Front Cover
 Developing the project
 The future
 Back Cover

Group Title: Seeds pamphlet
Title: Hanover Street
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00088774/00001
 Material Information
Title: Hanover Street an experiment to train women in welding and carpentry
Series Title: Seeds pamphlet
Physical Description: 16 p. : ill. ; 26 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Antrobus, Peggy
Rogers, Barbara
Publisher: Seeds
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1980
Subject: Women -- Employment -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Women -- Employment   ( lcsh )
Women in development   ( lcsh )
Women in development -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Welding   ( lcsh )
Woodwork   ( lcsh )
Trabajo y trabajadores -- Capacitación
Women -- Employment -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Jamaica
Statement of Responsibility: Peggy Antrobus with Barbara Rogers.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00088774
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 10563395

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Developing the project
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    The future
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Back Cover
        Page 17
        Page 18
Full Text


SEEDS is a new pamphlet series developed to meet requests from all
over the world for information about innovative and practical program ideas
developed by and for low income women. The pamphlets are designed as a
means to share information and spark new projects based on the positive
experiences of women who are working to help themselves and other women
improve their economic status. The projects described in this and future
issues of SEEDS have been selected because they provide women with a
cash income, involve women in decision-making as well as earning, are
based on sound economic criteria, and are working successfully to over-
come obstacles commonly encountered. The reports are not meant to be
prescriptive, since every development effort will face somewhat different
problems and resources. Rather, they have been written to describe the
history of an idea and its implementation in the hope that the lessons learned
can be useful in a variety of settings. They are also being written to bring to
the attention of those in decision-making positions the fact that income-
generating projects for and by women are viable and have important roles
to play in development.

SSEEDS is a jointly sponsored project of the
Carnegie Corporation, the Ford Foundation,
1980 and the Population Council.

Hanover Street:
An Experiment
To Train Women
Welding and Carpentry

Story by Peggy Antrobus,
with Barbara Rogers

The Hanover Street Project, formally known as the United
Women's Woodworking and Welding Project, is an experiment in
training women for jobs usually held only by men. Begun in 1976, this
was the first such program of the Jamaica Women's Bureau, established
by the Government during International Women's Year to insure that
women participate fully in Jamaica's development. Though the project
is still developing, it has demonstrated that low-income women can
learn non-traditional skills and can work together to improve their lives.
Through trial and error, the project is providing the Women's Bureau
with a wealth of information about teaching technical skills, working
with other government agencies, and establishing self-sufficient
cooperative structures. The knowledge gained from Hanover Street is
being applied to a number of new projects organized by the Bureau in
urban and rural areas. The lessons from this experience extend beyond
Jamaica and, hopefully, will be useful to people in other countries
who are addressing similar problems.

1 14


Soon after the Women's Bureau was
established in 1975, it held 13 workshops
throughout the country to ask the women of
Jamaica about their needs and aspirations.
In every case, the women's overriding con-
cern was employment and skills training
to earn income. The need was clear, but
what could a small government agency with
limited staff and budget do?
Jamaica, like many developing coun-
tries, has a severe unemployment problem.
Its 2.1 million people occupy a 4,400 square
mile island in the Caribbean that, although
independent since 1962, is still trying to
deal with a legacy of colonial exploitation
that has left it with a narrow economic base
dependent on the export of sugar and
bananas, the mining of bauxite, and tourism.
Unemployment is 12% for the country's
men and 32% for its women. Women's
unemployment is particularly important in
Jamaica since at least one-third of all the
households are headed by women at any
one time and even more households will
experience some period during which the
woman is the only wage earner. The women
who do manage to find employment usually
have jobs in low paying, marginal and un-
skilled occupations.
As in most parts of the world, skill
training for women in Jamaica has been
limited to activities termed "home econo-

mics" or "crafts." Such training may lead
to employment as a domestic worker or to
part-time work in the tourist trade, but it
cannot bring women into the mainstream
of economic life. The Women's Bureau staff
therefore determined to develop a skills
training program that would provide low-
income women with a better means of
earning a living. To do this they had to find
out which skills would be marketable within
the women's own communities since for-
mal employment, especially jobs in indus-
try, are very scarce in Jamaica.
In planning their training program, the
Bureau had several objectives:
(1) to demonstrate that a group of low-
income, low-skilled women can, with
assistance, become economically
self-sufficient, and integrated into
the economic mainstream;
(2) to design a model training program
for others to use and adapt based
on sound economic and social
criteria that would assist women in
their economic, domestic and
mothering roles;
(3) to show how existing government
programs could work together for
To begin, the Bureau staff sought the
advice of the Small Industries Division of
the Jamaica Industrial Development Cor-



portion. The Division estimated that there
would be increasing demand for furniture
and equipment for daycare centers given
the Government's interest in child care.
They also thought there would be some
demand for such items from private homes
and schools. The basic skills required were
carpentry and welding.

In my community people have a
better feeling about me. They
know Imade my own bed.
Delta McFarlane, woodworker

As a small organization with limited
funds, the Bureau could not possibly
put together a training program on its own.
Moreover, since one of the objectives of
the project was to ensure that more women
benefited from all Government programs -
especially those in which their participa-
tion had been low the training program
was developed in collaboration with
several Government agencies. The Bureau
first approached the Vocational Training
Division of the Ministry of Youth which
operates several Vocational Training
Centers. Although open to women and
men on an equal basis, only 12% of the
places in their programs were occupied by
women in 1974, and most of these women
were taking classes in home economics,
dressmaking, waitressing or secretarial
skills. The Vocational Training Division
agreed to provide training in welding and
carpentry to women in collaboration with
the Women's Bureau which would design
and administer the program.
Skills in carpentry and welding, how-
ever, would not be sufficient. Since un-
employment generally is so high, most of
the women probably would have to become
self-employed. As such they would face
problems obtaining equipment and raw
materials, maintaining a viable level of pro-
duction, and marketing their products. Thus
it was decided that the women also would
be trained in management and accounting
skills that would enable them to form a
production and marketing cooperative. In
addition, the Bureau decided the training
program should recognize women's mul-
tiple roles by offering family life education
on such topics as child care, health, nutri-

tion, family planning and self-awareness.
"In fact, the women themselves selected the
topics for this course and consciousness-
raising discussions quickly became an in-
tegral part of the training program."
Developing the Project
First the Bureau had to decide which
women could be included in the program.
Their modest resources wouldn't allow
them to reach all poor women. The next best
option was to develop a project that would
demonstrate to other agencies how they
could work with the thousands of women
needing a means to earn a living.
The Bureau therefore turned to two
existing Government programs: the Special
Employment Programme (SEP), maintained
by the Jamaican Government to provide
small, but regular, salaries for manual work
such as street sweeping to very poor,
unemployed people; and the Jamaican
Movement for Adult Literacy (JAMAL). The
majority of participants in SEP and JAMAL
are women, many of them enrolled in both
programs. These programs provide a mini-
mal income but not self-sufficiency or
opportunities for advancement.
In January, 1976, a series of meetings
was held for all those enrolled in both SEP

.7-. 1.

and JAMAL who 1) had reached level 4 in
the JAMAL program, 2) lived within the city
of Kingston (the capital of Jamaica), and
3) were interested in training in carpentry
or welding. It was decided to limit partici-
pation to those who had reached level 4 in
the literacy program because it was assumed
they would be at a similar level of literacy,
would have experience attending classes
regularly, and would be better able to handle
the business end of a cooperative.
At each meeting Women's Bureau
representatives outlined the program and
invited people to apply. They stressed the
risks involved: participation meant even-
tually leaving SEP and beginning a different
way of life; income would no longer be
fixed but would be dependent on the out-
put of the group and the demand for their
products. On the other hand, members of
a cooperative would be able to make their
own decisions and control their own oper-
Over half of those present at the
meetings applied. Follow-up meetings were
then held for these applicants during
February and March to give them more
details on the program as well as to allow
the Bureau staff to select the first group of
trainees. Forty-eight of the 70 applicants

were chosen. Preference was given to those
in peak earning years, to those who were
the only source of support for their families
and to those living reasonably near the
training centers. Among the forty-eight,
were two men which is two more than
the number of women in any previous
welding or carpentry training course!

The training phase began on March 8,
1976 International Women's Day. Trainees
were invited to choose either carpentry or
welding. Classes were conducted at three
existing training centers run by the Voca-
tional Training Division. All three sites
offered welding and two, carpentry. The
vocational classes were taught 24 hours
each week by staff recruited and trained
by the Division, but paid by the SEP pro-
gram. For six hours each week the entire
group from the three centers met together
for a course in family life education given
by the Ministry of Health and for sessions
on cooperative development and conscious-
ness raising given by the Women's Bureau
The agencies participating in the train-
ing program and their responsibilities are
as follows:



Women's Bureau Design and management of the program; organ-
ization of human relations training.

Vocational Training Division
Bureau of Health Education,
Ministry of Health
Cooperatives Division,
Ministry of Agriculture
National Savings Committee

Non-Governmental Agency
Jamaica Children's Services Society

The training period was originally set
at six months, but was extended to eight
for several reasons. The involvement of a
number of agencies over which the Bureau
had no direct authority posed some diffi-
culties. Although the Bureau had discussed
the program in detail with each of the parti-
cipating agencies, common problems that
arose included irregular attendance by
some staff members, inappropriate handling
of the group, and poor communications
techniques. The participants were quick to
sense any lack of interest on the part of
training personnel and they had the self-
assurance to point this out. Many of the
staff members, accustomed to traditional
teaching situations, had difficulty relating
to these adult students. Such problems
were resolved on an individual basis by the
Bureau staff, but the process took con-
siderable time and perseverence.
There were also many instances where
raw materials arrived late or where there
were shortages in the shipments. These
problems the Bureau found more difficult
to handle since they involved snags at
many levels in the bureaucracy. Again, per-
sistence and careful coordination were
necessary. Another important but unanti-
cipated problem was lack of child care, the
most frequent cause of absence among
the participants. No provision for child care
had been made at the training centers since
it was assumed the women had made their
own arrangements for their children when
they joined SEP.
Toward the end of the seventh month,
two weekend residential sessions were
arranged so that the participants could re-

Skills training
Family life education

Training in cooperative skills

Advice on development of credit unions
Maintenance stipend
Continued interest and support

Sessions in child guidance and counseling

ceive more intensive training in cooperative
development, interpersonal relationships
and problem solving. These sessions were
held at the Social Welfare Training Centre
located at the Extra-Mural Department of
the University of the West Indies. It was the
first time that any of the women had been
involved in a residential training program
and for many it represented their first time
away from their families in this kind of
setting. The training emphasized participa-
tion. The group was presented with parti-
cular problem situations and asked to
develop solutions through cooperation,
careful attention to interpersonal relation-
ships, and special efforts to communicate
effectively with each other. In this way
they gained experience in decision-making
and problem-solving. And they began to
develop stronger self awareness. For all,

Government Agencies


both staff and trainees, the residential
sessions represented the high point of the
training. It seemed to consolidate the group
cohesiveness which had been building
throughout the training period.

As the training period neared an end,
it became clear that the newly trained
welders and carpenters could not just open
up shop the day training was completed.
An apprenticeship period was needed to
enable the women to begin production and
to develop a cooperative structure. Con-
tinued support and assistance by the
Bureau, SEP and JAMAL during this period
was crucial.
The group could not, of course, im-
mediately generate enough income to cover
its costs and the financial needs of its
members and the Bureau did not have suf-
ficient financial resources to support the
project during this critical stage. For-
tunately, SEP agreed to continue the mem-
bers' stipends throughout the start-up

A t first I felt I would not have
been able to manage the machine
work. I am fine at that now.
Myrtle Lawrence

phase. In addition, the Bureau procured
working capital grants and loans from the
Canadian International Development Agency
(CIDA) and the Christian Action for Develop-
ment in the Caribbean (CADEC) program
which were used to provide basic equip-
ment and raw materials. The Bureau found
a rent-free Government building to house
the group. Both the Bureau and the partici-
pants, however, knew the project had to
cover its own costs as soon as possible.
In the future the Bureau would not be able
to subsidize other new programs to the
same extent it supported this first endeavor.
Stepping Out
In April, 1977, some two years after the
Bureau had set out to learn about and re-
spond to the needs of women in Jamaica,
the United Women's Welding and Wood-
working Project began actual operation.
Technically the group remains in the pre-
cooperative stage. To register as an official
cooperative they must be ready to stop re-

ceiving the SEP payments; so far the group
is not economically strong enough to do
this. The road from training to self-suffi-
ciency has been a lot rougher than antici-
Shortly after the project commenced
regular operation, the Women's Bureau
expanded its activities to assist in the de-
velopment of rural pilot projects. They could
no longer provide the project with the full-
time services of a project officer. Everyone
assumed that the group could be more or
less independent after receiving the tech-
nical training and courses in cooperative
management. This assumption, however,
proved unrealistic. The women did not have
a sound understanding of cooperative
principles; the management structure was
untried and not fully developed; not enough
orders were generated in the first months
r e

to keep up production; and no proper book-
keeping system was in place.
All of these factors led to low morale,
and discipline started to deteriorate. But
the Bureau and the women continued to
work together to find solutions to their
problems. Throughout this difficult time the
Bureau staff resisted the temptation to take
control of the project. Instead they en-
couraged the women to work together to
solve their problems themselves, recog-
nizing that they would make mistakes but
that they could learn from their errors with
help and encouragement from the Bureau.
One of the very serious problems en-
countered by the group involved the SEP
payments to participants. Initially, pay-
ments were given to each member regard-
less of how hard the person worked or how
much responsibility she/he had taken. This

/ 1/

. /

o 5,

caused much dissension. The Bureau has
been able to help by suggesting that SEP
make one lump payment that a newly-hired
project manager will distribute among the
participants according to their individual
productivity. This is a step in putting the
project on a solid footing since it means
that what a member earns will depend
upon how much effort she/he puts forth.
The initial decision to manufacture day
care furniture and equipment also turned
out to be problematic. Demand was not
nearly as high as anticipated and the pro-
ject found it difficult to compete with the
mass-produced goods imported from de-
veloped countries. The cost of raw materials
began to increase and the furniture designs,
while attractive, took considerable time to
make. It thus became more and more diffi-
cult for the group to make a profit. The
women decided to expand the items manu-
factured to include desks, chairs, coffee
tables, plant stands, iron grills for windows,
household fixtures, ash trays, and lamps
which they thought would be in demand
locally. Currently most of the orders the
project receives come from Government
ministries. With additional training and
advice, the group hopes to expand to in-
clude private buyers. However, as the women

had not received courses in marketing
during the training period, they were in need
of practical knowledge and advice about
finding markets and generating demand
for their products. Since many of these
women already have some experience as
petty traders, the program is now trying to
build upon these practical marketing skills
with assistance from CADEC, Bureau staff,
and consultants.

Ifeel miserable because markets
are very scarce, but Ifeel better
for having a skill If this project
should close down I could go out
and get a job.
Maudlyn Russell, welder

Today, of the original 48 participants,
26 women and one man remain. Some of
those who dropped out were those either
unwilling or unable to shoulder the burdens
and risks of running a cooperative enter-
prise. In other cases, participants left to take
higher paying jobs testimony to the


/ /


,F a

Joined the programme because
Ihad a skill (dressmaking) but it
keeps me confined. Welding
seemed more challenging. I was
more interested in painting but
that fell through. Then with 4
children to support alone I
wanted something more.
Cynthia Anderson, welder


j ^^-^;.,. ^,.*

success of the training effort. The remaining
group are well aware of their problems and
are intent on taking the steps necessary
to put their enterprise on a solid footing.
Income currently averages U.S. $1,000-$3,000
per month which is used for materials,
utilities and other operating costs. Rent is
still subsidized by the Government, as are
salaries; grants from other agencies are
used to support further training efforts and
to bring in outside expertise.

I feel better about myself because
Inow have a trade. Things I
would have given out to have
made or fixed, Inow can do
myself. My family life has im-
proved because now I know more
about family living.
Maud Lawrence, welder

The Future
The project members have restructured
the group's activities so that members,
rather than the Women's Bureau Project
Officer, are taking a more active and primary

role in decision making. To put the business
side in order they are hiring a project mana-
ger for 2 years, using funds provided by
CADEC. Two women from the co-op will
work as accountants and will understudy
the manager so they can gradually assume
these duties themselves. Marketing prob-
lems are being given priority with assistance
from the Small Industries Corporation and
CADEC. Even as they are learning more
about how to market goods effectively,
they are finding outlets for their products
among neighbors and friends. The Bureau
has put them in touch with the Regional
Child Development Centre at the University
of the West Indies which designs new
kinds of toys and equipment for child care
centers in the Caribbean, and it is working
to identify similar demands in other Govern-
ment programs.
The group also has decided to esta-
blish a day care center for their own children
and for the children of other women in the
neighborhood. The problem for the group
has not been with pregnancy or with infants.
Several members who became pregnant
have continued to work with strong support
from the others. There are a few cribs in the
workshop for small babies and mothers can
feed them during their breaks. Problems
begin to arise when children become mobile.

Currently the women must rely on tem-
porary child-minding by unemployed women
in their neighborhood who frequently, and
usually without warning, are unavailable
for any number of reasons, or by older
children who must be kept home from
school. The child care facility will not only
help the project members stay on the job,
but will benefit the community as well.
The Bureau has agreed to help arrange
training for day care staff and is now con-
vinced that any income-generating project
for women must have child care built in
from the start.
Other activities have been requested
by the members including continuing
education in design, marketing, and manage-
ment, plus upgrading of technical skills.
Several members plan to participate in adult
education courses. Others are anxious to
continue the family life education classes
introduced during the original training

want the programme to succeed
and if the programme succeed
and if the programme succeeds
then I will succeed.
Cynthia Anderson, welder

period. They have started a "partner"
savings club, run exclusively by the par-
ticipants, which has been useful to the
women in times of crisis. The group has
also established a buying club so that
they can purchase foodstuffs in bulk at a
considerable savings. Food purchased by
the club is also used to provide one hot
meal a day to the workers on the job.
The Hanover Street building will soon
become the location for a new, multi-
agency women's program. The project occu-
pies a site with two vacant buildings. The
Women's Bureau, in cooperation with the
Ministry of Local Government, is renovating
one building as an office and storeroom for
the project. The other building will provide
day care facilities and become a neighbor-
hood training center. Classroom space will
also be available for participants in the
Women's Bureau's rural projects who
come to Kingston for special training.

The Women of the United Wood-
working and Welding Project have accom-
plished a great deal as they move from

dependence on a Government scheme to
participation in their own cooperative en-
terprise. They have overcome many ob-
stacles and problems along the way. Out of
this experience they have developed a strong
group spirit and a sense of personal inde-
pendence and dignity. They have also
demonstrated that training in non-traditional
skills is not only possible but beneficial,
and can turn marginally employable women
into skilled workers. This transformation
has had a profound effect on the women
that goes beyond their roles as earners.
It has changed their perceptions of their
partners, their children and themselves and
has altered their attitudes towards work,
health, marriage, education and family
planning. For the first time in their lives,
they are experiencing a sense of autonomy
and are able to exert some control over the
circumstances of their lives.
The project has also generated con-
siderable publicity and community interest.
Major news coverage was given to the pro-
gram as an important innovation in training
and employment. As a result, the project
receives visitors from all over Jamaica and
from abroad. This coverage has helped to
draw attention to discrimination against
women and to publicize the work of the
Women's Bureau. It has also attracted
some potential customers and done a lot
to boost the confidence of the project


Hanover Street has enabled the Bureau
to demonstrate to other Government agen-
cies and to other women, that women need
access to and can perform well in programs
that traditionally have served only men.
Since the Vocational Training Division
began cooperating with the Women's
Bureau, the percentage of women enrolled
in its regular skills training programs has
been going up every year! Overall, colla-
boration with the Bureau has provided an
opportunity for a number of Government
agencies to better serve the needs of women.
It has also enabled the Bureau to put to-
gether a program far beyond its own limited
resources and thus to reach more women.
Of course problems remain. The pro-
ject still is neither independent from the
Bureau nor on a strong economic footing,
but the women and the Bureau staff are
facing these problems together. Future
efforts at launching similar projects should
be able to avoid many of the pitfalls ex-
perienced by this first pioneering effort. It
may be that the lessons learned by the
Women's Bureau are just as important to
the development process as the production

and earnings generated by the project.
The Bureau has learned that:
1. Before deciding on any economic pro-
ject, expert advice should be sought
on what to produce, how to produce it,
how to maintain quality control, and
how to market the products. This advice
might come from a government agency,
private institution or individual. It is

Joined programme because I
wanted to be self-employed If
programme become successfully
could help my children and self
far better. I also liked the skill
of woodwork.
Delta McFarlane, woodworker

important for program managers and
participants to ask questions and raise
issues with advisors, because the more
the advisors know about the situation,


the better able they will be to give
appropriate counsel.
2. Despite expert advice, economic pro-
jects can be negatively affected by
changes in markets, shortages of raw
materials, and other factors beyond the
control of the producers. Project orga-
nizers should be particularly aware of
this, warn potential participants, and
take steps to minimize potential losses
and setbacks. In many cases it may be
necessary to plan for a considerable
period of subsidy. Organizers should
carefully consider such costs and their
ability to meet them.
3. Pilot projects, although they directly
serve only a few women, are a useful
means of raising broader conscious-
ness about women. They can create
new awareness and interest on the part
of key government agencies whose
support is necessary to develop broader
economic and social opportunities for
women. They can demonstrate how
existing programs can be modified and
utilized for new purposes. They can
serve as a training device to develop
more and better programs.
4. When a government agency, like the
Women's Bureau, or a private organi-

zation has little money and few staff, it
can and indeed should draw on
the skills and resources of other agen-
cies, both government and private. To
do this effectively, it is necessary to:
(a) outline the program strategy care-
fully, yet maintain flexibility so that
changes can be made as the program
develops and situations change;
(b) identify institutions and govern-
ment departments that have the skills
needed in marketing, product design,
production systems, cooperatives,

Joined the programme because
I wanted to learn a skill could
earn from. I used to do some hair-
dressing before but that was not
helping, many people are
doing that
Maudlyn Russell welder

(c) approach these institutions with a
specific proposal, asking them to
help implement it;
(d) help the staff of the assisting agen-
cies to understand the needs of the
women involved and the importance
of helping them as part of their own
larger institutional goals;
(e) recognize that it will take time and
patience to work out a means of
collaborating, to remind the agencies
of their agreements, and to resist
getting discouraged.
5. Establishing a cooperative is not easy
and specific expertise should be sought.
There are programs in most countries,
often private, that have some exper-
ience in this area and can provide advice.
6. The project should be kept small to
begin with and should not be enlarged
or duplicated until it has gained solid
experience. The temptation always is
to expand too quickly in order to serve
more women. For example, the Bureau
now believes that 20 participants would
have been a more workable size for the
Hanover Street project. Many of the
project's problems might have been
avoided if the group had been smaller

I feel better in my community
because everybody calls me a
"welder. Sometimes people come
to visit me who are unsure of my
exact address and ask for the
Cynthia Anderson, welder

and thus more easily managed.
7. A new project of the size and com-
plexity of Hanover Street requires a full-
time project manager of its own from
the beginning and throughout develop-
ment. The expense should be included
in the initial planning. The group itself
should interview and hire the manager
so it is clear she/he is in the employ of
the group. Careful monitoring and super-
vision by the manager, the implemen-
ting agency, and the group itself, should
be part of ongoing program develop-
ment in order to spot troubles early

and deal with them before they become
8. Agencies entering a community to help
women should first talk with the
women to find out about their skills
and strengths, their perceptions of
their problems, and possible solutions.
A sense of shared experience among
the women provides the basis for
cooperative action.
9. It is preferable to work with a pre-
existing group or with neighbors. The
cohesiveness, logistics, and security
of the group will be strengthened by
such bonds.
10. Perhaps the most important lesson
to be learned from Hanover Street is
the importance of learning from exper-
ience, and the recognition that prob-
lems and setbacks are part of that
experience. Difficulties and failures
need not be seen as negative or as a
sign of weakness. Rather, they can be-
come positive learning experiences.
The important thing is to recognize
them for what they are learning
experiences -and to build on them
so that the same problems and mis-
takes are avoided in the future.


The following examples of projects of-
fering training for women in non-traditional
skill areas have been brought to our atten-

Low-Income Women's Employment Project
San Antonio, Texas
Lupe Anguiano, Project Director
A Department of Labor funded program
for minority women to train them to become
heavy equipment operators, welders, X-ray
technicians, as well as for white-collar and
health-related jobs. Rationale is that better
paying jobs are in "nontraditional" fields
and women must have access to these
opportunities if they are to break out of the
poverty cycle. The program attempts to
address the needs of individual women
through services such as job and training
placement, pre-job orientation, counseling
and referrals to support services such as
day care.

For more information, write to:
Women's Bureau
Department of Labor
Washington, D.C. 20210 U.S.A.

Graphic Arts International Union
Washington, D.C.
The Graphic Arts International Union
(AFL-CIO), has a program to train and up-
grade approximately 140 women in nontradi-
tional jobs in the printing industry.

For more information, write to:
Beryl Brown
Graphic Arts International Union
1900 "L" Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036 U.S.A.
Don Olsen
ETA Office of National Programs
U.S. Department of Labor
Washington, D.C. 20210 U.S.A.

African Training and Research Centre for
Women (ATRCW)
United Nations Economic Commission
for Africa
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

ATRCW offers training opportunities in
a number of non-traditional skill areas. They
have introduced a program of handblock
printing of textiles in Ethiopia and women
have been trained in the male-dominated
area of glass bead making in Ghana. Tradi-
tional pottery making skills are being up-
graded to include production of indigenous
construction materials such as brick, tile,
and pipe. A program to train Tunisian
women in electronics is now being de-
veloped in collaboration with ILO. During
1980-81, the center plans to implement train-
ing for women in such areas as welding,
minor electric and electronic repairs, plumb-
ing and construction skills. This will be done
primarily by opening up pre-vocational train-
ing facilities currently providing training
only to men, to women. Training in industrial
skills linked to national development pro-
grams will be undertaken in several coun-
tries in the near future.

For more information, write to:
Nancy J. Hafkin
African Training & Research Center
for Women
Center for Women
U.N. Economic Commission for Africa
P.O. Box 3001
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Design Three to Make Ready Graphics
Typography Alphabette
Cover Photo John Swaby
Printing Tartan Executive Services

We invite your comments and your ideas for projects which
might be included in future editions of SEEDS. If you would
like additional copies of this issue or would like to be
included on the SEEDS mailing list, please write to:

Ann Leonard, Editor
P.O. Box 3923
Grand Central Station
New York, New York 10163 U.S.A.

P.O. Box 3923 Grand Central Station, New York, N.Y. 10017

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