armies three brothers.
The three in the Roman army belonged to a noble
family named Horatius, and were therefore called
Horatii; the Alban three belonged to a noble family
named Curiatius, and hence were called Curiatii, |
These young men were asked if they would be willing
to fight three against three, to decide which nation
should rule, They said they were quite willing; and
Horatius, the father of the Horatii, was greatly pleased
that the choice of the Roman king had fallen upon
his brave sons.

So the Romans and the Albans made a solemn
treaty that the nation whose champions should con-
quer in the fight should rule the other; and they
called their gods to witness it, so that if either of
them were false to the treaty they might be punished.

Now the brothers prepare for the fight. “Re-
member,” say their friends to them, “your country
watches: you, and your fellow-soldiers, and your
parents.” For a few moments they stand quite still,
the Curiatii on the Alban side, and the Horatii on the
Roman; and then, amid the silence of both armies, \



Fight between the Horatii and the Curiati. 55 ~

the signal is given, and they rush to meet each other
in deadly conflict.

Their swords glitter in the sunshine, and clash
together for a, minute or two. The Romans and
Albans can see the red gashes which their sharp
strokes have made. Another moment, and two of
the Romans fall dead. Then the Albans raise a great
shout, for they think the victory is theirs; and the
Romans look on silently with sad faces, fearing lest
their third. champion should be slain. The Curiatii
surround him, but they are all ‘three wounded, and
he is not; and so they cannot move so quickly nor
strike so hard as he can. Now he thinks, If I can
only fight them one by one, instead of all three
together, I shall be sure to win. He resolves to try,
and pretends to run away. As he flies they run
after him; but they cannot run fast because of their
wounds. In a little time he turns round, and sees
one of them not far from him, the others at a
distance, He stops, and rushing furiously at him,
kills him, The Romans shout now, for they see what
he means to do, and the Albans are silent with fear.

Now he goes on to meet the second, who is
wounded worse than the first, and kills him. Only
one is left, and he is so badly wounded that he can
hardly stand. “Two have I offered,” shouted Hora-
tius, so that both armies might hear him, “to the
shades of my brothers; this third I will offer to the



56 Stories of the Old Romans.

cause of Rome, that we may rule over the Albans.”
Then he thrusts his sword into his neck, and the
youth falls down dead.

Great is the joy and loud are the shouts with
which he is welcomed by the Romans. The Albans,
sadly, and with many tears, bury their brave cham-
pions where they fell. After this both armies return
to their homes.

It was a sad thing to see five strong, brave young
men, three of one family, two of another, slain by
‘each other’s hands in a few minutes; sad, and strange,
too, that men should delight in killing each other °
at all. All we can say about this fight is, that it
was better these five should be killed than many
hundreds, perhaps thousands, as would have been
the case if a battle had been fought between the

-two armies,

But a yet sadder thing took place afterwards, so
sad and horrible that you will wonder to hear it; but
it will show you how cruel and proud war makes
men; and what evil things it brings with it.

When the Roman army reached home, Horatius
marched at the head of it, bearing the spoils of the
three brothers whom he had slain, and all the soldiers
came after him shouting and rejoicing. The people
of the city also came out to meet him with shouts of
welcome, and among them was Horatia, his sister.
But when she saw him and the spoils which he bore,



Fight between the Horatw and the Curiatii. 87

she cried bitterly, and tore her hair with loud wail-
ing, calling the'name of one of the Curiatii. Poor ~
girl! she loved him, and was going to be married to
him before this cruel fight took place; and one of
the mantles which Horatius carried, all stained with
blood, was his, which she had made for him with her
own hands; and now she knew he was dead, and she
would never see him or hear his voice again.

You might think that Horatius would have pitied
his poor sister, and tried to comfort her, or at least
that he would have felt sorry for her and been silent,
but it was not so. He was so angry with her that he
drew his sword, the sword with which he had killed
ner lover, and ran it-through her body. “ Go,” he
said, “with thy unseasonable love, forgetful of thy
dead brothers and of the living one; forgetful of thy
country. So perish every Roman woman who shall
mourn an enemy!” Horatia fell dead at his feet.

The people were greatly shocked, and thought it
right ‘to take him before the king to be punished.
But the king was unwilling to condemn him, because
he had been so brave, and had conquered the Curiatii ;
so he appointed officers called duumvirs, to pass
sentence on him. The sentence was that he should
be scourged and then hung. The lictor approached
him and began to bind his hands. Still Tullus
wished to save him, and told him to appeal to the
people. He did so. Many of the people wept, for



58 Stories of the Old Romans.

although they knew that he deserved to die, they
could not help feeling sorry for one so brave, and
who had just won the fight against the Albans,
Then his father came up to him, and embraced him,
for he was now his only child; and pointing to the
spoils of the Curiatii, he turned tq the people, and
said, “ Romans, ‘can you bear to see bound beneath a
gallows, scourged and tortured, him whom you just
now beheld marching in triumph? Yes, go, lictor!
bind his hands, those hands which just now won the
victory for the Roman people! Hang him on the
gallows! Scourge him either here in sight of the ©
spoils of the Curiatii, or yonder where they lie slain!
For wherever you punish him his glory will outweigh
his disgrace.” Then he wept.

The people could not withstand the tears of the
old man, and decided that Horatius should not be
put to death. But they felt that he deserved to die
for the cruel murder of his sister ; and that, if his life
was spared, something must be done to show to him
and to all men that they considered him guilty. So
they ordered his father to make satisfaction for him
by offering sacrifices as an atonement for his sin, for
even these heathen Romans believed that without the
shedding of blood there was no remission of sin ;}
then his own head was covered as if he were about to
be put to death, and he was made to pass under a
i 1 Heb. ix. 22,



Fight between the Horatii and the Curiatir. 59

beam laid across the street to show that he deserved
to die. A monument was erected to the memory of
Horatia, in the place where she was stabbed and fell.

The peace with the Albans did not last long.
Some of. the people refused to be subject to Rome,
and complained that the dispute had not been rightly
settled. So the unjust quarrél broke out again, and
_ there was much fighting, and many were slain. Alba
was at last destroyed, and the Alban people were
brought by Tullus to Rome, where they afterwards
dwelt, He also fought with other nations, for he
loved war better than peace. But in time sorrow
came to him. It was said that a shower of stones
fell near Rome, and that a voice was heard complain-
ing that the Alban people had forsaken their gods.
Then a pestilence came; and, at last, Tullus himself
was seized with disease. The people thought of the
happy and peaceful days of the good Numa, for they
were tired of being always at war, and they sought
peace from the gods. Tullus also, weary with old
age and sickness, himself longed for peace, and
sought with many sacrifices to win the favour of the
gods; but it is said the gods were angry with him,
and killed him with fire from heaven.

There was another king of olden time of whom you
have heard, who was also a great warrior, and who
once sinned a very wicked sin, which God punished
with pestilence. This king repented of his sin, and



60 Stories of the Old Romans.

God forgave him; and he has told us how we must
obtain forgiveness. This is what he says: “Thou
desirest not sacrifice, else would I give it; Thou
delightest not in burnt offering. The sacrifices of
God are a broken spirit; a broken and a contrite
heart, O God, Thou wilt not despise.”























Whe Wi ivked Welarquins,







(5)

BRUTUS AND LUCRETIA.

Hath
" Ay ~ Ae
ss ey
Wy]. SM
f
Say
A
i

ne

oN





Ve

Ache NMiZicked Hlarquins

—S nog peta

PyHEE first Tarquin, who was called Tarquinius
by Priscus, was an Etrurian prince or noble-
ca man. He was very rich, and married an
Etruscan lady, who, like himself, was desirous of
attaining great fame and honour. As they, could not
do this in their own country, they resolved to try
their fortune in Rome, then a new city. When they
were near the city an eagle swooped down from the
sky, carried off Tarquin’s cap, and flying round over
him, put it on his head again. “I give you joy, |
husband,” said his wife; “this means that the gods
will raise you to great honour.” Full of hope, he
settled in Rome, and gained the favour of the king,
who appointed him guardian to: his two sons. The
name of this king was Ancus Marcius.

When the king died, Tarquin resolved that he
would get the people to choose him for king. So
when the time came for the people to assemble
together to elect their king, he sent the late king’s






64 Stories of the Old Romans.

two sons away hunting. Then he made a speech to
the people; and as he had always been a favourite
with them for his courteous behaviour and acts of
kindness, they did as he wished, and asked him to
reign over them. .

Tarquin had a favourite slave, named Servius
Tullius. One night as this boy lay asleep, it is said,
a blaze of light shone round his head; and when
Tarquin’s wife saw it, she concluded that he would
grow up to be famous. So they took the young slave,
and brought him up as their own son, and it came to.
be thought by everybody that when Tarquin died
he would succeed him. The sons of Ancus Marcius,
who were angry at being deprived of their father’s
throne by Tarquin, were still more angry when they
thought this boy, a slave, would be made king, and
they resolved. that they would kill Tarquin, and
seize the crown for themselves. So they got two
countrymen to come before the king, pretending to
have a quarrel which they wished him to settle for
them; and while the king was listening to one of
them, the other smote him with an axe, so that he
fell dead.

But they did not succeed in getting the crown for
themselves, notwithstanding this cruel murder; for
Tanaquil, Tarquin’s. wife, pretended to the people
that he was not dead, only wounded, and she
persuaded Servius Tullius to take the king’s place.



The Wicked Tarquins. 65

He therefore came out with the lictors’ attending
him, and after a short time took possession of the
kingdom.

During his reign the Roman people were very
happy and prosperous, He was kind to the poor,
not oppressing them, as in old times so many kings
did. He helped those who were unfortunate, and
divided among them the land which had been taken
from the Veientians and Etrurians in war. In many
other ways, too, he showed that he was a just and
wise ruler, who wished to govern the people rightly,
and deal justly towards all, both rich and poor.

He had two daughters, and these were married to
the two sons (or grandsons, as some say) of Tarquin
the First. One of these young men, who was named
Aruns Tarquinius, was gentle and kind. The other
was named Lucius Tarquinius, and he was proud and
haughty; so that afterwards he was called Tarquinius
Superbus, or Tarquin the Proud. He was also very
passionate and cruel, and ambitious of power. This
made him discontented and restless; and he began to
think how he might depose the poe Servius, and
become king himself. »

One of the king’s daughters was very much like
Lucius in disposition, but she was married to his
gentle brother Aruns; and when she found that he
did not desire to rule, and was not ambitious of being
great, she began to despise him, and admired his

F



66: Stories of the Old Romans.

brother Lucius. As she and Lucius often met, they
soon found out that they thought alike; and they
began to talk together about the king, and about
who should have his crown. She also said that if :
her husband was a different sort of man he should
soon be king instead of her father.

The end of these wicked thoughts and words was —
that Lucius had his wife murdered, for he had come
to love his brother’s wife-best, and wished to marry
her; and the wicked Tullia had her husband mur-
dered, that she might marry his brother. But she
was not happy. How could she be with such a
fearful sin in her memory? And this sin led on to
another. She had set her heart upon her husband
‘being king ; and wicked as he was himself, she seems
‘to have made him worse. She urged him to try and
take the crown for himself, and encouraged him to go
about among the nobles, and represent to them how
Servius was always favouring the poor rather than
them ; how he had given them lands and money, and
that he hated the rich. When he had excited their
hatred against the king, he went one day to the
forum with a party of men with spears and swords,
and seated himself on the throne. When he had
done this, he ordered the crier to call the senators
together, that they might attend at the senate-
house in obedience to King Tarquinius. Many of
them, some from fear and some because they



The Wicked Tarquins. 67

already knew what Tarquin was going to do, came
together.

Servius the king, when he heard of this, came
wondering and alarmed to the senate- house, and
said with a loud voice as he entered, “What means
this, Tarquin? How. hast thou dared, while I am
still alive, to sit on my throne?” Tarquin answered
fiercely, “I am the son of a king, and occupy my
father’s throne.” A great tumult arose, and the
people came rushing in. Then Tarquin, knowing
. that if the king’s friends prevailed he would most
likely be put to death, took up the king in his arms,
and rushing to the entrance of the senate-house,
threw him down the steps to the bottoms The king’s »
friends fled, fearing lest they should share his fate.
Servius himself, much hurt, and indeed nearly killed
by the fall, was returning home in his chariot when
he was overtaken and slain by some of Tarquin’s
men.

But wicked as his conduct was, it was not so
shocking as that of the wicked Tullia. When she
heard that her father Servius was killed, she mounted
her chariot and drove to the forum ; then calling her
husband to her she saluted him as king. But there
was a great tumult among the people, who cried
shame upon her for her wickedness, and she was
advised to return home. So she got into her chariot
again, and, as it happened, her way was through the



68. Stories of the Old Romans.

very street where her father Servius lay slain. When,
the charioteer saw this he was going to turn back.
But Tullia angrily bade him drive on, and her chariot
wheels went over her poor murdered father’s dead
body! Let us pass on from this horrible story.
Well might the. street in which this shameful thing
happened be called, as it ever afterwards. was,
“ Wicked Street.”

Now Tarquin began to reign, and his reign was as
cruel and wicked as he himself was. He took away
from the people all that the good Servius had given
them, and put to death all the senators whom he did
not like, lest they should oppose him in his evil
, Ways. In fact, he tyrannised over all, and any one

who opposed his will was sure to suffer.

Oné story will show his cruelty and injustice; and
it shows us, also, how he made his own sons as bad
as himself. Near to Rome there was a city named
Gabii, of which he wished to take possession. But,
after a long time, finding he could not do so, he tried
this artful plan. He sent his son Sextus to the city,
and told him to pretend that he had been driven
from Rome by his father’s cruelty, and to -beg them
to give him shelter. He was also to say that he
would be willing to help them fight against his
father.

The people of Gabii, knowing what Tarquin was,
thought that what Sextus told them was true, and

‘



The Wicked Tarquins. 69

received him very kindly. They told him it was not
to be wondered at that his father should treat him as
he had treated everybody else; and feeling pity for
him, and believing all he said, they admitted him to
their’ counsels, and at last chose him for their general.
Then, when he found he had got this power, he sent
a messenger secretly to his father to know what he
was to do.
_ Tarquin was in his garden when the messenger
came, and when he had delivered his message made
no reply, but with a cane that he had in his hand he
struck off the heads of the tallest poppies that grew
by the side of the path. After that he sent away the
messenger, who returned and told Sextus that either
from pride or passion his father had not spoken’a
word to him. Sextus asked the messenger what his
father was doing. The messenger told him how he
only looked very angry, and cut off the poppy heads
with his stick. Then Sextus knew what was meant.
It was, that. as he had struck off the tallest poppy
heads with his stick, so Sextus. was to cut off the
heads of the principal people in Gabii. So he did.
Some were killed publicly, some privately; and then,
the principal men being dead or driven away, the
city of Gabii was given up by the deceit and cruelty
of Sextus to his father Tarquin.

Tarquin went on ruling in Rome in the same cruel
and unjust way; oppressing the poor, whom he forced



70 Stories of the Old Romans.

to work like slaves for very small wages, and, when
he could, robbing the rich. The poor he employed
in building a splendid temple on the Capitoline hill ;
and it is said that when they were digging its
foundations, a man’s head was found in the earth,
which was supposed to mean that Rome should be
the head of the world. The Romans were greatly
given to interpreting signs and omens, and pretend-
ing to foretell what would aaEESe Dy such things as
these.

One day Tarquin was greatly alana by what he
thought a sign of coming evil. from under one of the altars where sacrifice had been.
offered, and seized upon the flesh. This the king
supposed to mean that he was in great danger of
some evil happening. He therefore sent two of his
sons, Titus and Aruns, to Delphi, that they might
consult the oracle there, and find out what was meant
by a serpent crawling from an altar.

These oracles were temples, the priests or ieee
esses of which were supposed to be able to foretell
future events. The priestess, when told what had
happened, said in reply, that the king would fall
when a dog spoke with a human voice. This was
supposed afterwards to refer to Brutus, the cousin of |
the two princes, who accompanied them, and who
became in time the principal means of banishing the
cruel Tarquins from Rome. |



The Wicked Tarquins. 71

Brutus is a Latin word, meaning stupid, and our
word brute comes from it, and is applied to animals
because they have not intelligent souls like men.
This young man, whose name was Lucius Junius,
was called Brutus because he seemed stupid and
dull, more like an animal than a man. But he only
pretended to be so for this reason. He had had an
elder brother who was very rich. Tarquin coveted
his wealth, and for the sake of getting it put him to
death. Lucius was afraid lest the tyrant should kill
him also, so he pretended to be an idiot, behaving
very strangely, living upon wild fruit, and wandering
about as if he had no sense. Tarquin, therefore, did
not think it was worth while to destroy him: he even
_ kept him in his house to amuse his sons; and the
people, thinking he was really out of his mind, called
him Brutus.

When the young princes had received this answer
about the serpent, they asked the priestess who would
rule at Rome after their father. The priestess replied,
“He who shall first kiss his mother.” They, thinking
nothing of Brutus, agreed to say nothing to ‘their
brother Sextus about this, and to manage between
themselves which of them should do what the oracle
said. Brutus, however, thought the priestess meant
the earth, which was called the mother of all; so as
they went away he pretended to stumble, and falling
flat on the ground, kissed it. No doubt Titus and



72 Stories of the Old Romans.

Aruns laughed as they saw the foolish Brutus
stretched at full length on the ground, looking more
foolish than ever. They would not have laughed if
they had known what was going to happen.

Other dreams and omens troubled Tarquin ; and
with such a bad conscience as he must have had after
all the wrongs he had done, and all the murders he
had committed, we cannot wonder that they did,
One day he dreamt that two rams came to him, and
that he sacrificed one of them, but that the other
pushed him down. The interpreters of dreams said |
this meant that he must beware of a man who
seemed as stupid as a sheep. But he did not
understand what they meant. Very likely they did
not know themselves. Some eagles had ‘made their
nest in a tall tree in his garden, and one day a flock
of vultures came and drove them and their young
ones away. This also was supposed to be a sign of
some evil to the king and his family, so superstitious
were the Romans at that time. But, although these
things troubled him, he did not alter his wicked
course.

But the thing that brought Tarquin and his whole
family to ruin at last was this. They had all of them
been accustomed to do just what they liked, and to
treat other people as they pleased. They had no care
or thought for anybody but themselves. Whatever
they wished to do they did; and whatever they



The Wicked Tarquins. ome

wanted, even though it belonged to somebody else, |
they took: And if any one resisted-them, he was sure
to be treated cruelly, perhaps murdered. The people
had for a long time been secretly angry about this,
and Brutus and others had been waiting for an
opportunity to put an end to it; but hitherto it had

‘seemed as if nothing could be done. But what could

not be done by others the wickedness of Sextus
Tarquin was the means of accomplishing.

The wife of his cousin Collatinus, whose name was
Lucretia, was a noble and beautiful woman, and as
good as she was beautiful;.and because she would
not do as he wished, and be as wicked as he was, he
came to her house one night when her husband was
away threatening to kill her, and treated her so
shamefully that she wished to die rather than live.
Full of grief and shame, shé sent for her father and
her cousin Brutus, and for her husband, who was at —
Ardea, a few miles from Rome, and told them what
Sextus had done, They tried in vain to comfort her,
she could not cease weeping. Then, having made
them promise that they would avenge her wrong, she
drew forth a dagger which she had hidden under her
dress, and thrusting it into her bosom fell dead at
their feet. ie

Her father and cousin cried aloud in their terror,
and then bent over her with bitter grief and tears.
But Brutus, in great rage, drew forth the dagger all



74 Stories of the Old Romans.

dripping with blood, and swore that he would pursue

Tarquin and his wicked wife, and all their race, with

fire and sword and every means in his power; and
that not one of them should be suffered to reign in
Rome. The others, in grief and anger, took the
same oath.

They carried the dead body of poor Lucretia from
“ her house to the forum, and the people gathered
together round them, wondering what it all meant.

Brutus told them the shameful story. As they heard -

the cruel wrong which Sextus had done, and saw the
husband and the father of poor Lucretia weeping over

her dead body, they began to weep too. But when

Brutus showed them the dagger, and spoke to them
of the wrongs they had suffered from the Tarquins,

and told them the oath he had taken, they grew ..

angry, and said the Tarquins should never more reign
in Rome. Tullia, the wicked wife of Tarquin, when

she heard of these things, fled from the city, and let

people cursed her as she went.

Tarquin was with his army at Ardea; and when
the news reached him, he set out at once for Rome,
thinking he should soon be able to put down this
rebellion, and punish Brutus and the people for their
insolence. But Brutus, when he heard that he was
coming, ordered the gates to be shut, and then set out
for Ardea by a different road, so that he arrived at
the camp about the same time that the king arrived

%







The Wicked Tarquins. 75

at Rome. There he told the soldiers what had been
done, and that the people had resolved there. should
be no more kings in Rome; and the soldiers drove
the king’s sons from the camp, so that they fled away :
in terror. When Tarquin got to Rome he found the
gates shut, and the people told him he was banished
for ever, and should never come back to be their
king. Then he also fled, for his conscience smote
him for all the wrong he had done, and he was afraid.
The wicked Sextus went to Gabii, and there he found
the punishment which he so. richly deserved, for after
a short. time he was put to death by the friends of
those whom he had himself so ,cruelly deceived and
slain, when he made himself ruler of the city.

Long before Tarquin reigned in Rome these words
were written by another king, whom God had taught
to know and fear Him: “I have seen the wicked in
great power, and spreading himself like a. green bay
- tree. Yet he passed away, and, lo, he was not: yea,
I sought him, but he could not be found. Mark the
perfect man, and behold the upright: for the end of
that man'is peace. But the transgressors shall be
destroyed together: the end of the wicked shall be
cut off” +

“God judgeth the righteous, and God is angry with
the wicked every day. If he turn not, he will whet
his sword; he hath bent his bow, and made it ready.

1 Psa, xxxvii. 35-38.



76 Stories of the Old Romans.

He hath also prepared for him the instruments of
death; he ordaineth his arrows against the perse-
cutors. . . . His mischief shall return upon his own
head, and his violent dealing shall come down upon
his own pate.”?

1 Psa, vii. 11-16.










RN gc ee
Hise ag fee ie ie A Pie i
Thy eee ee si ae : iu
on : nA
12 = i
fine Ae
: if ee I
A i Wm" a! a oAYRy,
es Ca SH
i | i Ane ‘ i Hh " |; i é
IT i it f ‘sath Ay AM i







“—

U th a sbeqiihat

'
TOMB OF THE TARQUINS,



~ More about Wrutus,





HE CONSPIRACY DISCOVERED.

T



VI.

ore ahout Wrutus,
~Sedpete
SWHoon after king Tarquin. was banished, he

yey sent ambassadors to the people of Rome
S| and to the senate to persuade them to let




him return, and be again king of Rome. But the

consuls would not listen to them, nor allow them to
address the people. Then other ambassadors: came

- to say that Tarquin would give up all thoughts of

%

being king, and not fight against them, if they
would pn send him the money and treasures which
belonged to him, and which he had left in Rome.
But all the while they were trying to deceive the
people, for they knew that Tarquin meant to come
back again if he could.

Some of the young men of Rome who. had been

' companions of the. Tarquins, and were almost as

wicked as they were, very much wished the king to

i return. They were unwilling to be governed by

i{

‘ the same laws and in the same way as the common

“people, but wished to do as they liked. They knew



*

80 Stories of the Old Romans.

that if Tarquin came back, they should be able to do
as they and the young Tarquins had done before.
And they also knew that Brutus and the other. consul

would not allow this, but would punish them for
wrong-doing in the same way that anyhody else
would be punished.

~ These young men and the ambassadors talked
together secretly, and persuaded others to join them.
Some of them were of the families of the Vitellii
and the Aquillii, who were’ nephews of Collatinus, the
other consul. They were also related to Brutus, for
his wife was one of the family of the Vitellii; and
they persuaded the two sons of Brutus, Titus and
Tiberius, to joi them. .Thus they not only did what
they knew was contrary to the laws of their country
and the wishes of the people, but what they also knew
would be a cause of great grief and anger to their

. father, and might even lead to his death. For if
this plot had succeeded, and Tarquin had come back,
Brutus would certainly have been slain. .

They all met. together in the house of the Aquillii,
in a dark and secret place, so that nobody might see
them. And they inedht that nobody should hear.
them. . But a slave, named Vindicius, happened to be _
in the room; and as they did not see him because
it was so dark, they began to talk of what they were
going to do. When he heard what they said, and
the horrible oath they took to kill the consuls, and



More about Brutus. 81 ~

bring back the wicked Tarquin to be king, he dared
not move to leave the. room, for he knew if he did
they would kill him, to prevent his telling anybody
else. So he lay quite still on the ground, and heard
all that passed. When they went away, Vindicius
crept from his hiding-place, greatly terrified. He
knew it would not be right to let these wicked men
do as they intended, without trying to stop them;
yet he did not like to accuse the sons of Brutus and
the nephews of Collatinus of such a dreadful crime.

There was living at Rome, at this time, a wise and
’ good man named Valerius, who was afterwards consul,
and was called Publicola because he did so much for
the people; and to him Vindicius went, and told him
all that he had heard. Valerius was shocked ; and
perhaps fearing lest Vindicius might tell other people, .
and so these wicked men might escape, he had him
; shut up in a room, and set somebody to watch him,
while he went with his friends to try and capture them.
His brother Marcus (with some of his friends) went
_ to the king’s house, to take any of them he might
find there; while he himself with some others went

to the heise of the Aquilli. - They had all left, but
- he broke’.open the door; and having searched the
‘house found some letters which had been written to
Tarquin, telling him what they were about to do:

But some of them heard of what was going on,
and came in great terror to the house to get these

G





82 Stories of the Old Romans.

very letters. There they found Valerius, and tried
hard to get the letters away from him. But he and
his friends fought bravely, and at last led them
off to the forum as prisoners. The two sons of
Brutus were among them. Marcus Valerius also
took some of the king’s servants, and found some
more letters at the king’s house. Bh

They were brought before the consuls; and Valerius,
having accused them of their wicked crime, and read
the letters, ordered Vindicius to'come forward. They
could not deny their guilt. Yet the father of two of
them, and the uncle of some of the others, were the
judges who had to condemn them. The people stood
silent with terror, and some of the senators wept.
Some of them, feeling sad for Brutus, because his
sons were guilty, asked that they might be banished
instead of being put to death. Brutus sat silent,
he could not speak for sorrow. But in a little while
he said, with a stern voice, though his lips trembled
and his face looked very sad, “Titus, Tiberius,—what
have you to say? Can you answer this charge ?”
They made no reply, but hung down their heads and
wept. The ‘people all stood silent—now and then a
sob might be heard. Again he asked them; and
then a third time; but they could not answer him.
Then he rose up, and said with a sad but stern voice,
“Lictors, the rest is for you to do!” That meant
that they were to die. The two young men cried in



More about Brutus. 83

terror to their father, beseeching him to banish them,
anything, only save them from death. But Brutus
made no reply. Amid the sobs and tears of all, the
lictors stripped off their clothes, and scourged them
with rods. Then, while all turned away in horror at
the sight, they were laid on the ground, and their
heads were struck off with the lictors’ axes. Brutus
wept, but he would not save them from the death
_ they had deserved by breaking the laws of their
country. Then he went away, and left the other
prisoners to be tried by the consul Collatinus.
Collatinus was not so stern as Brutus; and after
Brutus was gone he tried to save his nephews by
appointing them another day for their trial;.and he
also ordered the slave Vindicius to be given up to
his masters. This’ was a very cruel thing, and unjust
too. For if he had done so the poor slave would
certainly have been murdered. Besides, Valerius had
promised to protect him; and he knew he could not
do this, if he was given up to them. The people were
very angry with Collatinus, and so was Valerius,
The lictors, in obedience to the orders of Collatinus,
tried to take the slave away. Valerius and his friends
prevented their doing so. The people cried out for
Brutus. Brutus was sent for; and whea he came
back sad and pale with his great sorrow, they were
all silent, and he spoke these words: “It has been
enough for me to give judgment on my own sons,



84 Stories of the Old Romans.

Let the people decide as to the rest.” The people
with one voice condemned the others to die. Vindi-
cius was set free, and much money was given to him.

Before the war with Porsena, about which you will
read in the next chapter, Tarquin persuaded some
of the Etrurian cities to make war against the
Romans... He said he was an Etrurian, and it was
only right that they should help their own country-
man. The people of Veii especially, who had been
conquered by the Romans, listened to him, and
determined to go to war. Soon their armies met.
Valerius and Brutus commanded the Roman army ;
Valerius. the foot-soldiers, Brutus the horse.. Aruns,
the son of Tarquin, commanded the horse-soldiers
of the Etrurians; the king followed after with the
legions. When Aruns saw Brutus he exclaimed in a
rage, “There, there is the villain who has banished us
from our native country! See how he rides in state !
Help me, ye gods, avengers of kings!” Then he
struck his horse with his spurs; and holding firmly
in his hand his long spear, he rode forth in a fury
to kill Brutus. Brutus saw him coming, and, firmly
grasping his spear, rode to meet him. Both came/on
so furiously that they forgot to protect themselves with
their shields, and each one ran his spear right through
the other’s body. So they fell together to the ground,
—dead; thus ended the sad and noble life of Brutus.



T&iow Fatoratius bravely Wetended
: the Wridge, :







(7) HORATIUS DEFENDS THE BRIDGE.



AVEEE:

Faow Jatoratius bravely Wetended
the WWridge, |

MaIFTER the great’ battle in which his son was
| killed; the wicked Tarquin fled to’ the
Aiken 4 court of Porsena, king of Clusium, in.
Etruria. He hated the Roman people for banishing
him, and wished to be revenged on them for doing so-,
He wanted, if possible, to return and rule in Rome:
So he did all he could to persuade king Porsena to go.
to war with the Romans on his behalf. He told him
it would never do for people to banish their kings,
and not be punished for it, for then there would soon
be an end to kings altogether; and that kings must
fight for their crowns as bravely as the people fought
for their liberty. Perhaps Porsena was frightened lest’
it should come to pass that he should lose his crown;
perhaps he wished to rule over the Romans himself;
but, whatever were his reasons, he did resolve to go
to war with Rome. :
_First of all, however, he sent a message to the





88 Stories of the Old Romans.

Romans commanding them to receive Tarquin again
as their king. But this they would not do, not only .
because of the solemn oath they had taken never to
have a king in Rome again, but also because they
knew how cruel. and wicked a tyrant he was, and
had not forgotten poor Lucretia. Then Porsena
declared war against them, collected a very large

army, and marched against the city. The people all —

round were frightened when they saw it advancing,
and knew that it was coming to avenge Tarquin’s.
banishment, and fled towards Rome. Crowds stopped
the highways for a mile round the city,—old people
on crutches, women and little children, sick people on
litters, country people from the farms and vineyards,
with their flocks and herds,—all were-seeking ‘safety
in Rome from the army of the Etruscan king; and
soon, instead of the happy homes and peaceful fields
they had left, were smoking ruins and barren wastes
where his soldiers and horsemen had ‘been.
Near the city, but on the other side of the river
Tiber, was a fortress called Janiculum, built on a hill
of that name, and behind that fortress was a bridge
over the Tiber, leading right into the city. King
' Porsena took and destroyed this fortress; and when
he had done this, and killed the soldiers who defended
it, he had nothing to do but to march his soldiers
across this bridge into the city, so that the people
gave themselves up for lost. Thete was only one way

A



How Horatius bravely Defended the Bridge. 89 |

of preventing this: they must destroy the bridge
before Porsena’s army could cross it; and this the
consuls and people resolved to do, so that there might
be the wide Tiber between them and their foes.

But would there be time? The great army was
marching on, and the people could see afar off the
clouds of dust which they raised, and catch now and
then in the bright sunlight the glittering of their
spears and helmets. Soon they would be at the —
bridge; and, if they crossed the bridge, they could
march at once into the city. On they came, and the
Roman soldiers, terrified, threw down their arms and
fled. A few hours, yes, only a few minutes more now,
and those who had fled to the city for protection, as
well as those who dwelt there, would be cruelly slain,
or, what was even worse, be compelled-to receive the
wicked Tarquin as, their king !

Then one brave man, the captain of the gate, stood
up and said, “ Destroy the bridge as soon as possible ;
burn it, hew it down, anything, only destroy it. I
will stand ‘against the foe at the entrance as long as
I live, so that they shall not come into the city.”
Then two others said, “And we will stand with thee.”
The name of the first was Horatius Cocles, and of the
others Spurius Lartius, and Herminius. Horatius

“was a descendant of the Horatius who fought so
bravely with the Albans, and won the victory for
Rome. So these three went forth, and stood in the



90 Stories of the Old Romans.

narrow gateway of the bridge, to fight against the
thousands of Porsena’s anny, that they might not get
into Rome.

On came the great army, for Porsena and his
officers thought they could soon take the bridge; and —
when they saw none there to defend it but Horatius
and his two brave companions they raised a great
shout of laughter. But they soon found that there
was nothing to laugh at; for as one after another
approached the gate, the swords of Horatius and his
companions smote them so that they lay dead, until
their bodies were heaped up in front of these three
brave men, and helped to defend them from the foe.
Then Horatius shouted aloud to the Etruscans,
challenging them to fight, and calling them the slaves
of tyrants who came to oppress others. Again they
rushed forward, and threw their spears, but he caught
them on his shield. They tried hard to force him
over the bridge, but he held firm, though he had
received a wound. All at once he heard a great shout
from the people calling to them to come back, and a.
-eracking noise. Then he knew that the bridge was
nearly broken down, and that the city was safe; and
he bade his two companions return, but he resolved
to stay till the last. The bridge creaked and groaned
beneath their feet as they went; then, with a great
crash, it fell into the river. The Etruscans stood still
with amazement; and Horatius, all wounded as he



| How Horatius bravely Defended the Bridge. 91

was, and in his heavy armour, leaped into the river
after it, crying, “Father Tiber, receive me, thy
soldier, and these arms!”

It was a brave deed, and bravely done, and he must
have been a brave and noble man to do it. He did
not think of himself, but of his country, and of those
whom he loved; and for their lives he was willing to
lay down his own. And so because he did not think
of himself, but of others, he did not shrink from the
terrible fight, or get frightened and flee when the
army of Porsena pressed so fiercely on him and his
companions. And, in the great fight of life, if we
would bear ourselves bravely as good soldiers of Jesus
Christ, we must learn to think of others, and feel for
others, rather than for ourselves, and be willing to
serve each other in love. “We then that are strong,”
says the apostle, “ ought to bear the infirmities of the
weak, and not to please ourselves.” And there are
many ways of doing this besides fighting for them.
Sometimes it is a greater and better thing to be
patient and forbearing and forgiving, than it is to
fight even as bravely as Horatius did.

And ought we not to think also of Him who once
gave up His life for us on the-cross? This was a
nobler, greater sacrifice than Horatius was willing or
_ even able to make. In bitter anguish of soul He died -
for us, to deliver us from death. What praise, what
love do we owe to Him!



92 Stories of the Old Romans.

We can imagine how the people, perhaps his own
wife and children too, watched Horatius as he fought
at the bridge gate, every moment fearing he would be
killed; how eagerly they looked after him when he
leaped into the river, all swollen as it was with a
flood, and covered with the broken timbers of the
bridge ; and with what joy they saw him buffeting .
bravely with the torrent, now for a moment swept
down by it, then rising again and making for the
shore, till at last he stood safe, amid the weeping
shouting crowd, They gave him great honour, and
he was worthy of it. The senate ordered that he
should have as much land given him as two oxen
could plough round in one day, and that all the
people should give him one day’s provisions. They
also erected a statue to him, so that his name and his
brave deed might be remembered for ever.

‘¢ Tt stands in the Comitium?
Plain for all folks to see,
Horatius in his harness
Halting upon one knee;

And underneath is written,

In letters all of gold,

How valiantly he kept the bridge
In the brave days of old.”

An open place at the entrance of the senate-house, where the
people assembled,.and where trials were held and punishments inflicted.



— MLucins the ‘Wetett-handed,



(en 2es1
<.ss



(8) ° MUCIUS THE LEFT-HANDED,



VIII.

QRuvius the Wéett-handed,
WaLTHOUGH the brave deed of Horatius and
his two companions prevented the Etruscan
ai] army from entering Rome, it did not. put
an end to the war. Porsena and his soldiers still held
the Janiculum, and kept the city in a state of con-
stant alarm and terror. He also pitched his tents in
the fields on the banks of ‘the Tiber, and watched
them so closely that none could carry corn or food of
any kind across the river to the poor. half-starved
people of Rome; and he sent some of his soldiers in
boats to plunder those who lived on the. opposite
Side of the river, when they could do so without
being taken prisoners by the Romans.

This troubled the Roman people very much ; end
in a little while not only all the people living outside —
the walls of the city, but also all the cattle, had to be
taken inside the gates for safety, and nobody was
allowed to come in or go out. So they were in asad
plight, for in the city they were crowded together,





96 Stories of the Old Romans.

‘and had not enough food, and the Etruscan soldiers

were watching to slay them, or carry them off captive, ©

~ if they ventured outside the walls.

Some of the brave young men in Rome were very
indignant at this state of things, and determined to |
do something to put an end to it. They felt it was
a disgrace to the Roman people, who had always been
free, even under their kings, that they should be now
shut up within the walls of their own city by the king
of another country. At last they made up their minds |
what they would do, and a young nobleman, named
Caius Mucius, was chosen to carry out their plan.

‘ But first he went to the senate, and said, “ Fathers,

Iam going to cross the river, and enter the camp of
the enemy if I can; not to plunder, nor to avenge his
devastations. A greater deed isin my mind—if the
gods assist me.” Then the senate gave him leave to
go, for if not he might have been taken by the Roman
guards as a deserter, and sent back to Rome; and they
told him they approved of what he intended to do.
He dressed himself in an’ Etruscan dress, that he
might seem like one of Porsena’s own people; took a
short sharp sword, which he hid under his garments ;
and, crossing the river, made his way to the camp,
speaking the Etruscan language lest he should be
discovered to be a Roman, and be slain by Porsena’s
soldiers. He got among the crowd, that he might not
be noticed, and by-and-by came to the tent which



5 _ Mucius the Left-handed. 97

he knew td be the king’s, where the soldiers were
receiving their pay, and where the king and his

nobles were all sitting or standing. But he did not.
know which was the king; and he would not ask |

those standing by, because of course all the Etruscans
knew the king, and if he had asked the question they
would have guessed that he was a Roman, and in all
probability he would have been put to death at once,

However, he was determined not to go back with-
out attempting to do the deed for which he had been
chosen. So walking straight up to the man whom he
* supposed to be the king, he suddenly drew his sword,
and killed him with one blow. Then he turned
sharply round, and ‘while all were in amazement at

what he had done, he rushed through the crowd that

he might get to the banks of the river, and return
to Rome. But they cried out from the king’s tent,
“Seize-him, seize him!” and the guard soon caught
him, and took him pneu Then they brought him
before the king, .

It was the ane 8 secretary that he had killed. But

the king felt sure that the blow had been meant for
himself and Mucius was asked who he was; and why

he‘had done this deed. Looking sternly and boldly »
at the angry faces around him, and at the king, he.

said, “I am,a Roman citizen, and my ndme is Caius
Mucius. I meant to slay an enemy, and I am ready
to suffer death. A Roman can suffer bravely as well

H



98 Stories of the Old Romans.

as act bravely. But I am not alone. There are many
who will attempt to secure. the honour which I have
failed to win. Take heed, O king! Prepare yourself
for the peril. The sword of the enemy will be at the
entrance of your pavilion every hour. We, the Roman
youth, declare this war against’ you, not in battle
array, but with ourseives and you alone.”

‘The king was angry, as well indeed he might be, for
after all it is a cruel and dastardly thing to kill a man
by stealth, as Mucius tried to do, although he meant
it well for his country. But if he had succeeded it
would have been by being guilty of murder, and -
indeed he was guilty of murder in killing (though
by mistake) the king’s secretary, who had never done
him nor the Romans any harm. But the king was
not only angry but frightened, and so perhaps. be-
haved more cruelly than otherwise he would have
done; for, after all, Porsena was a brave man and a
noble man, as he showed afterwards by his conduct
towards the Romans themselves. He commanded a
fire to be-kindled, and threatened Mucius’ that if he
did not explain more fully what he meant, he should
be tortured with fire. g

Then Mucius, smiling, said, “Behold me! I had
great glory in view, and care not for my body;” so
saying he thrust. his right hand into the fire, and held
it there till. it was burnt and shrivelled. Yet. all the
while he uttered no cry, and showed no sign of pain,



Full Text



The Baldwin Library

University
mB ss
Florida





THE LEAP OF

MARCUS CURTIUS.

‘See page 154.
















~STORIES

OF THE



OLD POMANS.

BY THE AUTHOR OF

“TALES OF HEROES AND GREAT MEN OF OLD,”

: “ STORIES AND PICTURES OF CHURCH HISTORY,” ETC.
/ . “

LONDON:
THE RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETY,

56, PATERNOSTER Row; 65, Str. Paut’s CHURCHYARD,
AND 164, PICCADILLY. ;

i"








LONDON: KNIGHT, PRINTER, BARTHOLOMEW CLOSE,




PREPAC;

1




(ESE stories of the Old Romans are in-
| tended to form a companion volume to
the “Tales of Heroes and Great Men of
Old” by by the same author. He has endeavoured,
while retaining the chronological order of events,
and so keeping in view their historical connection,
to select such as present the most salient points of
interest, and which also are most suggestive of
moral lessons. The legendary character of the early
stories has been constantly kept in view, as shown
by modern historical criticism; yet they are stories
which the world “would not willingly let die,” and
which, rightly interpreted, may help to make us not
only “sadder,” but “wiser.” If they have not the
richness of poetical fancy which the Greek legends
exhibit, they teach none the less important practical
vi _ Preface.

lessons. Patriotism, courage, and self-sacrifice are
nobly exhibited in some of them; and the writer has '
endeavoured to point out from them the nobler
morality, the higher self-sacrifice, ‘the puter parolee
taught in the Bible. ©

Although the stories thus salocted do not come
down to a period which is commonly considered to.
mark the decline of the Roman “Empire, yet the
causes of that decline, as indicated in the latter days
of the Republic, have, it, is hoped, been sufficiently
pointed out. The inordinate love of ‘wealth, the
growth of luxurious habits, the increasing selfishness
of all classes, the loosening of social bonds which pre-
pared the way for the decay and final destruction of
the mightiest empire the world had then seen, have
been pointedly referred to; not without the hope
that some of the young people at least who may
read these stories may learn that personal goodness
and self-denial are better than external wealth and
self-indulgence, not only for ourselves, but for the
nation to which we belong.

May He who teaches by events in history, as
‘well as by His Word, help both writer and reader
to lay to heart these lessons, and fulfil them in
lives not lived unto themselves, but “to Him. who
died for them, and rose again!”
If.

TIt.

VI.

VII.

Vit.

TX.











CONTENTS.

THe WaNDERINGS oF AINEAS . R ft
How tary Founpep THE City

THE,Goop Kina Numa . : z

. Tue Great FIGHT BETWEEN THE HOoRATIT AND “THE

CURIATII z F We panc ay ee ie
THE WICKED TARQUINS . 2 " a

More asovut Brutus

How Horatius Bravery Derenpep tHE Brice, * .

Muctus Tam LErt-HANDED . . .

Carus Marctus CorRIoLANUS .

. A Nosrz Orp Roman : :

How tar Gauts TooK Rome . 2 ‘

PAGE

ll
23

39

103

131
Vili

XII.

XIII.

XIV.
“xv.
XVI.

XVII.

XVIII.

Contents.

PAGE
How Romer was DELIVERED FROM THE GAULS ‘ 141
How Two Nosie ROMANS GAVE THEMSELVES TO DIE
vor Rome . s : : Wage S158
How Tirus Manurus Torquatus won His NAME. 163
Kine Peaeec AND THE Romans : 5 meat 175
ANOTHER NosLtE Roman . Fi 5 x 195
THE most ELOQUENT OF a Romans . 4 . 205
Jouts Casar, THE First Emperor oF RomE . 225

APPENDIX.—NAMES AND OFFICES AMONG THE ROMANS Teo


Whe WZ anderings of @eineas,










() DIDO AND ANEAS.
Alhe Wi anderings of @Eineas,
—Snegpeta—

D legends tell us that Aineas, one of the
Trojan chiefs, was the founder of the
Â¥) Roman nation. The story of his adven-
tures was written by Virgil, in a poem called the
Aineid, and is as follows:
_ When Troy was burnt by the Greeks, Anchises,
the father of Aineas, who was old and blind, besought
his son to leave him. “Iam an old man,” he said,
“and cannot live long: leave me. I shall not care
for death if you are safe.” ineas refused to do so;
but taking him on his back, and leading his little
son Ascanius with one hand, he made his escape from
the city. Because he thus rescued his father at the
risk of his own life, and also carried with him the
images of the gods, he was called “the pious Aineas.”
After a time he, his father, and his son, with many
friends. and servants, built themselves ships, and set
sail to found a new kingdom. First of all they came
to Thrace. Having stayed here for awhile, they set



oa
12 Stories of the Old Romans.

sail again, and came to Delos, where they asked advice
of the god Apollo as to what they should do. The
priest said they were to go on till they found the
country from which first of all the Trojan people
came, and that there they should found an empire
which should rule over all the world.

Anchises, the father of Aineas, thought Crete was
meant. So they offered a sacrifice to Neptune, the
god of the sea, for a safe voyage, and another to
Apollo for having directed them; a milk-white sheep
to the west wind, and a black one to calm the stormy
seas. Then they set sail, and in due time arrived
safely at Crete.

There they built a city named Pergamos. Buta
pestilence fell upon them; the cattle perished, and
the men fell sick and died. Anchises bade Aineas
consult the god again, but that night he saw a vision. -
He fancied that the gods whose images he brought
from Troy appeared to him, and said: “O Aineas, we
have come to tell thee that which thou wast going to
Delos to know. The country you are in search of is
not Crete, but that which of old was called Hesperia,
but now Italy. Go there.” Then they disappeared.
Aineas started from his bed, offered incense to the
gods, and again set sail. After awhile they reached
the land of the Cyclops, in Sicily, and there Anchises,
the father of Atneas, died.

Although he was so near to Italy yet he did not
The Wanderings of Aineas. 13

_ land there, for his ships were driven by fierce winds,

and many of them, he thought, were lost. But his
own ship, and a few others, came to land, and find-
ing a pleasant and sheltered bay, they went on shore.
Aineas was disappointed, but not disheartened, and
taking his bow and arrows went in search of food
for his starving sailors and companions. Seven fine
stags he slew,—one for each ship; and while they
rejoiced over the welcome food and wine, he said to ..
them with comforting words: “O brave companions,
we have suffered many things together; be of good
courage, the gods will bring these troubles to an end
also. Some day you will be pleased to remember
these hardships. Endure, and you shall conquer.”

As Aineas and his friend Achates were one day
exploring the country, they came to a thick wood.
Here a beautiful woman, dressed as a huntress, met .
them, and said: “Have you, O young men, met any
of my sisters in this wood ?”

‘Then Aineas réplied: “Surely, O virgin, thou art
not a human being, but a goddess. We have not
seen thy sisters; but tell us (who have been driven
hither by the winds and the waves) what country is
this in which we wander ?”

“You are in the kingdom of Carthage,” she replied,
“and Dido is the queen. But whoare ye? and whence.
do you come, and whither do you wish to go 9”

“O goddess,” answered Aineas, with a deep sigh,
14 - Stories. of the Old Romans.

“if I should tell you all you ask, evening would come
before I had finished my sad story. Driven from
Troy, our ancient dwelling-place, we have been borne
by the waves to these coasts. J am the good Aineas,
and I carry in my ships my household gods. I seek
Italy, the country of my fathers.”

Then the goddess, having pity on him, satneragied
him in the midst of his grief, and said: “ Be of good
courage. Your ships, which you think lost, are safe.
The path is before you; go at once to the queen.”

As she spoke, her raiment seemed to change, and
flowed down to her feet ; sweet odours spread around —
her ; and, rising into the air, she departed from their
ne

In due time they arrived at the city, and stood
there gazing in wonder at all they saw; but they
themselves could not be seen, for the goddess had
spread a thick mist around them. Some were busy
building the walls; some making harbours for ships ;
some carving stone for building ; for a new city was
being built by Queen Dido. But while they gazed
they beheld a great throng approaching. Beautiful
youths and virgins surrounded the queen, herself
more beautiful than them all; and there in the midst
of the crowd were their companions whom they.
thought lost in the sea.

While they were wondering has would come to °
pass, Ilioneus, one of their lost companions, came
!
@

ae

The Wanderings of dineas.

15

before the queen, and said: “O Queen, have pity
on us Trojans. We came not to destroy or to steal.
We were seeking the land of Hesperia, the land
of our fathers; but the winds drove us to your
coasts. Suffer not your people to set fire to our
ships. Our king was Aineas, a just and pious man,
and great in war; but we know not whether he be
living or dead. Let us, we pray thee, draw our ships
on shore, shattered as they are by the waves, that we
may repair them, and seek our own land.”

Queen Dido, looking kindly at him, replied: “ Fear
not, Trojans. Who does not know your brave race ?
Draw your ships on shore; I will myself help you,
and give you treasures. I wish, indeed, your king
Zineas also were here.”

‘Then indeed were the hearts of Aineas and Achates
rejoiced. “What more can you desire, O Aineas?”
said his friend. Just as he was speaking, the cloud
which had concealed them vanished in the air, and
Aineas appeared to the view of all, radiant and beauti-
ful as a god. Then he said to the queen: “I am he
whom thou seekest, O Queen! May the gods reward
thee for thy kindness with great honours! Thy
name, thy praise I will ever remember!” Then
turning to his friends, he grasped them one after
the other by their hand with great joy.

The queen gazed in admiration at the noble-looking
stranger, and with kind words asked him and his
16 â„¢ Stories of the Old Romans.
companions to stay with her and be her guests. So
they feasted in her splendid palace that day and
night.

Aineas stayed a long while with Queen Dido, and
almost forgot that he had to go in search of Ttaly, and
found an empire there. Dido was very fond of him,
and he lived with her in great luxury. But Jupiter,
so Virgil relates, was angry that he should waste his
time in idleness and pleasure, and sent Mercury, the.
messenger of the gods, to bid him leave Carthage at
once. Mercury found him wearing a purple scarf
embroidered with gold, and a sword ornamented with
glittering gems, the gifts of the queen, directing the .
building of a wall. He thus addressed him: “What
art thou doing here, foolish man, building the walls of
a foreign city, and forgétting that thou hast to build
thine own? Why art thou lingering here? If neither
glory nor the hopes of fame will persuade thee, yet,
think of thy son, to whom the crown of Rome belongs
after thee.” Then he vanished. Thus Eneas was
taught the great lesson, that we are not in this world
to indulge in idle pleasure, but to do good and noble
work, )

Aineas, terrified, looked like one that was out of his
mind, and he longed to set sail at once from the
pleasures of Carthage. But, like all men who do
wrong, he had put his foot into a snare, and he did
not know how to get out of it. It was easy enough
The Wanderings of dineas. “17

to remain, and live with Queen Dido in her splendid

palace, though it was wrong to do so; but it was not

so easy to get away again. What could he say to
‘ her? and what should he do?

Like many people when they are going to do some-
thing of which they are ashamed, he tried to do it
secretly. He bade his men get the ships ready; and
if anybody found out what they were doing, they were

', to make some excuse, so that the queen might not
hear of it. But she was one of the first to find it out.

Bitterly she reproached him for wishing to leave

‘L— her, and Aineas replied: “O Queen, you have indeed
been very kind to me, and while I live I can never
forget your goodness. It was not my wish to leave
you secretly; but the oracle commands me to go.
Anchises, my father, appears to me in dreams, and
admonishes me with terrible warnings. Besides, Jove
himself has now sent his messenger to me, to bid me
depart. O Queen, the gods command me! Cease,
therefore, to complain or persuade me. I must go,

, though unwilling.”

But these words only made Dido more angry, and
looking at him with flaming eyes, she said: “O false
and hard-hearted man, hard as a rock and cruel as
tigers are; not one tear thou sheddest for my misery,
not one pitying look thou givest me. Go! seek thy
kingdom. No more will I ask thee to stay. But I
hope, if the gods will hear my prayer, that both thou

: Cc
4

18 Stories of the Old Romans.

and thy vessels may find a grave in the shifting sands,
or in the faithless waves, not so faithless as thou art.”
Then she fell fainting on the ground.

Aineas pitied her, and felt troubled in his mind,
because he knew he had deceived her, and behaved
cruelly to her. But he dared not stay; and leaving
her insensible on the couch where her maids had
placed her, he went at once to his companions to bid
them make ready for the voyage. Dido tried again
and again to persuade him, and threatened to kill
herself if he would not stay ; but he would not change
his mind. And he was right. He had done wrong
in deceiving her, wrong in staying so long; but it was
right to go; and if Dido had been a noble, generous-
hearted woman, she would not have tried to keep
him from his duty.

The night before Aineas intended to sail Mercury
again appeared to him, and warned him to depart at
once, for dangers surrounded him. So Aineas arose,
called up his companions, and gave orders to sail.
The rowers laboured at their oars, the great sails
swung out to the west wind, and Aineas and his
companions were soon far away from the Cartha-
ginian shore.

In time he reached the land of his forefathers, and
set to work to build a city, and called the name of it
Troy, after the famous Troy in which he was born.

Latinus was the king of the country on the shore

4,
The Wanderings of Aineas. 19

of which Aineas had landed. We can well believe
that he did not much like to hear that strange men
had come in ships, and were building a city on his
land without his leave. There are two stories about
what happened. One is that King Latinus and his
people came to see the strangers, and made friénds
with them; and that the king gave Aineas his
daughter Lavinia for his wife, for which reason the
name of the city was afterwards called Lavinium.
The other story is that at first the king was friendly ;
but that the Trojans having wounded a favourite stag
belonging to Latinus, they quarrelled and fought,
and Latinus was slain; after which Aineas took his
daughter Lavinia, and made her his wife.

There is another story which is partly told by
Virgil, but no one can say how much is true or
false. Virgil’s story is that King Latinus made
friends with the strangers, in obedience to an ancient
prophecy, which said that strangers would come, and
that the king’s daughter was to be given to their chief
for his wife. Aineas, therefore, married Lavinia, and
called his new city Lavinium after her. But, before .
AMneas came, Latinus had promised his daughter to
Turnus, the prince of the Rutulians. Turnus being
angry, persuaded some of the other princes to join.
him in making war.upon the strangers, and upon
King Latinus, their ally. In the battlé which fol-
lowed, Latinus was’ slain. Then Aineas was made
20 Stories of the Old Romans.

king instead of him, and the Latins and the Trojans
became’ one people. But in the war between Aineas
and Turnus, Turnus was killed; and Aineas, being
defeated, disappeared, and was never afterwards seen.
It was said that the gods took him, and a temple
was raised in his honour on the banks of the little
river Numicius, where he disappeared. His son
Agcanius reigned in his stead, and built Alba Longa,
“the long white town” on the side of the Alban
Lake. There, the legends. say, he and: his sons and
sons’ sons reigned for three hundred years.


Taow they Founded the @fity,






(2) THE SHEPHERD BEFORE THE WICKED KING.


i.

ow they Founded the @fity,
—sasdwetr

‘HEN many years had passed away, after the
Mi] death of Ascanius, Procas was king of Alba
4ei; Longa. He left two sons, Numitor and
Amulius. Numitor was gentle and peaceful, but
Amulius was cruel, and. very fond of power. So he
‘took away his brother Numitor’s share of the king-
dom, but allowed him to live quietly on the lands
and money which his father had given him.

But Amulius, like all evil-doers, was afraid that
some one would repay him for his evil deeds. Es-
pecially he was afraid that Numitor’s son would do
so,—therefore he had him put to death. And, lest
Sylvia, Numitor’s daughter, should marry, and her
children should grow up and punish him, he ap-
pointed her a priestess of Vesta; so that it was
unlawful for her to be married. Then he thought his
kingdom was safe. But kingdoms won by injustice
and crime are never safe, as after a time sao lis
found. And this is how it came to pass.


24 Stories of the Old Romans.

Sylvia, not liking to be a priestess of Vesta, broke
her vows, and had two sons, born at the same time.
When Amulius heard of this he was very angry, for
now he feared lest these children might take away
thé kingdom from him. But as his wrong - doing
made him afraid, so his fear made him cruel, and he .
ordered the mother and her little babes to be thrown
into the river Tiber. We do not hear any more of
poor Sylvia. Of the two little babes we are told what
follows: The river Tiber had overflowed its banks,
so that those who were ordered to put them into the
river could not get near it for the flood. Thinking,
however, they would certainly be drowned, they put
them into the water where it had overflowed the
fields, and there left them. But the flood soon
subsided, and the little ark, or chest, in which they
had been placed was left on dry ground.

But the stories relate still more wonderful things ;
and, though we cannot believe what they tell us, it is
_ worth while to know what used to be believed. They
say that when the poor little babies cried from cold
and hunger, a she-wolf, which had come to the stream
to drink, heard them; and instead of devouring them,
as might have been expected, she lay down close by
them, warmed thém, licked them clean with her
tongue, and gave them food. One day Faustulus, the
king’s shepherd, found them in a cave where she had
carried them. The shepherd, being a kind-hearted
How they Founded the City. 25

man, and perhaps knowing that these were the
children the king had tried to kill, took them home
to his wife, and brought them up as his own sons.

So, roaming in the fields, and among the shepherds
and their flocks, the two boys, whose names were
Romulus and Remus, grew up hearty and strong.
But they did not care for keeping the sheep and
tending the cattle so much as they did for hunting
the wild beasts in the forest. When they grew older,
-they went out and fought with the robbers who came
to steal the flocks, and slew them, so that they gained
great praise and honour among the shepherds.

They were not only brave and strong, but, as all
brave men ought to be, were courteous and gentle.
For if we are brave and strong ourselves, we ought to
pity those who are not so, and try to help them. So
‘St. Paul says,“We then that are strong ought to
bear the infirmities of the weak, and not to please
ourselves.” They also—and especially Romulus, it
is said—tried to be wise as well as strong; for
although they did not know that they were Numitor’s
grandsons, nor that they should ever be kings, they
felt desirous to learn, and it was well they did so.
‘We never know when our knowledge may be of use
to us, So it is wise to get all we can whilst we have .
opportunity.

One day Numitor’s herdsmen quarrelled with the

1 Rom, xv. 1,
26 Stories of the Old Romans.

herdsmen of Amulius, and drove away some of his
cattle. Romulus and Remus with their companions
went after them, beat the robbers, and brought the
cattle back. Numitor was very angry, and tried to
have them punished, for he did not know they were
his grandsons.

But the robbers were angry at being deprived of
their-plunder ; and one day, while Remus was walking
with ‘some of his friends, they attacked him, and
having wounded his companions, took him prisoner,
and carried him before Numitor. They accused him
and Romulus of coming with a band of young men
into his lands, and robbing them,—although they.
were the robbers themselves. Numitor was afraid
to punish Remus because of his brother Amulius, for
he thought, If I punish this young man for taking
flocks and herds to his farms, he may be angry with
me. So he sent him to Amulius to be punished.
Amulius, having heard the complaints of the’ shep-
herds, without inquiring whether what they said.
was true or not, sent Remus back to Numitor, and
told him he might punish him as he pleased. This
shows what sort of man Amulius was. To please
himself, and get power, he had done his brother
wrong; and now to save himself trouble, and please
his brother, he was willing to do Remus wrong.

But what the king meant for his punishment.
turned out for his good. For when Numitor saw
How they Founded the City. 27

him again, he could not Help noticing how different
he looked from the other shepherds. He was, for one
thing, much taller and stronger than they; but he
was also different in this way, that he did not seem
afraid to look him in the face and speak boldly.
Numitor began to wonder who he was. Perhaps he
thought at that time of his own son, whom his
brother Amulius had so cruelly slain, and who used
to look bold and brave, like Remus. Perhaps he
thought of his poor daughter Sylvia and of her little
babes, whom Amulius had ordered to be drowned.
Perhaps he thought, “ What if this should be one of
them?” Then he would think again, “No, that can-
not be.” But he determined nevertheless’ to make
inquiry.

So he began to question Remus, and looking gently
upon him, said, with a kind voice, “Who are you? .
- and who are your parents, and where were you born?
Tell me about yourself.”

Then Remus answered with boldness, but with
a, little more gentleness, for he could not help
feeling Numitor’s kindness, although he knew he
was wrongly accused, “I will hide nothing. from you,
for you behave more like a prince than Amulius.
You inquire into the matter, and he has delivered me
up without inquiry. I have a twin brother, and we
used to think that we were the sons of Faustulus,
the herdsman of the king. But since I have been
28 Stories of the Old Romans.

accused of these crimes I have heard other things.
It is said we were born in secret, that we were ex-
posed to wild beasts and birds, and that a she-wolf

nursed and fed us, after we had been thrown into
the river. I do not know whether it is true, but the
chest in which it is said we lay, is preserved, bound
with brass bands. Perhaps this will show who we are.”

While Numitor was thinking of what he would do,
and how he should find out this-mystery, Faustulus,
who knew the danger that Remus was in, took the
chest to carry it to Amulius. He looked very much
frightened, and some of the king’s soldiers, who saw
him coming, thought there was something wrong,
and began to question him, and that made him-more ~
frightened. Then they saw the chest, which he tried
to hide under his cloak. One of them who knew all
about it, for he was one of those who had put the
little children in the river, went and told the king.
Faustulus was then brought before him.

He was now still more frightened, and did not tell
the king all. But he told him the young men were
alive, and that they were keeping cattle a long way
from Alba, Then Amulius was frightened too, for he
thought, “ Now they will find out all my wickedness,
and come and do to me as I tried to do to them.”
He was in dreadful trouble, afraid that at last his
sin had found him out. And so it had Long long
years ago he thought he had killed these poor little
How they Founded the City. 129

children, and now they were strong men, and would
come and kill him! What should he do? what
should he do? Miserable wretch! he deserved it
all.

’ He hardly knew what he said or did, and sent
some one to make further inquiry. But in his hurry
he sent a good man, who was a friend of his brother
Numitor, to ask him if he knew anything about
the children. When the man came, and saw Remus
before Numitor, he guessed how it was, and took the
side of Remus and his brother. He showed Numitor
that they were really his grandsons, and begged him
to do all he could to keep them from the anger of
the king.

While he was yet talking to Numitor, Roritlne
came. Many of the citizens of Alba were with him.
He had also with him many men armed with swords,
spears, and shields; each band a hundred strong,
headed by an officer, who bore in his hand a pole
with a handful of hay hanging from itt Numitor
acknowledged the young men to be his grand-
children. They then marched at the head of their
men to the palace of Amulius ; and there, after so
“many years of wrong, and so many cruel and unjust
dealings, his judgment came upon him, and he was

1 These were called, manipuli, or handfuls. Ever after, in the
Roman army, soldiers of the same company were called manipulares ;
i.e. belonging to one handful.
30 Stories of the Old Romans.

slain. So he found, as all evil-doers sooner or later
will find, that “wickedness shall not be unpunished.”
Numitor now became king of Alba.

But Romulus and Remus had no wish to remain
idle. They did not think that because they were
king’s sons they had nothing to do but enjoy them-
selves. They wanted work to do, as every man will
who is good for anything in this world. So when they
had seen their grandfather comfortably settled in his
kingdom, and paid all the honour they could to the
memory of their mother, they determined to go and
build a city of their own, where they might live and
rule. They determined to build this city in the very
place where they had been thrown into the water and
preserved from death.

They gathered their friends together, therefore, and
all the Alban people who chose to go with them, and
went to found a new city, the city which was after-
wards to become, though they knew it not, the
‘greatest city in the world.

Sad to say, at this time, the time when the people
were ready to do them all reverence, a dispute arose
between the two brothers as to where the city should
be built, and who should have the honour of giving
it his name. This quarrel led to a sad result, as we
shall see.

Romulus wished the city to be built on the

. 2 Prov, xi, 21.
How they Founded the City, 31

Palatine hill; Remus chose the Aventine; and, as
neither would give way to the other, it was resolved
to choose the place by augury.1 Romulus and his
friends stood together on the hill he had chosen,
Remus on the other with his. A day and a night
they waited, gazing at the sky, looking for the sign
from heaven. The sign, as they thought, came to
Remus. By the light of the stars they saw six
vultures flying, and they flew towards Remus. When
the sun rose, Remus and his friends went-to the
Palatine hill, which was about four miles off, to tell
Romulus; but just as they were telling him, and
Romulus was thinking he should be obliged to give
way to his brother, twelve vultures appeared in the
sky, and flew towards him. Then his friends shouted
aloud, and Romulus said, “See, the augury is in my .
favour; you had but six vultures, I have twelve.”
The friends of Romulus were most numerous, and
Remus was obliged to yield; but he did it with an
angry heart, for he felt his brother was unjust.
Romulus now began to mark out the ground on
which the city was to stand, and it was done in this,
way: To a plough with a copper share two white
oxen were yoked; and then Romulus, guiding the
plough, and praying to the gods, drove it round the
hill where the wall of the city was to be built. As
he drove the plough, lightning flashed from the sky,

1 See chapter on Offices, etc.
32 Stories of the Old Romans.

and peals of loud thunder were heard. The people
rejoiced, for they thought this meant that Jupiter
approved of what they were doing; and in the line
marked by the plough they began to build the wall
of the city.

It was not, at first, much of a wall; and Rants
who was still vexed with his brother, pean to laugh
at it, and say, “That a wall! why, what enemy will
that keep out?” And so saying he jumped over it.
Romulus grew very angry, and in his rage struck his
brother so that he died, saying, “So perish all who
shall pass over my walls!” So sad was the end of
their quarrel; and just see how it came about. First,
instead of trying to decide calmly by reason which
would be the best place for the city, each one tried to
have his own way about it; and when people are
determined to have their own way, whether it is right
or not, some harm is sure to come of it, either to
themselves or to others. Then they were foolish
enough to leave it to the augury of the vultures ;
and, as we might expect, when it was so decided, they
gwere not satisfied. Then Remus was angry because
he thought his brother was not acting fairly ; and he
let this feeling remain in his heart till he became
very bitter against him. Then he was foolish enough
to scoff and sneer at what his brother had done, and
so make him angry. Then Romulus, instead of con-
trolling his anger, gave way to it; and then |—there
How they Founded the City. 33

lay his own brother, whom he had played with on
these hills, who had been brought up with him in the
hut of Faustulus, and who had rejoiced with him
when they were discovered to be the king’s sons,—
dead.on the ground! __

Romulus was bitterly grieved when he found what
he had done. It was perhaps a hasty blow, and
harder than he meant it to be. Some of the stories,
too, say that it was in a quarrel between his friends
and the friends of Remus that he was slain, and that
it was not Romulus who did it; and other stories say
it was a man Celer, who had been set to watch the
walls, and that he killed Remus with his pickaxe.
But, at any rate, his death came out of the quarrel
they had ; and whichever way it was, when it was too
late. Romulus was very sorry. He refused to eat
food, and would not listen when his friends tried to
comfort him. He kissed his dead brother, and wept ;
but no tears could bring him back again. The deed
was done, and could never be undone. They raised a
funeral pile for him, on which his body was burnt,
and Romulus instituted a festival in his honour. He
had also a throne made for him as if he were alive,
and placed it'next to his own; and on it were ae
royal robes, and a sceptre and crown.

In time the city was built, and Romulus was the
first king. It was not a grand city, full of noble
buildings and temples, as-it became afterwards, The -

D
34 Stories of the Old Romans.

houses were little better than huts built of mud and
thatched with reeds. But it was begun, that was
something; for Romulus was-not a man to be idle
when there was anything to do. He also invited
people from neighbouring countries to come and live
there; and he set apart a piece of ground for a place
of refuge, so that any man who had committed a
crime in another country, if he fled to Rome, and
entered this place of refuge, would be safe. In time
a good many people came and dwelt in the city
‘which Romulus began to build’ Romulus ruled
wisely, and gave the people good laws. He also
trained all the men to be soldiers, so that they
could defend the ae if it should be attacked by
an enemy.

At first there were-many more men than 1 women in
the city, for a great number of robbers and: murderers
came to settle there, in order to find protection from
their own rulers. These men wanted wives. The
Sabines, who lived in the neighbourhood, were there-
fore invited to a festival,and came bringing with them
their wives and daughters. When everybody was
eagerly looking on at the games and sports, the soldiers
rushed in and carried off such as they chose.

This led to a war between the two nations. The
Sabines attacked the Romans; a fierce battle was.
about to be fought, when forth from the city gates
came the women whom the Romans had seized and
How they Founded the City. ~ 35

married. With loud cries and weeping they rushed
in between the two-armies. Some called aloud to
their fathers and brothers, beseeching them not to
slay their husbands; some clung to their husbands,
and entreated them. no longer to fight with their
fathers and brothers. For awhile there was silence
and doubt on both sides. Then when both armies
stood still, looking on them in wonder, the women
said, “Why do you make us suffer such miseries? . If
. you conquer,” they said, turning to the Sabines, “we
lose our husbands; if you conquer,” turning to their
husbands, “we lose our fathers and brothers. Better
_we should perish than live either widows or fatherless.
And how can we go back, and leave our husbands and
children?” At length it was agreed that peace should
be made between the two contending peoples, and that
they should live in friendship together.

Romulus reigned many years, fought many battles
with the nations which were enemies to Rome, and
won many victories. Rome under his care grew and
flourished, and became an important city. So wisely
did he rule, and so bravely did he fight, that all the
people loved him, and. especially the soldiers. And,
what is best, though he was a brave warrior, he did
not go to war for the sake of fighting. For many
years during his reign Rome was in peace, neither
fighting foes nor being attacked by them.

At last he died. He had gathered a great assembly
36 Stories of the Old Romans.

,of the people, and was reviewing his troops, when
suddenly a great storm arose. Dark clouds covered
the sky, which was only now and then lit up by
flashes of lightning; the thunder rolled fearfully, and
the rain fell so fast that everything was hidden in a
mist, and the people could no longer see their king.
When the mist cleared away he was gone. Some of
his people thought he had been murdered by the
nobles, who were jealous of him; but most of them
believed he had been carried up to heaven in the

storm.

This is the story of Romulus and Remus, and of
the founding of the city, as the old legends tell it us.
But the great part of it is fable, and we do not really
know whether any of it is true. ;


Fhe Good EXing Tuma,


(3) NUMA AND THE AUGUR.
III.

Alhe Good King uma,
Sd pete

Farrer the death of Romulus, the people of

Rome remained for some time without a

8 king. They could not make up their minds

whom to choose. At last it was agreed that the hun-

dred senators should rule. They were divided into

tens; and one of each ten was to be chosen in turn

to be the chief ruler. They were to rule five days

each. This arrangement lasted about a year; but the

people did not like it, and said they. would rather

have one king than a hundred; and so the question

began again to be asked by them, as they chatted —
together in the forum, or met in the council, “ Who is.
to be king?”

There was at this time a ago and wise man
dwelling at Cures, a city:of the Sabines. The story
afterwards was, that he was taught philosophy by
Pythagoras, one of the wisest men of Greece. But
others say that Pythagoras did not live till many
-years after Numa was dead; and some learned men


_ 40 Stories of the Old Romans.

think that perhaps there never was such a man as
Numa at all. However, the old stories tell us some
very good and beautiful things about him; and, if he
did live, he was a very good and wise man, and one
whom it would be well for all kings, and other men
too, to imitate.

His father’s name was Pomponius, and it is said
that he was born the day that Rome was founded by
Romulus. He was kind, patient, gentle, and willing
to learn; but he was not soft and weak because he

was gentle and patient, but strong, brave, and clever,

Patient and gentle boys, and men too, are often quite
as strong and quite as clever as those who are rough:
and uncouth, and a great deal pleasanter.

As he grew up he sought, by reading and study, to _
grow wiser and better. Both his fellow-citizens and
strangers came to him for advice. All who did so
found him a wise and faithful friend. So much was
he honoured by all, that Tatius, who had become
joint king with Romulus, after the reconciliation
between the Romans and the Sabines, gave him his
daughter Tatia to be his wife. But though he had
married a king’s daughter it did not make him
proud; he continued in his own city, taking care of
his aged father, and still studying and learning. He
and his wife lived together in peace and happiness
for thirteen years, and then Tatia died.

After her death Numa was very sad and lonely
The Good King . Numa. 41

He used to wander by himself in the sacred groves
around the city; and far away sometimes in solitary
places, where he could be quite alone. The people
wondered at this, for they could not imagine that he
would rather think by himself alone than talk with
them; and thus the foolish fable got about that a
nymph who had the gift of prophecy used to meet
him in the woods, and teach him wisdom. Afterwards
it was said that the name of this nymph was Egeria.

This, was the way in which in those old times they
accounted for any man being especially wise. They
thought that some god must have taught him.’ And
although their notions about the gods were very
foolish and wrong, since there is but one living and
true God, as-even some of the heathens knew, yet
they were right in thinking that all true wisdom came
from above. For everywhere and in all times, where-
ever any man truly asks God to give him wisdom and
help him to do right, God hears and answers his
prayer. “If any man lack wisdom,” says the Apostle’
James, “let him ask of God, who giveth to all men
liberally, and upbraideth not, and it shall be given
him.” And thus it was that Numa, and many others
among the heathen, learned to know and do the
things that were right and just and true, though they
did not know them so perfectly as we do who have |
His written word in the Bible} and although they
1 Acts x. 35.
42 Stories of the Old Romans.

had not the gracious promise which He has there
given to us, that He will give His Holy Spirit to them
that ask Him.t

The Romans and the Sabines were still very good
friends; and when they could find no one in Rome
whom they thought fit to be king, some of them said,
“Why not ask Numa the Sabine? He is wise and
good. and just. Let him be king.” They all agreed
to this, and sent ambassadors to him to ask him if he
would come and reign over the Roman people. Numa
was at this time about forty years old.

The ambassadors expected he would have been very
glad when they offered him the crown, and that he
would say “yes” at once. But after they had told
him what they wished, he became silent and thought-
_ ful, as though he did not wish to be their ruler. He
loved the quiet woods and his peaceful home; and |
he feared lest the Romans, who were a warlike race,
would want to keep on fighting; and he desired peace,
not war. So, in the presence of his father, and his
friend Marcius, he replied: “All changes in life are
full of risk, but especially is it dangerous to become a
king. Besides, all my time has been spent in quiet.
I love peace, and I hate war; and you Romans are
fond of fighting. What should I do among a people
who want a general to lead them to battle, rather than
a king to rule them ?”

1. Luke xi. 13.
The Good King Numa. 43

The ambassadors begged him not to refuse. “If
you do,” they said, “the people will have no one else;
and they will be sure to quarrel and fight among
themselves.” So entreating him very earnestly, for
they saw he really did not wish to be king, they left
him, ! '

When they were gone, his father and his friend .
_Marcius talked to him, and tried to persuade him to
accept the crown. “Consider,” they said to him,
“that though you may be quite happy in this quiet
life, yet that a king is a servant of the gods, and has
the opportunity of doing good and just things more
than other men. Besides, perhaps the Romans are
tired of war, and you might teach them to live in
peace; and if you were king of Rome, the Romans
and the Sabines would grow still greater friends.”
Many of his fellow-citizens, too, when they heard. of it,
came to him, and begged 1 aie to accept the offer of
the Romans.

At last he made up his mind that, if it were the
will of the gods, he would be king of Rome; and
after he had offered sacrifice he set out for the city:
When the people and the senators knew he was
coming, they all went out to meet him. They wel-
comed him with blessings and shouts of joy. When
they were come to the forum, the senator whose turn
it was then to rule said to the people, “Do you choose
‘Numa to be your king?” ‘The people all shouted
44 Stories of the Old Romans.

aloud with one voice, “We do.” Then they offered
him the royal robes; but he said, “Stay: when the
city was founded, the gods were consulted by augury;
let it be so now.”

The priests and the augur led him to the hill,
afterwards called the Capitoline, and made him sit
upon a stone facing the south. The augur, with a
curved wand in his hand called a lituus, sat on his
left hand. He then made a sign of dividing the sky -
with his wand; the parts to the south he called the
right, those towards the north the left. When he had
done this, he put his hand on the head of Numa and
prayed: “O father Jupiter, if it is thy will that this
Numa Pompilius, whose head I hold, should be king
of Rome, I beseech thee to give sure and evident signs
of it within those bounds which I have marked.”
The people all stood around in perfect silence; not
one moved or spoke. The augur stood with his eyes

- fixed upon the distant sky. At last he saw, or fancied
he saw, birds appear in the sky, and pass to the right.
Then he declared to the people that it was the will of
the gods that Numa should be king.

All at once the death-like silence was changed for
a loud shout of joy, and Numa came down from the
mount. They put on him the royal robe,—white,
striped with, purple—and the crown of gold. They
also put the ivory sceptre in his hand; and the
twelve lictors marched before him with their axes
The Good King Numa. : 45

bound in rods, and stood by his side as he seated
himself‘on his throne.

He first taught the Roman people to live in peace
with their neighbours, and to be just and true in all
their dealings. He appointed sacrifices and religious
festivals in which he himself took part; so that they
might have something else to think about than
fighting, and might learn to associate pleasantly with
“each other. He set up the worship of a divinity
called Terminus, who it was said presided over
boundaries; and he ordered that every one should
mark the boundary of his own land with stones con-
secrated to Jupiter, at the festival of Terminus, so
that they might keep their own lands, and not
encroach on those of others. He instituted an annual
festival to Fides, that is, honourable and fair dealing
and truth, that he might teach the Roman people to
be true to one another in their words and actions,
and not to tell lies and cheat, as they had been ac-
customed to do. He also taught them to venerate
Tacita, or silence, and called Tacita a goddess; that
they might learn to put a guard upon their lips, and
to keep silence at proper times.

As there was no war now going on, a great many
men who had often been engaged in fighting while
Romulus was king had nothing to do, Numa gave
them the land to cultivate which in former times —
they had taken in fight; and that he might encourage
46 Stories of the Old Romans.

them to be industrious, he used to visit their farms
himself; and if any man showed himself clever and
persevering, he rewarded him by giving him some
honourable office. In these and many other. ways
he encouraged the people to be honest, truthful, and
industrious ; and when they found they had enough
to do, and that it was pleasant to live in peace, they
did not care for going to war, or for quarrelling
among themselves, as they had been accustomed to
do. Thus there was no war in his reign; and the
temple of Janus, which was open when there was
war, and shut when there was peace, was closed the
whole time.*
_ He made many alterations in the religious worship .
of the people, which, perhaps, he thought were right,
and would be of benefit to them, but which he would
not have made if he had known the will of the one
true God. One thing, however, shows us that he
really did know better than many of the heathen at
that time. He forbade the people to make any image
of the gods, either in the likeness of man or beast.
He encouraged them to build temples, and other
- sacred places, to different divinities, but did - not
allow them to place any figure of the god in the
temple; for he said God was not to be seen by men’s
eyes, and was only to be discerned by the mmd. He
taught them that religious worship was to be attended
1 The same thing happened at the time of our Saviour’s birth.
The Good King Numa. 47

to in a solemn manner, and that they should come
prepared for it by meditation at home.

Some of his precepts, too, which have come down
to us are quite worth our remembering now. One
of them was, “Do not sit on a bushel measure.”
_ That means, do not be idle, and sit down when you
ought to be at work. Another was, “Do not stir the
fire with a sword;” which means, if anybody is
angry, do not try and make him worse; or, perhaps,
—put things to their right uses,—don’t use a sword
where a poker is sufficient. And a third was, “Do
not turn back on a journey;” which probably means
that we should persevere in whatever we undertake,
and which it is right for us to do. Three very good
rules for us, and which will help to make our life
happier and more useful if we put them in practice.

He died in a good old age, after reigning more
than forty years in peace and prosperity. All the —
people loved him, and not the Roman people only,
but the nations round Rome who used to be enemies,
but whom he had made friends. A great many of
them came to his funeral, and mourned for him
as if he had been their own king. The Romans
lamented him as if he had been their father rather
than their king, and followed him to the grave with
tears and loud cries of sorrow.

- Now, which was best for the Roman people, which
was most worthy of praise,—that Numa should have
48 ~ Stories of the Old Romans. .

taught them to do justly, and: love mercy, and seek
to be at peace; or that he should have taught them
to fight, and have spent the greater part of his reign
on the battle-field? Ah! it seems a fine thing to
fight, and win great victories; but one gentle word
spoken, one good deed done, one heart taught to love,
is far finer and nobler. The Bible tells us that a
time shall come when men shall learn-war no more.
Tt also tells us that love never faileth, and that a cup
of cold water given for Christ’s sake shall not lose its
reward. J think that when we all stand before the ~
Jjudgment-seat of Christ we shall wish to be like
Numa rather than like Alexander or Napoleon.
Yes! and there is a day coming—let us hope it may
be soon—when to be like the Prince of Peace will be
a greater honour than to be a great soldier, and when
love will be thought more of than the fame of a
thousand battle-fields !


Ane Great Fight between the Woratii
and the @Vuyriatii.




GN PERS
SSS
: =





THE RETURN OF HORATIUS,

(4)
IV.

HEthe Great Wight between the Ta oratii
and the @luriatii,

Setar

Arter the death of Numa, Tullus Hostilius
Re} was chosen king. He was a soldier who
oF # dclighted in war. Instead of waiting till
Rome was attacked by enemies, and seeking to defend
it, he resolved to subdue some of the neighbouring
kingdoms. For this purpose he stirred up strife
between his own people and the Albans. They, like
the Romans, were a warlike race, always ready to
quarrel. As the boundaries of the two nations were
close together, there was a good deal of plundering
going on amongst the herdsmen who lived. on the
borders. The Albans carried off the cattle of the
Romans, and the Romans did the same to the Albans.
There were complaints on both sides, and very little
provecation was needed to cause a war between them:

Soon ‘after Tullus became king the Albans sent
ambassadors to Rome to complain that their cattle
had been stolen. The Romans, on their side, sent an


52 Stories of the Old Romans.

embassy to Alba to make the'same complaint. But
Tullus, who was determined on war, instructed his
ambassadors to go straight to the Alban king, Cluilius,
and demand immediate payment for the stolen cattle.
If he refused, they were at once to declare war against
him. They did as they were ordered. Cluilius would
not submit to their stern abrupt demand. The am-
bassadors, therefore, at once threatened him with the
vengeance of the Romans, in the name of Tullus
Hostilius their king, and they sent word aes saying
what they had done.

When the Alban aanawadors came to Rome
Tullus received them very kindly, and made feasts
for them, and treated them with great honour, so
that they had not the opportunity of delivering
their message. This was just what -Tullus wanted,
as you will see. For when he heard from his own
messengers that they had threatened Cluilius with
war he was glad; and saying nothing about it to
the Alban ambassadors, he told them he was ready
to attend to their business. Then they told him
how the Romans had robbed the Albans, and asked
him to make restitution. Tullus told them it was
too late, that the Alban king had sent away his
- ambassadors, and that war had been already declared
by him against the Albans. The Alban messengers
went home, as we may imagine, very indignant at
‘the way in which Tullus had treated them.
Fight between the Horatéi and the Curiatii, 58

The Albans collected their army in- haste and
anger, and marched at once into the Roman territory,
till they came within five miles of the city of Rome.
There they pitched their tents, and dug a deep trench
to defend themselves from their enemies. Cluilius,
the Alban king, died a short time after this. When
Tullus heard of it he marched in the night past the
camp of the Albans into their country. Mettius, who.
was appointed commander instead of the king, then
led his army back after Tullus. When he had got
near to him he sent a herald to propose a parley,
that they might endeavour to come to some friendly
understanding, instead of fighting one another. Both
armies were drawn up near to each other in battle
array. Tullus and Mettius, and some of their chief
officers, met in the space between them, and Mettius
began thus :—

“T have heard the king Cluilius say that this
war was begun because we refused to restore what we
had taken from the Romans; and you, Tullus, I dare
say, say the same thing. But, if the truth were
told, I think the real reason is because each nation
desires to have dominion over the other. That is
for him to think about who began the war. But
now, Tullus, consider. The Etruscans, our neighbours,
are very strong, and have great fleets and armies;
suppose when we have been fighting together, and
many of our-men are slain, and we are tired and
54 Stories of the Old Romans.

exhausted, they should come and: destroy us both!
Would it not be better to decide without fighting
which of us is to rule the other?”

Tullus would rather have fought; but he could
not help seeing that what Mettius proposed was
best, and at last they agreed upon this plan,

' There were in each of the armies three brothers.
The three in the Roman army belonged to a noble
family named Horatius, and were therefore called
Horatii; the Alban three belonged to a noble family
named Curiatius, and hence were called Curiatii, |
These young men were asked if they would be willing
to fight three against three, to decide which nation
should rule, They said they were quite willing; and
Horatius, the father of the Horatii, was greatly pleased
that the choice of the Roman king had fallen upon
his brave sons.

So the Romans and the Albans made a solemn
treaty that the nation whose champions should con-
quer in the fight should rule the other; and they
called their gods to witness it, so that if either of
them were false to the treaty they might be punished.

Now the brothers prepare for the fight. “Re-
member,” say their friends to them, “your country
watches: you, and your fellow-soldiers, and your
parents.” For a few moments they stand quite still,
the Curiatii on the Alban side, and the Horatii on the
Roman; and then, amid the silence of both armies, \
Fight between the Horatii and the Curiati. 55 ~

the signal is given, and they rush to meet each other
in deadly conflict.

Their swords glitter in the sunshine, and clash
together for a, minute or two. The Romans and
Albans can see the red gashes which their sharp
strokes have made. Another moment, and two of
the Romans fall dead. Then the Albans raise a great
shout, for they think the victory is theirs; and the
Romans look on silently with sad faces, fearing lest
their third. champion should be slain. The Curiatii
surround him, but they are all ‘three wounded, and
he is not; and so they cannot move so quickly nor
strike so hard as he can. Now he thinks, If I can
only fight them one by one, instead of all three
together, I shall be sure to win. He resolves to try,
and pretends to run away. As he flies they run
after him; but they cannot run fast because of their
wounds. In a little time he turns round, and sees
one of them not far from him, the others at a
distance, He stops, and rushing furiously at him,
kills him, The Romans shout now, for they see what
he means to do, and the Albans are silent with fear.

Now he goes on to meet the second, who is
wounded worse than the first, and kills him. Only
one is left, and he is so badly wounded that he can
hardly stand. “Two have I offered,” shouted Hora-
tius, so that both armies might hear him, “to the
shades of my brothers; this third I will offer to the
56 Stories of the Old Romans.

cause of Rome, that we may rule over the Albans.”
Then he thrusts his sword into his neck, and the
youth falls down dead.

Great is the joy and loud are the shouts with
which he is welcomed by the Romans. The Albans,
sadly, and with many tears, bury their brave cham-
pions where they fell. After this both armies return
to their homes.

It was a sad thing to see five strong, brave young
men, three of one family, two of another, slain by
‘each other’s hands in a few minutes; sad, and strange,
too, that men should delight in killing each other °
at all. All we can say about this fight is, that it
was better these five should be killed than many
hundreds, perhaps thousands, as would have been
the case if a battle had been fought between the

-two armies,

But a yet sadder thing took place afterwards, so
sad and horrible that you will wonder to hear it; but
it will show you how cruel and proud war makes
men; and what evil things it brings with it.

When the Roman army reached home, Horatius
marched at the head of it, bearing the spoils of the
three brothers whom he had slain, and all the soldiers
came after him shouting and rejoicing. The people
of the city also came out to meet him with shouts of
welcome, and among them was Horatia, his sister.
But when she saw him and the spoils which he bore,
Fight between the Horatw and the Curiatii. 87

she cried bitterly, and tore her hair with loud wail-
ing, calling the'name of one of the Curiatii. Poor ~
girl! she loved him, and was going to be married to
him before this cruel fight took place; and one of
the mantles which Horatius carried, all stained with
blood, was his, which she had made for him with her
own hands; and now she knew he was dead, and she
would never see him or hear his voice again.

You might think that Horatius would have pitied
his poor sister, and tried to comfort her, or at least
that he would have felt sorry for her and been silent,
but it was not so. He was so angry with her that he
drew his sword, the sword with which he had killed
ner lover, and ran it-through her body. “ Go,” he
said, “with thy unseasonable love, forgetful of thy
dead brothers and of the living one; forgetful of thy
country. So perish every Roman woman who shall
mourn an enemy!” Horatia fell dead at his feet.

The people were greatly shocked, and thought it
right ‘to take him before the king to be punished.
But the king was unwilling to condemn him, because
he had been so brave, and had conquered the Curiatii ;
so he appointed officers called duumvirs, to pass
sentence on him. The sentence was that he should
be scourged and then hung. The lictor approached
him and began to bind his hands. Still Tullus
wished to save him, and told him to appeal to the
people. He did so. Many of the people wept, for
58 Stories of the Old Romans.

although they knew that he deserved to die, they
could not help feeling sorry for one so brave, and
who had just won the fight against the Albans,
Then his father came up to him, and embraced him,
for he was now his only child; and pointing to the
spoils of the Curiatii, he turned tq the people, and
said, “ Romans, ‘can you bear to see bound beneath a
gallows, scourged and tortured, him whom you just
now beheld marching in triumph? Yes, go, lictor!
bind his hands, those hands which just now won the
victory for the Roman people! Hang him on the
gallows! Scourge him either here in sight of the ©
spoils of the Curiatii, or yonder where they lie slain!
For wherever you punish him his glory will outweigh
his disgrace.” Then he wept.

The people could not withstand the tears of the
old man, and decided that Horatius should not be
put to death. But they felt that he deserved to die
for the cruel murder of his sister ; and that, if his life
was spared, something must be done to show to him
and to all men that they considered him guilty. So
they ordered his father to make satisfaction for him
by offering sacrifices as an atonement for his sin, for
even these heathen Romans believed that without the
shedding of blood there was no remission of sin ;}
then his own head was covered as if he were about to
be put to death, and he was made to pass under a
i 1 Heb. ix. 22,
Fight between the Horatii and the Curiatir. 59

beam laid across the street to show that he deserved
to die. A monument was erected to the memory of
Horatia, in the place where she was stabbed and fell.

The peace with the Albans did not last long.
Some of. the people refused to be subject to Rome,
and complained that the dispute had not been rightly
settled. So the unjust quarrél broke out again, and
_ there was much fighting, and many were slain. Alba
was at last destroyed, and the Alban people were
brought by Tullus to Rome, where they afterwards
dwelt, He also fought with other nations, for he
loved war better than peace. But in time sorrow
came to him. It was said that a shower of stones
fell near Rome, and that a voice was heard complain-
ing that the Alban people had forsaken their gods.
Then a pestilence came; and, at last, Tullus himself
was seized with disease. The people thought of the
happy and peaceful days of the good Numa, for they
were tired of being always at war, and they sought
peace from the gods. Tullus also, weary with old
age and sickness, himself longed for peace, and
sought with many sacrifices to win the favour of the
gods; but it is said the gods were angry with him,
and killed him with fire from heaven.

There was another king of olden time of whom you
have heard, who was also a great warrior, and who
once sinned a very wicked sin, which God punished
with pestilence. This king repented of his sin, and
60 Stories of the Old Romans.

God forgave him; and he has told us how we must
obtain forgiveness. This is what he says: “Thou
desirest not sacrifice, else would I give it; Thou
delightest not in burnt offering. The sacrifices of
God are a broken spirit; a broken and a contrite
heart, O God, Thou wilt not despise.”




















Whe Wi ivked Welarquins,




(5)

BRUTUS AND LUCRETIA.

Hath
" Ay ~ Ae
ss ey
Wy]. SM
f
Say
A
i

ne

oN


Ve

Ache NMiZicked Hlarquins

—S nog peta

PyHEE first Tarquin, who was called Tarquinius
by Priscus, was an Etrurian prince or noble-
ca man. He was very rich, and married an
Etruscan lady, who, like himself, was desirous of
attaining great fame and honour. As they, could not
do this in their own country, they resolved to try
their fortune in Rome, then a new city. When they
were near the city an eagle swooped down from the
sky, carried off Tarquin’s cap, and flying round over
him, put it on his head again. “I give you joy, |
husband,” said his wife; “this means that the gods
will raise you to great honour.” Full of hope, he
settled in Rome, and gained the favour of the king,
who appointed him guardian to: his two sons. The
name of this king was Ancus Marcius.

When the king died, Tarquin resolved that he
would get the people to choose him for king. So
when the time came for the people to assemble
together to elect their king, he sent the late king’s



64 Stories of the Old Romans.

two sons away hunting. Then he made a speech to
the people; and as he had always been a favourite
with them for his courteous behaviour and acts of
kindness, they did as he wished, and asked him to
reign over them. .

Tarquin had a favourite slave, named Servius
Tullius. One night as this boy lay asleep, it is said,
a blaze of light shone round his head; and when
Tarquin’s wife saw it, she concluded that he would
grow up to be famous. So they took the young slave,
and brought him up as their own son, and it came to.
be thought by everybody that when Tarquin died
he would succeed him. The sons of Ancus Marcius,
who were angry at being deprived of their father’s
throne by Tarquin, were still more angry when they
thought this boy, a slave, would be made king, and
they resolved. that they would kill Tarquin, and
seize the crown for themselves. So they got two
countrymen to come before the king, pretending to
have a quarrel which they wished him to settle for
them; and while the king was listening to one of
them, the other smote him with an axe, so that he
fell dead.

But they did not succeed in getting the crown for
themselves, notwithstanding this cruel murder; for
Tanaquil, Tarquin’s. wife, pretended to the people
that he was not dead, only wounded, and she
persuaded Servius Tullius to take the king’s place.
The Wicked Tarquins. 65

He therefore came out with the lictors’ attending
him, and after a short time took possession of the
kingdom.

During his reign the Roman people were very
happy and prosperous, He was kind to the poor,
not oppressing them, as in old times so many kings
did. He helped those who were unfortunate, and
divided among them the land which had been taken
from the Veientians and Etrurians in war. In many
other ways, too, he showed that he was a just and
wise ruler, who wished to govern the people rightly,
and deal justly towards all, both rich and poor.

He had two daughters, and these were married to
the two sons (or grandsons, as some say) of Tarquin
the First. One of these young men, who was named
Aruns Tarquinius, was gentle and kind. The other
was named Lucius Tarquinius, and he was proud and
haughty; so that afterwards he was called Tarquinius
Superbus, or Tarquin the Proud. He was also very
passionate and cruel, and ambitious of power. This
made him discontented and restless; and he began to
think how he might depose the poe Servius, and
become king himself. »

One of the king’s daughters was very much like
Lucius in disposition, but she was married to his
gentle brother Aruns; and when she found that he
did not desire to rule, and was not ambitious of being
great, she began to despise him, and admired his

F
66: Stories of the Old Romans.

brother Lucius. As she and Lucius often met, they
soon found out that they thought alike; and they
began to talk together about the king, and about
who should have his crown. She also said that if :
her husband was a different sort of man he should
soon be king instead of her father.

The end of these wicked thoughts and words was —
that Lucius had his wife murdered, for he had come
to love his brother’s wife-best, and wished to marry
her; and the wicked Tullia had her husband mur-
dered, that she might marry his brother. But she
was not happy. How could she be with such a
fearful sin in her memory? And this sin led on to
another. She had set her heart upon her husband
‘being king ; and wicked as he was himself, she seems
‘to have made him worse. She urged him to try and
take the crown for himself, and encouraged him to go
about among the nobles, and represent to them how
Servius was always favouring the poor rather than
them ; how he had given them lands and money, and
that he hated the rich. When he had excited their
hatred against the king, he went one day to the
forum with a party of men with spears and swords,
and seated himself on the throne. When he had
done this, he ordered the crier to call the senators
together, that they might attend at the senate-
house in obedience to King Tarquinius. Many of
them, some from fear and some because they
The Wicked Tarquins. 67

already knew what Tarquin was going to do, came
together.

Servius the king, when he heard of this, came
wondering and alarmed to the senate- house, and
said with a loud voice as he entered, “What means
this, Tarquin? How. hast thou dared, while I am
still alive, to sit on my throne?” Tarquin answered
fiercely, “I am the son of a king, and occupy my
father’s throne.” A great tumult arose, and the
people came rushing in. Then Tarquin, knowing
. that if the king’s friends prevailed he would most
likely be put to death, took up the king in his arms,
and rushing to the entrance of the senate-house,
threw him down the steps to the bottoms The king’s »
friends fled, fearing lest they should share his fate.
Servius himself, much hurt, and indeed nearly killed
by the fall, was returning home in his chariot when
he was overtaken and slain by some of Tarquin’s
men.

But wicked as his conduct was, it was not so
shocking as that of the wicked Tullia. When she
heard that her father Servius was killed, she mounted
her chariot and drove to the forum ; then calling her
husband to her she saluted him as king. But there
was a great tumult among the people, who cried
shame upon her for her wickedness, and she was
advised to return home. So she got into her chariot
again, and, as it happened, her way was through the
68. Stories of the Old Romans.

very street where her father Servius lay slain. When,
the charioteer saw this he was going to turn back.
But Tullia angrily bade him drive on, and her chariot
wheels went over her poor murdered father’s dead
body! Let us pass on from this horrible story.
Well might the. street in which this shameful thing
happened be called, as it ever afterwards. was,
“ Wicked Street.”

Now Tarquin began to reign, and his reign was as
cruel and wicked as he himself was. He took away
from the people all that the good Servius had given
them, and put to death all the senators whom he did
not like, lest they should oppose him in his evil
, Ways. In fact, he tyrannised over all, and any one

who opposed his will was sure to suffer.

Oné story will show his cruelty and injustice; and
it shows us, also, how he made his own sons as bad
as himself. Near to Rome there was a city named
Gabii, of which he wished to take possession. But,
after a long time, finding he could not do so, he tried
this artful plan. He sent his son Sextus to the city,
and told him to pretend that he had been driven
from Rome by his father’s cruelty, and to -beg them
to give him shelter. He was also to say that he
would be willing to help them fight against his
father.

The people of Gabii, knowing what Tarquin was,
thought that what Sextus told them was true, and

‘
The Wicked Tarquins. 69

received him very kindly. They told him it was not
to be wondered at that his father should treat him as
he had treated everybody else; and feeling pity for
him, and believing all he said, they admitted him to
their’ counsels, and at last chose him for their general.
Then, when he found he had got this power, he sent
a messenger secretly to his father to know what he
was to do.
_ Tarquin was in his garden when the messenger
came, and when he had delivered his message made
no reply, but with a cane that he had in his hand he
struck off the heads of the tallest poppies that grew
by the side of the path. After that he sent away the
messenger, who returned and told Sextus that either
from pride or passion his father had not spoken’a
word to him. Sextus asked the messenger what his
father was doing. The messenger told him how he
only looked very angry, and cut off the poppy heads
with his stick. Then Sextus knew what was meant.
It was, that. as he had struck off the tallest poppy
heads with his stick, so Sextus. was to cut off the
heads of the principal people in Gabii. So he did.
Some were killed publicly, some privately; and then,
the principal men being dead or driven away, the
city of Gabii was given up by the deceit and cruelty
of Sextus to his father Tarquin.

Tarquin went on ruling in Rome in the same cruel
and unjust way; oppressing the poor, whom he forced
70 Stories of the Old Romans.

to work like slaves for very small wages, and, when
he could, robbing the rich. The poor he employed
in building a splendid temple on the Capitoline hill ;
and it is said that when they were digging its
foundations, a man’s head was found in the earth,
which was supposed to mean that Rome should be
the head of the world. The Romans were greatly
given to interpreting signs and omens, and pretend-
ing to foretell what would aaEESe Dy such things as
these.

One day Tarquin was greatly alana by what he
thought a sign of coming evil. from under one of the altars where sacrifice had been.
offered, and seized upon the flesh. This the king
supposed to mean that he was in great danger of
some evil happening. He therefore sent two of his
sons, Titus and Aruns, to Delphi, that they might
consult the oracle there, and find out what was meant
by a serpent crawling from an altar.

These oracles were temples, the priests or ieee
esses of which were supposed to be able to foretell
future events. The priestess, when told what had
happened, said in reply, that the king would fall
when a dog spoke with a human voice. This was
supposed afterwards to refer to Brutus, the cousin of |
the two princes, who accompanied them, and who
became in time the principal means of banishing the
cruel Tarquins from Rome. |
The Wicked Tarquins. 71

Brutus is a Latin word, meaning stupid, and our
word brute comes from it, and is applied to animals
because they have not intelligent souls like men.
This young man, whose name was Lucius Junius,
was called Brutus because he seemed stupid and
dull, more like an animal than a man. But he only
pretended to be so for this reason. He had had an
elder brother who was very rich. Tarquin coveted
his wealth, and for the sake of getting it put him to
death. Lucius was afraid lest the tyrant should kill
him also, so he pretended to be an idiot, behaving
very strangely, living upon wild fruit, and wandering
about as if he had no sense. Tarquin, therefore, did
not think it was worth while to destroy him: he even
_ kept him in his house to amuse his sons; and the
people, thinking he was really out of his mind, called
him Brutus.

When the young princes had received this answer
about the serpent, they asked the priestess who would
rule at Rome after their father. The priestess replied,
“He who shall first kiss his mother.” They, thinking
nothing of Brutus, agreed to say nothing to ‘their
brother Sextus about this, and to manage between
themselves which of them should do what the oracle
said. Brutus, however, thought the priestess meant
the earth, which was called the mother of all; so as
they went away he pretended to stumble, and falling
flat on the ground, kissed it. No doubt Titus and
72 Stories of the Old Romans.

Aruns laughed as they saw the foolish Brutus
stretched at full length on the ground, looking more
foolish than ever. They would not have laughed if
they had known what was going to happen.

Other dreams and omens troubled Tarquin ; and
with such a bad conscience as he must have had after
all the wrongs he had done, and all the murders he
had committed, we cannot wonder that they did,
One day he dreamt that two rams came to him, and
that he sacrificed one of them, but that the other
pushed him down. The interpreters of dreams said |
this meant that he must beware of a man who
seemed as stupid as a sheep. But he did not
understand what they meant. Very likely they did
not know themselves. Some eagles had ‘made their
nest in a tall tree in his garden, and one day a flock
of vultures came and drove them and their young
ones away. This also was supposed to be a sign of
some evil to the king and his family, so superstitious
were the Romans at that time. But, although these
things troubled him, he did not alter his wicked
course.

But the thing that brought Tarquin and his whole
family to ruin at last was this. They had all of them
been accustomed to do just what they liked, and to
treat other people as they pleased. They had no care
or thought for anybody but themselves. Whatever
they wished to do they did; and whatever they
The Wicked Tarquins. ome

wanted, even though it belonged to somebody else, |
they took: And if any one resisted-them, he was sure
to be treated cruelly, perhaps murdered. The people
had for a long time been secretly angry about this,
and Brutus and others had been waiting for an
opportunity to put an end to it; but hitherto it had

‘seemed as if nothing could be done. But what could

not be done by others the wickedness of Sextus
Tarquin was the means of accomplishing.

The wife of his cousin Collatinus, whose name was
Lucretia, was a noble and beautiful woman, and as
good as she was beautiful;.and because she would
not do as he wished, and be as wicked as he was, he
came to her house one night when her husband was
away threatening to kill her, and treated her so
shamefully that she wished to die rather than live.
Full of grief and shame, shé sent for her father and
her cousin Brutus, and for her husband, who was at —
Ardea, a few miles from Rome, and told them what
Sextus had done, They tried in vain to comfort her,
she could not cease weeping. Then, having made
them promise that they would avenge her wrong, she
drew forth a dagger which she had hidden under her
dress, and thrusting it into her bosom fell dead at
their feet. ie

Her father and cousin cried aloud in their terror,
and then bent over her with bitter grief and tears.
But Brutus, in great rage, drew forth the dagger all
74 Stories of the Old Romans.

dripping with blood, and swore that he would pursue

Tarquin and his wicked wife, and all their race, with

fire and sword and every means in his power; and
that not one of them should be suffered to reign in
Rome. The others, in grief and anger, took the
same oath.

They carried the dead body of poor Lucretia from
“ her house to the forum, and the people gathered
together round them, wondering what it all meant.

Brutus told them the shameful story. As they heard -

the cruel wrong which Sextus had done, and saw the
husband and the father of poor Lucretia weeping over

her dead body, they began to weep too. But when

Brutus showed them the dagger, and spoke to them
of the wrongs they had suffered from the Tarquins,

and told them the oath he had taken, they grew ..

angry, and said the Tarquins should never more reign
in Rome. Tullia, the wicked wife of Tarquin, when

she heard of these things, fled from the city, and let

people cursed her as she went.

Tarquin was with his army at Ardea; and when
the news reached him, he set out at once for Rome,
thinking he should soon be able to put down this
rebellion, and punish Brutus and the people for their
insolence. But Brutus, when he heard that he was
coming, ordered the gates to be shut, and then set out
for Ardea by a different road, so that he arrived at
the camp about the same time that the king arrived

%




The Wicked Tarquins. 75

at Rome. There he told the soldiers what had been
done, and that the people had resolved there. should
be no more kings in Rome; and the soldiers drove
the king’s sons from the camp, so that they fled away :
in terror. When Tarquin got to Rome he found the
gates shut, and the people told him he was banished
for ever, and should never come back to be their
king. Then he also fled, for his conscience smote
him for all the wrong he had done, and he was afraid.
The wicked Sextus went to Gabii, and there he found
the punishment which he so. richly deserved, for after
a short. time he was put to death by the friends of
those whom he had himself so ,cruelly deceived and
slain, when he made himself ruler of the city.

Long before Tarquin reigned in Rome these words
were written by another king, whom God had taught
to know and fear Him: “I have seen the wicked in
great power, and spreading himself like a. green bay
- tree. Yet he passed away, and, lo, he was not: yea,
I sought him, but he could not be found. Mark the
perfect man, and behold the upright: for the end of
that man'is peace. But the transgressors shall be
destroyed together: the end of the wicked shall be
cut off” +

“God judgeth the righteous, and God is angry with
the wicked every day. If he turn not, he will whet
his sword; he hath bent his bow, and made it ready.

1 Psa, xxxvii. 35-38.
76 Stories of the Old Romans.

He hath also prepared for him the instruments of
death; he ordaineth his arrows against the perse-
cutors. . . . His mischief shall return upon his own
head, and his violent dealing shall come down upon
his own pate.”?

1 Psa, vii. 11-16.










RN gc ee
Hise ag fee ie ie A Pie i
Thy eee ee si ae : iu
on : nA
12 = i
fine Ae
: if ee I
A i Wm" a! a oAYRy,
es Ca SH
i | i Ane ‘ i Hh " |; i é
IT i it f ‘sath Ay AM i







“—

U th a sbeqiihat

'
TOMB OF THE TARQUINS,
~ More about Wrutus,


HE CONSPIRACY DISCOVERED.

T
VI.

ore ahout Wrutus,
~Sedpete
SWHoon after king Tarquin. was banished, he

yey sent ambassadors to the people of Rome
S| and to the senate to persuade them to let




him return, and be again king of Rome. But the

consuls would not listen to them, nor allow them to
address the people. Then other ambassadors: came

- to say that Tarquin would give up all thoughts of

%

being king, and not fight against them, if they
would pn send him the money and treasures which
belonged to him, and which he had left in Rome.
But all the while they were trying to deceive the
people, for they knew that Tarquin meant to come
back again if he could.

Some of the young men of Rome who. had been

' companions of the. Tarquins, and were almost as

wicked as they were, very much wished the king to

i return. They were unwilling to be governed by

i{

‘ the same laws and in the same way as the common

“people, but wished to do as they liked. They knew
*

80 Stories of the Old Romans.

that if Tarquin came back, they should be able to do
as they and the young Tarquins had done before.
And they also knew that Brutus and the other. consul

would not allow this, but would punish them for
wrong-doing in the same way that anyhody else
would be punished.

~ These young men and the ambassadors talked
together secretly, and persuaded others to join them.
Some of them were of the families of the Vitellii
and the Aquillii, who were’ nephews of Collatinus, the
other consul. They were also related to Brutus, for
his wife was one of the family of the Vitellii; and
they persuaded the two sons of Brutus, Titus and
Tiberius, to joi them. .Thus they not only did what
they knew was contrary to the laws of their country
and the wishes of the people, but what they also knew
would be a cause of great grief and anger to their

. father, and might even lead to his death. For if
this plot had succeeded, and Tarquin had come back,
Brutus would certainly have been slain. .

They all met. together in the house of the Aquillii,
in a dark and secret place, so that nobody might see
them. And they inedht that nobody should hear.
them. . But a slave, named Vindicius, happened to be _
in the room; and as they did not see him because
it was so dark, they began to talk of what they were
going to do. When he heard what they said, and
the horrible oath they took to kill the consuls, and
More about Brutus. 81 ~

bring back the wicked Tarquin to be king, he dared
not move to leave the. room, for he knew if he did
they would kill him, to prevent his telling anybody
else. So he lay quite still on the ground, and heard
all that passed. When they went away, Vindicius
crept from his hiding-place, greatly terrified. He
knew it would not be right to let these wicked men
do as they intended, without trying to stop them;
yet he did not like to accuse the sons of Brutus and
the nephews of Collatinus of such a dreadful crime.

There was living at Rome, at this time, a wise and
’ good man named Valerius, who was afterwards consul,
and was called Publicola because he did so much for
the people; and to him Vindicius went, and told him
all that he had heard. Valerius was shocked ; and
perhaps fearing lest Vindicius might tell other people, .
and so these wicked men might escape, he had him
; shut up in a room, and set somebody to watch him,
while he went with his friends to try and capture them.
His brother Marcus (with some of his friends) went
_ to the king’s house, to take any of them he might
find there; while he himself with some others went

to the heise of the Aquilli. - They had all left, but
- he broke’.open the door; and having searched the
‘house found some letters which had been written to
Tarquin, telling him what they were about to do:

But some of them heard of what was going on,
and came in great terror to the house to get these

G


82 Stories of the Old Romans.

very letters. There they found Valerius, and tried
hard to get the letters away from him. But he and
his friends fought bravely, and at last led them
off to the forum as prisoners. The two sons of
Brutus were among them. Marcus Valerius also
took some of the king’s servants, and found some
more letters at the king’s house. Bh

They were brought before the consuls; and Valerius,
having accused them of their wicked crime, and read
the letters, ordered Vindicius to'come forward. They
could not deny their guilt. Yet the father of two of
them, and the uncle of some of the others, were the
judges who had to condemn them. The people stood
silent with terror, and some of the senators wept.
Some of them, feeling sad for Brutus, because his
sons were guilty, asked that they might be banished
instead of being put to death. Brutus sat silent,
he could not speak for sorrow. But in a little while
he said, with a stern voice, though his lips trembled
and his face looked very sad, “Titus, Tiberius,—what
have you to say? Can you answer this charge ?”
They made no reply, but hung down their heads and
wept. The ‘people all stood silent—now and then a
sob might be heard. Again he asked them; and
then a third time; but they could not answer him.
Then he rose up, and said with a sad but stern voice,
“Lictors, the rest is for you to do!” That meant
that they were to die. The two young men cried in
More about Brutus. 83

terror to their father, beseeching him to banish them,
anything, only save them from death. But Brutus
made no reply. Amid the sobs and tears of all, the
lictors stripped off their clothes, and scourged them
with rods. Then, while all turned away in horror at
the sight, they were laid on the ground, and their
heads were struck off with the lictors’ axes. Brutus
wept, but he would not save them from the death
_ they had deserved by breaking the laws of their
country. Then he went away, and left the other
prisoners to be tried by the consul Collatinus.
Collatinus was not so stern as Brutus; and after
Brutus was gone he tried to save his nephews by
appointing them another day for their trial;.and he
also ordered the slave Vindicius to be given up to
his masters. This’ was a very cruel thing, and unjust
too. For if he had done so the poor slave would
certainly have been murdered. Besides, Valerius had
promised to protect him; and he knew he could not
do this, if he was given up to them. The people were
very angry with Collatinus, and so was Valerius,
The lictors, in obedience to the orders of Collatinus,
tried to take the slave away. Valerius and his friends
prevented their doing so. The people cried out for
Brutus. Brutus was sent for; and whea he came
back sad and pale with his great sorrow, they were
all silent, and he spoke these words: “It has been
enough for me to give judgment on my own sons,
84 Stories of the Old Romans.

Let the people decide as to the rest.” The people
with one voice condemned the others to die. Vindi-
cius was set free, and much money was given to him.

Before the war with Porsena, about which you will
read in the next chapter, Tarquin persuaded some
of the Etrurian cities to make war against the
Romans... He said he was an Etrurian, and it was
only right that they should help their own country-
man. The people of Veii especially, who had been
conquered by the Romans, listened to him, and
determined to go to war. Soon their armies met.
Valerius and Brutus commanded the Roman army ;
Valerius. the foot-soldiers, Brutus the horse.. Aruns,
the son of Tarquin, commanded the horse-soldiers
of the Etrurians; the king followed after with the
legions. When Aruns saw Brutus he exclaimed in a
rage, “There, there is the villain who has banished us
from our native country! See how he rides in state !
Help me, ye gods, avengers of kings!” Then he
struck his horse with his spurs; and holding firmly
in his hand his long spear, he rode forth in a fury
to kill Brutus. Brutus saw him coming, and, firmly
grasping his spear, rode to meet him. Both came/on
so furiously that they forgot to protect themselves with
their shields, and each one ran his spear right through
the other’s body. So they fell together to the ground,
—dead; thus ended the sad and noble life of Brutus.
T&iow Fatoratius bravely Wetended
: the Wridge, :




(7) HORATIUS DEFENDS THE BRIDGE.
AVEEE:

Faow Jatoratius bravely Wetended
the WWridge, |

MaIFTER the great’ battle in which his son was
| killed; the wicked Tarquin fled to’ the
Aiken 4 court of Porsena, king of Clusium, in.
Etruria. He hated the Roman people for banishing
him, and wished to be revenged on them for doing so-,
He wanted, if possible, to return and rule in Rome:
So he did all he could to persuade king Porsena to go.
to war with the Romans on his behalf. He told him
it would never do for people to banish their kings,
and not be punished for it, for then there would soon
be an end to kings altogether; and that kings must
fight for their crowns as bravely as the people fought
for their liberty. Perhaps Porsena was frightened lest’
it should come to pass that he should lose his crown;
perhaps he wished to rule over the Romans himself;
but, whatever were his reasons, he did resolve to go
to war with Rome. :
_First of all, however, he sent a message to the


88 Stories of the Old Romans.

Romans commanding them to receive Tarquin again
as their king. But this they would not do, not only .
because of the solemn oath they had taken never to
have a king in Rome again, but also because they
knew how cruel. and wicked a tyrant he was, and
had not forgotten poor Lucretia. Then Porsena
declared war against them, collected a very large

army, and marched against the city. The people all —

round were frightened when they saw it advancing,
and knew that it was coming to avenge Tarquin’s.
banishment, and fled towards Rome. Crowds stopped
the highways for a mile round the city,—old people
on crutches, women and little children, sick people on
litters, country people from the farms and vineyards,
with their flocks and herds,—all were-seeking ‘safety
in Rome from the army of the Etruscan king; and
soon, instead of the happy homes and peaceful fields
they had left, were smoking ruins and barren wastes
where his soldiers and horsemen had ‘been.
Near the city, but on the other side of the river
Tiber, was a fortress called Janiculum, built on a hill
of that name, and behind that fortress was a bridge
over the Tiber, leading right into the city. King
' Porsena took and destroyed this fortress; and when
he had done this, and killed the soldiers who defended
it, he had nothing to do but to march his soldiers
across this bridge into the city, so that the people
gave themselves up for lost. Thete was only one way

A
How Horatius bravely Defended the Bridge. 89 |

of preventing this: they must destroy the bridge
before Porsena’s army could cross it; and this the
consuls and people resolved to do, so that there might
be the wide Tiber between them and their foes.

But would there be time? The great army was
marching on, and the people could see afar off the
clouds of dust which they raised, and catch now and
then in the bright sunlight the glittering of their
spears and helmets. Soon they would be at the —
bridge; and, if they crossed the bridge, they could
march at once into the city. On they came, and the
Roman soldiers, terrified, threw down their arms and
fled. A few hours, yes, only a few minutes more now,
and those who had fled to the city for protection, as
well as those who dwelt there, would be cruelly slain,
or, what was even worse, be compelled-to receive the
wicked Tarquin as, their king !

Then one brave man, the captain of the gate, stood
up and said, “ Destroy the bridge as soon as possible ;
burn it, hew it down, anything, only destroy it. I
will stand ‘against the foe at the entrance as long as
I live, so that they shall not come into the city.”
Then two others said, “And we will stand with thee.”
The name of the first was Horatius Cocles, and of the
others Spurius Lartius, and Herminius. Horatius

“was a descendant of the Horatius who fought so
bravely with the Albans, and won the victory for
Rome. So these three went forth, and stood in the
90 Stories of the Old Romans.

narrow gateway of the bridge, to fight against the
thousands of Porsena’s anny, that they might not get
into Rome.

On came the great army, for Porsena and his
officers thought they could soon take the bridge; and —
when they saw none there to defend it but Horatius
and his two brave companions they raised a great
shout of laughter. But they soon found that there
was nothing to laugh at; for as one after another
approached the gate, the swords of Horatius and his
companions smote them so that they lay dead, until
their bodies were heaped up in front of these three
brave men, and helped to defend them from the foe.
Then Horatius shouted aloud to the Etruscans,
challenging them to fight, and calling them the slaves
of tyrants who came to oppress others. Again they
rushed forward, and threw their spears, but he caught
them on his shield. They tried hard to force him
over the bridge, but he held firm, though he had
received a wound. All at once he heard a great shout
from the people calling to them to come back, and a.
-eracking noise. Then he knew that the bridge was
nearly broken down, and that the city was safe; and
he bade his two companions return, but he resolved
to stay till the last. The bridge creaked and groaned
beneath their feet as they went; then, with a great
crash, it fell into the river. The Etruscans stood still
with amazement; and Horatius, all wounded as he
| How Horatius bravely Defended the Bridge. 91

was, and in his heavy armour, leaped into the river
after it, crying, “Father Tiber, receive me, thy
soldier, and these arms!”

It was a brave deed, and bravely done, and he must
have been a brave and noble man to do it. He did
not think of himself, but of his country, and of those
whom he loved; and for their lives he was willing to
lay down his own. And so because he did not think
of himself, but of others, he did not shrink from the
terrible fight, or get frightened and flee when the
army of Porsena pressed so fiercely on him and his
companions. And, in the great fight of life, if we
would bear ourselves bravely as good soldiers of Jesus
Christ, we must learn to think of others, and feel for
others, rather than for ourselves, and be willing to
serve each other in love. “We then that are strong,”
says the apostle, “ ought to bear the infirmities of the
weak, and not to please ourselves.” And there are
many ways of doing this besides fighting for them.
Sometimes it is a greater and better thing to be
patient and forbearing and forgiving, than it is to
fight even as bravely as Horatius did.

And ought we not to think also of Him who once
gave up His life for us on the-cross? This was a
nobler, greater sacrifice than Horatius was willing or
_ even able to make. In bitter anguish of soul He died -
for us, to deliver us from death. What praise, what
love do we owe to Him!
92 Stories of the Old Romans.

We can imagine how the people, perhaps his own
wife and children too, watched Horatius as he fought
at the bridge gate, every moment fearing he would be
killed; how eagerly they looked after him when he
leaped into the river, all swollen as it was with a
flood, and covered with the broken timbers of the
bridge ; and with what joy they saw him buffeting .
bravely with the torrent, now for a moment swept
down by it, then rising again and making for the
shore, till at last he stood safe, amid the weeping
shouting crowd, They gave him great honour, and
he was worthy of it. The senate ordered that he
should have as much land given him as two oxen
could plough round in one day, and that all the
people should give him one day’s provisions. They
also erected a statue to him, so that his name and his
brave deed might be remembered for ever.

‘¢ Tt stands in the Comitium?
Plain for all folks to see,
Horatius in his harness
Halting upon one knee;

And underneath is written,

In letters all of gold,

How valiantly he kept the bridge
In the brave days of old.”

An open place at the entrance of the senate-house, where the
people assembled,.and where trials were held and punishments inflicted.
— MLucins the ‘Wetett-handed,
(en 2es1
<.ss



(8) ° MUCIUS THE LEFT-HANDED,
VIII.

QRuvius the Wéett-handed,
WaLTHOUGH the brave deed of Horatius and
his two companions prevented the Etruscan
ai] army from entering Rome, it did not. put
an end to the war. Porsena and his soldiers still held
the Janiculum, and kept the city in a state of con-
stant alarm and terror. He also pitched his tents in
the fields on the banks of ‘the Tiber, and watched
them so closely that none could carry corn or food of
any kind across the river to the poor. half-starved
people of Rome; and he sent some of his soldiers in
boats to plunder those who lived on the. opposite
Side of the river, when they could do so without
being taken prisoners by the Romans.

This troubled the Roman people very much ; end
in a little while not only all the people living outside —
the walls of the city, but also all the cattle, had to be
taken inside the gates for safety, and nobody was
allowed to come in or go out. So they were in asad
plight, for in the city they were crowded together,


96 Stories of the Old Romans.

‘and had not enough food, and the Etruscan soldiers

were watching to slay them, or carry them off captive, ©

~ if they ventured outside the walls.

Some of the brave young men in Rome were very
indignant at this state of things, and determined to |
do something to put an end to it. They felt it was
a disgrace to the Roman people, who had always been
free, even under their kings, that they should be now
shut up within the walls of their own city by the king
of another country. At last they made up their minds |
what they would do, and a young nobleman, named
Caius Mucius, was chosen to carry out their plan.

‘ But first he went to the senate, and said, “ Fathers,

Iam going to cross the river, and enter the camp of
the enemy if I can; not to plunder, nor to avenge his
devastations. A greater deed isin my mind—if the
gods assist me.” Then the senate gave him leave to
go, for if not he might have been taken by the Roman
guards as a deserter, and sent back to Rome; and they
told him they approved of what he intended to do.
He dressed himself in an’ Etruscan dress, that he
might seem like one of Porsena’s own people; took a
short sharp sword, which he hid under his garments ;
and, crossing the river, made his way to the camp,
speaking the Etruscan language lest he should be
discovered to be a Roman, and be slain by Porsena’s
soldiers. He got among the crowd, that he might not
be noticed, and by-and-by came to the tent which
5 _ Mucius the Left-handed. 97

he knew td be the king’s, where the soldiers were
receiving their pay, and where the king and his

nobles were all sitting or standing. But he did not.
know which was the king; and he would not ask |

those standing by, because of course all the Etruscans
knew the king, and if he had asked the question they
would have guessed that he was a Roman, and in all
probability he would have been put to death at once,

However, he was determined not to go back with-
out attempting to do the deed for which he had been
chosen. So walking straight up to the man whom he
* supposed to be the king, he suddenly drew his sword,
and killed him with one blow. Then he turned
sharply round, and ‘while all were in amazement at

what he had done, he rushed through the crowd that

he might get to the banks of the river, and return
to Rome. But they cried out from the king’s tent,
“Seize-him, seize him!” and the guard soon caught
him, and took him pneu Then they brought him
before the king, .

It was the ane 8 secretary that he had killed. But

the king felt sure that the blow had been meant for
himself and Mucius was asked who he was; and why

he‘had done this deed. Looking sternly and boldly »
at the angry faces around him, and at the king, he.

said, “I am,a Roman citizen, and my ndme is Caius
Mucius. I meant to slay an enemy, and I am ready
to suffer death. A Roman can suffer bravely as well

H
98 Stories of the Old Romans.

as act bravely. But I am not alone. There are many
who will attempt to secure. the honour which I have
failed to win. Take heed, O king! Prepare yourself
for the peril. The sword of the enemy will be at the
entrance of your pavilion every hour. We, the Roman
youth, declare this war against’ you, not in battle
array, but with ourseives and you alone.”

‘The king was angry, as well indeed he might be, for
after all it is a cruel and dastardly thing to kill a man
by stealth, as Mucius tried to do, although he meant
it well for his country. But if he had succeeded it
would have been by being guilty of murder, and -
indeed he was guilty of murder in killing (though
by mistake) the king’s secretary, who had never done
him nor the Romans any harm. But the king was
not only angry but frightened, and so perhaps. be-
haved more cruelly than otherwise he would have
done; for, after all, Porsena was a brave man and a
noble man, as he showed afterwards by his conduct
towards the Romans themselves. He commanded a
fire to be-kindled, and threatened Mucius’ that if he
did not explain more fully what he meant, he should
be tortured with fire. g

Then Mucius, smiling, said, “Behold me! I had
great glory in view, and care not for my body;” so
saying he thrust. his right hand into the fire, and held
it there till. it was burnt and shrivelled. Yet. all the
while he uttered no cry, and showed no sign of pain,
Mucius the Left-handed. 99

save that his ‘lips were more closely pressed together,
and his eyes and eyebrows looked stern.

King Porsena looked on first with amazement, then
with admiration. A brave man himself, he could
admire courage in others. “Go free,’ he said to
Mucius; “you have been an enemy to yourself more
than tome. If you were on my side I would say to |
thee, Be still as brave. But now go unhurt, and none
shall harm thee.” ei

Mucius had had very hard and unkind thoughts of
_ the king till now, but when he heard these words he
could not help respecting him, and said: “Since you
honour courage, I will tell‘'you what I would never
have told you for’ torture. “Three hundred of us
Roman youths have resolved to kill you, as I tried
to do.’ It fell to my lot to make the first attempt.
The rest will follow in turn. I am glad I did not kill
you though, for I had rather you would be the friend
of the Romans than their enemy.”

Porsena thought of these words afterwards; and
when Mucius had got back to Rome, he sent am-
_ bassadors to make peace. Perhaps he was afraid of
these three hundred youths; but let us rather think
it was because he felt it would not be right any
longer to help the tyrant Tarquin against such a

noble people. The Romans agreed to give hostages, pk
that is, persons who should be held as prisoners by, Han

the Etruscans until peace. was made; and Porsena
100 Stories of the Old Romans.

agreed to take his soldiers away from the Janiculum.
Soon after king Porsena marched back to his own ~
country, leaving his camp as spoil to the Romans.
Mucius was ever after this called Mutius Scevola,
or Mucius the Left-handed; because he had burnt
away his right hand in the tent of king Porsena. The
people gave him lands on the other side of the Tiber,
which were afterwards called “the Mucian Meadows.”
If Mucius had killed the king,'it would neither
have been a noble thing nor a wise thing. _ His story,
therefore, may serve as a lesson to us. It teaches us
that we must not do evil that good may come. If a
thing is wrong, that is enough; we must not do it,
even though it were to save-a country. The right
thing is the thing to do. The wrong thing is every-
where and always the thing to avoid. Porsena was
wrong in coming to fight against the Romans on
behalf of Tarquin, for certainly the Romans knew
best whether they wanted Tarquin for their king or
‘not. But Mucius also was wrong in trying to murder
-Porsena, though we cannot but admire his courage
and self-sacrifice. Happy shall we be if we only show
like courage and like self-sacrifice in really Boe and
noble things!
Gaius GQarcius @Tariolanus, —


5 pe i i

Bi



CEC
_ Mole - Sint #405 mf] ea Dan















(9) CORIOLANUS IN THE HOUSE OF TULLUS AUFIDIUS.
TX,
@aius AParvius Eforiolanus,

OF et az Romans, who were almost always at war
with. some of their neighbours, and who
4g] thought war the most glorious of all things,
‘were at one time besieging Corioli, a. city of the
Volscians. A young nobleman, whose name. was
Caius Marcius, was one of the officers of the Roman
army. One day, when it was his turn to be on guard,
the Volscians with some of their troops. suddenly
made an attack from the city, rushing out of their
~ gates fiercely against the Romans; whilst others of
their soldiers assailed them on the other side.

». The Romans, not expecting this assault, were at
first put to flight; but when Caius Marcius saw this,
he called a few of his soldiers to follow him, and
leading them bravely on, drove the Volscians. back,
and pursued them even up to the gates. There some
of his men. grew frightened, and retreated. But Caius
- rushed on, not caring for the showers of arrows which
were shot from the walls; and shouting to his men




*

* -
~ 104 Stories of the Old Romans.

with a voice of thunder to follow him, he and the
bravest of them followed the Volscians right into the
city.

There, with only a few against a whole city full of
foes, he fought so bravely, and with such strength
and fierceness! that many were slain, and the rest
threw down their arms. Then Lartius, the Roman
commander, brought wp more soldiers, who entered
the city, and took possession of it.

But Caius Marcius was not content with winning
this victory only. He thought of the other part of
the army which the Volscians had attacked from the
other side; and calling his soldiers around: him, he
led those who were willing to follow him, in the
direction of the fight. The soldiers, seeing him
covered’ with dust and -blood, were afraid some harm
had happened; but when he told them that Corioli
was taken, they all shouted aloud for joy. Then he
joined them in the fight, and the whole army of the
Volscians was ‘defeated. While they were pursuing
the now retreating foe, some one said to him, “You
are tired and. wounded: go to the camp and rest ;”
but he replied, “It is not for conquerors to be tired ;”
‘and’ so went with them till all the Volscians were
either killed, or made prisoners, or driven away.

The next day, when the army was assembled
together, Cominius, the consul, after giving thanks
to the gods for the victory, turned’ to Marcius, and

&

te
Caius Mareius Coriolanus. 105

- pointing to him, told the soldiers the brave deeds
he had done. Then out of the treasure they had
taken from the enemy, he told him to take a tenth
part, and also gave him a fine war-horse, with splendid
trappings, as a reward for his valour.

All the army raised a great shout when Cominius
had finished his speech. But Marcius came forward,
and said that he should like to keep the horse, and
was glad that the consul was pleased with what he
had done; but that for all the rest he-would rather
not have it, but would only have his share with the
other soldiers. “One thing, however,” he said, “I
wish to ask as a favour. I havea friend among the
prisoners—a man of virtue and honour. He has been
unfortunate, and now he will be sold for a slave.
Will you give him to me, and let me set him
free ?”

Then they shouted again, louder. and louder, as it
was right for them to do. For far nobler than to win
battles is it to give up something for the good of
others; and it was a greater and better thing to give
up the treasure that was offered him, for the sake of
ransoming his friend from slavery, than it was to take
the city of Corioli.

When the. soldiers had done shouting, Cominius
said, “Fellow-soldiers, we cannot make Marcius take
our gifts, but we can give him that which he cannot
refuse, Let him be called Coriolanus, for his brave
106 Stories of the Old Romans,

deeds at Corioli.”, Thenceforward he was named -
Caius Marcius Coriolanus.

But although those in his own ie in life, who
were wealthy and noble, held him in great honour,
the people did not like him. He was very proud, and
‘treated them haughtily, as if they were inferior to
himself. This, as we know, was wrong, and it brought
evil consequences to him, and to many others. He
had never learnt the great lesson which the Bible
teaches, “Let nothing be done through strife or vain-
’ glory; but in lowliness of mind let each esteem other
better than themselves.” But, although he had not
learnt this lesson, there had been wise men among
. the heathen who could have told him that no man
had a right to treat with contempt and scorn those
who were not so well off or so well educated as him-
self, Coriolanus had to learn this, and in learning it
he found out’ that “pride goeth before destruction,
and a haughty spirit before a fall.”

This was how it came to-pass. The’ year after
Corioli was taken there was.a great famine in Rome.
There had been disputing and quarrelling between
the people and their rulers; and while the strife was
going on the land was not ploughed nor the seed
sown. So when harvest time came there was no new
corn to reap, and the price of the old corn that was
left was so high that the poor could not buy it.- The

1 Phil. ii, 3.
Caius Marcius Coriolanus. ‘107

consuls and senate did all they could to get op from
neighbouring places, and sent ships to far-off countries
for it. Some also was sent as a present from Gelon,
the king of Syracuse.
- When the corn had come, the senate considered the
question. whether it would be best to give it to the
people free, or to make them pay for it. Coriolanus,
who was. very angry with the people because they had
not chosen him consul, spoke bitterly against them,
and advised that they should’ be made to pay a high
price for it, so that they might be kept in ‘subjection ;
he also advised the senate to forbid the people's
tribunes to be chosen any more.
- The tribunes, when they heard this, ran to the
- people who stood without, and told them all that
Coriolanus had ‘said. The people were very angry,
and were going to rush into the senate-house. But
the tribunes prevented them, and said that it would.
be better they should accuse him publicly, so that if
he were found guilty he might be punished. : This
they did, and. sent messengers for him, but he would
not come. The tribunes went with the ediles to
take him by force, His friends would not let him be —
taken, but drove away the tribunes, and beat the
eediles. But’ night came on, and they all went to
their homes.

The tribunes hated Corolenas and Coriolanus
hated them. They tried to provoke him to anger,
108 Stories of the Old Romans.

and taught the people to dislike him; and he grew
_tmore and more angry with them, and despised both
them and the people more than ever. Thus the
quarrel was*made worse and worse. If the tribunes
had been just men they would have said to the
people, “Don’t think badly of Coriolanus, he has
fought for you bravely;” and to him, “Try and be ~
more patient with the people.” In this way, perhaps,
the contention might have been stopped. “Blessed
. are the peace-makers.”! But, unfortunately, Neither
Coriolanus nor the tribunes tried to be eae
but rather stirred up strife.

They were gathered together in the forum. The
people in crowds from all parts of the city: ‘the

senators with Coriolanus, and his friends, and the
-tribunes. Then the tribuines, while all the people
listened silently, accused Coriolanus (1) of trying to
destroy the people’s privileges, (2) of having refused
to obey their summons, and (8) of beating the
zdiles.

When the tribunes had done speaking, Coriolanus
stood up; but instead of talking wisely to the people,
and trying to show them where he thought they were _
wrong, he spoke more proudly and bitterly than before.
With a loud voice and fierce looks he defied both
them and the tribunes. Then arose loud and angry
shouts from the crowd, so that nobody could be heard,

4 1 Matt. v. 9.
Caius Mar cis Coriolanus. 108

while the tribunes consulted together as to what
they should do.

At last one of them, named Sone stood up and
said, “The tribunes condemn Caius Maifcius to die.
Take him, eediles, and cast him from the Tarpeian
rock.” But the people, though they did not love
Coriolanus,. were horrified at this; and-his friends
immediately gathered closer round him. There was
great noise and confusion, some shouted oné thing,
some’ another: some said that he ought to be put to
death; while his friends, the patricians, were deter-
mined to save him. Then Sicinius said to them:

“How dare you take Marcius out of the hands of
the people, who are determined to punish him?”

And the patricians replied, “How dare you think
of dragging one of the worthiest men in Rome to a
shameful death, and without a proper trial?”

“Tf that is what you want,” answered Sicinius, “you
shall have your desire ; Marcius shall have his trial.”
Then turning to him he said, “We command you,
Marcius, to appear on the third*market-day from this
time, and satisfy the citizens of your innocence, for
they must decide.” So Marcius went away with his .
- patrician friends. ;

When the time came for him to be tried, his friends
endeavoured to persuade him to speak gently to the
people, and reason with them, and not treat them ‘so
proudly, and talk in such a haughty and insolent
*
110 Stories of the: Old Romans. -

voice. He promised he would do so; but when he
stood before thém, and listened to the: accusations
made against him, his old proud spirit got the better
of him, and he.said things which made the people
more angry still. They spared his life, but condemned
him to be for ever banished from Rome.

When this sentence was pronounced, the feaple
shouted for joy, while the patricians bent their heads
in grief. But Coriolanus looked as brave and proud
as ever, for he was determined that he would not
show any sorrow before the people. He went home,
and while his wife and mother and children were
weeping, he bade them not to mourn, but bear their
sorrow with patience. Poor Coriolanus! If he could
have been more patient himself, they would all have
been happier, and he might still have been a noble
Roman citizen. But he had not learnt, and never did
learn, the lesson that “the patient in oe is Co
than the proud in spirit.”2

It is sad to have to relate that his comaea pride
led him to revenge himself upon his countrymen. He.
spent a few days after he left Rome at one of his farms
not far from the city, brooding over the treatment he’
had received and the wrong that had been done to
him, without thinking how much bitterness and anger
there had been on his side. At last he resolved to
stir up the Volscians to make war upon Rome. Not

* ‘1 Eccles. vii. 8.
‘Caius Marcius Coriolanus. 11

only so, but he also determined to fight for the
Volscians against his own fellow-citizens, that they
might find out, for themselves what it-was to banish
a brave soldier,-and thave him Bene) ‘against them
instead! of for them.

Living at Antium was.a nobleman Aetasd Tullus,
who was. one of. the chief men of the. Volscians.
He was rich and brave, and in the wars between
the. Romans and the Volscians had often met with
Coriolanus, and fought with him. To him Corio-
lanus resolved to go, knowing that Tullus would be
glad to have his revenge upon the Romans. And
“although he knew that he himself had been the chief
enemy of the Volscians, he hoped that when he
offered to fight with them against the Romans they
would forgive him, and receive him as a friend.

He dressed himself in poor, shabby clothes, and went
to Antium. It was evening when he arrrived there,
and in the dusk nobody knew him. Then he inquifed
where Tullus lived, and entering the house went
straight to the fire-place, and seated himself on the
hearth without saying a word to anybody. This he
did because the hearth was considered’ sacred, for it
was there the household. gods were placed, and all
who came to seek any help or favour went there first ;
and he sat there a still, his face covered with his
mantle.’

The servants did not like to disturb him, for he
112 ‘Stories of the Old Romans.

seemed something more than.a.common beggar; but
they went and told Tullus, who was feasting with
some friends in another room, about this strange man
who had come and sat down upon the hearth.

Then Tullus rose, and came to him and said, “ Who
art thou, and why hast thou come ?”

Coriolanus uncovered his face in silence, and then
said, “If you do not know me, Tullus, I must be mine
own accuser. I am Caius Marcius, who fought against
the Volscians, and I bear the name of Coriolanus, in
memory of the destruction of Corioli. But for all the
labours and dangers I have undergone, all my reward
is that name. ‘The Roman people have banished me
from my native land, and I have come to you: Ido
not ask for protection. I am not afraid of death, if
you choose to kill me. Iam come for revenge. If
you will fight against Rome, I will fight with you. If
not, let me die !”

* Rise!” said Tullus, nomine out his hand, “take.
courage, The Volscians will not be ungrateful.” “
Then he took him to his table, and treated him with
great honour, The next day they consulted together
about making war.

‘Coriolanus and Tullus were made the chief com-
manders of the Volscian army, and soon the war
began. First one town and then another was taken,
and the inhabitants either sold for slaves, or slain —
with the sword, Pressing nearer and nearer to Rome,
Caius Marcius Coriolanus. 113

Coriolanus*led his army to the city of Lavinium,
which Aineas built, and which the Romans considered
sacred, because there were placed the symbols of the
gods! Then the, Romans were frightened ; but,
instead of gathering together to defend Rome, ‘they
spent their time in quarrelling. The people wanted
to bring Coriolanus back to Rome as a friend, but the
senate would not let them do so. This made Corio-
lanus still more angry; and leaving some soldiers at
Lavinium, he marched on with the rest to Rome.

When he.came near the city the citizens were all in
great terror. The women ran up and down the streets
crying, for they knew that if the soldiers of the
Volscii took Rome, they and their children would be
sold away for slaves. The old men knelt down at the
altars and prayed to the gods, though they were gods
that could not save, that Rome might be spared.
The senators, too, were alarmed. At last it was.
agreed to send messengers to Coriolanus, and ask him
to put an énd to the war and return to Rome.

Some of these messengers were friends or relations
of Coriolanus, and they expected he would receive
them kindly. But instead of this they were con-
ducted to his tent with great ceremony, and found
him seated with a great number of officers, and
‘looking more proud and haughty than ever. ©
3 Perhaps the images which Aineas is said to have brought from
Troy. :
, I
11¢ Stories. of the Old Romans.

When they had told him what they were come for,
he answered them with great anger, that he would not
take away his soldiers unless they gave back to the
Volscians all the cities and towns they had taken
from them; and he gave them thirty days to decide
what they would do. For those thirty days he took
away his soldiers from Rome, but went and fought
with the neighbouring people who were friends of
Rome, so that they might not be able to help the
Romans, and took seven of their cities.

When the thirty days were gone the messengers
went once more to entreat him. But it was of no use;
and he told them they would be in danger if they
came to his camp again if they had nothing more
to say. —

- The senators then ordered the priests, clad in their

robes and the ornaments which they wore on great

festival days when they sacrificed to, the gods, to go

to Coriolanus, and beseech him to put an end to the.

war. He heard what they had to. say, and then sent .
them away; but-he would not do what they asked.

Now they and all the city were yet more greatly
troubled. Men, women, and children wept and be-
wailed, for they knew not how soon they might see
their houses burnt, their husbands, or wives, and
children murdered or sold for slaves. They knew
how fieree and proud Coriolanus was, and they were
afraid because they knew they had done him wrong.

*
Caius Marcius Coriolanus. 115

But it would have been a happy thing for them all if
Coriolanus had shown at this time a forgiving spirit.
It is almost as bad. not to forgive those who have
done us wrong, as it is for them to do us the wrong.
We must be kind one to another, tender-hearted,
forgiving one another, even as God for Christ’s sake
forgives us.! But those old Romans had not heard
these words of peace and love.

The mother of Coriolanus, whose name was Veturia,
and his wife, whose name was Volumnia, were still
living in Rome. While the greater part of the Roman
women were crying and praying at the altars of the
gods, it came into the mind of Valeria, the’ sister of
the good Publicola, to go to Volumnia and Veturia,
and ask them to go to Coriolanus and entreat him to
save Rome. She asked some of the noble matrons of
Rome to go with her to Volumnia’s house. Volumnia
and Veturia were sitting together, with the children
of Coriolanus around them, wondering perhaps what
would be the end of this cruel war, when’ Valeria
came to the house; and being admitted she said to
Volumnia, “We ask you, O Volumnia, and you,
‘Veturia, to entreat your husband and your son to be
at peace with Rome. ‘Our gods, we think, put it into
our minds to ask you. Go with us to Coriolanus, and
show him that though Rome has received great.
injuries from him, she has done you no harm, that he

1 Ephes, iv, 32.
116 Stories of the Old Romans.

may not pursue this cruel war.” All the rest said
the same words.

‘Then Volumnia answered: “We are all very un- _
happy. We, like you, mourn for Rome, but we also
mourn forMarcius. He is gone from us. He is the |
commander of his country’s foes. We are more sorry ‘
that Rome is so weak as to have to ask us for help.
But we will do what we can. Take us to him. If we
can do nothing else, we ‘can die at his feet asking
mercy for. Rome.” So they all went together to the
Volscian camp.

The Volscian soldiers looked at them as they came
with pity.and in silence. There were the aged .
Valeria, and Veturia his mother; there also was his
wife Volumnia, whom he had not seen so long, and his
children. He-saw them coming, but he resolved to
be proud and stern, and not let them know what he
felt. Yet he could not be quite so proud and stern
as he meant to be, and came out to meet them. First
he kissed his,mother affectionately, and his wife and
children, showing all the while how glad he was to
see them; trying in vain to keep back the tears which
would flow down his cheeks as he clasped them one
after another in‘his arms. Then he took his seat,
and sat silent, resting his head on his hand, while
Veturia said:

“@Q my son, you see how wretched we are. What
can we do? Your mother and your wife see you an

\
Caius: Marcius Coriolanus. 117

enemy to your country. We cannot pray -that you
may conquer, for that means misery to your natiye
land. We cannot pray that you may be conquered,
for that would be your shame. Yet, Marcius, I will
not live to see you conquer Rome, for if you come
into the city as a conqueror I will lie in the gate, and
you shall be obliged to trample,upon your mother’s
body.”

Coriolanus listened without a word, his head still in .
his hand, and his eyes covered, that men might not
see him weep. At last Veturia said: “Why are
you silent, my son? Does it become a great man to
‘remember injuries, instead of being willing to forgive
them? Can you forget the love of your mother. for
you?” ‘Then she threw herself at his feet.

Poor Coriolanus could be hard and stern no longer.
He rose from his seat, and lifted her up, and said, “O
_ mother! what have you done? You have saved
Rome, but you have destroyed me!” The next day
he broke up his camp, and marched with all the
Volscian soldiers back to their own. “city. Many
blamed him, but none dared to oppose him.

When he got to Antium, Tullus resolved that he
should be put to death. Some of the people wished
his life to be spared because he was stich a; brave
man, and had done so much for the Volscians. But
others said he was a traitor, and rushing upon him,
. killed him.
Es

118 Stories of the Old Romans. —

When he was slain they were sorry for the deed, and
did all they could to honour him. .They dressed him
in his robes as commander of the army, and laid his
dead body on a splendid bier, which was carried to
the grave by the bravest officers of the army. Before ©
the bier soldiers bore the spoils he had taken, the

-erowns of victory he had won, and the names of the
cities he had conquered ; and they erected to him a
monument, which was adorned, with arms and other
trophies of his valour.

So ended this troubled and angry life. Poor
Coriolanus! What a noble and good man he might
have been if he had learnt to govern his temper; if
‘he had not been so proud and haughty; if he had

- been gentle and courteous, as all true gentlemen and
noblemen are: He thought it was a fine thing to

‘despise those who were lower in station than himself,
and to be haughty to his equals. Let us not forget
that we are taught to imitate “the meekness and
gentleness of Christ.” Solomon, who lived a great
many years before Coriolanus, wrote a lesson which it
would have been well for Coriolanus to have learnt,
but I do not suppose he ever heard of it: “He that
is‘slow to anger is better than the mighty; and he
that ruleth his spirit than he that taketh a city.”*

1 Prov. xvi. 32.
fA Woble @id ARoman,






‘ERS ROME IN TRIUMPH.

ENT.

CINCINNATUS
xX

FA Arohle @1d Woman,

—saneders-

aie have seen how- brave the old’ Romans
M/ were in war, and how willing to give
SWAG! themselves to death for their country.
Som of their great men had also other good and
noble qualities for which they have become celebrated.
They did not care much for being rich, for they knew
that what a man was, was of far greater importance
than. what he possessed. A. rich man would not have
been esteemed by them, if he had been a coward
or false, or if he had loved eating and drinking
and indolence better than temperance and industry. _
In later years they lost these better qualities, and
became selfish and mean and self-indulgent, fond of
dainty foods and strong wines and costly banquets, and
of the cruel gladiatorial shows, where men fought with
each other and with wild beasts till they were killed.
And as they grew fond of these things, of course the
principal thing they wished for was to be rich, that *
they might be able to enjoy them; and many of them


ae

122 Stories of the Old Romans.

did not care how they got their money. If they were
made magistrates or judges, they took bribes from .
those who were tried before them, promising to decide
in their favour, whether they were right or wrong,
and thus injustice was done. The innocent, if-they
happened to be poor,‘ were punished; the guilty, if
they were rich, were set'free. If they were sent to
govern some distant country which had been con-
quered by the Roman armies, instead of governing
justly, and trying to do_good to the people, they tried
only to get all the money out of them they could as
quickly as possible, so that: they might come back to
Rome, and live in splendid houses and have splendid
feasts. So, instead of being brave and~hardy, and
ready to give themselves up for their country, as in
the old days, they grew more- and more cowardly and
selfish, more and more brutal and cmnely; ene this at
last brought. them to ruin. cere ares

One of the brave and. good old’ Romans was
Cincinnatus, go called either because he wore his
hair long, and let it curl'down his neck and shoulders,
or, perhaps, because it was very curly hair. -He was
a man of noble birth, but he did not seek to become
rich and great. He lived ona little farm that,
belonged to him on the other side of the river Tiber,
, away from Rome. Yet although he did not wish to
“be a great man in Rome, but preferred living in quiet

1 Cincinnus, a lock or curl of hair.
A Noble Old Roman. 123

and peace among his trees and green fields, he was
anxious to do all he could for the Roman people, and .
to serve them when it was necessary. . And as the
Roman people knew how wise and brave and faithful
he was, we do not wonder that when they were in -
great trouble they sent at once for him. i

The Ajqui, the Volscii, and the Sabines were at war
with the Romans. They came with many soldiers
almost close to the gates of the city, burning and
destroying the villages and farms as they came. Two
armies were raised to oppose the invaders. One
stayed in Rome to defend it; the other, commanded
by Lucius Minucius, marched against the foe. But,
by want of courage or of skill, they allowed the Aiqui
and the Sabines to surround their camp, and enclose
it by a deep ditch and bank, so that the Romans
could not get out. Some horsemen, however, escaped,
and carried the news to the city. In this strait some
of them thought of Cincinnatus, and said, “Make him
dictator.” All agreed to this at once, and said, “ Yes,
send for him; he will know what to do.” So they
sent for him. When the messengers sent by the
senate came to his farm, they found him at work in
the fields. The messengers respectfully saluted him,
and then begged him to put on his toga, that he
might hear what the senate had to say. He was
afraid there was something the matter by their
coming to him, and began asking them whether all
124 Stories of the Old Romans.

was safe. While they were thus talking they came to |
his house, and he called to his wife Racilia to bring
him his toga. Then, having washed himself from the
dust and dirt of his work, he came to them, and they
told him that he was chosen dictator, that the army
was in great danger, and begged him: to come at once

to Rome. He consented to accompany them, and
they took him in a vessel, which was waiting by the
banks of the Tiber, to the city. Crowds came down
to see him; some his relatives, some his friends, most
of them noble and great people of Rome. Then, with
the lictors marching before him, he went to the house
appointed for him.

The next day he chose for his chief officer another
noble man, as poor as himself, ordered the shops to -
be closed, and commanded that all who were able to
fight should come to the Campus Martius, or field of
Mars, before sunset, bringing with them provisions
for five days, and twelve large stakes each. All the
young and strong men came, and Cincinnatus at once
led them forth against the enemy. They were as
eager as he was, and kept encouraging each other.
“Let us go faster,” they said one to another, “and get
to the enemy to-night, before our brave fellow-citizens
are destroyed.” Then the soldiers would say, “Hasten
on, standard-bearers ;” and the standard-bearers would

reply with a cheery voice, “Yes, yes, follow on, sol-.
diers.” So by midnight they came near to the camp,
A Noble Old Roman. 125

and there they halted for a while till Cincinnatus
issued his commands.

Cincinnatus, after having ridden quietly about the
camp; commanded his soldiers, each one bearing his
large stakes or palisades, to surround the enemies’
camp very quietly, and when the signal was given to
raise a shout, and begin fixing their palisades in the
ground, Without a sound, almost without a whisper,
they placed themselves as he had commanded, and
then waited, listening for the signal. At last they -
heard it. Then loud rang the cheering shout round
the camp of the foe, and the Romans shut up in their
camp by the Aiqui heard it. “These are our friends;
they have come to save us,” they said, and began to
attack the troops of the enemy, shouting in turn, so
that Cincinnatus and his soldiers might know what
they were doing. But while they were fighting the
Aiqui, Cincinnatus and his army were digging
trenches and fixing palisades; and when the morning
came, the Aqui found that they were shut in between
two armies, and could not escape. Knowing now
that they must be destroyed unless the Romans had
pity upon them, they begged Cincinnatus to spare
their lives. They would lay down their arms at once,
they said, if he would spare them. He was not a
cruel man, and this was his decision. He told them
that their general and chief officers must be brought
to him in chains to be his prisoners, and that they
126 Stories of the Old Romans.

and all the army must pass under the yoke, in token
of their submission to Rome, and then they might
go free. The yoke was made of three spears; two.
fixed upright in the ground, far enough apart for any
one to pass between, the other tied across them. It
was a great disgrace to pass under the yoke; but they
were obliged to consent, to save their lives.

After this Cincinnatus allowed all but the general
and chief officers to go away, but without their spears,
or shields, or swords, almost without: clothes. Their
armour, their robes, their gold, their silver, and all
the spoils found in their tents Cincinnatus divided
among his soldiers; but he would. not give any to
the army which was commanded by L. Minucius, for .
he thought that if they had been as brave and watch-
ful as they ought to have been, they would not have
been placed in such danger. Their general, Lucius
Minucius, who was consul, he commanded to serve
as lieutenant-general, and give up the office of consul,
because he had remained within his camp, and
suffered the enemy to surround his army. Lucius
and his soldiers felt that the punishment was just ;
and they were not only noble enough to submit to it
without complaining, but they voted a crown of gold
of a pound weight to Cincinnatus, and saluted him as
patron, as if he had delivered them from slavery.

1 Patronus—trom pater, father—the name given by a liberated
slave to the master who gave him his freedom.
. A Noble Old Roman. — 127

When the news reached Rome,* the senate was
called together, and Cincinnatus was requested to
enter the city in triumph. The general and chief
officers of the Aiqui were led before his chariot; their
standards were carried. before him; his own army
came after with shouts and songs, bearing the spoils
of the enemy. ‘Tables full of meat and wines were
spread along the streets, that the soldiers might
partake if they liked. Joy reigned throughout the
city.

But of all the spoil found in the camp Cincinnatus
would have none for himself; and when the senate
offered him a large gift, enough to make him quite
rich, he would not accept it. And although the
Romans had made him dictator, and he might have
remained in Rome and ruled the people just as he
pleased, and made war or peace, and been like a king,
he was too good a man to do this. He knew that
the Romans had sent for him to help them in their
distress, and not to be a tyrant over them; and so
when he had helped them, and finished the work
which he was called to do, he went back to his little
farm, glad to get away from the strife and pomp of
Rome. To do his duty to his country, not to win
riches and honour for himself, was what he sought;
and so his history comes down to us to teach us by
his example that a man may be poor, and yet good
and wise and noble, and that it is better and nobler
128 Stories of the Old Romans.

to fulfil our duty than to win riches and glory for
ourselves. Yes; and if are faithful -to our calling
as Christians ; if we take up our cross, and follow
Chetpalnays and everywhere, because we love Him
and trust in Him ; then, although we are poor in this
world, we shall be rich in faith, and heirs of the
kingdom which God hath promised to them that love
Him ;\—that kingdom which does not consist in
earthly crowns and honours and riches, but. which
_ is righteousness and peace and joy. Yes! far better
for us now, far better for us for ever to possess this
kingdom by faith and love and goodness, than to
have all the world for our own, and to have nothing
beside! And if Cincinnatus was happier in his little
farm than he would have been in Rome, because he
did not care for riches, and was temperate and
virtuous, how much more ought we to seek to live
‘a good and holy life who have heard of the great love
of God to us in the gift of His dear Son, and who
may have His Holy Spirit to help us serve Him. Let
us take care that some of these good men of old do
not put us to shame in the judgment-day !

1 James ii, 5.
Ta&ow the Gauls tack FRome.






(11) THE GAULS IN THE FORUM.
XI.

A@iow the Gauls took Rome,

toga
A cITizeEN of Clusium, named Aruns, had
under his care, as the old stories tell, a
S84) young nobleman, a Lucumo, as the highest
order of nobles were called in Etruria. He had taken
great pains with this young Lucumo, and had brought
him up from a boy. But the boy when he grew up
treated his guardian shamefully, and did him a great
wrong. Aruns went to the magistrates and judges
about it, but because this Lucumo was very rich they
would not help him,—for they were bad men, who
loved money better than justice,—and it brought about
great misfortunes, as we shall see.

When: Aruns found the magistrates would not do
justice he determined to revenge his wrong himself.
This was wrong: for while it is right to try and get
justice done everywhere, and about everything, it
is not right to take the punishment of injuries into
our own hands, and to do wrong to those whe do
wrong to us.

This was what Aruns did. He loaded a number of




132 - Stories of the Old Romans.

mules with the choicest fruits of Italy, and with skins
of wine and oil, and drove them over the Alps to the
Gauls. The Gauls were delighted with the fruits, but
especially with the wine. “Where can we get these
things, O stranger?” they asked of him. “Follow

me,” replied Aruns, his heart full of cruelty and
revenge, “and you shall possess the land for your-
selves.” So they rose up—men, women, and children
—and followed him across the Alps into this goodly
land, from whence came the wine and the ert ing.
which they delighted. *

The Gauls were a barbarous ‘people who lived in
that part of Europe which is now France and Belgium.
They were very tall and strong, had long shaggy red
hair, and their looks were fierce and wild. They
carried long narrow shields, and fought with broad-
swords, They were very cruel in war, and destroyed
the inhabitants of the cities they conquered. They
cut off the heads of the people whom they slew, and
tied them to the manes of their horses, They -wore
gold collars on their necks, gold chains on their arms,
and cloaks or plaids, like the Scotch plaids of the
Highlanders, very bright with gaudy colours, across
their shoulders. They often fought cruelly among

1 This is the story as told by Livy. But he also states the fact,
that, two hundred years before these occurrences took place, some

tribes of the: Gauls had entered Italy, so that it was not an unknown
land to them. .
&.
How the Gauls took Rome. 183

- themselves, so it is no wonder that they were very
cruel to people whom they conquered.

To the city of Clusium came this great host, led by
their Brennus,' or chief, a very brave man, and noble
too according to what was thought noble then. With
horses. and chariots, with loud noises of horns and
trumpets, they swarmed round the walls and the gates,
and the Clusians..were stricken with terror. In alarm,
2 sent to the Romans to ask for help.

» The Romans, who did not wish to quarrel with the
Gauls, sent three ambassadors, the sons of Marcus
Fabius, to try and make peace between the Gauls and
the Clusians. The Gauls, although they were called
barbarians, received the Romans with respect, and
listened attentively to what they had to say. But
when the: Roman ambassadors asked what offence
the Clusians had given that the Gauls had come
against them, the Brennus smiled and said, “ We are
many and poor, and we want some of this land that
the Clusians have. They do not want it all. Why -
should not we have it? It is right of the weak to
obey the strong.” Then the Clusians resolved to
fight. ‘The Clusians went otit of.the city gates, and
attacked the Gauls; and as the fight grew more 4nd
more fierce, the Romnan ambassadors longed to join
in it, and at last drew their swords and mingled in —

1 Brennus was the title of the chief fs the time eta The gbief :
ruler and leader was called “ The Brennus.”

$

»
#
184 Stories of the Old Romans. .
the fray. They ought not to have done so, because it
was not lawful for a Roman citizen to take up arms

against any nation or people before the senate had
determined to go to war with them; besides they

‘were sent to try and make peace, not to stir up war.

But one of them, named Quintius Fabius, slew a
chieftain of the Gauls, a man of great stature, almost
a giant, and began stripping off his armour. When
the Brennus saw this, knowing that the Romans were
doing wrong, he ordered his trumpeters to sound a
retreat, so that his soldiers might not fight any more,
and that the Roman ambassadors might not be killed.
But it was not from kindness that he did this, but
from revenge, that he might punish the Romans. He
made up his mind that he would either have the
Roman ambassadors given up to him, or else g° to
war with the Romans themselves.

From amongst his warrior chiefs the Brennus chose
those who were of hugest size, and sent them to
Rome. With fierce gestures, wearing their collars and
bracelets of gold, and their hair hanging wild and
dishevelled, and their great swords by their sides,
they demanded of the Roman senate that the am-.
bassadors should be given up to them. If they were
not, they said, they would make war upon them.

The senate knew the ambassadors had done wrong,
and thatthe Gauls, though they were barhenans
only asked what was just. But they were unwilling
How the Gauls took Rome. 135

to give up Fabius and the other ambassadors to the
Gauls. So they pretended that the people must
decide the matter. But they did not decide justly,
for they not only refused to give up Fabius, but
made him and his two brothers military tribunes.

When the Gauls returned to the Brennus, and told
him this, he called his army together, and marched
quickly towards Rome. Thousands upon thousands,
horse-soldiers and foot-soldiers, and chariots of war,
with a multitude of women and children, they spread
over the whole country, and all the people were filled
with terror.. But it is said that when they came to any
city or village they told the people not to be fright-
ened, for they would do them no harm; they were
not at war with them, but with the Romans.

When the Romans heard they were coming they
hastily collected an army, and set out to meet the
enemy, and at Allia, about eleven miles from Rome,
fought a battle with them. But the Gauls were
victorious, and drove a great many of the Romans
into the river, where they were drowned or slain
with spears. A great many also were killed in the
battle, and the rest fled to Veii. A few escaped to
Rome with the sad news of their defeat. After plun-
dering the bodies of the slain, the Gauls gave them-
selves up to drinking and riotous feasting, so that
they could not march any further that day. If they
had done so, they might have taken Rome at once,
136 Stories of the Clad Romans

for in their terror the people had forgotten to shut
the gates, and there were no soldiers left to defend
the city.

While the Gauls were feasting and dividing the
spoil, the Romans did the best they could to prepare
for their coming. The strong men who were able to
fight took arms and stores of corn and food, and
went into the citadel; so that, even if the Gauls took
the rest of the city, this might be-safe. Most of the
people fled to different places in the neighbourhood,
weeping and lamenting, fearing that the fierce Gauls
would overtake them. But the aged, who were
neither able to fight nor flee, had to remain in the
city.

In about three days the Brennus and his army
came to Rome. They found the gates open, and the
city deserted. At this they wondered very much, for
they quite expected that the Romans would fight to
prevent their getting into the city; and they feared
to go inside the gates, lest there should be soldiers
hidden away in secret places, who would suddenly
spring out and slay them. At last, seeing no sign of
anybody about the streets, they went in. The city
-was desolate; the houses were all shut up. There
was no sound of footsteps or of voices. They went
through street after street, but all was still, as it is in
a town at midnight, only it seemed strange for it to
How the Gauls took Rome. 137

- be so in broad daylight, with the sun’s full blaze
shining down upon them, the swallows. twittering
as. they flew, and the sparrows chirping upon the
house-tops. On they marched, still wondering, till
they came to the forum; and there they beheld a
wondrous sight. _

Eighty venerable old men, with white hair and
long beards—some of them clad in white robes
bordered with scarlet, others in rich purple robes or
broidered with many colours—sat in carved ivory
chairs, holding each one in his hand an ivory sceptre.
The savage men stood still before them, for they
thought some of the gods had come down to save
Rome; but the grand-looking venerable old men
neither moved nor spoke. Then one of the Gauls,
partly from curiosity, partly, perhaps, from a feeling
of respect, put forth his hand and stroked one of
their long white beards. The old man, angry at what
he thought the soldier’s rudeness, struck him with
his ivory staff. The soldier in a passion raised his
sword, and struck the old man dead. The Gauls, in
rage and revenge, then slew the rest, and their white
robes and ivory chairs and the forum pavement were
stained with their blood.

After that they rushed furiously through the city,
slaying the few people that they found hidden away,
plundering the houses, and then setting them on fire.
-138 Stories of the Old Romans,

Day after day they did this, as long as anything was
to be found to plunder or destroy, and until the fires
which they had lighted in so many places became
one great conflagration, and the whole city was con-
sumed.
































Ja ow Rome was IWelivered from ‘the
Gauls,






K ON THE CAPITOL.

NIGHT ATTAC

THE

(22)
XII.

Faiow FRome was Welivered trom the
Gauls,

—S2weigpeta

a@urHOUGH the city was burnt, the Capitol
was not destroyed; and the brave Romans
7) @| shut up there were determined not to give
up hope. Rome was still Rome to them, though it
consisted only of burnt and smoking houses. Besides,
their wives and children, and many of their fellow-
citizens, were in different parts of the country round
Rome; and they hoped, when they got rid of the
Gauls, to see them back again. So, although they
were not strong enough to go ‘out and fight the
Gauls, and drive them away from Rome, they still
kept thinking how Rome might be saved.

There was a noble Roman named Camillus, who
was at this time in exile. He had fought for his
country bravely, but the people had banished him
because they said he was unjust. But, some say, the.
real reason was because he would not let his soldiers
plunder a city against which they had been fighting,




=
142 Stories of the Old Romans.

when the inhabitants submitted themselves to Rome.!
Camillus, having taken a farewell of his wife and
children, went towards the gate of the city. There

he stood still, and stretching out his hands towards
- thé Capitol, he prayed to the gods, and said, “O ye
gods, if I am driven from Rome by no fault of my
own, but only by the envy of the people, grant that
they’ may soon have cause. to be sorry for it, and
regret my absence.” It was not a proper prayer. to
offer. Even if the people were wrong, and Camillus
was right, he ought not to have desired their injury.
However, he was not so cruel in reality as this prayer
would seem to show him to be.

Now the time for which Camillus wished had
come, and the Roman people would have given
anything to have had him back with them to fight
against the Gauls. Camillus heard of their troubles,
and determined if possible to rescue Rome.

The Gauls, having destroyed the city, and eaten up
all the food they could find, grew tired of doing
nothing, and resolved to make an attack upon the ©
citadel. But they were driven back with great slaugh-
ter. They resolved, therefore, that some of them
should spread themselves through ,the country, to
plunder where they could, and bring corn and other

1 So Plutarch states ; but Camillus had offended the people by his
pride, and by appropriating, so it was said, more than his share of the
spoils of Veii. 5
How Rome was Delivered from the Gauls. 143

food to the rest, who stayed and besieged the citadel.
Thus it happened that a large number of them came
and attacked Ardea, the city where Camillus was, and
Camillus resolved to fight them.

He called together his friends and the people’ ‘of
Ardea, and said, “People of Ardea, my friends of old,
and now my fellow-citizens, do not suppose that I
am forgetful of what I am, as a man banished’from
Rome; but the danger is great for us all, and we all
ought to do our best to help one another. You,
people of Ardea, owe much to the Roman people, for
they have dealt kindly with you in times past. Help
me, and I will enable you to repay that kindness to
them.” They all resolved to do so; and leaving the
assembly, they waited till Camillus sNould give them
the signal to go out and attack the Gauls.

They waited till night came, and then, led by the
brave Camillus, they marched out of the city to the
camp. They found the Gauls unguarded, asleep, and
drunk, and with. a great shout rushed upon them.
Thousands were killed, the rest fled.

Meanwhile, the soldiers who had escaped from -
Rome to Veii had been thinking of Camillus, and
now asked him to take the command of them. But
he would not until the people of Rome had been con-
sulted. THey had driven him away, he said, and he

would not return unless they wished him to do so.
Then, they resolved to send a messenger to the soldiers
144 .. Stories of the Old Romans.

and senators in Rome, asking them to appoint
Camillus to be the commander in the war.

But how was the messenger to get through the
army of the Gauls which surrounded the citadel, and
carry the message to the soldiers. and senators? It
seemed impossible. But there are some brave strong
men who never think about things being impossible
‘when it is necessary they should be done; and there
was one young man of this kind among the Romans
at Veii. His name was Pontius Cominius. He dressed
himself in common, worn-out clothes, that no one
might know him, or that they might think he was a
beggar, and take no notice of him; and under his
clothes he tied some pieces of cork, to help him in
swimming aéross the river. He could not cross by
the bridge because the Gauls were there; but, tying
his clothes upon his head, and fastening his corks
securely, he swam over, and crept quietly along the
bank till he came to the gate. The hill here was very .
steep and craggy, and it seemed almost impossible to
climb it, but Cominius was determined to try. So up
he went, catching hold of the tufts of grass and
bushes that grew in between the rocks. Once a bush
that he laid hold of gave way, and he-nearly fell; but
at last, step by step, with great toil and danger, he got
to the top. Then he called in a low Voice.to the
guards, and told them his name, and why he had
come, and they received him with joy.
How Rome was Delivered from the Gauls, 145

Pontius told them how Camillus had gained a great,
victory over the Gauls at Ardea, and how the Romans
at Veii wished him to be made commander-in-chief :

but that he would not give his consent without first
consulting the soldiers and senate at Rome. They -
talked the matter over together, and Camillus was
appointed to take the command. Pontius with great
joy crept back again down the hill, and arrived safely —
at Veil.

But the next morning some of the Gauls, as they
passed the cliff up which Pontius had climbed, noticed
his footmarks, and. saw the bush torn up by the roots,
and the grass trodden down. They told the Brennus
what they had seen. He went and looked, and said
nothing then; but in the evening he took some of
his soldiers to the place, and showed them the foot- —
marks. “Now,” he said to them, “somebody has
been up here, and where one man can climb another
can; and where one can go, others can go after him.
Great shall be the reward of those who succeed.”

Then one by one, following in the track-marks
which Pontius had left, they climbed up the steep
rock. All was quiet. The guards were asleep, and
even the dogs did not bark. In a few seconds more
the Gauls would have rushed into the citadel and
slain them’all. But near the temple of Juno a great
many geese were kept. These birds were considered
sacred..to Juno; and although the people were very

L
“146 Stories of the Old Romans.

short of food, they would not destroy them, but gave
them as much corn as they could spare. And these
geese saved Rome. For, just as the Gauls were about
to rush in, they began cackling and flapping their
wings so furiously that they woke a brave soldier named
Manlius, who, fearing something was the matter,
sprang up directly, took his sword and shield, and ran
out, calling to the soldiers to follow him. He was
only just in time. Two Gauls had already reached
the top of the rock. Manlius flew at them. One of
them raised his battle-axe to slay him. He cut his
hand: off at the wrist, and with the boss of his shield
struck the: other so hard that'he fell over the pre-
cipice. As he fell he tumbled against those who were
behind him, and they fell too. Others, as they clung
to the rocks, he slew with his sword. By this time
the Roman. soldiers were aroused. Without stopping
to dress themselves they rushed forth, and hurling
stones and javelins, they beat down and slew the
whole band. Thus was Rome saved by the geese.
Manlius was very much praised by them all, and
they made him presents. Geese also were from
this time much honoured by the Romans. A flock
of them was kept at the public expense; a golden
image of a goose was made in memory of this deliver-
ance; and every year, at one of their festivals, a goose
was carried in triumph. The sentinel who ought to g
have kept watch, but who slept, and thus allowed the
How Rome was Delivered from the Gauls. 1417

Gauls to come up the cliff without giving the alarm,
was thrown down the precipice and dashed to pieces.

_ Although the Gauls could not take the Capitol,
they still held the city; but now great troubles began
to come upon them, as well as upon the Romans. By
their riotous feasting, and by the burning of the city,
they had destroyed nearly all the corn and other
provisions, and they were not able to go plundering
the country round, for fear of Camillus. A great
many of them died from the pestilence, their horses
and cattle perished for want of food; and because
there’ were so many bodies to bury, they heaped them
together in great. piles and burnt them. They also
' began to lose courage, and asked the Romans to let
them come and treat for peace. The Romans them-
selves were suffering from famine, and had very little
food left. But when the Gauls tried to persuade
them to give up on this account, they threw loaves
_ into their camp to make them believe that they had
plenty of bread. However, as they knew that in a
little while they must all be starved together, they
agreed to give the Gauls a thousand pounds weight
of gold if they would leave the city.

The Gauls consented to do so, and the Romans
brought the gold (they had no coins then, but gold
and silver were used by weight) and began to weigh
it. But the Gauls brought false weights; that they
‘ might cheat the Romans ; and when Quintus Sul-
148 Stories of the Old Romans.

picius, who was weighing the gold for the Romans,
complained of this, the Brennus threw his sword into
the scale and exclaimed, “ Woe to the vanquished !”

The Romans were very angry, and some of them
talked about taking the gold back, and breaking
off the treaty. Others thought it would be best to
give the Gauls a little more than was their due
if they would only go away. But while they were
deliberating a great shout was heard. Soldiers, Roman
soldiers, came marching through the gates, hasting
to the forum, and at their head rode Camillus!
Throwing the gold-out of the scale, he turned indig-
nantly to the Brennus, and said, “Take away these
scales. The Romans will buy their freedom with
their swords, not with gold!”

The Brennus said he had aright to the gold; but
Camillus. replied that he was dictator of Rome, and
that as the bargain had been made. without his con-
sent, he should not have it. Then from angry words
they came to blows, and the Gauls were driven out
of the city. Camillus fought another battle with
them on the road to Gabii; a few miles from Rome.
Thousands were slain, not one man lived to tell the
tale, for those who escaped from the battle-field
were killed by the people in the villages round. The
Brennus was taken prisoner, and brought before
Camillus. “Woe to the vanquished !” said Camillus,
and ordered him to be put to death.
How Rome was Delivered from the Gauls. 149 ;

Camillus now entered Rome in’ triumph, and a
glorious sight his triumph must have been. Those
who had fled from the city when the Gauls came now

- returned with their wives and children, following his

triumphal chariot. Those who had been almost
starved to death in the. citadel came out to meet
them, and they all shouted and wept for joy. The
priests bore the holy vessels of the gods, which they
had hidden from the barbarians, and all’ united in
praising Camillus, who, though he had been driven
from Rome, yet came to help them in their great peril.
- They called him Romulus, the new founder of the
city, and the father of his country. It was a noble
revenge that Camillus thus enjoyed. He had re-
‘turned them good for evil, and, now he had his
reward,

In course of time the temples and houses were
rebuilt, and Rome began to look like its old self.
again. Indeed, from this time it increased in magni-
ficence till it became the most splendid city in the
world. It is probable that in those early times Rome |

_was little more than a collection of small houses, built
of wood and reeds; but as the Romans grew more
wealthy and powerful, palaces of marble took the
place of the huts and hovels which had previously
stood there, If Camillus could have come back to
the city which he had delivered from its enemies,
when three or four hundred years had passed away,
150 _— Stories of the Old Romans.

he would not have known it, so changed would it
have been.

Though the Gauls were defeated and driven away
from before the city, yet many of them remained in
Italy, and some years afterwards another war broke
out. Camillus, now nearly eighty years old, was
again made dictator, and defeated them with great
slaughter, for which he was a second time rewarded
by being allowed to enter Rome in triumph. Two
years after this he died of the plague.



















































































































































































































































THE ROMAN FORUM IN ITS GLORY.
af

es

ow Awe Woble FRomans gave
themselves ta Wie for Rome.


(23) . PUBLIUS DECIUS DIES FOR ROME.

K
XIit.

Taiow HEwo Woble Homans gave
- themselves to Wie for FRome.

—S egrets

“HE old. Romans, as these stories show us,
were a proud, haughty, stern, and even
Lf) cruel people. Yet we must not forget that
they had many good qualities, which it will be well
for us to imitate. Although they were too fond
of war, and often attacked other nations very
unjustly, they were brave soldiers, and were ready
to do and suffer almost anything if they could gain
victories for Rome. Indeed, they thought courage in
war the best of all qualities ; and our. word virtue,
which for us means goodness of every sort, comes
from their word virtus, which to them only meant
courage, —for they thought courage was the chief
excellence.

One ‘of the old legends shows us what they
thought about this; and although it is not true,
it is a story worth knowing, and teaches a good
lesson. This-is it :—



154 Stories of the Old Romans.

In the year 362 Bc, as#the story tells us, the
earth opened in the middie, of the forum, and where
‘the multitudes had gone to and fro on business or
pleasure, or had talked together of the news of the
day, or listened to what was going on in the law
courts, yawned a deep wide chasm, so deep that they
could not see the bottom. All the people set to work
to fill it up by throwing earth into it, but they could
not. Throw in as much as they would, the great
chasm seemed as wide and as deep as ever. Then, in
perplexity and terror, not knowing what to do, they
consulted the augurs. The augurs professed to con-
sult the gods, and said: that the great gulf would
never be filled up or closed till they had thrown into
it the most precious thing that Rome possessed.
But. who was to decide what things were most
precious ? re

While they were still in doubt what to do, a noble
young. Roman who had been very brave in war,
wearing his splendid armour, and mountel on a
beautiful war-horse, rode up tothe place. Turning
to the crowd who stood looking sadly into the gulf,
he said, “ What, O Romans, can be more precious to
Rome than arms and valour?” Then, while they
looked wonderingly at. him, he turned towards the
temples of the gods which overlooked the forum, and
towards the Capitol; then he stretched both his hands
towards heaven as if in prayer, then down towards
é
How Two Noble Romans Died. - 155

the gulf beneatli him,#and -putting spurs to his
horse, amid the terror and: wonder of the people, he
leaped with a brave and-smiling face into the awful
chasm, and disappeared in its dark depths. The
people, praising his deed, threw flowers and fruits in
after him, but him they saw no more. Then the
chasm closed. So Marcus Curtius gave himself to
death for the good of: Rome, and because he thought
that courage was the most precious thing that Rome
could possess.
' Twenty years after this is said to have happened,
another brave Roman gave himself up to death for
Rome. The Romans were at war with the Latins,
_and were encamped near Capua, not far from Mount
Vesuvius. The consuls, Titus Manlius and Publius
Decius, commanded the army. One night both the
consuls had a strange dream. They dreamt that they
saw a being in the form of a man, but taller and more
majestic, and that he said to them: “A general of
. one army and one of the armies belong to the Dii
Manes.and to Mother Earth. But whichever army
has a general who' will devote himself for his country,
that army will win the battle.” The meaning of this
was that one of the commanders of one army and the
1 Some of the stories say that a lake was formed there, called the |

Lacus Curtius. This was the name of the place, and it is supposed
that the legend arose to account for the name.
156 Stories of the Old Romans.

whole army on the other side would be destroyed;
but that if one of the generals would give himself up
to die, his army would be victorious. ,

Manlius and Decius talked over the matter, for
they thought it strange that both should have had
exactly the same dream, and they resolved to offer
sacrifices and consult the augurs, that they might
know what todo. The augurs having examined the
victims that were slain, said the signs meant the same
thing as the consuls had seen and heard in their
dream. Then they both resolved that one of them
should devote himself to death to save the army and
secure the victory for the Romans.

But how should they decide which of them it was

tobe? They settled it in this way: Manlius was to,-
command one part of the army, Decius the other;,

and they agreed that. whichever part of the army gave
way before the enemy, the leader of that part should

then give himself to death. The day of the battle

came. Before they marched to the field they again
offered sacrifices. There was a bad sign for Decius
when the victim was cut open. “Never mind,” he
said to the augur, “so long as Meanie has good
signs.”

The Latins and the Ronnie were neighbours.
They spoke the same language, and were very much
alike, save that the Romans were more fierce and
warlike. This is how they fought. Each soldier was

.
How Two Noble Romans Died. 157

armed with two heavy javelins or short spears, which
they threw very skilfully, and a short strong sword
fit"for either striking or thrusting. They carried
shields of an oblong shape, curved so as to defend
the side of the body as well as the front. They stood
a yard apart, and the men behind the first rank stood
inthe space between, but not close to them. So
when the men in the front rank had thrown their
javelins,° those behind stepped forward and cast
theirs. Then the front rank men fell back to the
rear, and those behind took their places, rank after
rank. When all their spears had been thrown they
drew their swords, and, protected by their curved
shields, rushed forward upon the wavering and dis-
ordered foe. But as the Latins had been accustomed
to fight in the same way, it was possible that they
might drive the Romans back, instead of the Romans
driving them back; and this was why Decius was
willing to devote himself for the safety of the
Romans.

The fierce battle began. Manlius led his troops on
the right, Decius on the left. At first they all fought
bravely ; but after a while the soldiers on the side of
Decius began to turn back. When Decius saw this
he cried out with a loud voice to the high-priest who
was there with the army, “ Valerius, we need the help
of the gods. Come, tell me the words I must use to.
devote myself for the soldiers and for Rome.” Then
158 Stories of the Old Romans.

the high-priest told him to take the robe called the
preetexta, and cover his head, thrusting his hand out
beneath it, and to stand upon a spear laid upon the.
ground, and say these words: “Janus, Jupiter, father
Mars, Quirinus, Bellona, ye Lares, ye nine Gods, ye
Gods indigetes,! ye Divinities under whose power we
and our enemies are; and ye Dii Manes, I pray you,
I worship you, I ask-you, that you would grant
strength and victory to. the Roman people ;'and that
ye would give to the enemies of the Roman people |
terror, dismay, and death. Thus I devote myself and

the army of the enemy to the Dii Manes and to

Mother Earth for the army and the people of

Rome !” :

When he had so ‘said, he sent a swift messenger to |
Manlius to tell him what he had done. Then girding
up the robe over his armour, he mounted his horse
and rushed into the midst of the enemy. Both
armies watched him in wonder, and he seemed to

them something more than man as he fought furi-
ously in the midst of a whole army of foes, Wherever
he went the soldiers were filled with terror; and when
he fell, pierced through and through with darts, they
fled. The Romans, when they saw their brave leader
was dead, fought yet more bravely; and after a

1 This name was given by the Romans to those of their ancestors
who were deified, that is, considered as gods, after their death, and who
were regarded as tutelar deities of the country: Aineas, for example.
How Two Noble Romans Died. 159

terrible battle, in which nearly the whole of the
Latin army was destroyed; they won the day.

The next day, amid heaps of slaughtered foes, and
pierced with many spears, the body of the brave
Detius was found, and buried amid the lamentations
of all with great honour.

. Thus Decius gave his life for his country. Foolish
and superstitious as it all seems to us now, he no
doubt was quite sincere. And although it would be
wrong for us to do as he did, it will be well for us if
we have the same kind of spirit, and are willing to.
give ourselves up to labour and suffer for the good of
. others. “We ought,’ says the apostle John, “to lay
down our lives for the brethren.”} That is, we ought
to be willing to do so if it be necessary. Many great
and good Christian men have thus given up their
lives. The. martyrs did so, who would rather be
burnt alive than give up.the truth which they
“believed was necessary for man’s ‘salvation. Many
missionaries have done so, who have died in distant
lands by disease, or perhaps by the hands of savage
men, because they wished to teach them the salvation
~ of Jesus Christ... John Howard did so when he went,
out of compassion to the poor prisoners, from jail to
jail, amid disease and misery, till he caught a fever
and died. And many others have thus devoted
themselves for their fellow-men, and died in so
11 John ii. 16.
160 Stories of the Old Romans.

doing. And is it not a nobler thing to do this than
to live idle, selfish lives, caring for nobody but our-
selves? ‘If we wish to live noble and honoured lives,
we must live not for ourselves but for others; not
to enjoy ourselves, but to do them good for Christ’s
sake,
Yes: for Christ’s sake! for He gave Himself for
us, not because we were His friends, but when we
_ were His enemies. What love was this! Decius
gave himself up that his enemies might be destroyed :
Christ,.that they might be saved! “Father, forgive
them,” He said, when He hung upon the cross in
agony, “for they know not. what they do !’

1 Rom. v. 10.


davow Witus GQantius Alorquatus
won his ame,










(14) HOW TORQUATUS WON HIS NAME.
Sve

how Mitus GPantius Wlorquatus
won his Tame,

~

Seed pete

Witus Manirus was the son of Lucius Man-
ie lius, and of the same family as that brave
i Ei Manlius who saved the Capitol when the
Gauls took Rome. His father Lucius had been
chosen ‘dictator at the time of a great pestilence.
It had been an old custom that the chief magistrate
should drive a nail into the temple of Jupiter every
year, And it was said that once before, when there
was a pestilence, it went away when that nail was
driven in. The sehate and people believing that
driving in the nail would now again cause it to-cease,
chose Lucius Manlius to be dictator, that he might —
perform the ceremony. Pestilence was supposed. to
be a sign that the gods were angry, and they thought
that the driving of this nail might please the gods,
and induce them to take it away.

Lucius Manlius drove the nail, and in time the
pestilence ceased; but he was a proud, tyrannical
man, and wished’ to have everything his own way.



164 Stories of the Old Romans.

He resolved to conduct the war which the Romans
were carrying on with the Hernicians, and so offended
the people by his severity that he was obliged to give
up his dictatorship. If it had not been for his son,
Titus Manlius, about whom you are going to hear, he
would have been punished yet more severely.
The tribune, Marcus Pomponius, was going to
accuse him before the people of having beaten some
of the Roman citizens with rods, and put them in
prison unlawfully. He was also to be accused of
having treated this son, Titus Manlius, very harshly,
and of having sent him away from home to work like
a slave in the fields because he was not clever and
sharp.

_ Whether it was true that he had treated his son
so badly or not, we do not know, but one thing is
_certain—that it was’ this very son who saved him
from punishment, perhaps from death. Word was
brought to him that Marcus Pomponius was going to
accuse his father, and that the people were very
angry with him, and this is what he did. He took
a dagger, and without letting any one know what he -
was going to do, he went early in the morning to the
house of Marcus Pomponius, and told the porter
that he wished to see him immediately. Pomponius,
thinking that he was come to tell him something more
about his father’s cruelty, ordered him to be brought
at once into his chamber. Titus said he must speak

‘
How Titus Manlius won his Name. 165

with him alone, and Pomponius sent the servants
out of the room. “Now,” said Titus Manlius, draw-
ing his dagger, and holding it over Pomponius as he
lay on his bed, “promise me that you will not accuse
my father to the people, or I will strike you dead.” ~
Pomponius was terrified, for Titus was a strong man, —
and his eyes looked fierce, as if he meant what he
_said; so he took an oath to him that he would not
accuse his father. The people when they heard of
this, though they hated the father, were so pleased
with the filial affection of the son that he was after-
_ wards chosen tribune, and his father escaped punish-
ment.

A year or two afterwards there was war with the
Gauls, who often troubled the Romans, and Titus
Manlius was with the army near the bridge of the
‘Anio. On the other side of the bridge were the
Gauls. Very often they fought for the possession of
the bridge, and sometimes the Gauls beat, and some-
times the Romans, so that neither of them could
keep entire possession. One day, whilst both armies
were lying idle, as if ‘neither liked to begin the fight,
a huge Gaul, almost a giant, clad in burnished armour
inlaid with gold, and wearing round his neck and on
his arms bracelets and a collar of gold, came and
stood on the bridge, and, shouting with a loud voice,
said: “et the bravest man of Rome now come and
- fight, that we may see which nation is the best in
*
166 - Stories of the ‘Old Romans.

war.” So he defied the Romans, as Goliath defied
the hosts of Israel.

There was silence among the Romans for a long
time, while the Gaul still stood on the bridge waving
his tremendous sword, and daring the bravest of the
Romans to the combat. To tell the truth, they were
rather afraid of going to fight with this giant, for the
Romans, though brave and strong, were not big men.
So they waited, each one hoping that some one else
would accept the challenge.

At last Titus Manlius, the son of Lucius, who had
freed his father from the accusation of the tribune
Pomponius, stepped from his post, and said to the
dictator, “Unless by your commands, O General, I
would not fight save in the usual way, not even if [,
were certain of victory. But, if you will permit me,
I wish to show that great brute who is so fiercely .
leaping before the standard of the enemy, that I am
sprung from a family one of whom once cast the
Gauls headlong from the Tarpeian rock.”

Then the dictator, pleased with the young man’s
modesty and boldness, replied: “ Be it so, Titus Man-
lius, and may you prosper for your goodness to your
father and your country. Go and conquer by the aid
of the gods, for the glory of the Roman name.” Then
his companions armed him. They gave him a shield
such as was used by the foot-soldiers, long and bent

1 Bellua—any large wild animal, a wild beast.
a

How Titus Manlius won his Name. 167

round so as to protect his body, and a short strong
sword, fit for a close fight. When the Gaul saw him,
he put out his tongue in derision, and laughed to
himself grimly as he looked at this young champion
of the Romans. But the battle is not always to’ the
_. Strong.

The huge Gaul, a head and shoulders falloe than
Manlius, and looking terribly fierce, came on singing,
dancing, and flourishing his great sword, as if it were
pleasant pastime, and he should soon finish the fight.
Manlius stood still, watching him with a calm, firms
look, his teeth set hard,—brave in heart, but quiet.
The Gaul, thrusting forward his shield with his left
hand, raised his sword, and struck a tremendous blow
at Manlius; but though the sword made a great noise
against his armour the stroke was not well aimed, and
did not hurt him. Then Manlius, pushing away with
his own shield the lower part of the Gaul’s, rushed in
close to him, and, stooping, ran his short sharp sword
twice into his body. The Gaul fell dead. Manlius
stooped, and unfastening his golden collar, placed it,
all bloody as it was, on his own neck. The Gauls
stood silent with dismay. The Romans rushed to
meet him with shouts of joy and triumph. “Tor-
quatus! Torquatus !”! “The man with a collar!” they
cried aloud, laughing. “Torquatus, Torquatus !”
rang through the camp; and so they gave him that

1 Torquis, a collar ; Torquatus, having a, collar.
168 Stories of the Old Romans.

name; and it became his name and the name of his
descendants ever after.

This is how Titus Manlius won his name, and
became Titus Manlius Torquatus. The dictator also
gave him a golden crown, and spoke with praise and
admiration of him before them all. Thus did Man-
lius prove himself worthy of the name of that Manlius
who threw the Gauls down the Tarpeian rock.

Twenty years after this, Torquatus, who had already
been consul twice, was again elected, and sent to |
. carry on the war against the Latins. He had at this
' time a son grown up, who went to the war with him,
and who, like his father, was brave and bold. His
name was also Titus. Now the consuls had agreed
to issue an order that there should be no fighting
between the Latins and the Romans except in regular
battle array, and under the command of the generals.

One day young Titus, who had been sent with his
troop to reconnoitre, that is, to look round and see
what he could of the enemies’ camp, and what they
were doing,—was passing near to some of their ténts,
when one of the officers came out and spoke to him.
They knew each other, and had been friendly before
the war. With a scoffing voice this officer said (his
name was Geminus Metius), “ What, Romans, are you
going to fight the Latins with only one troop?
Where are the consuls and the consular army ?”

Manlius replied, “They will be here in good time;

i
' How Titus Manlius won his Name. 169

and if we fought you at Lake Regillus till you had
had enough, so perhaps you may find no great grati-
fication this time.”

“Will you fight me?” said Geminus Metius,
angrily, “that you may find how much better a
Latin horseman is than a Roman ?”

Manlius did not like to say no, though he knew
it was forbidden to the Romans to fight except in
regular battle. Pride and shame kept saying to him,
“Tf you say you won’t fight, he will say it is because
you are afraid.” He knew he ought not to fight,
ought not to mind what this foolish man said; but,
brave as he was, he was not brave enough to say
“No”. Let us remember this,—it often requires a
great. deal of courage to say “No.” Many a boy, and
man, too, does wrong because he is not brave enough
to do this. He is afraid lest somebody should laugh
at him, or call him coward; and ‘so he does what he
knows to be wrong. But it is often a greater proof of
courage to bear being called a coward than to. fight.
But Manlius listened to his pride, and instead of
saying “No,” he said “ Yes.”

They fought, and Metius was killed. Manlius
collected the spoils, and returned to his soldiers, who
were delighted to see him victorious, and they went
with him to his father’s tent. Half fearing lest he
should be blamed for having done wrong, half hoping
that his brave father would overlook his fault, and
170 Stories of the Old Romans.

praise him for his victory, he said, “ Father, that all may
know that I am your true son, when I was challenged ,
I slew my enemy, and took from him these spoils.”

Without a word his father turned away from him,
and commanded the trumpeter to call the army
together by sound of trumpet. Then he said in the
presence of all: “Since you, Titus Manlius, have
disregarded both the command of the consuls and
the authority of your father, led astray by a vain
thought of honour, I am compelled, for the sake of
others, and for the sake of military discipline, to
punish you. My heart feels for you, my son, the
more so for your courage thus shown to-day, but
your country demands the sacrifice. Go, lictor! bind
him to the stake !”

The soldiers all stood silent with horror. The next
moment the head of the son fell on the ground, before
the face of the father. Then they all burst out into
loud lamentations, and into execrations against his
father. His body, covered with the spoils he had
taken, was burnt on a pile outside the camp, amid
the sorrow of all.

When the war was over, Torquatus returned to
Rome in triumph. But only the aged men went
forth to meet him, All the young men, both then
and all his life after, hated him and cursed him for
his cruelty to his brave son. ;

And what are we to think of him? Titus had
How Titus Manlius won his Name. 171.

done wrong in disobeying his father’s and the consuls’
commands, and according to military law he deserved
to die. But if it was necessary to put him to death,
might not the other consul have condemned him ?
Or might not his father have waited to see if any one
would plead for his son ?

This is a sad ending to the story, but we cannot
help that, for there always have been sad stories to
tell in this world, and it is necessary for us to
know them. But we must also try and learn the wise
lessons which these sad stories teach us. And one
lesson here is the great evil of disobedience. When
Titus Manlius went to fight the Gaul, he went and
asked the consul first ; for he.was obedient as well as
brave, and would not fight unless his commander
gave him permission. But when his son Titus went
to fight with Metius, he was disobedient; and so,
however brave he was, all that he did was wrong.
So for us. The first thing we have to do is to be
obedient to God’s holy law. “To obey is better than
sacrifice.” That is, it is better to do just simply what
God tells us, than to do all sorts of great things which
He does not tell us to do, and which we often do far
more to please ourselves than to please Him. We
‘must not put aside His word, and choose a way of
our own to please ourselves. If poor Titus had said
to Metius, “No! my father has forbidden all such
fighting, and therefore I cannot do it,” and had not |
172 Stories of the Old Romans. -

minded what Metius said, he would have done right ;
yes, he would have been far braver than he was even
in fighting.

But does not his sad story.tell us of something
else? He broke the law, therefore he was condemned
to die. We have broken God’s law, and rebelled
against His loving will. There was no one to plead
for poor Titus; but we have one to plead for us, —
even Jesus Christ the righteous, who died for us; died
that we might live. Through Him we may be recon-
ciled to God; for He is not a stern and harsh judge,
like Torquatus, but a merciful and loving Father, who
gave His own Son to die for us, that we might not
die. Yes; while we were yet sinners, Christ died for
us! We thus may be forgiven, blessed, and saved.
“He that believeth in Him shall not perish, but have
everlasting life.”
King J yrrhus and the FRomans,




THE FOOLISH TARENTINES.

(15)
XV.

King FH yrrhus and the FRomans.

—S2ogretrn




Fr was a long time before the Romans were
able to conquer their rivals, and there was

ail) almost always war going on between them
aide some of their neighbours. The people who lived
in other parts of the country were jealous of the
Romans, and afraid of their becoming too strong: so
they were always ready to fight against them. The
Romans, who were fond of fighting, and wished to be
the conquerors of all Italy, always seemed glad when
they had an excuse for going to war.

Tarentum was a large city in the south of Italy, on
the shores of the great bay of Tarentum. It was
inhabited by Greeks, who had come from their own
land, and’ settled there, soon after the Romans had
founded the city of Rome. These Greeks grew very
rich, for they were clever and industrious; but with
their riches they grew proud and insolent, and in-
dulged themselves in all kinds of luxury; and this
brought them to shame and sorrow, as we shall see.
For it was true then, and is true now, that “pride
a

176-2 Stories of the Old Romans.

goeth before destruction ;” and that “he that loveth
pleasure shall be a poor man.”?

The Roman fleet sailing in the gulf of Tarentum
ran into the bay on which the city stood, and cast
anchor there. Years before there had been a quarrel
between the Tarentines and the Romans; and it had
been agreed that no’ Roman vessels should come into
the. bay. The Tarentines, therefore, thought the
Romans meant to insult or injure them, when from
the theatre which overlooked the bay they saw the.
ships lying close to the city. They therefore rushed
to their own ships, rowed with all their might against
the Romans, and attacked them with great fury. The
Romans, who had not at all expected to be treated as
enemies, and who had only ten ships, tried very hard
to get out of their way, but it was of no use. Five
of their ships escaped; of the rest, four were sunk
and one was taken. The duumvir or admiral of the
little squadron was killed, with many others; the
captains of the vessels and sailors were taken
prisoners and murdered, and the rowers were sold
for slaves.

The Roman people, as you may suppose, were very
angry when tlfey heard of this event; but they did
not wish to go to war then, as they were fighting with
the Etrurians; they therefore sent ambassadors to
require the Tarentines to set free their prisoners; to

A 1 Prov. xxi. 17.
King Pyrrhus and the Romans. 177

make good the loss of their ships, and to give up
those men who. had treated the Romans so cruelly.
The Tarentines at first refused ; but after a while they
assembled in the theatre, pretending to listen to the
ambassadors. They, however, behaved very insolently,
. and did all they could to show contempt for the
Romans. Lucius Postumius, one of the ambassadors,
being a Roman, could’not speak Greek quite perfectly.
If he made the least mistake in the language, they
laughed at him in a rude and jeering way. Having
thus insulted him and his fellow-ambassadors, they
drove them out of the theatre. Whilst they were
going through a passage to the entrance door a stupid
fellow, half drunk, came up to Postumius, and threw
filth on his white robe.

Now, you would suppose that all the people who
saw this would be very much disgusted with it.
Instead of that, these foolish Tarentines thought it a
good joke, and began to laugh and clap their hands,
as if something very clever had been done. But
Postumius knew how to: behave, though they did not,
and turning to all the people said: “This is an omen
of what shall happen—you have given us more than
we asked.” The silly people only laughed the louder
at this. “Laugh on,” said Postumius, “laugh on;
you will soon cry loud enough.” Then the foolish
» people became angry, and shouted and yelled because
they could not make Postumius, angry, and because

N
178 _ Stories of the Old Romans.

he did not mind their laughing. “I will make you
still more enraged,” said he, smiling: “I tell you
this garment shall be washed from its filth in
blood!”

The ambassadors went back to Rome, and told
how they had been treated, and the senate determined
to send L. Aimilius Barbula, the consul, with an army
against them. But still the Romans did not wish to
go to war if the Tarentines would grant what Postu-
mius had already asked of them. The Tarentines
foolishly thought that because the Romans seemed
unwilling to fight they were afraid. They therefore -
' refused ; so the Romans began the war.

When the Tarentines found that the Romans were
in earnest, they began to think rather more seriously

‘about the matter. Indeed, some of the older and
wiser men among them had all along advised thera
to yield, and punish those who had led the people
wrong; but they were not listened to. Now here >
were the Romans, and they meant to fight. But the
Tarentines had neither soldiers nor generals.

There was at this time a very brave king named
Pyrrhus, who was a great warrior. He was king of
Epirus, a country in Greece lying opposite to the
south-eastern coast of Italy. His father’s name was
Miacides, king of the Molossians ; but the people rose
up against him, and gave his kingdom to another;
and Pyrrhus, then a little child, was taken away by
King Pyrrhus and the Romans. 179

his nurses lest he should be found and. killed,
Three young men took care of him, and fled with him
to a place of safety. But on their way they came to
a river so broad and deep that they could not cross it,
and. night was coming on. They saw people on the
other side of the river, but the stream made such
a roaring, being flooded by heavy rains, that they
. could not make them hear. One of the young men
then took a piece of the bark of a tree, and scratched
upon it that they were in great danger, and wanted
help to get Pyrrhus, the son of Aacides, safely over
the river, out of the reach of those who sought to kill
him. This he fastened to a stone, some say a javelin,
and threw aéross. When the people on the other
side had read it, they cut down trees, made a raft,
crossed the river, and landed Pyrrhus and the young
men safely on the other side.

They took him to Glaucus, king of Illyria, and laid
him at his feet to ask his protection. While the king
was silently thinking, for he was afraid of the enemies
of Aacides, the father of Pyrrhus, the little boy crawled
close up to him, took hold of his robe, and climbed
up to his knees. Then Glaucus had compassion on
him, and turning to his queen, who sat beside him, he
said: “Take this child, O queen, and bring him up
with our own children ;” and so she did. When he
‘was twelve years old Glaucus marched an army into
Epirus, and made Pyrrhus king.
180 Stories of the Old Romans.

But when he was about seventeen, while he was on
a visit to one of the sons of Glaucus, the Molossians
again revolted, drove away his friends, and plundered
his treasures. Pyrrhus fled to Demetrius, who had
married his sister, and who was king of Macedonia.
He accompanied Demetrius in his battles, and became
a brave warrior ; and being sent to Egypt as a host-
age, Ptolemy, the king of Egypt, was so pleased with
him, that he gave him Antigone, his daughter, for
his wife.

He was now able to go back to Epirus, for his wife.
persuaded her father to let him have men and money,
and he won back his kingdom. He soon became a
powerful king and a great general; for he was not
idle and proud, and did not waste his time in seeking
after pleasure, but worked hard, and was very tem-
perate in eating and drinking.’ He was also kind
and good-natured, not easily provoked to. anger, so
that the people loved him. His great fault was that
he was fond of war, and was never happy unless he
was engaged in it.

Now when the Tarentines were perplexed as to
what they should do, they thought of King Pyrrhus,
and determined to ask him to come and fight the
Romans for them. Some of the wiser men, who ©
had wished to prevent them going to war with the
Romans, tried also to prevent this; but the people
would have itso. While they were disputing about


_ Ring Pyrrhus and the Romans. 181

it in the assembly, a man named Meton came in,
pretending to be tipsy, and a woman behind him
playing the flute. Some laughed, some clapped their
hands, others cried out, “Come, sing to us;” behav-
ing just as foolishly as they did when the Roman
ambassadors came. Foolish, thoughtless Tarentines !

When they became silent, Meton, no longer pre-
tending to be drunk, said with a grave countenance :
“Play, and be merry, O Tarentines, while you may ;
you will have something else to do when Pyrrhus
comes.” Then some of them were rather frightened.
Had not Postumius also said they would soon cry
loud enough? But they did not like to give way,
and seem.to be afraid. So they grew angry, as
people who know they are wrong always do when
they are told of it, and turned Meton out of the
assembly. Then they resolved to send for Pyrrhus.
Pyrrhus at once consented to come, for he was at
this time at peace, and longed to begin fighting
again.

There was a clever and wise man named Cineas,
who was a great friend of Pyrrhus, and lived at his
court. Pyrrhus was very fond of him, listened a
great deal to his advice, and gave him wealth and
honour. Cineas knew that Pyrrhus thought of going
to war for the Tarentines against the Romans, and
wished to persuade him not to do so, One day he
said to him, “The Romans are said to be excellent
182 Stories of the Old Romans.

soldiers; if we conquer them, what advantage will it
be to you, O king?” ;

“Cineas,” replied the king, “if we conquer them,
all Italy will be ours !”

_ Cineas paused a little while, and then asked, < Mes

we haye conquered Italy, what shall we do next?”

“Why,” answered Pyrrhus, “there is Sicily close
by, only across a narrow channel of the sea, a fair
and fruitful island, and easily to be taken; that
will then be ours too,”

“ Not at all unlikely,” said Cineas; “and will that.
be the last of our conquests ?” !

“Certainly. not,’ said Pyrrhus; “why should we
stop short in such a glorious career? We will go on,
and conquer Carthage and all Africa, Macedonia, and
every province of Greece. Our enterprise is most
glorious! Who then will think of resisting us?” |

“True, O king,” replied Cineas; “but when we
have conquered all, what are we to do then ?”

“Why, then,” said Pyrrhus, laughing, “ we will take
our ease and enjoy ourselves.” 3

“Then, O king,” said Cineas, gravely, “ why should
we not do this now? You are powerful and wealthy
already ; why should you go through toil and danger
and suffering, and shed a great deal of blood, and
bring calamities upon others as well as yourself, to
win that which you already possess ?”

Pyrrhus, could not reply, for the wise words of
King Pyrrhus and the Romans. 183

Cineas made him sad. But, nevertheless, he would
not give up the war. Poor man! he was restless and
dissatisfied amid all his wealth and all his power,
because he had not peace within, When the peace
of God rules in the heart we are happy—not in our-
selves, but in His love. Then we leave off being
restless and ambitious for ourselves, and make it our
delight to do His will. “But the news of this peace
had never come to Pyrrhus.

He sent Cineas to Tarentum with three igueand
soldiers, and prepared another great army, consisting
of twenty thousand foot-soldiers, three thousand
horse-soldiers, two thousand five hundred archers and
slingers, and twenty elephants. Then he set sail. But
a great storm arose, and they were all in danger of
being lost. His own ship was driven on to the shore,
and he was nearly drowned in escaping from it as the
winds and waves dashed it against the rocks.. Most of
the other ships were destroyed, and many of his men
were lost. :

The Tarentines soon began to find the difference
after Pyrrhus came. They thought he was coming to
do all the fighting for them while they enjoyed them-
selves; but Pyrrhus soon let them know that they
must fight for themselves. He shut up the theatres
and places of amusement and the public places where
‘they used to lounge about in idleness, doing nothing
but talking and laughing, and settling how the war
184 Stories of the Old Romans,

was to be carried on. Instead of these things, he
made them come to be drilled for soldiers, and was
very severe with them, as no doubt it was necessary
for him to be. Then they began to find out the truth
of what Meton said. A good many of them left the
city, for giving up their life of pleasure'for one
of toil seemed to them nothing better than slavery.
While he was thus preparing the Tarentines for

war, and waiting for the rest of his soldiers to
assemble at Tarentum, news came that the Roman
consul was at hand with a great army. He would
‘rather have waited till he had more soldiers, and sent,
offering to be a mediator between the Romans and the
Tarentines, and so try to make peace between them.
This was right and fair. But the Romans answered
that they would not have Pyrrhus for a mediator, and
that they were not afraid of him as an enemy. When
he heard this he marched forward.

* The Romans were encamped near the river Siris,
which runs into the gulf of Tarentum, and Pyrrhus
rode to the bank of the river to see them. When he
saw the order of the troops, and how all the soldiers
obeyed the commands of their officers, and attended
to the watches, he said to the officer who went with
him, “ Megacles, these men are not barbarians in war,
at any rate;” and he began to think that perhaps it
might not be so easy to conquer all Italy as he had’
first thought it would be.
King Pyrrhus and the Romans. 185

Pyrrhus tried to prevent the Romans crossing the
river, but he could not, and immediately began the
battle. He fought very bravely, wearing his helmet
and splendid robe, so that everybody might know he
was the king. One of the Roman soldiers seeing this,
spurred his horse against him, and tried to kill him
with his spear. But the spear missed Pyrrhus, and-
killed his horse instead. The brave Roman was
killed, fighting hard to the last. Pyrrhus now took
off his splendid robe and helmet, and put on the dress
of Megacles, so that he might not be recognised, for he
knew that if he were killed the battle would be won
by the Romans at once. This saved Pyrrhus, though
it was very nearly losing the battle; and in this way.
Megacles was killed by a soldier, who thought he was
Pyrrhus. This soldier carried away the helmet and
robe, shouting aloud that Pyrrhus was slain. All the
Roman army shouted, too; and the army of Pyrrhus,
thinking their king was killed, began to fall back.
But Pyrrhus, when he heard the shouting, and saw
his own soldiers looking frightened, took off his hel-
met and rode amongst the troops, that they might
know he was alive, For many many hours both
Romans and Epirots fought as bravely as men could.
Seven times did each army give way. But at last
Pyrrhus sent his twenty elephants into the field, and
the Romans, never having seen elephants, took them
for invincible monsters, and fled.
186 Stories of the Old Romans.

The next day—for it was now night—Pyrrhus went
over the field of battle. “Look,” he said to his
officers, as he stood where the Roman soldiers had .
fallen by hundreds, “look, these men all lie with
their face to the enemy. With such soldiers I would
conquer the world.” And when one of them began
to congratulate him on the victory, he replied, “One
more such victory, and we are undone.” He meant
that the Romans had fought so bravely, and slain ‘so
many of his soldiers, that if they did so in another
battle, it would be as bad as.if he should be beaten.
He was so pleased with them, that. he wished the
Roman soldiers whom he had taken prisoners to
enter his own army; and when they refused, because
they would not fight for an enemy of Rome, he was
not angry with them, but took off their chains and
treated them well. He also had the bodies of the
Romans who were slain buried carefully and re-
spectfully, just as he did those of his own soldiers.
And in the temple of Jove at Tarentum he put some
of the spoils, with this inscription :

“ Those who had never been conquered, great Father of Olympus !
Those have I conquered, and they have conquered me.”

Pyrrhus did not wish to continue the war after
this battle, and sent Cineas to Rome to ask the
senate to make peace with him. He promised to
send back the prisoners he had taken; but then the
King Pyrrhus and the Romans. 187

Romans were to promise not to punish the Taren-
tines, nor any of the other Greek cities that had
fought against them in this war. He also sent
presents to many of the noblest citizens; but they
‘all refused them, saying ‘that when the peace was
_ settled they would be willing to treat Pyrrhus with
friendship, not before. But many of the senators
were willing-to make peace, and pore would have
done so but for one man.

This was Appius Claudius, a senator. He was very
old and blind, and -because’of his blindness and other
infirmities he had not fora long time attended the
senate. But. when he heard that there was talk of
making peace with Pyrrhtis, he determined to go
and do all he could to prevent it. His son led him
into the senate, and the’senators listened with silence
and respect as the blind old man, trembling with
age, stood before them, and began to speak.

“Where is-your spirit, O Romans,” he said, “that
you tremble at the name of Pyrrhus, and listen to his
proposals of peace? Would that I had been deaf as
well as blind, that I might not have heard of your
shameful counsels. -If you make peace with him you
submit to him. Be not deceived by supposing that. —
in so doing you will be free from his power. All the
people in Italy who are discontented and rebellious
will seek his help against you; while, if you stand
firm, they will submit themselves to you. ‘his is


188 — Storves 6f the Old Romans.

my advice. Tell the king we will be his friends, if
he wishes it, if he will leave Italy, and not meddle
with our affairs. Order his ambassador to depart
before the next sun rises, and let us make still more
vigorous preparations for war.”

- With many such words the “old man eloquent”
addressed them ; and when he. ceased to speak, they
all agreed to what he had said, and Cineas was
obliged to go and tell Pyrrhus that the Romans
would not make peace with him till he had left the
shores of Italy.. He also told him all about Rome
and the people. The senate, he said, seemed to him
like an assembly of kings; and as for the. people,
they were so numerous that to fight with them
seemed like fighting against the hydra. This hydra
was a great serpent which Hercules slew, which
had a hundred heads, and as fast as one was cut off
another came in its place. Cineas thus meant to tell
the king that if he destroyed one army, the Romans
could soon find another. And so afterwards it
proved.

Pyrrhus now took his army into Latium, and came
within eighteen miles of Rome. Many cities sub-
mitted to him. The Romans, however, would not
yield, and went on preparing for war. They also
sent an ambassador to Pyrrhus, to ask him to ransom -
nis prisoners, or to exchange them for such of his
own men as the Romans had taken from him, This
King Pyrrhus and the Romans. —189

‘ ambassador’s name was Fabricius, a very brave and
noble man whom all the Romans held in great
honour. He was very poor, but they did not think
the worse of him for that; for the Romans at that
time had not learnt to think, as so many. foolish
people do now-a-days, that a man’s worth depends
on how much money he has. They knew that truth,
and courage, and honesty, and goodness, were worth
a great deal more than all the riches of the world.
Money and lands and houses are good things, rightly
used and wisely enjoyed ; but it is a vile thing to set
a bed rich man above a good poor one only because
he is rich. So Fabricius, though he was poor, was
honoured by the Romans.

Pyrrhus received him with great iendnes for he
had heard about him from Cineas; and as Pyrrhus
was a noble-minded man himself in many things,
he could admire the noble poverty of Fabricius. So,
after he had replied to the message which Fabricius
brought, and told him that he could not send back
the prisoners after the Romans had refused to make
a treaty with him, he took him aside to talk with
him. “I have heard, Fabricius,” he said, “of your
fame, and should like you to be my friend. I am
told also that you, though noble and honoured, are
not rich. I have plenty. Will you accept from me
that of which I have so much, and you, if report says
true, so little? I do not wish you to do anything
190 Stories of the Old Romans.

for it, or to take my part against the Romans, unless “
you will think it right to persuade them to think
more favourably of my wish to make peace with
them.”
Fabricius replied : “It is quite true what you have
heard of me, but the Romans do not honour me less
because I am poor. IfI had cared for riches I could
have possessed them. When I was consul the Romans
were at war with the Samnites and other people.
We fought many battles and took many cities, and
_the army was enriched with spoils. But the booty _
which I might have taken as my share I paid into
the public treasury. Having done so, do you think
I can accept your offer? No, O king, you keep your
riches; I will keep my poverty and my honour !”
‘Another day Pyrrhus, who thought to surprise
Fabricius, ordered one of his largest elephants to be
placed close by his tent, so that by suddenly lifting a
curtain it might be seen standing directly against him,
Whilst they were talking, the king gave a sign, and
the monstrous animal stretched out its trunk over
Fabricius, and uttered a loud roar. But when
Pyrrhus expécted to see him show some alarm he
said, with a smile, “You see, O king, neither your
gold nor your elephant can move me.”
The next year Fabricius was made commander of
the army against Pyrrhus; and whilst he was sitting
in his tent a stranger brought him a letter. This
King Pyrrhus and the Romans. 191

_ letter was from the king’s physician, who said he
would poison the king secretly, if the Romans would
‘pay him well for so doing, and that thus they might
~ put an end to the war. But Fabricius was too noble
a man to accept such a wicked offer, and at once sent
word to Pyrrhus. Pyrrhus punished the physician,
and as a token of his esteem for Fabricius sent back
all the prisoners without ransom. “It is more easy,”
said the king when he read. the letter, “to turn the
sun from its course than Fabricius from justice and
honour!” Soon after this Pyrrhus left Italy.
But two yéars later he returned to Tarentum, and
recommenced the war. Lentulus and Curius Dentatus
were then consuls. A great battle was fought, but
this time the army of Pyrrhus was completely defeated.
“The elephants, frightened by darts and arrows, to
‘which burning tow had been tied by the Romans,
turned round and fled, trampling down the soldiers
of their own army.
Pyrrhus fled first to Tarentum, and then to Sicily.

Not many years afterwards, spent as almost all

his life had been in war, he himself was killed in
"battle. Fighting under the walls of Argos, a woman
threw a heavy tile upon his head, which beat in his
helmet so that he fell and died. Thus ended the
glory of Pyrrhus!

As for the poor foolish Tarentines, to whom

nothing but misery had come since they asked
192 Stories of the Old Romans.

Pyrrhus to come and fight for them, they ‘were
obliged to submit to the Romans, and pay them
tribute. Their fleet also was given up to Rome,
and Roman soldiers were sent to guard the citadel.

Six years had Pyrrhus thus fought with the
Romans, and all for nothing! And in those years
how many were killed! How much misery was
caused! How much treasure wasted! What a noble
life his might have been, yet how sad it was, and
how sad its end! We must not judge too hardly of
him, for he had many noble qualities, and no doubt
thought it a grand and noble thing to be brave in
war and to love it. Let us be as brave in fighting for
what is right and true and just and loving,—not with
hard blows, or even with hard words, but in the spirit
of peace and love, as followers of Him who when He
was reviled reviled not again, and who when He
suffered threatened not; and, like Fabricius, let it be
as hard for any one to turn us from this path as it
would be to turn the sun back in the heavens !


Whe @racvhi,












(36) CORNELIA AND HER SONS.
XVI.

Wehe @racvhi,

sgt




Ex the old time at Rome, when the Romans
were victorious over any of their neigh-
Bs bours, and took possession of their lands,
SHOR lands were allotted to the soldiers to cultivate
for themselves. They were not. given to them, but
still belonged to the Roman state; and those who
had them paid a small rent for their use. In order
to let as many as possible enjoy the benefit, a law
was passed that no citizen should hold more than
five hundred jugera, or about three hundred and
twenty acres. But this law was not obeyed. The
_ rich men, who were able to pay the money for rent,
gradually took a much larger quantity of land, and
- employed their slaves to cultivate it, and even kept
it as if it were their own; and many of the free
Romans citizens who were poor were deprived of
their privilege because the rich men had all the land,
and none was left for them. ;
This went on for many years, getting worse and
worse. The country was filled with slaves instead of
196 Stories of the Old Romans.

free citizens, and in time this brought about a fearful
result; for these slaves grew so numerous that they
rose up against their masters, and dreadful scenes of
cruelty and murder took place in different parts of
Italy.

A noble young man, named Tiberius Gracchus,
resolved that he would try and alter this bad state of
things. He pleaded for the people before the senate,
and in one of his speeches he said: “The wild beasts
of Italy have their dens and lairs, the men who have
fought for Italy have only air and light. Without
houses, without settled dwelling-places, they wander
from place to place with their wives and children.
When they are led to war, their generals tell them
to fight for their sepulchres and their domestic gods;
but they have neither. They fight and die only that
the great men may grow rich, and live in luxury.
They are called masters of the world, but they have
not a clod of earth they can call their own!”

Then he proposed to the senate that the old law
should be put into force; but that any persons who
had for a long time held more than the proper
quantity of land, and had improved it by cultivation,
should receive payment for their improvements
when they were obliged to give it up. Three persons
were to be appointed to see that the law was obeyed.

But you will like to hear something more about
Tiberius himself, His mother’s name was Cornelia,
The Gracchi.. 197

and she was a very wise and good woman. His
father died when he was quite young; and after his
death Cornelia gave herself entirely to the education
and training of her children. She much wished that
Tiberius and his brother Caius should be both good
and great’ men. Nor was she disappointed in her
wishes. Tiberius grew up to be brave, honest,
upright, truth loving, and truth telling, eloquent in
speech, temperate in living, and in all his behaviour
a true gentleman. Caius resembled his brother in
most things; but he was not so mild and gentle in.
his temper and manner, Tiberius was no less brave
in war than he was good and gentle. The soldiers
all loved him, and were very sorry when he left the
army. He felt for their wrongs, and showed them
kindness, and this won their hearts. He was not |
proud, as some of the Roman nobles were, who
thought nobody was worth caring for but themselves,
‘and that the common people were of no consequence
whatever; but he condescended to men of low
estate,! and treated them with respect. Very few
among the Romans, or indeed of any of the heathen
nations, did this. It was not until the Lord Jesus
Christ came in the flesh, and lived a life of goodness
and purity amid poverty and suffering, that the
world learnt to “honour all men,’? and treat all men
with love and courtesy for His sake. The more
1 Rom, xii. 16. 2] Pet. ii, 17. :
198 | Stories of the Old Romans.

honour therefore to Tiberius and his brother that
they did so.

He was not only beloved by the poor people and
the soldiers, he also won the esteem of his enemies.
He was in the Numantian war with a general named
Mancinus, and the Romans were beaten. Mancinus
attempted to decamp in the night, and the Numan-
tians, finding this out, attacked the camp, and slew
a great number of the Roman soldiers. Mancinus,
finding there was no possibility of escape, sent a
herald to beg a truce, and offer conditions of peace.
The Numantians, however, would trust no man
but Tiberius Gracchus,: partly out of respect for
him, and partly from their respect to his father, who
had done them kindness in days gone by. Tiberius
succeeded in securing a peace, which saved the lives
of twenty thousand Romans soldiers, besides slaves
and other persons who were with the army.

But whatever was left in the camp the Numantians
kept for themselves, and among the plunder were
some books and papers of great importance, belonging
to Tiberius. He accordingly returned with a few
friends, and asked the Numantians to restore them.
They not only did so, but begged him to regard them
not as enemies, but as friends, provided him with en-
tertainment, and begged him to take, in addition to
his books, whatever he chose from among the spoils.
- All he would take was some frankincense to be used
The Oracchi 1 ag

in public sacrifices ; and they bade each other farewell
with cordial good folie:

But although even his enemies loved him, the
proud, selfish, rich men of Rome, who held the lands
that belonged to the poor, said and did all they could
to injure him and his brother Caius. The old Roman
virtues were at this time seldom found among the
great men of Rome. Instead of being temperate,
and caring little for wealth, they were avaricious and
oppressors of the poor, caring only for themselves,
and loving to get money for the sake of spending it
on their selfish pleasures. Indeed they were like the
men whom the Psalmist describes, “The wicked in his
pride doth persecute the poor,... and blesseth the
covetous, whom the Lord abhorreth.”?

The people were very anxious that the new law
which Tiberius Gracchus proposed should pass, and
were greatly pleased with him for proposing it. But
a great many of the rich men were very angry about
it, and did all they could to prevent its passing.
They persuaded one of the tribunes named Octavius
to oppose it; and when the time came for the votes
of the tribes to be taken, Octavius would not allow it
to be read to the people.

Tiberius therefore was obliged to leave it till
another day, and in the mean time tried to persuade
Octavius not to oppose the law; but it was of no use.

1 Psa, x. 2, 3.
200 Stories. of the Old Romans.

When the next assembly day came the people were
in a great tumult, and no doubt there would have
been fighting and bloodshed if the senate had refused
to accept it. At last it was passed, and Tiberius, his
brother Caius, and Appius Claudius were: appointed
to see that it was obeyed.

Now the people were greatly eee for they
thought they should get their rights, and-be able to
__ have some of the land for themselves. They followed
Tiberius about the city in crowds, so grateful were _
they to him for what he had done. But the rich men
were only the more angry, and plotted against him ;
for, like the brethren of Joseph, they hated him, and
could not speak peaceably to him But as it was a
great crime to kill a tribune they determined to wait
till the time of his office should end.

His friends, knowing this, wished to make him
tribune again. At last the day came for the election.
The Romans were, you know, very superstitious, and
believed in omens and -ill-luck, and thought birds
and. animals and many other things foretold future
events. And itis said that when Tiberius went out
of his house that morning he stumbled upon the
threshold, and made his foot bleed ;, and that when
he had gone a little way he saw two ravens fighting
on the top of a house, and that a piece of stone which
was thrown down by them fell close to him. These

1 Gen, xxxvii. 4,
The Gracchi. 201

were thought unlucky signs; but a friend who was
with him laughed and told him not to mind them.:
The election began, but the rich men did all they
could to prevent his being chosen. Those who took
his part, provoked at this, took the staves from the
officers, and began to beat those who opposed him.
Gracchus happening to put his hand to his head, one
of the rich men’s party cried out that he was asking
the people for a crown. Another of them then went
to the senate, and called upon the consul to do
his duty, and save Rome. They wanted to have
Tiberius taken and put to death. But the consul
said, “No, if any one broke the laws he should be
punished, but ne would not But any one to death
without a trial.’ :
A senator, named Scipio Nasica, then sprang up-
and said, “If the consul will not do his duty, let all
who wish to aid:the state follow me.” So saying he
threw his toga over his head, and went out. A great
many followed him, and a fight began between
them and the friends of Gracchus, who were on the
Capitoline hill, Many were thrown down and killed ;
and Tiberius fell:dead at the door of the temple of
Jupiter, struck with many ‘blows. He was only
thirty years of age. The cruelty of his enemies did
not end with. his death. They refused to let his
"brother Caius have his dead body, and flung it into
the river Tiber. Some of his friends were banished ;

rf
202 © Stories of the Old Romans.

others were killed, some of them in,a most cruel _
manner.

But the people were more angry than ever, now
they had lost their friend; and the rich men, who
were afraid lest they should avenge his death, were
obliged to choose another person in his place, that
the law might be carried into effect. Nasica, who
may be called the murderer of Tiberius, since it was —
he who caused the fight in which he was killed, was
obliged to flee from Rome, and after wandering from
place to place, died at Pergamos.

The brother of Tiberius, Caius Gracchus, was also
killed some years afterwards, because he took the
part of the people against their rich oppressors.

Rome now went on from bad to worse. There was
scarcely anything but tumults and disturbances, and
very often cruel murders and proscriptions for the
greater part of the next hundred years.


Ahe most Fxloquent of the FRomans. |


(17) CICERO EXPELLED FROM ROME.
XVIT.

‘Alhe most FXloquent of the TRomans,
—s2eipete—

yo many of the great Romans were soldiers,

or became great men by their exploits in

4 war, that it will be pleasant for a little
while to read about a great man who was not a
soldier.

Cicero, the orator, who was as celebrated for his
eloquent speaking among the Romans as Demosthenes
was among the Greeks, was born at Arpinum, a town
of Latium, in the year of Rome 647, or about 106
years before Christ. He won great praise and honour
at school, both from, his masters and his schoolfellows,

and learned all that he could. He did not think,
because he was clever, he could do without learning.
Indeed, if he had thought so, it would only have
proved that he was very foolish and conceited.

When he had finished school, he began to study
law, so that he might be able to take a part in the
public assemblies of the people; and as every Roman
was obliged to be a soldier sometimes, or very likely
to be required to serve as one, he learnt something
about warfare. But he did not like war, as most of



206° Stories of the Old Romans.

the Romans did; and, finding that there was a great
deal of fighting likely to go on in Rome, he went
away from the city, spending his time in study, and
in conversing with wise and learned men. Thus he
gained still more knowledge.

But those who knew how eloquent a speaker | fe
was, would not let him continue to live by himself in
this way. A young man named Roscius was unjustly
accused by the cruel Sulla of having murdered his
father ; and, as everybody was afraid of Sulla’s cruelty,
none dared ‘to say anything in the young man’s
favour. But some of his friends came to Cicero, and
asked him to speak on his behalf on the day of his
trial. Cicero did so, and Roscius was set free. Some
day perhaps you will read the speech which Cicero
made on that occasion, and which so delighted all
who heard it that it won him great praise and fame.
But as he was afraid lest Sulla should do him some
harm, he went for a time into Greece.

Here he was able to hear and talk with the wisest
and most learned men of that day, and we may be
sure Cicero did not neglect his opportunity. He was
like the busy bee, which gathers honey from every
flower. A wise man was once asked how it was he
came to know so much. His reply was, “By not being
ashamed to ask questions about things I am ignorant
of.” We may be sure this is how Cicero gained some
of his knowledge; and he grew so fond of being at
‘The most Eloquent of the Romans. 207

Athens, and conversing with the philosophers, that
at one time he thought of living there altogether,
instead of going back to the bustle and strife of Rome.

But when Sulla was dead (B.c. 78), he received
letters begging him to return. His health was
better, and one of his friends at Athens, a great
philosopher, advised him to go and take part in
public affairs, and become a member of the senate,
and perhaps consul, as other Roman citizens had
done. He resolved that he would do so; but first
he wished to spend a little more time in learning,
and for this purpose travelled into different countries,
to hear those who were celebrated as orators, that he
might learn how to be a great orator himself.

One of these was Apollonius, of Rhodes; and as
he did not understand the Latin language, he asked
Cicero to speak in Greek. Cicero though of course
he could not know Greek so well as Latin, yet, wisn-
ing to improve himself in every way, and hoping that
thus he might learn from Apollonius how to speak
better, complied with his wish, When he had done
speaking, all who heard him were astonished, and
gave him great praise. But Apollonius was silent,
and did not even look pleased. Cicero was dis-
appointed, and began to fear he had not spoken
well. Apollonius saw that he looked unhappy, and |
said, “As for you, Cicero, I praise and admire you;
but I am sorry for Greece. All the glory left her
208 . Stories of the Old Romans.

was her eloquence and.learning, and you are carrying .
that also to Rome.”

Yet Cicero still tried to improve himself in all ways,
though now thirty years of age. One of the things
he took great pains with was this—to pronounce all
his words correctly and distinctly, and give them
proper emphasis. He soon became the greatest
orator in Rome; but few of the people who heard -
his wonderful speeches thought how hard he had
worked, and what pains he had taken to be able to
speak so well.

A great many years after, he widerol to plead
the cause of Quintus Ligarius, who was accused of
fighting against Cesar. Czsar knew what a wonder-
ful speaker he was; and as he had already determined
that Ligarius should be put to death, he resolved
to hear what Cicero could say for him. Cicero
began, and Czsar listened as if he had been en-
chanted. By-and-by, as Cicero went on, his colour
changed, he trembled, and let fall the papers he was
holding in his hand. .When Cicero had finished,
instead of condemning Ligarius, he acquitted him.
Such was the great power which Cicero had, to
persuade men by his eloquent speech.

Shortly after his return from Greece he was ap-
pointed questor, and sent to Sicily. _.A queestor was
an officer whose duty it was to see that the taxes which

the people had to pay were paid properly. He had
é

The most Eloquent of the Romans. 209

likewise to take care that there was plenty of corn
sent to Rome for the people. Cicero was very strict
- at first, and the Sicilians did not much like him; but
when they found that, though he was severe, he was
just, they gave him great honour.

Cicero’s great fault was that he thought too much
of himself, and wanted other people to think a great
deal of him. When he came home from Sicily, he
fancied everybody in Rome would be talking about
him, and how clever he was, and what a grand speech
he had made. But Rome was a big place, and the
people there had a great many other things to
think about besides Cicero. On his way homeward he
met a friend, and asked him what they said about
him in Rome. But this friend had even forgotten
that Cicero had been in Sicily, and said to him,
“Why, how long have you been away?” This greatly
disappointed him, for he hoped to hear that every- .
‘body had been thinking about him.

Cicero continued to gain great fame at Rome; and
in time he was chosen pretor, or chief magistrate,
and next in rank to the consuls. At this time the
magistrates and judges were very unjust, and favoured
those who gave them money. Ifa man were accused
of a crime, and were really guilty, yet if he were rich,
and gave the magistrate a handsome present, he
would not be punished, Cicero did not follow the

bad example of the other judges. He would be just.

P
210 Stories of the Old Romans.

However rich or noble men might be, or however
poor, he treated them all alike. So he gained great
honour, and he deserved it.

’ Shortly after Cicero was made pretor, a dreadful’
‘thing came to light at Rome. A number of men,
many of them rich and of noble families, entered into
a conspiracy to get the government of Rome into
their own hands, to murder all who opposed them,
and rob them of their wealth. The leader of this
conspiracy was Catiline, a very wicked man, as we-
may suppose, but daring and bold. From his youth
he had delighted in all evil deeds, even in murder
and robbery; and as he was very skilful in deceiving,
he managed to escape the just punishment of his
doings. But though he escaped the punishment of
man for a time, he could not escape that punishment
which comes upon all wicked men,—the wretchedness
and misery of their own hearts. Sallust, who wrote
the history of this conspiracy of Catiline, has told us
that it was because he was so miserable in himself
that he could not rest that he thought of committing
such great crimes as this conspiracy would involve;
as if by being more wicked than ever he could forget
the wickedness of the past. But so it always is with
bad men: “The wicked are like the troubled sea, when
it cannot rest, whose waters cast up mire and dirt,”2
It seems as if they were obliged to grow more and

1 Isaiah Iii, 20. , .
The most Eloquent of the Romans. 211

more wicked; and this is their most awful punish-
ment. Catiline showed in his looks that he had. this
misery within. His eyes were sunk and fierce, his
cheeks pale. At one time he walked with quick,
restless steps, as if he were afraid; and at another ©
time he crept along slowly, as if he did not know
what he was doing. In fact, sometimes, from his
strange looks and ways, people thought he was mad.
Some of those who joined him in his wicked con-
spiracy were nearly as bad as he was; but many of
them were foolish young men who loved drinking
and riotous living better than anything noble and
good; and these thought that if they could get power
in Rome they should be able to do as they liked,
’ like the wicked Tarquins of old. -

Some of the wisest of the people, who feared that
Catiline was about some mischief, proposed that Cicero
should be made consul, because they knew him to be
not only a clever but a just man. He was chosen,
and for a time it seemed as if Catiline and his friends
were afraid. But, after a while, they resolved to do
what they had determined on, and they fixed the
night when their plot should take effect.

Cicero spoke of it in the senate; but Catiline pre-
tended to know nothing about it, and asked the
senators not to believe what was said against him.
But Cicero knew there was evil going on, though he
did not quite know what. One night three noble-
212 Stories of the Old Romans.

men of Rome came to his house, and brought some
letters for him to read. The letters were not signed
with any one’s name, but were written to warn these
noblemen to leave Rome that very night, for
Catiline intended to have them, and all who were
not on his side, massacred. Cicero upon this took
care to have the city watched by day and night,
and a large number of people always guarded him
when he went to the forum. Then Catiline found he
should not be able to fulfil his wicked purpose while
Cicero lived, and resolved to have him murdered.
Two men, named Marcius and Cethegus, were to go to
his house pretending they came to pay him a visit,
and were to kill him with their swords. But a lady
named Fulvia heard of it from one of the conspirators,
and sent word to Cicero; so he escaped.

The same day, when Cicero. went to the senate,
Catiline also came, but no one would sit by him, and
they would not hear him speak. At last Cicero got
up, and commanded him to leave the city. Catiline
saw he must obey, and marched out with about three
hundred of his friends, to join the army of the con-
spirators a few miles away from Rome.

But Lentulus, a man almost as bad as Catiline,
with many like him, stayed in Rome, determined to
carry out their plot. They resolved to kill all the
senators, and as many of the citizens as they could.
A hundred men were appointed to set*fire to the city
Lhe most Eloquent of the Romans. 213

in a hundred different places at the same time.
Others were to kill all who attempted to put the
fire out. And they sent. messengers to Catiline, to
tell him what they were going to do, that he and his
army might march into Rome, and take possession of
it without fear.

But Cicero was wiser and more watchful than they
were, and found out what they were about. He set
men to watch for the messenger who was going to
Catiline by night, and they took him and brought
him with his letters to Cicero. The next morning
early he assembled the senate, and read them the
letters. Officers were sent to the house of Cethegus,
and a great many swords, javelins, and other weapons
ready sharpened were found there. Lentulus was
taken, and put in prison. The senate decided that
he and some of the chief conspirators should be put
to death.

In the Tullian' prison there was a dark deep
dungeon, twelve feet under ground, built all round
with huge stones, and with an arch of stone above,
a filthy, horrible place, dreadful to behold. Thither
the prisoners were conducted. Cicero, at the head of
the senate, led them through the great crowd of
people who filled the forum, and who looked on them
in silent horror. When they came to this frightful
dungeon, Lentulus. was thrown down into it, then

eae So called from Servius Tullius, who built this part of it.
214 Stories of the Old Romans.

Cethegus, then one by one the rest. The executioners
awaited them below. As Cicero returned he saw
some whom he knew were also conspirators, but who
had not yet been apprehended, and said to them with
a loud voice, as he pointed to the gloomy prison,
“They lived once !” 2

The people all crowded around him, and burst forth
into loud shouts and cries of joy. They called him
the saviour of the country, and the second founder of
Rome. They illuminated the streets and houses.
The women held out lights and torches from the
house-tops, that they might see the man who had
saved the city, and who now walked through the
streets followed by all the.great men'in Rome. Great
generals, who had fought in distant lands, and had
come back in triumph with the spoils of war; sena-
tors, and men who had been consuls and chief magis-
trates; rich men, who lived in palaces in pomp and
luxury; all followed in his train, and said, as they
talked to one another, that he had done more for
Rome than they all, Some few envied his triumph, —
and tried to make the people think less of him; but
when Cato, a little while after, called him in the senate
“the father of. his country,’ the senate and all the
people said, “ Yes.” None had ever gained this title
before. g

It is sad to have: to point out the faults of great
men, but it is necessary to do so, that we may. learn
The most Eloquent of the Romans. 215

wise lessons for ourselves. Cicero, as we have seen,
was very vain, and fond of praise. He now seemed to
be more so than ever. He was not content with all
the honour he had won, but he was always praising
himself. Whenever he had to speak before the people,
he was sure to say something about Catiline or Len-_
tulus, and what he had done to save Rome. He had
done his duty, and ought to have been content. But
he had not learnt that great lesson which the apostle
Paul teaches us, “ Not he that commendeth himself is
approved, but whom the Lord commendeth.”?

' He was also in the habit of saying sharp and
cutting things of other people; and when people use
their tongues unkindly, they do a great deal of harm,
and make those of whom they speak very angry.
Many people, who would think it very wicked to
run a knife or a sword into another, do not mind
saying sharp things to them or about them, which
hurt them quite as much. Boys and girls will some-
times say things of this sort to one another, and then
come angry words, and quarrels, and blows. It may
be thought very clever to say unkind things, though
it is a very small cleverness, after all; but it is not
good, it is not right, it is not just. Above all, it is
not according to the great law of love. “Though I
speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and
have not charity (and charity there means love), Tam

12 Cor. x. 18.
216 Stories of the Old Romans.

become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal.”!
We must not judge Cicero strictly by this rule; but
he had a bitter as well as a sharp tongue, and he
made many people very angry by it, and so stirred up
strife. “The tongue is a little member, and boasteth
great things. Behold, how great a matter a little fire
kindleth !”? This brought harm to Cicero himself,
as we shall see; for when anything arose against him,
there were so many who had been offended by him,
that they. were sure to rejoice at it, and to be
willing that he should suffer.

A bad man, named Clodius, who hated Cicero
because he had been a witness against his wickedness,
tried all he could do to bring him to shame. Cicero
knew this, and asked Cesar, who was then going into
Gaul, to take him with him as his lieutenant, for he
thought he would then be out of the way. But when
Clodius found that Cicero was likely to escape his
wicked designs, he pretended to be very friendly with
him. Then Cicero, who had no wish to go to Gaul
except to escape from Clodius, told Cesar he did not
now wish to go with him, and made up his mind to
stay in Rome.

Cesar was offended with him for this, and declared
before all the people that Cicero had broken the law,

- and done wrong in putting Lentulus and Cethegus to

death, and called upon him to answer this charge.

1 1 Cor. xiii. 1. 2 James iii, 5.
The most Eloquent of the Ronin 217

Gleave then was very sad; for though he felt he had
done right in this matter, ng knew also he had given
otfence to many who would be glad to see him
punished. So he put on mourning, let his hair grow
very long and ragged, and in great distress went |
about among the people, asking them to take his part.
Clodius, who no longer pretended to be his friend,
and many others equally wicked and shameless, fol-
lowed him, mocking his distress, and pelting him
with dirt and stones. And although Cicero had a
great many friends who were willing to take his part,
he was obliged at last to flee from Rome.

As soon as he was gone, Clodius got a decree of
banishment’ passed. People were forbidden to give
him fire or water, or to admit him into their houses ’
within five hundred miles of Rome. But most of
them paid no regard to this decree, and treated him
kindly for the sake of the good he had done. So,
although his sharp tongue brought him harm, his
justice and his good deeds helped him in the time of
his trouble. He found also a great many friends in
Greece, whither he went.

“But he still longed to be back again at Rome, and
fretted and grieved very much, and more than a man
should, because of his banishment. For, as he was
banished unjustly, he had nothing to be ashamed of.
And he might as well have been brave and patient,
for it was not long before he was allowed to return.
218 . Stories of the Old Romans.

After he was banished, Clodius by his proud and
wicked ways offended the senate, and they decreed
that there should be no public business done till
Cicero was sent for back. They drove Clodius out
of the forum; and the people were called together
that they might say whether they wished Cicero to
return to Rome. They all with one voice said,“Yes.” _
Then the senate decreed that he should be at once
sent for, that his houses, which Clodius-had destroyed,
should be rebuilt ; and that thanks should be given
to the cities which had treated him with kindness
in the time of his banishment. When he came back,
the people of all sorts crowded to see him and ex-
press their joy. .

Cicero also won great honour when he was governor
of Cilicia. He went there with a large army under
his command. He was sent to bring the Cappadocians
to submit to their king, and this he did without:
fighting, by his wise counsels. ‘Almost all wars
might be prevented in the same way, if men were
wise and patient, instead of being proud, passionate, ~
and revengeful. He also governed the people: with
justice and kindness, not, as many of the Roman
governors did, with cruelty and oppression. It is
said that he never caused any man to be beaten with
rods, nor had any man’s garments rent,! that he never
insulted those he was obliged to punish, and never in

1 A token of disgrace.
The most Eloquent of the Romans. 219

his pager uttered disdainful or reproachful words.
Perhaps his banishment had taught him to be more
careful how he used his tongue.

When he returned to Rome he was again ceed
with honour; but there was great a deal of quarrelling
among the great men of Rome, and as some of them
were his enemies they contrived to get him mixed up
with their disputes. After the murder of Cesar,
Mark Antony, who was an enemy of Cicero, tried to
obtain the supreme power. in Rome, but Octavius,
whom Cesar had adopted as his own son, opposed
him. Great disturbances and fighting followed, and
finelly it was agreed that Antony, Octavius; and
Lepidus, a friend of Antony, should rule together for
five years. Then Antony resolved that Cicero should
die. Octavius tried to save him, but could not, and
his name was put in the list of the proscribed.

Cicero was away from Rome when the terrible news
came to him; and he and his brother Quintus re-
solved to flee at once to Astyra, a country-house
belonging to Cicero, near Antium, and from thence
to Macedonia. They travelled in litters, a kind of
couch carried upon poles by slaves, and in which
there was room to lie down. They were both in
great distress; and, leaving in a great hurry, they did
not take sufficient food and clothing. In this trouble
they thought it best that Quintus should go back to

. 1 Those whose names were published in writing to be put to death.
220 Stories of the Old Romans.

the house for what they wanted, and that Cicero
should hasten his journey as fast as he could.

But Quintus never returned. His servants be-
trayed him, and he was put to death. Cicero reached
Astyra, and found a ship going to Circeum, But in
his trouble and distress, when the time came for
sailing, he refused to go on board, and travelled a
long way on foot, as if he had been going back to
Rome. Then he seemed to grow fearful again, and
hastened back to the sea. Sometimes he thought of
killing himself. At last he ordered his: servants to
take him to Cajeta, where he had a house. It is said
that as the vessel in which he sailed was approaching
the shore a number of crows came and settled on the
rigging. Those who were with him thought this a
bad omen; but he went to his house, and lay down to
rest. The crows gathered round his chamber window,
croaking in the most doleful manner. His servants,
alarmed, thinking this meant he would be killed if
he stayed there, persuaded him to flee elsewhere by
sea, and carried him in his litter through the woods
back towards the ship.

But the soldiers who were in search of him had
found out where he was, and came and broke the
doors of his house open. Finding he was gone, they
pursued him, and overtook the litter before it reached
the shore. Sad to say, they were commanded by the
tribune Pompilius, on whose behalf Cicero had spoken,
The most Eloquent of the Romans. 221

and whom he had saved from punishment when he
was accused of murder. He with a few soldiers ran
forward to stop the litter. Cicero saw them coming,
and ordered the servants to set it down. Then,
raising himself on his elbow, with his hand to his
chin, he looked steadfastly at Pompilius. He was so
wretched and ill, so thin and careworn, that even the
soldiers covered their faces and wept. He knew what
they had come for, and stretched his head over the
side of the litter. Herennius, the centurion, struck
it off.

He was nearly sixty-four years old at the time of
his death.

His head and his hands were sent to Mark Antony.
They were brought to him when he was holding an
assembly of the people. When he saw them he was
cruel and brutal enough to laugh and rejoice. He
ordered them: to be fastened up over the rostra from
which the orators addressed the people, and where
Cicero had often stood while all the people admired
and applauded him. Those who were present were
filled with horror; and, as they looked on his dead
face, they seemed to see, says one of the old historians,
the picture of-the cruel Antony’s soul.

A long time after, Octavius Cesar found one of his
grandsons reading a book which Cicero had written.
Afraid lest his grandfather should be angry, the boy
222 Stories of the Old Romans.

tried to hide it under his robe. Cesar took it from
him, and after reading a good deal of it as he stood,
he gave it back to him, saying, “My dear child,
this was an eloquent man, and a true lover of his
country.” ;


Fulins @lesar, the Wrst Emperor
of FRome.




(18) DEATH OF CHSAR.
XVIII.

Fulins @lesar, the First J mperor
of FRome,
—SawwdRerm

lou have no doubt heard of this famous
#} man, at least so much as this,—that he
El iivaded our island, then called Britain,
fifty-five years before our Lord Jesus Christ was born
in Judea, and that this was the first time that the
Romans ever set foot on our shores,

But this is*by no means the chief thing he was
famous for. Indeed, of so little importance was
Britain thought: in those days, that the Roman -
historians say hardly anything about his coming
here, although he himself gives us an account of the
savage people who then inhabited the land, and tells
us liow they lived in huts, and went almost naked,
and subsisted on roots and the animals that. they
killed in hunting; as,the savages of the present day
in other parts of the world now do. He spent, how-
ever, a very short time in Britain; and it was not till
many years afterwards that the Romans came and
settled here.



ao
226 Stories of the Old Romans.

Julius Cxsar was born in Rome, about the year
100 Bc. He lost his father, a man of noble family,
when he was about sixteen years old, and the year
following he was appointed high-priest of Jupiter.
It seems a strange thing to us for such a. boy to be
appointed to so high an office. It was a position of
great influence, and was valued among the Romans
for the opportunity it gave any one possessing it to
become rich and powerful. Sulla, the dictator, who
at that time had all power in Rome, refused to let
him have the office, and threatened to take away his
life, as he had done the lives of many others, indeed
of any one who did not please him. Czsar, therefore,
fled for a time to Asia; but when Sulla was dead he
returned to Rome.

After a little while he sailed for Rhodes, but on his
way was taken by pirates. The pirates kept him
with them, waiting for his ransom; and he-used to
joke and laugh with them, and-tell them that some
day he would crucify them. They thought he was in
jest, and by-and-by, after his ransom was paid, they
let him go. But he kept his word, for when he was
set free he collected a fleet of ‘ships and captured
and crucified them, as he had said he would. This
shows us what a resolute‘man he was.

_ He was naturally very desirous of being great, and:
lost no Opportunity of getting into power. When he
was queestor he was sent into Spain, then a province
Fd

Julius Cesar, First Emperor of Rome. 227

of the Roman empire; and as he was going through
the country he came to Gades, now Cadiz, where
was a statue of Alexander the Great. As he looked
at it he sighed; and seemed much grieved. “ Why do
you seem so grieved?” asked his friends. Czesar, who
was well acquainted with the exploits of Alexander,
replied, “Do you not think I have cause for grief?
Alexander, when he was my age, ruled over many
conquered countries, and I have not one glorious
achievement to boast of.”
- On his return to Rome, he was appointed: edile
for the year B.c, 65, and endeavoured by great display,
and spending a great deal of money, to please the
people. He built many grand edifices, and gave
splendid exhibitions of wild beasts and gladiators.
He also spoke against putting Catiline and the other
conspirators to death, hoping to gain favour that way.

In the year B.c. 60, Cesar, Pompey, and Crassus
united together, and called themselves the Trium-
virate, resolving to rule Rome between them. Crassus
was a very rich man, and Pompey was a great general,
who was jealous of Cesar; but Cesar was willing to
seem friends with him for a time, to gain more power.
They divided the empire of Rome into three parts,’
Cesar went to Gaul, and ruled over Gaul and
Germany; Crassus took’ the eastern part of the
empire, and went to Syria; and Pompey took Spain.
In the year 59 Bc. Caesar became consul.
228 . Stories of the Old Romans.

- The following year the Helvetians, a tribe who lived
in the country now called Switzerland, resolved to
leave the mountains, and settle in Southern Gaul.
Cesar, to prevent their doing so, broke down the
‘bridge over the Rhone, at Geneva, and made a
ditch and rampart from Lake Leman to Mount
Jura. He then attacked them as they were passing
the river Saone, and compelled them to return
. to their own country. For nearly six years he was
thus occupied in different parts of Gaul, subduing the
half barbarous tribes, and reducing them to com-
plete submission. During this time he took eight
hundred fortified towns and cities; conquered three
hundred tribes; fought numerous battles, in which it
is said no less ‘hon three millions of men were en-
gaged; and of these one million were slain, and
another million made prisoners and sold for slaves!
But, perhaps, you can hardly imagine how large a
number a million is, It isa number nearly as large
as. the population of Manchester, Liverpool, and
Birmingham put together; so that, if you could
imagine that by some fearful calamity all the men,
women, and children of these three great towns were
to lie dead at once, it would only be equal to the
fearful slaughter of Cesar’s wars during these six
years! How horrible, how dreadful, how wicked a
thing is war! Or you can try and think how large
a number it is in this way. If you had to count all
Julius Cesar, First Emperor of Rome. 229

these men, so cruelly slain, and were to count one
hundred and thirty a minute, without stopping, for
twelve hours a day, it would take you more than ten
days to count them all! And these were slain that
Cesar might have the fame of a great warrior, and
become a great man in Rome!

Still we must not forget that Cesar was really, in|
some respects, a great man. He was very diligent,
industrious, and persevering in all that he undertook.
He shared with his soldiers their hardships and fatigue,
and treated them with great kindness, so that they
became very fond of him, and were willing to do
anything for him. He always called them his fellow-
soldiers; and once, when some of them were beaten
in, a fight, he neither cut his hair nor shaved his
beard, to show his grief, until he had revenged them
by beating the enemies that had overcome them.
Thus his soldiers became very fond of him, and
would do anything for him, and often risked their
lives to: save his.

It was during this period that Cesar invaded
Britain, in the year 55 B.c. |

Crassus, one of the Triumvirate, died B.c. 53, and
the power of Rome fell into the hands of Pompey and
Cesar. But Pompey was jealous of Cesar; and as
Cesar was away in Gaul, he persuaded the senate to
deprive him of the command of his army, and to
refuse to allow him to return to Rome unless he was
230 Stories of the Old Romans.

willing to give it up. But Cesar, who wished to come
to Rome that he might be again chosen consul, refused
to obey. The fact was, Cesar tried to ruin Pompey,
and Pompey tried to ruin Cesar; and this led to a
war between them, which ended in Cesar’s hecoming
master of Rome.

When Cesar heard that the senate required him to
give up the command of his army, and that all the
efforts of his friends to alter this decision had been in
vain, he began to think very seriously what he was
to do, for he knew that if he went to Rome without
his army he would be in Pompey’s power. He was
at Ravenna at the time; and there a little stream,
called the Rubicon, formed the boundary of his |
province. If he crossed that with his soldiers, it
would be making war on Rome. He had but few
soldiers with him; but they all resolved to stand by
him, and at last he said, “The die is cast!” and led .
his troops across the bridge. Thus Cesar passed the.
Rubicon.

Pompey and the senate were much alarmed when
they heard Cesar was on his way to Rome, and fled
from the city. Czsar took possession of it; and ina
short time, although after a great deal’of fighting,
was master of all Italy.

Pompey, however, was resolved not to give up
the power he had held. He gathered an army, -
and followed Cesar into Macedonia, whither he had
Julius Cosar, First Emperor of Rome. 281

gone to carry on the war against those. who still
opposed his authority. Casar went into Thessaly,
and Pompey shortly followed him, and these two

great’ generals, striving which should be master in
- Rome, encamped their armies opposite each other on
the plain of Pharsalia.

Pompey had the largest army ; but Czsar’s troops
were all veteran soldiers, who had followed him in
many a fierce fight, and were willing to sacrifice their
lives for him. “ What cheer, Caius Crassinus?” said
he, as they were going into battle, to one of his cen-
turions. “How do you think we stand?” “Cezar,”
replied the old man, in a bold accent, “the victory
is ours! It will be a glorious one; and this day
I shall have your praise, either alive or dead.”
‘So saying he rushed upon the enemy with his men,
and after fighting bravely was slain. The centurion
was right. Czsar won a complete victory ; Pompey
fled, and was afterwards killed in Egypt.

Cesar pursued him into Egypt, to end the war, as
he thought ; but, owing to a dispute with the Egyptian
king, he went to war with him, and after that with
Pharnaces, king of Pontus. He wrote to Rome an
account of his victory in three words, “Veni, vidi,
vici,"—“I came, I saw, I conquered.” After this. he
himself returned to. Rome.

He celebrated his victories with great triumphs.
On one occasion he ascended the Capitol by torch-
2382 Stories of the Old Romans.

light, forty elephants carrying torches on his right
hand and on his left. Gladiatorial fights, theatrical
performances in different parts of the city and in
different languages, chariot races, horse races, wrest-
ling, boxing, fights between men and wild beasts, lions,
tigers, and elephants, and a representation of a sea-
fight upon a lake dug for the purpose, were among
the amusements which he provided to please the
people. He also gave large gifts both to the people
and to his soldiers, and made grand and splendid
feasts, of which everybody was invited to partake.
Twenty-two thousand tables were spread for this
purpose in the streets.

But the friends of Pompey, although beaten, “were
determined not to yield to Cesar, if possible, and
gathered armies both in Africa and Spain. These
armies also he defeated ; but in one battle he was all
but beaten. After the fight he told his friends that -
“he had often fought for victory, but that was the
first time he had ever fought for his life.”

This was his last’ battle, and he celebrated it with
another triumph. But the Roman people were
offended at this. Many of them admired and re-
spected Pompey; and as both Pompey and his son
were slain, they thought that Cesar was glorying in
their destruction. They were afraid to say anything
about it, because Caesar had such great power, and he
was appointed dictator for life. But they were grieved :
he
Julius Cesar, First Emperor. of Rome. 238

and angry that he should have risen to power by the
overthrow of Pompey, and especially that he exulted
in it. He afterwards made the people think better
of him by re-erecting the statues of Pompey, which
had been thrown down, and by bestowing honours
and benefits upon Pompey’s friends. But he did
not enjoy his power or honours long.

Some historians think that Cesar was very anxious
to be king, and that this made the people and the
nobles angry with him, and afterwards led to his
being killed. Once, it is said, on his return from
Alba to Rome, some of his friends saluted’ him as —
king; but he, observing that the people disliked it,
replied, that he was not a king, but Cesar.

On another occasion, at a public festival, his friend
Mark Antony approached Cesar with a diadem
wreathed with laurel. Some. applauded, but only
those who had been told to do so beforehand, and
when Cesar refused it, all applauded. Antony pre-
sented the crown again, with the same result; but
’ Cesar ordered it to be consecrated in the Capitol.
A few days afterwards his statues were seen adorned
with royal diadems; but two of the tribunes went and -
tore them off; they also sent some of the people to
prison who saluted him as king. Cesar deposed
the tribunes. Then several of the nobles conspired
together to put him to death,

Among these, the chief was Brutus, a friend of
234 “Stories of the ‘Old Romans.

Cesar, who: was supposed to be descended from.
Luaius Brutus, who expelled the wicked Tarquins.
Under the statue of Lucius Brutus one day this- was
written: “Would you. were now alive!” and under
the statue of Cesar, a Latin couplet to this effect :
“Brutus was made consul first, for driving out kings:
this man is made king for driving out the consuls.”
About sixty persons were engaged in this conspiracy,
_ and they resolved to put him to death when the
senate assembled upon the ides Se March, the 15th
day of the month.

It is said that Cesar had. warning of his fate by
several remarkable. omens. A soothsayer warned
him of danger before the ides of March were past.
A sacrifice which Cesar offered was. found.to be
without a heart. .The horses with. which he had:
crossed the’ Rubicon, and which afterwards he had.
consecrated to the gods, and turned loose, abstained:
from eating. His wife, Calpurnia, dreamed that he
was stabbed in her arms. Warriors were said to have
been seen fighting.in the clouds;. and even the dead
were reported to have been seen and-heard in the
streets. These were, most of them at least, foolish
superstitions ; but whether the soothsayer knew any-
thing about-the conspiracy or not, it is certainly true
that the day he mentioned did prove fatal to Cesar.

On that day the senate assembled, and Cesar, not ©
being very..well, thought of staying at home. But ©
Julius Cesar, First Emperor of Rome. 285

Decimus Brutus, one of the conspirators, advised. his
going. On his way, some one gave him a paper con-
taining a warning of the plot, but he did not open it,
intending to read it at his leisure. As he passed the
soothsayer he laughed, and said, “The ides of March
are come.”- “ Yes,” replied Spurinus ; “but they have
not passed.”

When he took his seat the conspirators pressed
around him, as if to pay their respects to him, but one
of them coming too near, as if to request some favour,
Cesar begged him to defer the matter to another
time. The man, whose name was Cimber, immedi-
ately seized him by the toga. “This means violence,”
exclaimed Cesar. Another then stabbed him in the
throat. All now drew their swords, and attacked him
with great ferocity; but when Marcus Brutus stabbed

him, he no longer attempted to resist. “Et tu Brute !”
he exclaimed : “Thou also, Brutus!” Then he covered
his face with his robe, andfell. It is remarkable that
he fell and died at the base of Pompey’s statue. ~

So perished . Cesar, the greatest soldier and the
most powerful man of his day. A moment before, he
seemed to rule the world, for Rome was at that time
mistress of all the known world; and there he lay,
slain with three and twenty wounds, beneath the
statue of his old enemy Pompey, whom he had driven
to death! The people, when they heard ofit, were filled
with horror. Brutus tried to explain to them why they
236 Stories of the Old Romans.

slew him, but they would not hear him. The next
day, when he and the other conspirators addressed
the people, they listened in silence. But when it
was found, on opening his will, that Casar had left,
the Roman people a great deal of money, and when
they saw his mangled body borne through the streets,
all their old admiration for him réturned, and they
were filled with rage against his assassins. It was
with great difficulty they were prevented from mur-
dering them, and burning down their houses.,

Cesar only survived his great rival, Pompey, four
years! For so little a time did he enjoy the power
which he had toiled go hard, and shed so much blood
to attain. He was no doubt a very able man, a very
great soldier, and perhaps, had his life been spared,
might have made a wise and good ruler; but as he
took the sword so he perished by the sword,! and left
Rome and the world none the better for all the lives
that had perished in the wars which he had stirred
‘up, for all the toil and hardship and suffering which
both he and so many thousands of men had endured.
Great he may be in the eyes of those who think
greatness is measured by the power of the sword;
but surely one who gives but a cup of cold water
to the sufferer, who otherwise might crave for it in
vain, is greater than he.

1 Matt. xxvi. 52.
APPENDIX.

—_—_— oO

NAMES OF OFFICERS, ETC., AMONG THE ROMANS.

Aidiles.—These officers were two in number. They were
elected from the plebs, and their office: was to keep the
records of the decrees of the Senate and of the people. They
had the superintendence of all public buildings, and provided
for the repair of the temples, ofthe senate-house, and other
places for public business; and if any houses were tumbling
down so as to be dangerous, they had to see they were
repaired or else pulled down. It was their duty to take care
-that the city was well supplied with water, and kept clean;
that the public lands were not improperly used; to super-
intend the markets, and see that the weights and measures
were correct; and also that the religious ceremonies and
the ancient feasts and festivals were properly observed. In
after times more ediles were appointed, and other duties
were given to them. They were chosen every year.

Augur, Augury—An Augur was one who pretended to be
able to foretell events by means of birds, and also by the same
means to learn what was the will of the gods.as to public
affairs. This was done sometimes by observing the flight of
the birds. If they flew to the right that meant one thing, if
to the left another. Sometimes they pretended to decide what
was to be done by the way the birds fed; if they would not
feed at all it was considered unlucky. One Roman com-
mander, when the birds would not feed as he wished, said, “ Tf
they will not eat they shall drink,” and had them thrown
into the sea. “But no doubt the augurs knew how to make
the sacred chickens, as they were called, feed or not as they
pleased. Eagles; vultures, crows, owls, ravens, among birds,
and animals of almost every kind, were also supposed to
foretell future events, to give warnings of bad luck, or to
prophesy good fortune. Many of the Romans were very
superstitious, and thought a great deal of the movements of
238 Appendia.

different animals, and of other things which they considered
omens. If a weasel crossed their path, they would not go
on until some one else had gone first, or till they had thrown -
three stones across the way. If an owl flew past.they would
be in great terror ; because it was considered the bird of the
goddess Minerva, and a sign of her presence. So if a wolf,
or a dog, or a horse crossed their path, it would. be con-
sidered an omen; and the augurs were supposed to be able
to explain the meaning of such events, and foretell things by
them. Of course they knew as much about the matter as the
poor animals themselves, but most of the people believed them.

Capitol—The Capitol, situated on a celebrated hill in
Rome, was. a splendid temple of Jupiter. It was so called
because it is said that when digging the foundations of the
temple, a human head, the Latin word for which is caput, was
found there. *

Consul.—The Consuls were the two chief officers of the
Roman republic, who were chosen to rule the people after the
wicked Tarquins were driven away, and the people resolved to
have no more kings. New ones were chosen every year, but
the same persons might be chosen again. They were'also the
chief commanders of the army in time of war.

Dictator.—A. Dictator was a person chosen by the Senate,
in times of great danger or difficulty, to take the command
of everything in the city and in the army, and do what he
thought best for the safety of the state. He had the power
to make war or peace, to inflict any punishment he thought
fit, and to put to death those whom he thought to deserve it.
He could not be chosen for more than six months at a time.

Forwm.—An open space of ground where the peeple met for
business, conversation, and public meetings, and where the
markets were held. As Rome increased in size, there were
many forums in different parts of the city; but the principal
one, which is called The Forwm, was between the Palatine hill
and the Capitol. In time, the forum was surrounded by
temples and public buildings, and adorned with statues of the
great men of Rome. :

Inctors.—Lictors were public officers whose duty it was to
attend on the consuls and chief magistrates, They had to
inflict punishment on those who were condemned, and they
each carried a bundle of rods, called fasces, with an axe in the
centre, all being bound together with thongs or cords. With
Appendix. 239.

these rods criminals were scourged, and with the axe-they
were beheaded, if they were condemned to death. It was
probably with such rods ‘our. blessed Lord was scourged
before Pilate, and Paul and Silas at Philippi.

. Oracle.—An oracle was a place where it was supposed some
god. revealed his will, or foretold future events to those who
came to inquire. It was also the word used to signify the
message of the god to any one so inquiring. The most
celebrated oracle of ancient times was at D€lphi, where was a
temple of Apollo; and the Pythia or prophetess was supposed.
there to utter: the will of the god. Of course the priests of
the temple told her-beforehand what-to say, and almost
always gave a favourable oracle to those who paid them well.
You will have seen in.these stories the answer given by this
oracle to the sons of Tarquin, and how Brutus understood it.
These oracles could almost always be understood in two or
three ways, so that the priests, might be able to say, if the
oracle did not come true, that it had not been properly
understood. When Pyrrhus was going to war with the
Romans, he consulted the oracle, and the answer was: “I
say that Rome Pyrrhus shall overcome ;” which might mean
either that Pyrrhus would overcome Rome, or that Rome
would overcome Pyrrhus. So it was sure to be right which-
ever happened. The Apostle Paul calls the Scriptures the
oracles of God, But these are true oracles, not false, not
deceitful. ‘Thy word,” says the Psalmist, “is a light to my
feet, and a lamp to my path.”! “The testimony of the Lord
is sure, making wise the simple.”? —

Patricians.—The fathers of Rome, from the word. pater,
father. That is, they. were the descendants of those who
founded the city.. They were very proud of this, and looked
down upon all who were not of their order. This often led to
quarrels between them and the common people, who were
called plebs, or plebeian.

Plebs, Plebes, or Plebeians.—These were the common people,
as the patricians called them, though they were quite as much
the creatures of God as they were; and many of them quite
as good and noble as the patricians, perhaps even more so.
Decius, who devoted himself for his country, was a plebeian.
Till the time of Tullus Hostilius, there was no distinction
between the Roman citizens; but when the city of Alba
was destroyed: its inhabitants removed to Rome. The chief

1 Psa. exix. 105. ? Psa, xix. 7.
240 Appendix,

citizens were received among the patricians of Romé; the: .
rest were kept in a state of submission to them, and were
afterwards called plebeians, from a Greek word signifying a
great number, a crowd. .

Pretor.— Preetor was first of all a title given to the consuls,
when they commanded the army of Rome. Afterwards the
word was used to signify an office similar to the consuls; but
the pretors could only be chosen from ‘the patricians, who
were angry because the consuls were some of them plebeians:
When the Romans had conquered the greater ‘part of the
world, the pretors were governors of provinces, and were
chosen and sent by the senate to the different countries
where the Romans ruled.

Questor.—One kind of Queestor was an officer appointed to
see to the collecting of the taxes. The others were appointed
to prosecute those who had been guilty of murder, or any
other offence of which death was the punishment. ‘The
number of the first kind of questor was greatly increased as
Rome increased her dominions. — ‘

Senate, Senator.—The Senate was the council or parliament
of Rome. The senators, the members of this council, were
chosen from the patricians, and were at first the oldest and
wisest, men amongst them. But, in later times, others than
the patricians became members of the senate. Their duty
was to make laws and decrees, and to decide upon peace and
war.

Tribunes.—The .Tribunes were originally the heads of the
tribes; but the principal use of the word is to signify the
tribunes of the people, who were chosen after their revolt
when they took possession of the sacred mount, and whose
duty it was to see that the people suffered no injustice from
the patricians.



LONDON : KNIGHT, PRINTER, BARTHOLOMEW CLOSE,
oe

hm







xml record header identifier oai:www.uflib.ufl.edu.ufdc:UF0008886200001datestamp 2008-12-11setSpec [UFDC_OAI_SET]metadata oai_dc:dc xmlns:oai_dc http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc xmlns:dc http:purl.orgdcelements1.1 xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc.xsd dc:title Stories of the old Romans dc:creator Knight ( Printer )dc:subject Romans -- Biography -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )History -- Juvenile literature -- Rome -- Republic, 265-30 B.C ( lcsh )Biographies -- 1899 ( rbgenr )dc:description b Statement of Responsibility by the author of "Tales of heroes and great men of old", "Stories and pictures of church history", etc.Date of publication from inscription.dc:publisher Religious Tract Societydc:date 1899?dc:type Bookdc:format 240 p. : ill. ; 19 cm.dc:identifier http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc/?b=UF00088862&v=00001002237959 (aleph)265031500 (oclc)ALH8453 (notis)dc:source University of Floridadc:language Englishdc:coverage England -- London