Citation
The hero of Manila

Material Information

Title:
The hero of Manila Dewey on the Mississippi and the Pacific
Series Title:
Young heroes of our navy
Creator:
Johnson, Rossiter, 1840-1931
Clinedinst, B. West ( Benjamin West ), 1860-1931 ( Illustrator )
D. Appleton and Company
Place of Publication:
New York
Publisher:
D. Appleton and Company
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
ix, 152, [6], [19] leaves of plates : Ill. ; 20 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Manila Bay, Battle of, Philippines, 1898 -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Admirals -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Midshipmen -- Juvenile literature -- United States ( lcsh )
Naval education -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Voyages and travels -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Seafaring life -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Fathers and sons -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Children -- Attitudes -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Sailors -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Adventure and adventurers -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Warships -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Courage -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Diligence -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
War -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
War stories ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- Mississippi ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature -- Manila (Philippines) ( lcsh )
History -- Naval operations -- Juvenile literature -- United States -- Civil War, 1861-1865 ( lcsh )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1899 ( rbgenr )
Juvenile literature -- 1899 ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1899
Genre:
Publishers' catalogues ( rbgenr )
Children's literature ( fast )
Biographies dy 1899. ( rbgenr )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
individual biography ( marcgt )
Biographies dy 1899 ( rbgenr )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- New York -- New York
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Publisher's catalogue precedes and follows text.
General Note:
Title page engraved.
General Note:
Pictorial front cover and spine.
General Note:
Contains prose and verse.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Rossiter Johnson ; with illustrations by B. West Clinedinst and others.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
026827966 ( ALEPH )
ALH2646 ( NOTIS )
02084542 ( OCLC )
99004661 ( LCCN )

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Full Text
















THE HERO OF MANILA









YOUNG HEROES OF OUR NAVY.

Uniform Edition. Each, 12mo, cloth, $1.00.

The Hero of Manila.

Dewey on the Mississippi and the Pacific. By ROSSITER
Jouwnson, author of ‘‘ Phaeton Rogers,” ‘‘ A History of
the War of Secession,” etc. Illustrated by B. West Cline-
dinst and Others.

The Hero of Erie (Commodore Perry).

By JAMES BARNES, author of ‘‘ Midshipman Farragut,”
‘““Commodore Bainbridge,” etc. With so full-page Ilus-
trations.

Commodore Bainbridge. From the Gunroom to
the Quarter-deck.
By JAMES BARNES. Illustrated by George Gibbs and
Others,
Midshipman Farragut.
By JAMES BARNES. Illustrated by Carlton T. Chapman,

Decatur and Somers.

By MoLty ELLIoT SEAWELL, author of ‘‘ Paul Jones,”
‘Little Jarvis,” etc. With 6 full-page Ilustrations by
J. O. Davidson and Others.

Paul Jones.

By Motiy ELLIOT SEAWELL, With 8 full-page Ilus-
trations.

Midshipman Paulding.

A True Story of the War of 1812, By MOLLY ELLIOT
SEAWELL. With 6 full-page Illustrations.

Little Jarvis.

The Story of the Heroic Midshipman of the Frigate Con-
stellation. By MOLLY ELLIOT SEAWELL. With 6 full-
page Illustrations.

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, NEW YORK.







Dewey.

Midshipman



THE HERO OF MANILA

DEWEY ON THE MISSISSIPPI
ND EE PACE Ee

BY

ROSSITER JOHNSON

AUTHOR OF PHAETON ROGERS,
A HISTORY OF THE WAR OF SECESSION, ETC.

WITH ILLUSTRATIONS BY B. WEST CLINEDINST AND OTHERS



NEW YORK
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY

1899



CopyRiGHT, 1899,
By D. APPLETON AND COMPANY.



1P IR Te, JY ANG 18,

Ir this little book does not show for itself why it
was written, how it was written, and for whom it
was written, not only a preface but the entire text
would be useless. The author believes that in every life
that is greatly useful to mankind there is a plan and
a purpose from the beginning, whether the immediate
owner of that life is aware of it or not; and that the
art of the biographer—whether he is dealing with facts
exclusively or is mingling fact and fiction—should
make it discernible by the reader.

The authorities that have been consulted include
the Life of David Glasgow Farragut, by his son; Ad-
miral Ammen’s Atlantic Coast; Greene’s The Missis-
sippi; Battles and Leaders of the Civil War; The Re-
bellion Record; Marshall’s History of the Naval Acad-
emy, and especially Adelbert M. Dewey’s Life and

Letters of Admiral Dewey.
1,

AMAGANSETT, September 8, 1899.



a

2
2 y







CO NMeERNGESe

CHAPTER PAGE
I.—THE PHILOSOPHY OF FIGHTING . 3 : . . . I
IJ.—ON THE RIVER BANK. : : : a . , eet)
III.—BATTLE ROYAL : : , . , ‘ ‘ f eee
IV.—EpDvuCcATION AT NORWICH 3 es : ; : . aod:
V.—LIFE AT ANNAPOLIS ‘ . : ; 5 ; a AL
VI.—THE BEGINNING OF WAR F . , i , ‘ eS o
VII.—THE FIGHT FOR NEW ORLEANS . . . 0 OS
VIII.—THE BATTLE AT PorT HuDson . . 5 : : 2)
IX.—THE CAPTURE OF ForT FISHER . ‘ P . , » 105
X.—IN TIME OF PEACE. i 5 . A : : : eee
XI.—THE BATTLE OF MANILA : j i : ; ‘ 5 1K
XII.—AFTER THE BATTLE . , ; . ; , . . 130
XIII.—THE PROBLEM ON LAND . , : . : : 2 . 139
XIV.—Honors . 5 ; 5 : . . . : 5 IR

XV.—LETTERS . : 3 . . . G . : . - 149
vii







LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

FACING
PAGE
Midshipman Dewey : i : : . , Frontispiece

By B. West Clinedinst

An early battle Y . : , ; 5 6 : - Io
By B. West Clinedinst

A schoolroom episode . 5 . : 3 s , : eS
By B. West Clinedinst

Scene of naval operations in Western rivers. 2 : OS;

Farragut and Dewey. 3 , 3 5 : 5 , OG
By B. West Clinedinst

Whitewashing the decks ‘ : a : A eee /3)
By B. West Clinedinst

Order of attack on Forts Jackson and St. Philip 0 ; Oa:

Farragut’s fleet passing the forts . . : 7 7 0 &

Order of attack on Port Hudson . : i 2 . , » 95

Passage of the batteries of Port Hudson . , . 5 oo

Removing the wounded , F : a eae . . 04
By B. West Clinedinst

Diagram of Manila Bay : , 5 , o 1303)

U.S. Cruiser Olympia, Admiral Dee Flagship . . eee 22

The battle of Manila. : 5 : : , eeE2O)

Admiral Dewey on the bridge of the OnnEn : , 5 o ithe

Medal presented by Congress ; : , . , . eS 9)

Sword presented by Congress . . , , , . . 145

Shield presented to the Olympia . . , A ; : - 148

Dewey Triumphal Arch, New York . . 5 . : . I51
Charles R. Lamb, Architect

ix











The house in which Admiral Dewey was born in Montpelier, Vermont.

THE HERO OF MANILA.

Girt AEA EARee
THE PHILOSOPHY OF FIGHTING.

Ir is not necessary to visit the Bay of Naples in
order to witness a beautiful sunset. Our.own atmos-
phere and our own waters produce those that are
quite as gorgeous, while our own mountains and
woodlands give them as worthy a setting as any in
the world.

Half a century ago a little boy sat at his chamber
window in Vermont looking at a Summer sunset.
He was so absorbed in the scene before him and in
his own thoughts that he did not notice the entrance
of his father until he spoke.



2 THE HERO OF MANILA.



“What are you thinking about, George?” said the
father.

“ About ships,” the boy answered, without turning
his head.

“What kind of ships?”

“T can see nearly every kind,” said George.

“See them—where?”’ said his father, looking over
his shoulder.

“Right there in the sunset clouds,” said the boy.

“Oh!” said his father; and then, after looking a
while, added, “Suppose you point out a few of
them.”

“Do you see that small cloud, at some distance
from the others—the one that is rather long and
narrow, with a narrower one alongside?”

“Yes, I see that.”

“Well, that,’ said the boy, “is a Brazilian cata-
maran, and those little knobs at the top are the heads
of the men that are paddling it.”

“Just so,” said his father. “What else can you
see?”

“The catamaran,” said George, “is pulling out to
that clipper ship which has just come to anchor off
the port. The clipper is the large one, with her sails
furled. Probably the Indians have some fruit on board,
which they hope to sell to the sailors.”

“ Quite natural,” said the father.



THE PHILOSOPHY OF FIGHTING. 3



“ And that smaller one, under full sail, fore-and-aft
rigged, is a schooner in the coasting trade.”

“That one appears to be changing shape rapidly,”
said the father.

“Ves,” said the boy. “She is tacking, and you
see her at a different angle.”

“T might have suspected as much,” said the fa-
ther, “ but I never was a good sailor.”

“That very large one,” continued the boy, “ with
a big spread of canvas and holes in her hull, where
the red sunlight pours through, is an old-fashioned
seventy-four, with all her battle-lanterns lit.”

“A pretty fancy,” said the father, who evidently
was becoming more interested and better able to see
the pictures that were so vivid to his son.

“Do you see that dark one over at the right, with
one near it that is very red and very ragged?” said
the boy.

ele lOng

“Those are the Constitution and the Java. They
had their famous battle yesterday, and the Java was
so badly cut up that to-day Bainbridge has removed
her crew and set her on fire. She will blow up pretty
soon.”

“T should like to see it,’ said the father.

“ And if you look over there to the left,” said the
boy, “you see quite a collection of rather small



4 THE HERO OF MANILA.



ones, most of them very red, some half red and _ half
black. It looks a little confused at first, but when
you know what it is you can see plainly enough that
it is the battle of Lake Erie. In the very center
there is a small boat, and on it something that looks
black and blue and red, with a little white. The black
is cannon smoke. The blue and red and white is the
American flag, which Perry is taking over to the
Niagara, because the Lawrence is so badly damaged
that he has had to leave her. That one with only
one mast standing is the Lawrence.”

“Yes, my son, I think you have accounted beau-
tifully for everything there except one. What is that
dark one, with rounded ends and no mast, just be-
yond the clipper? ”’

“Oh, that,” said the boy, taking a moment for
reflection, “I think that must be a bullhead boat on
the Delaware and Hudson Canal.”

“It is a good representation of one,” said his fa-
ther, smiling. “ But, George, how came you to know
so much about ships and boats and naval history?”

“ By reading all I could find about them, sir.”

“Well, George, I am really pleased,” said Dr.
Dewey; “pleased and encouraged to know that you
have taken to reading instead of fighting. I was afraid
you never would love books; but now that you have
begun, you shall have all the good ones you will read.”

Pra



THE PHILOSOPHY OF FIGHTING. 5



“Thank you, father, I shall be glad of them.”

“But come now, my son, supper is ready, and your
sister is waiting for us.”

“T will come pretty soon,” said George, and his
father descended the stairs.

A little later the boy went slowly down, and quiet-
ly slipped into his place at the table.

In a few minutes Dr. Dewey looked up, then
started as if surprised, and dropped his hands to the
edge of the table. He took a sharp look at George,
and then said:

“What does that mean? How came you by that
black eye?”

“There is only one way to get a black eye that
I know of,” said the boy.

“ Fighting? ”

“Yes, sir.”

The doctor was silent for several minutes, and then
said:

“T don’t know what to say to you or do‘to you,
my son. You know what I have said to you about
your fighting habit, and you know that I mean it, for
I have not only talked to you, but punished you.
When I found you had been reading history I took
new hope, for I thought you must have got past the
fighting age and given your mind to better things.

But here you are again with the marks of a pugilist.”



6 THE HERO OF MANILA.



“JT don’t fight when I can help it, and I’m afraid
I never shall get past the fighting age,” said George.

“Don’t fight when you can help it?” said his fa-
ther. “Can’t you always help it?”

“JT might by running away. Do you want me to
do that?” the boy answered quietly.

“Of course I don’t,’ said the doctor quickly.
“But can’t you keep away?”

“T have to go to school,” said George, “and I
have to be with the boys; and some of them are quar-
relsome, and some are full of conceit, and some need
a good licking now and then.”

“ And you consider it your duty to administer it,”
said the doctor. ‘“ Conceit is a crime that can not be
too severely punished.”

The boy felt the irony of his father’s remark,
and saw that he did not quite understand that
use of the word “conceit,” so he proceeded to ex-
plain:

“When a boy goes about bragging how many
boys he has licked, and how many others he can lick,
and how he will do this, that, and the other thing,
if everybody doesn’t look out, we say he is too con-
ceited and he ought to have the conceit taken out
of him; and the first good chance we get we take
ipo:

“ Suppose you left it in him and paid no atten-



THE PHILOSOPHY OF FIGHTING. 7

what would happen in that case?”’ said the



tion to it
doctor.

~“ He would grow more and more conceited,” said
George, “and make himself so disagreeable that the
boys couldn’t enjoy life, and before a great while you
would find him picking on smaller boys than himself
and licking them, just to have more brag.”

“Do you really have any such boys among your
schoolfellows, or is this only theoretical?’ the doctor
inquired.

“There are a few,” said George.

“And how do you determine whose duty it is to
take the conceit out of one of them? Do you draw
lots, or take turns?”

“The boy that enjoys the job the most seu
oer it,” said George.

“Just so,” said the doctor. ‘And is there some
one boy in the school who enjoys the job, as you call
it, more than all the others?”

George evidently felt that this question came so
near home he ought not to be eee to answer it,
and he was silent. :

His elder sister, Mary (they had lost their mother
five years before), now spoke for the first time.

“Perhaps,” said she, “we ought to ask George to
tell us the circumstances of this last fight: I don’t

believe he is always the one to blame.”
2



8 THE HERO OF MANILA.



“Certainly,” said: the doctor; “that is only fair.
Tell us all about it, George.”

- Thereupon the boy proceeded to tell them all
about it in a very animated manner.

“Bill Ammon,” he began, “is one of the bossing-
est boys in school. He expects to have everything
his way. I don’t blame a boy for wanting things his
own way if he takes fair means to get them so, but
Bill doesn’t always. You and the teacher tell me
that bad habits grow worse and worse, and I sup-
pose it was that way with Bill. At any rate, we
found out a few days ago that he was taking regu-
lar toll out of two smaller boys—Jimmy Nash and
Teddy Hawkins—for not licking them. Each of them
had to bring him something twice a week—apples, or
nuts, or marbles, or candy, or something else that he
wanted—and he threatened not only to lick them if
they did not bring the things, but to lick them twice
as hard if they told any one about it.”

“Why did those boys submit to such treatment?”
said the doctor.

“Well, you see,” said George, “Jimmy Nash’s
father is a Quaker, and doesn’t believe in hurt-
ing anybody, and so if Jimmy gets into any trouble
he whales him like fury as soon as he finds it out.
And Teddy Hawkins’s mother gives him plenty of
spending money, so he is always able to buy a little



THE PHILOSOPHY OF FIGHTING. 9

something to please Bill, and I suppose he would
rather do that than fight.”

“If they were boys of any spirit,” said the doctor
indignantly, “I should think they would join forces
and give Bill the thrashing he deserves. The two
together ought to be able to do it.”

“Yes, they could,” said George; “but, you see,
they are not twins, and can’t always be together—in
fact, they live a long way apart—and as soon as Bill
caught either of them alone he would make him pay
dear for it. He needed to be licked by some one
boy.”

““T see,” said the doctor; ‘‘a Decatur was wanted,.
to put an end to the tribute.”

“Exactly!” said George, and his father’s eyes twin-
kled with pleasure to see that he understood the allu-
sion. He was specially anxious that his boy should
become familiar with American history, but he had no
anticipation that his son would one day make Ameri-
can history.

“When we found it out,” George continued, “ Bill
tried to make us believe that Jimmy and Teddy were
simply paying him to protect them. He said he was
their best friend. ‘What protection do they need?’
said I. ‘They are peaceable little fellows, and there
is nobody that would be coward enough to attack
them.’ Bill saw that he was cornered on the argu-



10 THE HERO OF MANILA.



ment, and at the same time he got mad at the word
coward, thinking I meant it for him. I didn’t, for I
don’t consider him a coward at all.”

“Not if he is a bully?” said the doctor.

“No, sir,” said George. “He certainly is some-
thing of a bully, but he is not cowardly.”

“There you agree with Charles Lamb,” said the
doctor.

“Who is Charles Lamb?” said George.

“He was an Englishman, who died fifteen or
twenty years ago,” said the doctor, “and I hope you'll
read his delightful essays some day—but not till you’ve
mastered American history. Attend to that first.”

“T’ll try to,” said George. “ When Bill flared up
at that word he seemed to lose his head a little.
‘Who are you calling a coward?’ said he, coming up
close to me, with his fist clenched. I said I never
called anybody a coward, because if he wasn’t one it
wouldn’t be true, and if he was everybody would find
it out soon enough, without my telling them. ‘ Well,
you meant it for me,’ said he, ‘and you'll have to
fight it out, so you'd better take off your jacket

”

mighty quick.’ I said I had no objection



“You had no objection!” exclaimed his sister
Mary.

“ Well—that is—under the circumstances,” said
George, “I didn’t see how I could have any. I had





An early battle.



THE PHILOSOPHY OF FIGHTING. . II

no right to have any. Those two boys did need pro-
tection—they needed to be protected against Bill Am-
mon, who was robbing them. And I thought I might
as well do it as anybody. So I said, ‘Come over to
‘the orchard, boys,’ and we all went. Teddy Hawkins
held my jacket, and Sim Nelson held Bill’s. We
squared off and sparred a little while, and I suppose
I must have been careless, for Bill got the first clip
at me, landing on my eye. But pretty soon I fetched
him a good one under the cheek bone, and followed

9



that up with a smasher on

Here Mary turned pale, and showed signs of un-
easiness and repugnance. George, who was warming
up with his subject, did not notice her, but was going
on with his description of the fight, when his father
stopped him.

“ Your sister,” he said, “ has no taste for these par-
ticulars. Never mind them until some time when you
and I are alone. Only tell us how it turned out.”

“The boys said it turned out that I gave Bill
what he deserved, and I hope I did, but I didn’t tell
them what a mighty hard job I found it.”

“Bravo, George!” exclaimed the doctor, and then
quickly added: “ But don’t fight any more.”



CHAPTER all.
ON THE RIVER BANK.

A Group of boys sat on the bank of Onion River,
’ looking at the water and occasionally casting pebbles
into it. Wet hair, bare feet, and other circumstances
indicated that they had not long been out of it. Be-
low them, in one of the comparatively shallow, flat-
bottomed reaches, a company of smaller boys were
paddling about, some taking their first lessons in
swimming, some struggling to duck each other, and
some carefully keeping aloof for fear of being ducked.
Trees, rocks, broken sunlight, and a summer breeze
made the little scene quite Arcadian.

“My uncle is going to California to dig gold,”
said one of the larger boys, who answered to the name
of Tom Kennedy. é

“My father says they have discovered gold mines
in Australia that are richer than those in California,”
said another, Felix Ostrom by name.

“But that is twice as far away,” said the first
speaker, “and you can only get there by a long sea

voyage. You can go overland to California, and be
I2



ON THE RIVER BANK. 13



in our own country all the time. Isn’t that a great
deal better, even if you don’t get quite so much gold?”

“It wouldn’t be better for me,’’ answered George
Dewey. ‘I would rather go by sea, and would rather
go to other countries. I want to see as many of them
as I can. I would especially like to sail in the Pacific
Ocean.”

“Why the Pacific?’’ said Tom.

“ Because,” said George, “that is not only the
largest ocean in the world, but it has the most islands
and touches the countries that we know the least
about.”

“Tt’s an ugly thing to get to it, round Cape Horn,”
said Felix.

“You can go through the Strait of Magellan,”
said George. “ Last week I found a book of voyages
in my Aunt Lavinia’s house, and I’ve been reading
all about Magellan. He was the discoverer of the
Pacific Ocean, and he sailed through that strait to
finde baw

“He must have been a very modest man,’’ said
Tom.

mVihiys ois

“ Because he didn’t name it Magellan Ocean.” --

“He called it the Pacific because he found it so

’

calm,” said George. ‘And he sailed clear across it.

Just think of coming to an unknown sea five or six



14 THE HERO OF MANILA.



thousand miles wide, and sailing right out into it, and
on and on, past islands and reefs, and sometimes long
stretches with nothing in sight but sky and water,
and no way to tell when you'll come to the end of it!
And when you stop at an island you don’t know
what. you'll find, or whether you'll find anything—
even good drinking-water. And he didn’t know
whether the earth was really round, for no one had
ever sailed round it before. I think that beats Co-
lumbus.”

“Was he really the first one to sail round the
world?” said Felix.

’

“Not exactly,” said George. ‘His ship was the
first that ever went round, but he didn’t get round
with her.”

“Why not?”

“‘ Because when they got to the Philippine Islands,
which they discovered, they went ashore on one of
them and had a fight with the natives, and Magel-
lan was killed.”

“TI guess the Philippine Islands are pretty good
ones to keep away from,” said Sammy Atkinson.

“T should be willing to take my chances, if I
could get there,” said George. “ But I suppose I never
shall.”

we scanntaatelliaasaid Satay Miller, a boy who
had recently come from Scotland with.his parents,



ON THE RIVER BANK. 15



“what savage countries you may visit afore you die.
Two years ago I didn’t dream [Td ever come to
America.”

“Do you call ours a savage country?” said Felix,
with a twinkle in his eye.

“T didn’t exactly mean to,” said Sandy, “and yet
I think I might, when I remember how all you boys
wanted to fight me the first week I was here, only
because I was a stranger.”

“ Not quite all,” said George.

“No, I take that back,” said Sandy. “You say
truly not quite all, for you yourself didn’t, and I
mustn’t forget it of you. I suppose it’s human na-
ture to want to fight all strangers, and maybe that’s
the reason the Philippine men killed Master Ma-
gellan. I suppose they'd try to do the same if any-
body went there now. But | wish you'd tell us
more about him and about the Pacific and the
Philippines, for I am aye fond of the sea; I en-
joyed every wave on the Atlantic when we came
over.”

Thereupon George, being urged by the other
boys as well, gave an account, as nearly as he could
remember, of what he had read.

“What has become of those islands?” said Bill
Ammon. |

“They are there yet,” said George.



16 THE HERO OF MANILA.
0 eee ee er ET

“Did you think they were sunk in the sea?” said
Tom Kennedy.

“It might not be very ridiculous if he did,” said
George, “for they have terrific earthquakes, and a
good many of them.”

“ Of course I meant,” Bill explained, “who owns
them?”

“Spain says she does,
had them a long time, for she took possession of them

oBy

said George, “and she has

about fifty years after they were discovered; but she
came pretty near losing them forever about a century
ago.”

“How was that?” Bill inquired.

“A British force attacked them,” said George,
“and stormed Manila, the capital, and the city had
its choice to pay five million dollars or be given up to
the soldiers for plunder. It paid the money.”

“Do you think that was right?” SEE Ostrom
asked.

“I don’t know enough about it to say,” George
answered; “but I suppose war is war, and when it
has to be made at all it ought to be made so as to
accomplish something.”

“What was the name of Magellan’s ae a asked
Tom Kennedy.

“He started with five ships,” said George, “ but
four of them were lost. The largest was only eighty



-ON THE RIVER BANK. 17)

——_———

feet long. The one that went round the world and
got home was the Victoria.”

“Huh!” said Tom, “I might have known it—just
like those Britishers, naming everything after their
queen.”

“Magellan was not a Britisher, he was Portu-
guese,” said George. “And Queen Victoria was not
born till about three hundred. years after his famous
voyage.”

The boys burst into a roar of laughter and hooted
at Tom.

“Tt’s all very well for you to laugh,” eal Tom
when the merriment had subsided a little, “but I’d
like to know how many of you would have known
that I made a blunder if George Dewey hadn’t ex-
plained it to you—probably not one. I can’t see that
anybody but George has a right to laugh at me, and
I noticed that he laughed least of all.”

The boys appeared to feel the sting of Tom’s argu-
ment, but at the same time they felt that any op-
portunity to laugh at him should be improved, be-
cause he was critical and sarcastic above all the rest.
They wanted to resent his remark, but did not know
of any way to do it effectively, and were all getting
into ill humor when Felix Ostrom thought of a way
to turn the subject and restore good feeling.

“Took here, boys,” said he, “as we’ are talking



18 THE HERO OF MANILA.



about the sea, and some of us intend to be sailors
when we are old enough, I’d like to propose that
Sandy Miller sing us a sea song. He knows a rip-
ping good one, and I know he can sing it, for I heard
him once at his house.”

There was an immediate demand for the song,
which was so loud and emphatic and unanimous that
Sandy could not refuse.

“It’s one that my great aunt, Miss Corbett,
wrote,” said he. “I can’t remember it all, but I'll
sing you a bit of it as well as I can. Ye’ll just re-
member that I’m no Jenny Lind nor the choir of the
Presbyterian church.’’ Then he sang:

“T’ve seen the waves as blue as air,
I’ve seen them green as grass;
But I never feared their heaving yet,
From Grangemouth to the Bass.
I’ve seen the sea as black as pitch,
I’ve seen it white as snow;
But I never feared its foaming yet,
Though the waves blew high or low.
When sails hang flapping on the masts,
While through the waves we snore,
When in a calm we're tempest-tossed,
We'll go to sea no more—
No more—
We'll go to sea no more.

“The sun is up, and round Inchkeith
The breezes softly blaw;
The gudeman has the lines on board—
Awa’! my bairns, awa’!



ON THE RIVER BANK. 19



An’ ye'll be back by gloamin’ gray,
An’ bright the fire will low,
An’ in your tales and sangs we'll tell
How weel the boat ye row.
When life’s last sun gaes feebly down,
An’ death comes to our door,
When a’ the world’s a dream to us,
We'll go to sea no more—
No more—
We'll go to sea no more.”

When the applause that greeted the song had sub-
sided, little Steve Leonard asked: “I suppose that
means they'll sail all their lives, doesn’t it?”

“Yes, it means just about that,” said Tom Ken-
nedy.

Paying no attention to the touch of sarcasm in
Tom’s intonation, Steve added:

“Well, they might do that in a fishing boat, but
they couldn’t do it in the navy. My Uncle Wal-
ter is an officer in the navy, and he’s got to
get out of it next year, because he’ll be sixty-two
years old, though there isn’t a gray hair in his
head.”

“The people in the song were fishermen,” said
Sandy.

At this moment there was a cry of alarm among
the small boys in the stream.. One of them had got
beyond his depth and had disappeared beneath the
surface.



20 THE HERO OF MANILA.

The larger boys rushed down the bank with
eager inquiries: “Where?” “Where did he go
down?”

But two of them—George Dewey and Bill Ammon
—did not need to wait for the answer. They knew
the exact depth of every square yard in that part
of the river, and the set of the current at every point,
for they had been in it and through it more than a
hundred times.

“Run down the bank and go in by the pine tree,
Bill,” said George. “I'll go in just below the riffle
and explore the cellar-hole!”

A few seconds later both of these boys had disap-
peared under water.

The “cellar-hole,’ as the boys called it, was a
place where some natural force, probably frost and
the current, had excavated the bed of the river to
a depth of eight or ten feet, with almost perpendicu-
lar walls. It was a favorite place for the larger boys
to dive; and another of their amusements consisted
in floating down into it with the current, which, just
before entering the cellar-hole, ran swiftly through a
narrow channel.

The two boys were under water so long that their
companions began to fear they never would come up.
From the excited state of their minds it seemed even
longer than it really was. ,



ON THE RIVER BANK. 21



Bill was the first to appear, and as soon as he
could get his breath he reported ‘“ No luck!”

A moment later George came up, and it was evi-
dent that he was bringing something. As soon as Bill
saw this he swam toward him, and at the same time
two other boys plunged in from the bank. They
brought ashore the apparently lifeless body of little
Jimmy Nash and laid it on the grass.

“What shall we do?” said several.

“Shake the water out of him,” said one.

“Stand him on his head,” said another.

“Roll him over a barrel,’ said a third.

“Somebody run for a doctor,” said a fourth; and
this suggestion was quickly carried out by two of the
smaller boys, who scampered off in search of a physi-
cian.

“The barrel is the right idea,” said George, “ but
there is no barrel anywhere in sight. Boys, bring us
that big log.”

Half a dozen boys made a rush for the log, rolled
it down the slope, and brought it to the place where
it was wanted. They laid Jimmy across it, face down,
and gently rolled him back and forth, which brought
considerable water out of his lungs.

One of the boys who had run for a physician had
the good fortune to come upon Dr. Dewey, who was
passing in his gig, and shouted:



22 THE HERO OF MANILA.



“Doctor! Doctor! there’s a drownded boy down
here! Come quick!” *,

The doctor sprang to the ground, tied his horse
to the fence in less time than it takes to tell it, and
followed the excited boy across the field and down
the bank.

After working over the little fellow about half an
hour he brought him back to consciousness, and at
the end of another half hour Jimmy was well enough
to be taken to his home. He was very weak, and two
large boys walked beside him, supporting him by the
arms, while all the others followed in a half-mournful,
half-joyful procession.

“T wonder if Jimmy’s father will lick him for be-

ing drowned,” said Tom Kennedy.



CHAPTER III.
BATTLE ROYAL.

WINTER came to Montpelier, and with it frost,
snow, and a new school year.

The first snowfall was in the night, and by noon
of the next day it was soft enough to pack, presenting
an opportunity for fun such as American boys never
forego. Big or little, studious or indolent, every one
of those whose acquaintance we have made in the pre-
ceding pages, together with many of their schoolmates
whom we have not named, took up handfuls of the
cold, white substance, fashioned them into balls, and
tried his skill at throwing. It is the Yankee form of
carnival, and woe to him who fails to take the pelt-
ing good-naturedly.

That day the fun was thickest at the orchard near
the schoolhouse. Half a dozen boys, partly sheltered
by the low stone wall, were considered to be in a fort
which a dozen others were attacking. At first it was
every man for himself, “load and fire at will,” but
as the contest grew hotter (if that term will do for a

snow battle) it was necessary to organize the work
3 23



24 THE HERO OF MANILA.

a little. So the smaller boys were directed to give
their attention entirely to the making of balls, which
the larger ones threw with more accuracy and force.
One boy, having a notion to vary the game with an
experiment, rolled. up a ball twice as large as his
head, managed to creep up to the wall with it, and
then threw it up into the air so that it came down
inside the fort. When it came down it landed on
the head and shoulders of Teddy Hawkins, broke
into a beautiful shower, and for a moment almost
buried him out of sight. This feat of military skill
received its appropriate applause, but the author of
it had to pay the cost. Before he could get back
to his own lines he was a target for every marksman
in the fort, and at least half a dozen balls hit him, at all
of which he laughed—with the exception of the one
that broke on his neck and dropped its fragments
inside his collar.

When there was a lull in the contest a boy looked
over the wall and hailed the besiegers with:

“ Boys, see who’s coming up the road!”

A tall man who carried a book under his arm and
apparently was in deep thought was approaching.
This was Pangborn, the schoolmaster, fresh from col-
lege, still a hard student, and assumed by the boys
to be their natural enemy from the simple fact that
- he had come there to be their teacher.



BATTLE ROYAL. 25

When he appeared at this interesting moment there
was no need of any formal proclamation of truce be-
tween the contending forces. The instinct of the
country schoolboy suggested the same thought prob-
ably to every one, whether besieger or besieged. The
word passed along, “ Make a lot of them, quick! and
make them hard.”

The little fellows whose hands were red and sting-
ing with cold worked with double energy, and the
larger ones ceased throwing at one another, stepped
back to places where they were not so likely to be
seen from the road, and by common consent formed
an ambush for the unsuspecting teacher.

When he came within range a ball thrown by
George Dewey, which knocked off his cap, was the
signal for a general attack, and the next minute he
thought himself in the center of a hailstorm, the hail-
stones being as large as country newspapers ever rep-
resent them. After the first sensation of bewilderment;
he realized the situation, and being a man of quick
wit, with some experience of boys, he saw what was
the one proper thing to do.

Coolly laying down his book on his cap where it
rested on the snow, and paying little attention to the
balls that were still whizzing round him, he proceeded
to make five or six, as round and solid as could be
desired. Then, looking for the leader of the attack,



26 THE HERO OF MANILA.

and recognizing him in Dewey, he charged upon that
youngster and delivered every ball with unerring aim.
It was so good an exhibition of marksmanship that
all the other combatants stood still and looked on,
their appreciation of all good throwing balancing their
repugnance to all teachers.

When he had delivered his last ball, which Master
Dewey received ‘courageously and good-naturedly in
the breast, Mr. Pangborn picked up his book and
his hat and resumed his walk, the small boys now
coming to the front and sending their feeble shots
after him.

“Tm afraid he’s game,” said Tom Kennedy.

“Tm not afraid of it, I’m glad of it,” said Sim
Nelson. “I want him to be game. Of course we
must try to lick him, before the term’s over, but I
hope we won’t succeed. I want the school to go
on, and want to learn something. This may be my
last winter, for I’ve got to go to a trade pretty
soon. I was just getting a good start last winter. I
was nearly through fractions when we licked old Hig-
gins and he gave up the school.”

“Then why do we lick the teacher at all?” said
Sammy Atkinson.

“T suppose it wouldn’t answer not to,” said Sim.
“What would the boys over in the Myers district say
if we didn’t give him a tug?”



BATTLE ROYAL, — 27
a a ee ee
“ The boys in the Myers district tried it with their
teacher last week, and got licked unmercifully,” said
Bill Ammon.

“At any rate,” said Sim, “it appears to be an old
and settled fashion. Father had a visit last night from
a schoolmate, and they were talking over old times,
and I heard them give a lively description of a fight
with a teacher. After they had driven out three
men in three winters, the trustees engaged a woman
teacher. She was tall and strong, and not afraid of
anything. Of course they couldn’t fight her, because
she was a woman; but all the same she laced those
boys with a rawhide whenever they broke the rules.
But father said she hadn’t much education; she never
took them beyond simple fractions, because she didn’t
understand arithmetic beyond that point herself.
When they got there she would say, ‘I think now
we ought to take some review lessons; I believe in
thoroughness.’ And in the reading class she taught
them to say So’-crates and Her’-cules, instead of Soc’-
ra-tes and Her’-cu-les. Father said the boys learned
lots of obedience that winter, but nothing else.”

“Well, of course,” said Teddy Hawkins—and his
words were slow, because he was trying at the same
time to bite off the end of a big stick of Spanish
licorice—“ if it was the custom of our forefathers—
we must keep it up. But we want a good boy—to



28 THE HERO OF MANILA.

Dh pele ee
lead the fight and manage it. If we do it—in a
helter-skelter way—we’ll—get—licked.”

“Certainly!” said Sim. “And that may be the
result of it any way. Dewey’s the fellow to lead the
crowd and take charge of it. What do you say—will
you do it, George?”

“Tf he does anything that we ought to lick him
for, I will,” said George. “ But if you're going to be
the ones to pick the quarrel, you may count me out.”

The next day the teacher brought a mysterious
parcel and laid it in his desk without undoing it.
He had had charge of the school only a week, and
by overlooking many occurrences that might have
been taken as a deliberate challenge, he had hoped to
make the boys see for themselves that he bore them
no ill-will. His forbearance had been taken for timid-
ity, and many of his pupils saw in the tall young
graduate only another victim who was destined very
soon to follow the vanquished teacher of the preceding
winter.

Contrary to their expectations, Mr. Pangborn
opened the school as usual, and made no allusion to
the snowballing affair.

The first class was ordered to take position be-
fore his desk. As they filed past, one of the boys,
extending his foot, tripped another. The boy that
was tripped made a great fuss about it, fell unneces-



BATTLE ROYAL. 29

oe ee

sarily over a bench, and professed to be hurt both
in mind and in body.

Mr. Pangborn called the aggressor before him and
said:

“I was willing to pass over what occurred yes- —
terday at the orchard, and I had no intention of in-
forming your parents about it. I recognize the fact
that you are boys, and I know that boys like fun
and must have it. If you sometimes misplace your
fun and overdo it, and act like highwaymen instead
of good, healthy, civilized boys, if it is outside the
schoolhouse and school hours I have no more to say
about it than any other citizen. But when you're
here you’ve got to behave yourselves. I will say no
more about what has just occurred, but at the least
sign of any further riot or misbehavior I'll put a stop
to it in a way that you'll remember, and this will
help me.”

With that he opened the parcel and displayed a
large new rawhide.

For a few seconds there was a dead silence in
the room. Then a boy in one of the back seats—it
was George Dewey—stood up and said:

“Mr. Pangborn, I want to tell you what I think
about that, and I guess most of the boys think as
I do. If they don’t, I hope you'll let them say what
they do think. You've been giving us sums in pro-



30 THE HERO OF MANILA.



portion, and my father tells me I must try to apply
everything I learn. If I do anything wrong I’m will-
ing to be licked according; but I don’t want to take
a big thrashing for a little thing. I don’t believe
any boy in this school will do anything bad enough
to deserve that rawhide; you can’t give any but the
biggest thrashings with it. And so if you attempt
to use it at all we’ll all turn in and lick you.”
“Vou’ve made quite a good show of argument,
George,” said the teacher, “and I like to have a boy
exercise his reasoning powers—that’s one thing I’m
here to teach you. But there is a serious fault or
two in your statement of the case. In the first place,
no boy is obliged to do any wrong, little or great;
he is at perfect liberty to obey all the rules and be-
have like a gentleman, and if he does so he'll not
be touched by this rawhide or anything else. If he
chooses to break the rules he knows beforehand what
it will cost him, and he has no right to complain.
In the second place, the trustees have not put you
here to govern the school or judge how it ought to
be governed. They have employed me for that; and
I intend to do what I have agreed to do and am paid
for doing. I have come here to teach the school, but
I can’t teach without order and obedience on the part
of the pupils; and order and obedience I will have—
pleasantly if I can, forcibly if I must. If you had





RCSA aee an

A schoolroom episode.



BATTLE ROYAL. 31
So SR re Fe Se eee

stopped, George, at the end of your argument, I
should stop here with my answer, and should praise
you for, having reasoned out the case as well as you
could, though you did not arrive at the right conclu-
sion. Nothing will please me better than for the boys
to cultivate a habit of doing their own thinking and
learn to think correctly. You will always find me
ready to listen to reason. But you did not stop at
the end of your argument; you added a threat to
attack me with the whole school to help you and
overcome me. Whatever you may say of big and
little faults, you have now committed one of the
greatest. If I passed over such a breach of discipline,
my usefulness here would be at an end. Unless I am
master there can be no school. If you see the jus-
tice of this and are manly enough to acknowledge it,
you may simply stand up and apologize for your threat,
and then we'll go on with the lessons as if nothing
had happened. If not, of course you must take the
consequences.”

“TI don’t know how to apologize,” said George,
“and I’m not going to.”

“Then step out here,” said the teacher, as he
took up the rawhide.

The boy went forward at once, with his fists
clenched and his eyes blazing.

Mr. Pangborn saw there was good stuff in him,



32 THE HERO OF MANILA.



if only it were properly cultivated, and could not re-
press a feeling of admiration for his courage.

?

“ Now let’s see you strike me,” said George.

The next instant the rawhide came down across
his shoulders, and with a cry of rage the boy threw
himself upon his teacher, fighting like a terrier.

Then five or six of the larger boys came to
George’s aid; most of the smaller ones followed them;
those who were not anxious to fight did their part
by yelling, overthrowing desks, and spilling ink; and
the whole place was in a hideous uproar. They
charged upon the teacher from all sides, but he held
fast to Dewey’s collar with one hand while he plied
the rawhide with the other. The largest boy, who
had received a stinging cut across the face, got a
stick from the wood-box and let it fly at the master’s
head, which it narrowly missed. Feeling that his life
might be in danger, Mr. Pangborn picked up the stick
and waded into the crowd, using it as a policeman
uses his club. The boy who had thrown it was toppled
over with a blow on the head, and in three minutes
all the others were driven out of the schoolhouse,
some of them feeling a little lame about the shoulders
and sides—all except Dewey, on whom the teacher
had not relaxed his grip. He now resumed the raw-
hide and gave the boy as much more as he thought
he deserved.



BATTLE ROYAL. 33



A little later they left the house together and
walked up the street to Dr. Dewey’s office, where the
boy was turned over to his father, with a brief state-
ment of the circumstances. Dr. Dewey thanked the
teacher for what he had done, and the lesson to
George was complete.

The next morning George was in his seat at the
tap of the bell, and throughout the day he was as
orderly and studious as could be desired. When
the session was over and the teacher was leaving the
house, he found the boy waiting for him at the door.
George extended his hand and said:

“Father and I talked that matter all over, and
we both came to the conclusion that you did exactly
right. I thank you for it.”

From that time Zebina K. Pangborn and George
Dewey were fast friends.



CHAPAERETWVE
EDUCATION AT NORWICH.

A YEAR later George Dewey left the school and
went to the Morrisville Academy, and there also Mr.
Pangborn’s teachings stood him in good stead. His
aptitude in sports always made Dewey a favorite with
his companions. He was one of the fastest runners
and the best skaters, and he had the knack of do-
ing everything he did quickly and neatly, in the way
that shows the properly balanced relations between
mind and eye and body. He acted as he thought—
quickly and surely—and he was certain to resent any
insult or infringement of what he considered his rights.

Dr. Dewey had been thinking over his son’s fu-
ture, and had decided upon sending George to West
Point, although even at this time the boy’s inclinations
turned more strongly to the other branch of the serv-
ice. Yet he did not strenuously object, and so after
a year at Morrisville he was sent to Norwich Uni-
versity at Northfield, Vermont.

Norwich University stands on a plateau above the

town of Northfield. It is a fine old place, with a wide
34



EDUCATION AT NORWICH. 35



parade-ground extending before the buildings, and
back of it are the brick barracks that contain the
cadets’ quarters and the armory and recitation rooms.
Everything was managed in military fashion, and there
was no better school in which to fit a boy for the
life and habits of a soldier. It was in the year 1851
that George Dewey became a pupil there, and from
the day of his coming he manifested the powers of
leadership that afterward distinguished him.

Four or five young fellows in uniform were seated
in one of the rooms in the South Barrack. They
belonged to the second-year men, and the second
year at any institution of learning is perhaps the cru-
cial one. If a boy gets into any mischief that is
serious, it is generally in his second year. The doings
of the sophomore have cost many a dollar out of the
college treasury, to pay for stolen gates and burned
fences, smashed lamp-posts and injured constables.
And it was so with the second year’s men at Norwich.

“Where’s Doc. Dewey?” asked one of the boys.
“We must get him into the scheme, or the whole
thing will fall through.”

“Tf any of you fellows want to see Doc. Dewey,
all you’ve got to do is to come to the window,” said
a boy who was gazing out on the parade ground.

At the farther end a solitary figure was patrolling
up and down, turning at the end of his beat about a



36 © THE HERO OF MANILA.



large elm that stood in the corner of the campus.
The punishments at Norwich were of a military char-
acter, and extra sentry duty was the reward for any
breach of discipline.

“T ought to be the one doing all that march-
ing,” said one of the boys, “for George only tried to
get me out of the scrape, but he wouldn’t let me tell.”

“Well, he’ll be off in half an hour,” said another,
“and we'll meet in his rooms. What do you say?”

“So say we all of us,” was the return. ‘“ We can
hatch up the scheme there better than anywhere else.”

In a few minutes the party broke up, to meet later
in a room down the hallway.

Across the Connecticut River, which skirts the town
of Northfield, is the town of Hanover, the seat of
old Dartmouth College. From time immemorial the
greatest rivalry had existed between the two institu-
tions, and in the years that preceded the civil war
this feeling had almost grown into a feud, and for a
member of either institution to cross the river was
to enter the enemy’s country, with all the attendant
risk. Only three or four evenings previously Dewey
and one of the other cadets had boldly crossed the
bridge and appeared in the Hanover streets in broad
daylight. It had not taken long for the news to reach
the ears of a few of the Dartmouth sophomores, who
were spoiling for a row, and soon Dewey and his



EDUCATION AT NORWICH. 37



companions had found out that they were followed.
But it was not until they had reached the entrance
to the bridge that there was any sign of trouble.
There, sure enough, they saw four of the Dartmouth
belligerents waiting for them. An old farmer, crossing
the bridge from Hanover to Northfield, was driving
a pair of rather skittish horses that were prancing as
they heard the rattling of the boards beneath their
feet. It was almost time for the evening assembly,
and if the boys were to be prompt they must not be
stopped, although such, it was plain, was the intention
of the Dartmouth boys who were awaiting them.
They asked the farmer if he would give them a ride,
and he declined; but they had jumped into the wagon,
and, when near the spot where their four enemies had
lined across the causeway, one of the cadets leaned
forward and, picking up the whip, struck the two
horses across their backs. This was all they needed;
the Dartmouth boys had barely time to jump aside
when the team went tearing by. But it was easier
to get the young horses going than to stop them.
The rattling of the bridge frightened them more and
more, and the people on the streets of Northfield were
surprised to see a runaway come roaring into town
with an old man and two hatless cadets hauling at
the reins without result. It was fortunate that no
harm was done, and the horses were stopped halfway



38 THE HERO OF MANILA.

up the hill that leads to the University; but the
president had seen and recognized the two uniformed
figures, and that was one reason why Doc. Dewey
was walking about the old elm on this fine spring
day.

The evening before, one of the cadets had re-
turned from a nocturnal excursion across the river
with his coat torn and a story of being badly treated.
Revenge was being planned, and the plotters had
chosen Dewey as their leader for the coming expedi-
tion that was meant to teach the Dartmouth fellows
a lesson. This expedition resulted in a lively en-
counter, in which, though outnumbered, the Norwich
boys are said to have been victorious. In the tradi-
tions of the school it is known as the Battle of the
Torn Coats.

In Dewey’s last year at Norwich the faculty pro-
cured two fine six-pounder howitzers, with limbers,
to replace the old iron guns at which the cadets had
been exercised. When they arrived, the cadets took
down the old guns and brought up the new ones from
the railway station. As boys naturally would, they
divided into two parties and made a frolic of the
occasion. It was tedious work getting the guns out
of the car, but as soon as they were out and limbered
up the fun began. One of the cadets has told the
story very prettily in his diary.



EDUCATION AT NORWICH. 39



“Ainsworth and Munson chose squads to draw
them to the parade. I chanced to be in Ainsworth’s
squad. Ainsworth’s squad wanted to lead, but as
Munson’s squad had the road ahead and we were at
the side and in sandy gutters, it was doubtful how
we were to do it. They started off with a fine spurt,
getting a big lead. Going up the hill where the road
was broader we steadily gained until only the length of
the trail in the rear; then we gathered and started on
a run, passing and keeping the lead, with cheers and
great glee. Climbing the hill, we proceeded more
slowly, Munson quietly in the rear, on our way round
the North Barracks and then through the usual gate-
way to position. As we entered the village near the
southeast corner of the parade, we noticed Munson’s
squad, apparently under the lead of Dewey, making
for a short cut across the grounds, first breaking down
the fence for passage. Now our efforts were re-
doubled, and the boys of the other squad declare that
they never saw fellows run as we ran, or expect to
see a gun jump as that six-pounder bounded along
the main street and around the corner. But we
led; round the North Barracks at double quick went
gun and gun squad, entered the barrack yard and
placed the gun in position before the west front
of the South Barracks, giving three cheers for No. 1

to the chagrin of No. 2, just approaching position.
4

See



40 THE HERO OF MANILA.”

It was a great race and pleased the faculty exceed-
ingly.”

This was only one of many episodes that prevented
life at Norwich from being dull for the boys, and
sweetened their memories in after time, though not
assisting directly in any useful branch of education.



Cry NEE Rave
LIFE AT ANNAPOLIS.

WueEn Dr. Dewey had consented to his son’s wishes
for a naval education, the next step was to secure
his appointment to a cadetship at the Academy at
Annapolis. Each member of Congress has the privi-
lege of appointing a candidate when there is no cadet
from his district in the Academy; and the President
has ten appointments at large, besides one for the
District of Columbia. The giving of these appoint-
ments after a competitive examination was not so
common forty years ago as it is now. They were
almost invariably bestowed arbitrarily, according to
the Congressman’s personal relations with those who
sought them or his idea of his own political interests.
But it was of little use to appoint a boy who could
not pass the mental and physical entrance examina-
_tions.. George Dewey obtained an appointment, but
“only as alternate. The first place was given to a
schoolmate two years older than he, George B. Spal-
ding. For some reason Spalding, though a bright boy,

failed to pass, while the alternate answered the re-
41



42 THE HERO OF MANILA.



quirements and was admitted to the Academy. Mr.
Spalding was graduated two years later at the Uni-
versity of Vermont, studied theology at Andover, and
has had a creditable career as a clergyman and legis-
lator. It is said that only about forty per cent of the
appointees are able to pass the entrance examinations,
and of those who are admitted, only about half finish
the course.

Dewey entered the Academy September 23, 1854,
being then in his seventeenth year. He was born
December 26, 1837. The number of cadets was then
one hundred and sixty, the curriculum had been re-
cently remodeled for a four-years’ course, and the
first class under the new regulation was graduated that
year. Captain Louis M. Goldsborough (afterward
rear admiral) was the superintendent.

The classes are designated by numbers, the lowest
(corresponding to freshmen in a college) being called
the fourth. The cadets (or midshipmen, as they were
then called; that term is no longer in use) were under
the immediate charge of an officer called the Com-
mandant of Midshipmen. He ranked next to the
superintendent, and was the executive officer of the
institution and the instructor in seamanship, gunnery,
and naval tactics. He had three assistants. There
were eight professorships—Mathematics; Astronomy,
Navigation and Surveying; Natural and Experimental



LIFE AT ANNAPOLIS. 43

Philosophy; Field Artillery and Infantry Tactics; Ethics
and English Studies; French; Spanish; and Drawing.

The examinations of all the classes were held in
February and June. A very strict record was kept
of the conduct of every student; and after the June
examination those in the second class who had not
received more than a hundred and fifty demerit marks
during the year were furloughed till October, while
the others were at once embarked for the annual prac-
tice cruise. This appears like a great number of de-
merit marks for even the worst student to receive,
but some offenses were punished with more than one
mark. Thus, for neglect of orders or overstaying leave
of absence the penalty was ten marks; for having a
light in one’s room after taps, eight; for absence from
parade or roll call, six; for slovenly dress, four, etc.
Any cadet who received more than two hundred de-
merits in a year was dropped from the rolls; and it
was optional with the superintendent to dismiss a
cadet from the service for being intoxicated or having
liquor in his possession; for going beyond the limits
of the institution without permission; for giving, car-
rying, or accepting a challenge; for playing at cards
or any game of chance in the Academy; for offering
violence or insult to a person on public duty; for
publishing anything relating to the Academy; or for
any conduct unbecoming a gentleman.



44 THE HERO OF MANILA.



The daily routine of the Academy is of interest as
showing to what discipline the cadets were subjected,
and what habits of promptness, regularity, and ac-
curacy were cultivated. Marshall’s History of the
Academy shows us what it was at that time, and it
is still practically the same.

The morning gun-fire and reveille with the beating

sol the drum was at 6.15 A. M., or at 6.30, according to
the season. Then came the police of quarters and in-
spection of rooms. The roll call was at 6.45 or at
7-15, according to the season. From December tst
to March 1st the later hour was the one observed.
Chapel service followed, and afterward breakfast at a
or at 7.30. The sick call was thirty minutes after
breakfast. Then the cadets had recreation till 8
o’clock, when the study and recitation hours began.

Section formations took place in the front hall of
the third floor, under the supervision of the officer of
the day, who, as well as the section leaders, was
responsible for preservation of silence and order. When
the signal was given by the bugle, the sections were
marched to their recitation rooms. They marched in
close order, in silence, and with strict observance of
military decorum. Whenever a section left its recita-
tion room it was marched by its leader to the third
floor, and there dismissed.

Study alternated or intervened with recitations



LIFE AT ANNAPOLIS. 45
a ee ee

until one o’clock, when the signal for dinner was given.
The cadets were again formed in order by the captains
of crews, and marched into the mess hall. The or-
ganization was into ten guns’ crews, for instruction in
seamanship and gunnery, and for discipline, The cap-
tains of crews, when at the mess table, repressed
promptly all disorderly conduct, unbecoming language,
and unnecessary noise. They enforced perfect silence
among their guns’ crews until the order “ Seats!” had
been given. Then conversation was permitted. Si-
lence was enforced again after the order “ Rise!” until
the crews reached the main hall. At all times, in mus-
tering their crews, the captains were required to call
the names in the lowest tone that would secure at-
tention. They were required to report any irregular-
ity in uniform or untidiness which they perceived at
any formation, as well as any infraction of regulations,
disregard of orders, or other impropriety.

The Professor of Field Artillery and Infantry Tac-
tics was inspector of the mess hall, and presided at
the mess table. He had charge of the police and order
of the mess hall, in which duty he was assisted by
the officer of the day and the captains of crews. Each
student had a seat assigned to him at table, which
he could not change without the sanction of the in-
spector of the mess hall; and no student must appear
at meals negligently dressed.



46 THE HERO OF MANILA,

Thirty minutes were allowed for breakfast, and the
same time for supper. Forty minutes were allowed for
dinner.

After dinner the young gentlemen had recreation
again until two o’clock, when the afternoon study and
recitation hours began. These continued until four
o'clock, followed by instruction in the art of defense,
infantry or artillery drill, and recreation until parade
and roll call at sunset. Supper followed immediately;
then recreation and call to evening studies at 6.25 or
6.55, according to the season. Study hours continued
until tattoo at half past nine, which was a signal for
extinguishing lights and inspection of rooms. After
“taps” at ten o’clock no lights were allowed in any
part of the students’ quarters, except by authority of
the superintendent.

On the school-ship attached to the Academy there
was another set of rules and regulations, concerning
duty, conduct, and etiquette, so minute and exacting
that one would think it was a liberal education merely
to learn them all, to say nothing of obeying them daily
and hourly. Here are the greater part of them:

At reveille the midshipmen will immediately turn
out, arrange their bedding, and taking the lashing
from the head clews of their hammocks, where it was
neatly coiled the night before, will lash up their ham-
mocks, taking seven taut turns at equal distances, and



LIFE AT ANNAPOLIS. 47



tucking in their clews neatly. They will then place
their hammocks under their right arms, and first cap-
tains will give the order, “Stand by your hammocks,
No. — forward, march!” at which order they will pro-
ceed in line, by their allotted ladders, to their allotted
places in their respective nettings; when there, they
will in order deliver their hammocks to those ap-
pointed to receive them. Each first captain delivering
his hammock and falling back, will face the line of
his gun’s crew, and see that proper order is main-
tained; each midshipman, after delivering his ham-
mock, will fall back, facing outboard, forming line from
first captain aft. When all are stowed, the first cap-
tains, each at the head of his crew, will face them in
the direction of their ladder, and march them to the
wash room—odd-numbered crews on starboard, even
numbers on port side of the wash room. Towels will
be marked and kept in their places, over each respec-
tive basin. No one will leave the wash room until
marched out; three guns’ crews will wash at the same
time, and each week the numbers will be changed.
When ready, the first captains will march their crews
to their places on the berth deck, where they will dis-
miss them.

Guns’ crews Nos. 1 and 2 stow hammocks in for-
ward netting—No. 2 on port, and No. 1 on starboard
side; Nos. 3, 5, and 7 in starboard, and Nos. 4, 6,



48 THE HERO OF MANILA.



and 8 in port quarter-deck nettings, lowest numbers
of each crew stowing forward.

Nos. 1 and 2 guns’ crews leave berth deck by fore-
hatch ladders, Nos. 3, and 4 by main-hatch ladders,
Nos. 5 and 6 by after-hatch ladders, and Nos. 7 and
8 by steerage ladders, each on their respective sides,
and each march to their allotted places on spar deck.

Twelve minutes from the close of reveille (which
will be shown by three taps on the drum) are allowed
for lashing hammocks and to leave the berth deck.

The guns’ crews will form in two ranks, at their
respective places on gun deck: Nos. Sanat ae
on port side, and Nos. 2, 4, 6, and 8 on starboard
side; first and second captains on the right of their
crews, officer in charge, and adjutant forward of main-
mast. Officer of the day and superintendents forward
of main hatch, fronting officer in charge; when formed
they will be faced to the front, and dressed by first
captains by the orders, “Front; right dress.” The
adjutant then gives the order, “ Muster your crews!”
when each first captain, taking one step to the front,
faces the line of his crew, second captain stepping for-
ward into his interval; first captain then calls the roll
from memory, noting absentees; when finished, faces
toward his place, second captain takes backward step
to his former position, and first captain faces about to
his place in the front rank; the adjutant then gives the



LIFE AT ANNAPOLIS. 49

order, “ First captains front and center!” First cap-
tains take one full step to the front, and face the
adjutant’s position, second captains filling intervals as
before; the adjutant then gives the order, ‘“ March!”
at which captains march in direction of the adjutant,
forming in line abreast of him. The adjutant then
gives the order, “ Front! report!” The captains report
all present, thus: “ All present, No. 1!” or, if any are

““



absent, thus: absent, No. 1!” First captain of
No. 1 will begin in a short, sharp, and intelligible
tone, making the salute when he has finished, which
will be the signal for first captain of No. 2 to report,
and so on to the last. The adjutant then gives the
order, ‘“ Posts! march!” the first captains facing, at
the order “posts!” in the direction of their crews,
advance at the word “ march!” to their places in the
ranks. The adjutant then reports to the officer in
charge, and receives his instructions; if there be any
orders he publishes them; he then gives the order,
“Two files from the right, two paces to the front,

{»

march!’’ when the two files from the right of each
rank step two paces to the front, and the adjutant
gives the order, “ Battalion right dress!” The bat-
talion dresses on the two files, and the adjutant gives
the order, “ Battalion to the rear, open order, march! ”
when the rear rank will take two steps to the rear,

halt, and be dressed by the second captain.



50 THE HERO OF MANILA.

The officer in charge, with the adjutant, will pro-
ceed to inspect the battalion. The adjutant will then
give the order, ‘“ Rear rank, close order, march!” when
the rear rank will take two steps forward. The adju-
tant then gives the order, “ Officer of the day and
superintendents, relieve!” at which the officer of the
day and superintendents of the day previous will face
about, and pass the orders to their reliefs, the officer
of the day delivering his side arms; they will then take
position in their respective crews.

When the officer of the day and superintendents
of the day previous have taken their places in their
crews, the adjutant gives the order, ‘‘ March to break-
fast!” the first captains will direct their crews by their
respective ladders to their respective mess tables.
On arriving at the mess tables, each first captain will
take position in rear of his camp stool, at the after
end of the table, second captain taking the forward
end, and the crew taking position corresponding to
their places in the ranks; all will remain standing in
rear of their respective camp stools until the officer
in charge gives the order, “Seats!” at which word
the midshipmen will place their caps under their camp
stools, and quietly take their seats. As the midship-
men at each table shall have finished the meal, the
first captain will rise and look at the adjutant, who
will acknowledge the report by raising his right hand;



LIFE AT ANNAPOLIS. 51



the first captain will then resume his seat; when all
shall have reported, the adjutant will make it known
to the officer in charge, who, rising from his seat, will
tap on the table and give the order, “ Rise!’ at which
order each midshipman will rise, put on his cap, step
to the rear of his camp stool, putting it in place, and
facing aft; at the order “ March!” from the adjutant,
first captains will advance, followed by their crews in
their proper order, and proceed to their parade stations
on the gun deck, where they will form and dress their
command, and bring them to parade rest in order for
prayers. All will take off their caps at the opening
of prayers, and put them on at the order “ Attention!”
at the close of prayers, from the adjutant, who gives
the order “ Battalion, attention! right face, break
ranks, march!”

The hours for recitation and study were the same
on board the training ship as in quarters—from about
eight o’clock in the morning to one o’clock, and from
about two o’clock in the afternoon to four o’clock. The
guns’ crews were then assembled for exercise at the
great guns for an hour or more, or perhaps in in-
fantry drill, or in practical seamanship, including ex-
ercises with boats, the lead, log, etc. Evening parade
intervened, and after supper the fourth class were
called to their studies again. At tattoo, half past nine
in the evening, the midshipmen were required to ar- |



52 THE HERO OF MANILA,



range their books and papers neatly, place their chairs
under their desks, and at gun-fire form by crews,
when the officer in charge inspected the study tables.
At “taps” all must turn in, and all noise must cease
at four bells.

The rules of etiquette were very minute. Here
are some of them:

The midshipmen will not use the steerage ladders,
the after ladder from the gun deck, the starboard poop
ladder, the starboard side of the poop, quarter-deck,
or gangway abaft No. 2 recitation room; they are par-
ticularly enjoined to keep the starboard gangway clear.
The etiquette of the quarter-deck will be strictly ob-
served. Officers on coming up the quarter-deck lad-
ders will make the salute. No running, skylarking,
boisterous conduct, or loud talking will be permitted
on the quarter-deck or poop. The midshipmen will
never appear on the gun deck or quarter-deck without
their caps, jackets, and cravats. They will, in ascend-
ing and descending the ladders, avoid the heavy step
upon them which is made by shore people; when ab-
sent in boats they will yield implicit and prompt obedi-
ence to their captains, or those placed in charge. It
is particularly forbidden to get out of or into the ship
through the ports, or to sit on the rail of the ship. No
one is permitted to go out on the head-booms during
study hours, or to go aloft, without authorized per-



LIFE AT ANNAPOLIS. 53



mission. No one is permitted to go or come from
the berth deck during study hours by any other than
the main-hatch ladders. The midshipmen are forbid-
den to sit upon the study tables.

A young man who could go through with four
years of such discipline as this, and at the same time
keep up such proficiency in his studies as to pass
the examinations, might well be supposed to-be thor-
oughly fitted for the duties of life. George Dewey
went through with it, and on graduation, in 1858,
stood fifth in a class of fourteen. His classmate,
Captain Henry L. Howison, says of him: “In his
studies Dewey was exceedingly bright. At gradua-
tion he was No. 5 in our class and I was No. 4,
but after the rearrangement at the end of our final
cruise he was No. 4 and I was No. 5. He was a
born fighter. He was just as much of a fighter in a
small way when he was a boy as he has been in a
large way as a man. His days at the Naval Academy
proved this. He is quick at the trigger and has a
strong temper, but he has excellent control over it.
When a cadet he would always fight, and fight hard
if necessary, but he was never known to be in a brawl.
I do not want to convey the idea that he ever wanted
to get into a row, because he didn’t. He would go
a long way to get out of fighting if the affair was
none of his business. He was sure to be on the right



54 THE HERO OF MANILA.



side of every fight, but the fight had to come to him.
He did not seek it. If he saw a quarrel on the street
and he thought it the part of a gentleman to help
one or the other of the contestants, he would not
hesitate a moment about pitching in. He would go
miles to help a friend who was in trouble. He was
fond of animals, and especially fond of horses. Ever
since I have known him he has gone horseback ‘rid-
ing whenever he had a chance, and has owned several
fine animals. At the Academy he would ride when-
ever he could get anything to ride. He had a fine
horse when we lived in Washington. I recall that
Dewey as a lad was very fond of music, and, indeed,
quite a musician himself. He had a really good bari-
tone voice, nearly a tenor, and he used it well and
frequently, too. He also played the guitar well. He
was no soloist, but could play accompaniments all
right.”

When Dewey was in the Academy there was a spe-
cial source of misunderstanding, ill feeling, and quar-
rels in the heated condition of politics and sectional
jealousy; and then, as ever, it was customary for the
boys to settle their differences with their natural
means of offense and defense. Dewey did not escape
the peculiar peril of those days. There is a story to
the effect that the leader of the Southern party among
the cadets made an occasion to give George an un-



LIFE AT ANNAPOLIS. 55

mistakable statement of his opinion of Yankees in
general and George in particular, whereupon he pres-
ently found himself provided with a black eye. Then
came a challenge to mortal combat, which George
promptly accepted. Seconds were chosen, and a meet-
ing would undoubtedly have taken place had not some
of the students informed the faculty, who put a stop
to the scheme and made the boys give their word of
honor to keep the peace.

George participated in the annual practice cruises
with his classmates, and after graduation they were
sent on a two-years’ cruise in European waters in the
steam frigate Wabash, commanded by Captain Samuel
Barron. The ship attracted a great deal of attention
in every port she visited. Steam had been only re-
cently adopted for naval vessels, and the Americans
had constructed a type of steam frigate that was
superior to anything in the other navies of the world.
While the Wabash lay at Malta a fine steam yacht
came in from the sea and anchored near her. It was
said that she was the property of a distinguished noble-
man, and was one of the few first-class steam yachts
then in existence. She excited a great deal of curiosity
among the officers of the Wabash. A few days later
Captain Barron gave out a general invitation, and
many visitors from the garrison,and from British men-

of-war in the harbor came to inspect the new war ship
: 5





56 THE HERO OF MANILA.



from the West. Dewey and the other midshipmen were
on hand to assist in doing the honors, and when a
kindly-looking gentleman with a small party came up
the gangway and saluted the quarter-deck with a
nautical air, George returned the salute and asked if
he could be of any service. The gentleman said he
would like to see whatever was to be seen, and the
self-possessed young midshipman proceeded to show
him and his party over the vessel. When they had
nearly completed the rounds, Dewey ventured to offer
his card by way of introduction. The gentleman took
out his own card and gave it in return, and Dewey,
as he glanced at it, read one of the highest names —
in the British peerage. “ Yes,” said the gentleman,
“that is my little teakettle anchored under your quar-
ter. I fear she’ll seem rather cramped after we go
aboard of her from this.” Dewey’s conscience now
began to trouble him, and he insisted on taking the
party to his commanding officer, though, as he an-
ticipated, from that moment his own existence was
ignored.

While nothing strictly historical took place in con-
nection with this cruise, there were many pleasant inci-
dents and some that made strong impressions on the
young midshipmen in regard to duty and discipline.
Several Italian ports were visited, princes and ambas-
sadors were received on board, and courtesies were



LIFE AT ANNAPOLIS, 57



exchanged with the war vessels of several nations. The
Fourth of July and Washington’s Birthday were duly
observed, and on the former occasion one of the
officers read the Declaration of Independence to the
ship’s company assembled on deck. At Leghorn the
Wabash ran aground, and a British merchant steamer
assisted in getting her off. At Genoa some of the petty
officers and seamen got into a street fight, in which
aman was killed; and the captain sent them all ashore
next day for the civil authorities to identify the par-
ticipants. At Spezia, Dewey records in his journal,
“five hundred and fifty gallons of beans were surveyed,
condemned, and thrown overboard,” furnished prob-
ably by contract. This is in striking contrast with
what afterward he was able to say concerning the sup-
plies of the fleet at Manila. On November 13, 1859,
they sailed for home, and on December 16th arrived
at the port of New York. A little later Midshipman
Dewey was examined at Annapolis for a commission,
and he not only passed the examination, but was ad-
vanced in his relative standing. He then received leave
of absence to visit his home. He was commissioned
lieutenant April 19, 1861, and was ordered to the
steam sloop Mississippi.



Gi EAR le
THE BEGINNING OF WAR.

Tue United States navy had done little to distin-
guish itself since its wonderful achievements in the
War of 1812 with Great Britain. During the Mexican
War it took part in the occupation of California, and
performed what service it could in the Gulf, but there
was no opportunity for anything remarkable. Wilkes
had made his exploring expedition in Pacific and Ant-
arctic waters; Ingraham, in the St. Louis, had de-
manded and secured the release of Martin Koszta at
Smyrna; Tatnall, with his famous “blood is thicker
than water,” had participated in the bombardment of
the Chinese forts at Peiho; Hudson, in the Niagara,
had assisted in laying the first Atlantic cable; and sev-
eral cruisers had pursued pirates in the West Indies. But
with the exception of these occurrences the navy had
done nothing to attract popular attention for more
than forty years. Yet it had quietly accomplished
much good work on the Coast Survey; and the Naval
Academy at Annapolis, from its establishment in 1845,

educated officers who gave character and efficiency to
58



THE BEGINNING OF WAR. 59

the service, and when the day of battle came showed
themselves to be worthy successors of the famous cap-
tains who had preceded them.

A great crisis in the nation’s history was now ap-
proaching, more rapidly than any one suspected. The
older statesmen were .gone. Adams, Jackson, Clay,
Calhoun, and Webster, all had passed away within a
period of seven years. Their successors were men of
different mold, and the problem that had given them the
most serious trouble, while comparatively small in their
day, had now grown to monstrous proportions. The
difficulty arose from the existence of two exactly op-
posite systems of labor in the two parts of the coun-
try. In the Southern States the laborers were of a
different race from the capitalists and ruling class, and
were slaves; in the Northern States all (except a very
small proportion) were of the white race and all were
free. The different ideas and interests that arose from
these two different states of society had constantly
tended to alienate the people of one section from those
of the other, and the frequent clashing of these in-
terests in the halls of legislation had obscured the fact
that in a much larger view, and for permanent reasons,
the interests and destiny of the whole country were
the same. In the summer when young Dewey was
graduated at the Naval Academy, Abraham Lincoln,
then in the midst of a heated canvass on this question,



60 THE HERO OF MANILA.



said in a speech that became famous: “I believe this
Government can not endure permanently half slave
and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dis-
solved, I do not expect the house to fall, but I do
expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all
one thing, or all the other.” Most of the Southern
statesmen, and a few of those at the North, looked
to a division of the country as the best, if not the
inevitable, solution of the problem. But against this
there was a barrier greater and more permanent than
any wording of constitution or laws enacted in the
last century by a generation that had passed away.
This was the geography of our country. Mr. Lincoln
did not distinctly name it as the reason for his faith
in the perpetuity of the Union, but he probably felt
it. History shows unmistakably that the permanent
boundaries of a country are the geographical ones.
Conquest or diplomacy occasionally establishes others,
but they do not endure. Separate tribes or peoples,
if living within the same geographical boundaries, ulti-
mately come together and form one nation. Had our
country been crossed from east to west by a great
river like the Amazon, or a chain of lakes like those
that separate us from Canada, or a high mountain
‘range, the northern and southern sections might never
have come together, or would have been easily sepa-
rated into two .distinct peoples. But with no such



THE BEGINNING OF WAR. 61



natural line of division, and with the Mississippi run-
ning south through the center of the country, and
with railroads, telegraphs, and other rapidly multi-
plying means of communication tying the sec-
tions together, the perpetuity of the Union was
a foregone conclusion, whatever might be the argu-
ments of the politician or the passions of the
people.

Nevertheless, the struggle had to come, whether
this great consideration was realized or not, and come
it did. .The Southern statesmen were in earnest in
their threat of disunion, and when Abraham Lincoln
was elected to the presidency in 1860 they proceeded
to carry it out. South Carolina passed an ordinance
of secession in December, and most of the other
Southern States followed quickly, and the new gov-
ernment, called the Confederate States of America,
was organized at Montgomery, Alabama, in February,
1861. They proceeded to take possession of the United
States forts, arsenals, and navy yards within their ter-
ritory, and soon had them all without firing a gun,
except those at Pensacola and Fort Sumter in Charles-
ton harbor. The Confederate forces erected several
batteries within reach of Sumter, and on April 12th
opened fire on the fort and compelled its surrender.
This was the actual beginning of hostilities, and within
‘twenty-four hours the whole country, North and



62 THE HERO OF MANILA,



South, was ablaze with the war spirit. The President
called for volunteers to suppress the rebellion and re-
store the national authority, and was offered several
times as many as he asked for. The South was
already in arms. Many of the military and naval
officers who were from the South went with their
States, and young men who had been educated to-
gether at West Point or Annapolis were now to take
part on opposite sides in one of the greatest
conflicts the world has ever seen. In some in-
stances brother was against brother, and father
against son.

Gideon Welles, of Connecticut, was Secretary of
the Navy in President Lincoln’s cabinet. Though
some of the naval officers resigned their commissions
and offered their services to the Confederacy, the ves-
sels of the navy, except a very few that were cap-
tured at Norfolk navy yard, remained in the possession
of the National Government. There was need of all
these and more, for a mighty task was about to be
undertaken, and there were large bodies of troops to
be transported by sea, cities to be captured, fortifica-
tions to be bombarded, and ports to be held under
blockade.. This last was a most important duty,
though little idea of glory was connected with it, and
popular reputations could not be made in it; for the
Southern States had very few manufactures, and for



THE BEGINNING OF WAR. 63



arms, ammunition, and other necessaries they de-
pended mainly on importation.

At this time the United States navy was under-
going transformation. In the more important vessels
steam had been substituted for sail power, but they
were still constructed of wood, and the development
of the ironclad was just beginning. In the emergency
the Government bought a large number of merchant
vessels of various kinds, including some ferryboats,
turning them into gunboats and transports, and
began the construction of ironclads. Many ironclads
of light draught for use on the western rivers
were built in a hundred days. The Southerners were
almost without facilities for building vessels from
the keel, but they made two or three formidable
rams and floating batteries by covering the wooden
hulls of some of the captured ships with railroad
iron.

The first naval expedition of the war sailed in
August, 1861, commanded by Flag-Officer Silas H.
Stringham. It consisted of ten vessels, including two
transports, carried about nine hundred soldiers, and
was directed against the forts that guarded Hatteras
Inlet, North Carolina. The troops, with some diffi-
culty, were landed through the surf, and a combined
attack by them and the naval force reduced the de-
fenses and compelled their surrender with about seven



64 THE HERO OF MANILA.

hundred prisoners. The garrisons had lost about fifty
men, the assailants not one. This was due to the fact
that the work was done chiefly by rifled guns on the
vessels, which could be fired effectively while out of
range of the smooth-bore guns of the forts.

Late in October another expedition, commanded
by Flag-Officer Samuel F. Du Pont, sailed from
Hampton Roads. It consisted of more than fifty ves-
sels, and carried twenty-two thousand men. A ter-
tific gale was encountered, one transport and one
storeship were lost, and one gunboat had to throw
its battery overboard. When the storm was over, only
one vessel was in sight from the flagship. But the
scattered fleet slowly came together again and pro-
ceeded to its destination—the entrance to Port Royal
harbor, South Carolina. This was guarded by two
forts. The attack was made on the morning of No-
vember 7th. The main column, of ten vessels, led by
the flagship, was formed in line a ship’s-length apart,
and steamed past the larger fort, delivering its fire at
a distance of eight hundred yards, and then turned
and sailed past again, somewhat closer. In this man-
ner it steamed three times round a long ellipse, de-
livering its fire alternately from the two broadsides.
Some of the gunboats got positions from which they
enfiladed the work, and two of the larger vessels went
up closer and poured in a fire that dismounted several





SCENE OF THE
NAVAL OPERATIONS
IN THE

WESTERN RIVERS.

Springfield
Landing
Pleasant
Hill.
‘ 2
East; ee
“ Denron
/Cane R,, xe,
8

—_Albxandria

i \
Simmesport.eQ



Moon Lake

Tallahatehye

Ft.Pemberton

is

fe
Haines Bluff

Carthage Vicksburg \

Grand Gulf

Natchez
Ellis Cliff

e.Port Hudson

Baton Rouge







THE BEGINNING OF WAR. ~ 65



guns. This was more than the garrison could endure,
and they evacuated the fort and were seen streaming
out of it as if in panic. The other column, of four
vessels, attacked the smaller fort in the same manner,
with the same result.

Meanwhile, a much larger and more important
naval expedition than either of these was planned at
Washington. New Orleans was the largest and rich-
est city in the Confederacy. It had nearly one hun-
dred and seventy thousand inhabitants—more than
Charleston, Mobile, and Richmond together. In the
year before the war it had shipped twenty-five mil-
lion dollars’ worth of sugar and ninety-two million
dollars’ worth of cotton. In these two articles its ex-
port trade was larger than that of any other city in
the world. And as a strategic point it was of the
first importance. The Mississippi has several mouths,
or passes, and this fact, with the frequency of violent
gales in the Gulf, made it very difficult to blockade
commerce there. Moreover, if possession of the Mis-
sissippi could be secured by the national forces it
would cut the Confederacy in two and render it dif-
ficult if not impossible to continue the transporta-
tion of supplies from Arkansas and Texas to feed the
armies in Virginia and Tennessee. Add to this the
fact that any great city is a great prize in war, highly
valuable to the belligerent that holds it, and the im-



66 THE HERO OF MANILA.



portance of New Orleans at that time may be readily
appreciated.

The defenses of the city consisted of two forts—
Jackson and St. Philip—on either bank of the stream,
thirty miles above the head of the passes and about
twice that distance below New Orleans. They were
below a bend which had received the name of English
Turn, from the circumstance that in 1814 the British
naval vessels attempting to ascend the stream had
here been driven back by land batteries. The forts
were built by the United States Government, of earth
and brick, in the style that was common before the
introduction of rifled cannon. They were now gar-
risoned by fifteen hundred Confederate soldiers, and
above them lay a Confederate fleet of fifteen vessels,
including an ironclad ram and an incomplete floating
battery that was cased in railroad iron. Below the
forts a heavy chain was stretched across the river,
supported on logs; and when it was broken by a
freshet the logs were replaced by hulks anchored at
intervals across the stream, with the chain passing over
their decks and its ends fastened to trees on the banks.
A similar chain was.stretched across the Hudson at
the time of the Revolutionary War. In addition to
all this, two hundred Confederate sharpshooters con-
stantly patrolled the banks between the forts and the
head of the passes, to give notice of any approach-



THE BEGINNING OF WAR. 67

ing foe, and fire at any one that might be seen on
the deck of a hostile vessel. The Confederate au-
thorities fully appreciated the value of the Crescent
City. The problem before the national authorities
was, how to take that city in spite of all these barriers.



OETAIE aE aaa
THE FIGHT FOR NEW ORLEANS.

Miuitary scholarship is a good thing; military
genius is sometimes a better thing. When it was re-
solved by the authorities to attempt the capture of New
Orleans it was assumed that the two forts on the
river below the city must be first destroyed or com-
pelled to surrender. The chief engineer of the Army
of the Petomac, whose ability was unquestioned, made
a long ‘report to the Navy Department, in which,
after describing the forts and their situation, he said:
“To pass these works merely with a fleet and appear
before New Orleans is merely a raid, no capture.”
And in describing the exact method of attack he said:
“Those [vessels] on the Fort Jackson side would
probably have to make fast to the shore; those on
the Saint Philip side might anchor.” Substantially the
same view was afterward taken by Captain David D.
Porter, who was to have an important part in the en-
terprise. It was also assumed that the forts could be
reduced by bombardment, if this was only heavy and

persistent enough. In accordance with this idea,
68





Farragut and Dewey.

®



THE FIGHT FOR NEW. ORLEANS. 69

i a Eg ce ee
twenty-one large mortars were cast for the work.
They threw shells that were thirteen inches in diam-
eter and weighed two hundred and eighty-five pounds.
For each of these mortars a schooner was built; and
so great was the concussion of the atmosphere when
one was fired, that no man could stand near it with-
out being literally deafened. Therefore platforms
projecting beyond the decks were provided, ‘to which
the gunners could retreat just before each shot. The
remainder of the fleet, when finally it was mustered,
was made up of six sloops of war, sixteen gunboats,
five other vessels, and transports carrying fifteen thou-
sand soldiers to co-operate in the attack or hold the
forts and the city after it should be captured. The
number of guns in the fleet was more than two
hundred.
After this expedition (the most powerful that ever
had sailed under the American flag) was planned and
partly organized, and the mortar schooners nearly:
completed, the Navy Department looked about for a
suitable officer to command it, and Secretary Welles
finally chose Captain David G. Farragut. This officer
had his own ideas of the best way to effect the capture.
He would have preferred to dispense with the mor-
tars, in which he had no faith; but they had been
prepared at great expense, and that part of the fleet
was to be commanded by his friend Porter, and so



70 THE HERO OF MANILA.

he accepted them, and as soon as it could be got
ready the expedition sailed from Hampton Roads.

When it arrived at the mouths of the Mississippi
there was a gigantic task to be performed before the
fleet could enter the stream. An American poet has
thus described the delta of the great river:

“Do you know of the dreary land,

If land such region may seem,
Where ’tis neither sea nor strand,
Ocean nor good dry land,

But the nightmare marsh of a dream—
Where the mighty river his death-road takes,
Mid pools and windings that coil like snakes—
A hundred leagues of bayous and lakes—

To die in the great Gulf Stream?”

*

There are five mouths or passes, spread out like
the fingers of a hand. Of course no one of them was
as large and deep as the river above, and the entrance
of each was obstructed by a bar. The smaller vessels
—mortar schooners and gunboats—were taken in
without difficulty, but the larger ones required enor-
mous labor to get them over the bar. The Missis-
sippi—of which Captain Melancton Smith was the
commander, and Lieutenant George Dewey the ex-
ecutive officer—was lightened of everything that could
be taken off, and even then had to be dragged over
by tugboats, with her keel a foot deep in the mud.
She was the only side-wheel war vessel in the fleet.



THE FIGHT FOR NEW ORLEANS, 71



It required two weeks’ labor to get the Pensacola in ;
and the Colorado could not be taken in at all, as
she drew seven feet more of water than there was on
the bar.

The masts of the mortar schooners were dressed
off with bushes so that they could not be distinguished
easily from the trees along the shore; and as soon as
they were moored in their chosen position the bombard-
ment was begun. The forts could not be seen from
them, and the gunners fired with a computed aim,
throwing the immense shells high into the air, that
they might fall almost perpendicularly into the forts
and explode. The bombardment was kept up steadily
for six days and nights, nearly six thousand shells be-
ing thrown. They fell in and around the fortifica-
tions, destroyed buildings, cut the levee, and killed
fourteen men and wounded thirty-nine. It is said
that in modern warfare a man’s weight in lead is fired
for every man that is killed; in this instance about
sixteen tons of iron were thrown for every man that
was injured. The main object, however, was not to
disable the garrisons, but to dismount the guns and
render the fortifications useless; and this result was
not accomplished. The forts and their armaments
were in almost as good condition for service as ever.

Meanwhile, Farragut had made up his mind that
to guchiot abreast of these fortifications and attack



72 THE HERO OF MANILA.

them would simply be to lose his vessels. It is only
in its ability to keep moving that a war ship (at least
a wooden one, and there was not an ironclad in this
fleet) has an advantage over land works of equal
armament. To surrender this advantage at the begin-
ning is to lose the fight at the end. Furthermore,
he believed that as the sole purpose of the forts was
to protect the city, if he could lay the city under
his guns the forts would be abandoned. Consequent-
ly, in spite of the advice of the eminent army engineer.
and his friend and brother officer, Porter, he deter-
mined to pass the forts with his whole fleet (except
the mortar schooners) and appear before New Orleans.

This was a new thing in warfare, and it is im-
portant to note it here, because George Dewey, who
had been promoted to a lieutenancy at the beginning
of the war, was in that fleet, and Farragut was his
instructor as well as his commander.

The passage was to be made in the night, and
Farragut—who had learned to perform every duty
that is ever required on shipboard, except those of
the surgeon—gave in his general orders minute in-
structions for every preparation, and suggested that
the officers and crew of each vessel add any other
precautions that their ingenuity might devise.

Every man in the fleet was busy. In the fore-
castle of the Mississippi a group of sailors were mak-



7

Whitewashing the decks.





THE FIGHT FOR NEW ORLEANS. 73
i oe ek ee ee
ing splinter nettings, criticising the arrangements for
the attack, and speculating as to the result.

“ What’s Bill Ammon going to do with that white
paint?” said one.

“He’s going to paint the gun deck,” answered a
comrade.

“What! paint it white?”

aeccrmayy atten

“What’s that for? To make us a better target for
the reb gunners? ”

“Tt’s to make it so that we can see what we're
about, and find things when we need them.”

“That seems to say we’re going up in the night,”
said the first speaker.

“You've hit it,” said another; ‘that’s exactly
what we are in for.”

“Whose idea is this of painting the decks?” asked
a fourth.

“ Bill pretends it’s his,” said the boatswain’s mate.
“He thinks it’s a great idea. But I was by when
he got his orders, and I know it originated with
Dewey.”

“T don’t care where the idea came from,” said
the sailmaker, ‘I don’t admire it.”

“Why not?”

“ Because it’s just the wrong thing. The boys on
the Pensacola and the Oneida are rubbing the decks



74 THE HERO OF MANILA.



over with mud, so that the Johnnies will have a hard .
time to distinguish them. I think that’s the true
idea.”

“T can’t agree with you there,” said the boat-
swain’s mate. “As soon as we get fairly into it the
smoke will be so thick that the Johnnies can’t see
through it very perfectly anyway. And that’s just
when we want to see everything on our own deck.”

“Tt may be so,” grumbled the sailmaker; “ but if
it comes to that, old Dewey’d better have the river
whitewashed, so that he can see to con the ship.”

This bit of sailor wit created laughter, of which
the little company were in much need, for some of
them were not at all hopeful of the coming contest.

“ He'll con the ship all right,” said another sailor,
who had not spoken before, and who answered to the
nickname of Slippery Sim (his real name being Simeon
Nelson). “I knew him in Montpelier, and I know
you can depend on him every time.”

“In Montpelier?” said the boatswain’s mate.
“Why, that was about Bill Ammon’s latitude and
longitude, if my reckoning’s right.”

“Tt was, exactly,’ said Nelson.

“ Then he ought to have known Dewey too,” said
the boatswain’s mate.
“Know him?” said Nelson. “I should say he

did know him. The most famous of all the fights



a

THE FIGHT FOR NEW ORLEANS. 75



that ever took place among our boys was between
him and Dewey.”

“Did you see it?” said the sailmaker eagerly.

“T did,” said Nelson in an impressive tone. “I
had the honor of holding Ammon’s coat.”

“And which licked?” asked the sailmaker.

“Hold on!” said the boatswain’s mate. “ Don’t
answer that question. Never spoil a good story by
telling it stern foremost. Give us the whole narra-
tyve from beginning to end, and don’t let us know
which licked till you get to the very last. If those
two fellows were at it, I know it must have been
a tug. A good description of it ought to brace us
up for the lively fight that’s before us.”

“Ves,” said another, “it may be the last story
that some of us will ever hear.”

“Don’t be down-hearted, Ned,’ said the first
speaker. “I’ve sailed with old Farragut nearly eight-
een years, and I know he’ll pull us through.”

“TJ haven’t any doubt that he'll pull the fleet
through all right,” said Ned. “But even a victori-
ous fleet generally has a few red spots on the decks,
and not so many gunners when it comes out as when
it went in. It’s all right, of course. I’m not finding
fault, and I’m not any more afraid than I ought to
be. I expect to stand up and do my duty, as I know
the rest of you will. But a man can’t help being a



Pad

76 THE HERO OF MANILA.



human creature, with human feelings, if he zs a sailor;
and when he’s killed he’s just as much killed, and
all his pretty plans spoiled, whether it’s in a victory
or in a defeat.”

“That’s all true enough, Ned,” said the boat-
swain’s mate; “but what we want to cultivate just
now is the spirit of fight, not the spirit of philosophy.
Save your philosophy till after the battle, and then
you'll have plenty of good company, for then every-
body will be philosophizing about it.”

“They will, indeed,” said the sailmaker, “and a
good many of them will be telling how they could
have managed it better that we did. The great trouble
in this war is that so many of our best generals and
admirals who ought to be in the field or on ship-
board have jobs in barber shops that they don’t like
to give up, or can’t be spared from country stores and
newspaper offices.”

“Oh, belay your sarcasm,” said the boatswain’s
mate. “ Let’s have the story of the big fight between
Dewey and Ammon, Sim.”

Thereupon Nelson gave a minute and graphic
account of that schoolboy contest.

“T don’t see,” said Ned, “why Bill Ammon never
has mentioned that he was a schoolmate of Dewey’s.
I should think he would be proud of it.”

“The reason is plain enough,” said the sailmaker.



THE FIGHT FOR NEW ORLEANS. 77

“He was afraid that might lead up to the story of
this fight. Probably he would be quite willing that
it should remain untold.” :

“Well, whatever he was in school days,” said Ned,
“ Bill’s a pretty good fellow now; and I don’t see
that he has much to be ashamed of. It seems he
put up a good stiff fight then, and I think he'll do
his duty with the best of us now.”

“Yes, that’s so!”’ responded two or three.

“ Talking about that whitewashing,” said the sailor
who had opened the conversation, “I think it’s all
right enough, but it seems to me it might have been
applied where it would have done still more good.”

“ Where’s that, Tom?” said the boatswain’s mate.

“T suppose you know,” said Tom, “ that the Itasca
and Pinola went up last night to break the chain and
make an opening for the fleet to pass through. Cald-
well did that all right. But it’s going to be a mighty
hard matter to steer these big sea-going vessels
‘through that narrow place in the current of a river
like this and in the smoke of battle. The thing ’m
most afraid of is that some one of our ships will get
tangled up among those hulks, and then the rebs can
just pound her as if they had her in a mortar. Suppose
the ship at the head of the line should get caught
across the opening, where would the whole fleet be
then? ”



78 THE HERO OF MANILA.



“Of course there is great risk,” said the boat-
swain’s mate, “ but how are you going to avoid it?
They took up a new-fangled torpedo to blow up some
of the hulks and make a wider opening, but the thing
wouldn’t work. Those machines that are to go off
under water seldom do work.”

“T was thinking,” said Tom, “that if they had
whitewashed the decks of the hulks next to the open-
ing it would go far to prevent such an accident.”

“You didn’t go up there with Caldwell, and
neither did your brother,” said the sailmaker. saa lt
you had, I don’t think you’d have been anxious to
whitewash anything and make yourselves a better
target for the sharpshooters on shore. Our men were
fired on all the while as it was.”

“TJ think I could have managed it,” said Tom.

“Tell us how.”

“TJ would have taken up some buckets of white
paint—I see you smile, but you've got ahead of your
reckoning. No, I wasn’t going to say I’d take some
brushes along and make a nice job painting the decks.
I’d keep the buckets covered up till just as we were
ready to come away, and then I’d simply overturn
them on the decks and push off. That would whiten
them enough to help our pilots through.”

“Tm not sure but that’s a good idea,” said an-
other sailor.



‘THE FIGHT FOR NEW ORLEANS. 79



“Ts it?” said the boatswain’s mate. “I guess
you’ve never sailed with Caldwell or Dewey. If you
had you’d know that either of them would be more
horrified at the idea of any such sloppy work, even
on the deck of an old hulk, than at doubling the
risk of his ship. They’re dandies, both of ’em.”

“Tf anything gets afoul of the hulks,” remarked
a sailor who had not spoken before, “it will probably
be this old spinning wheel. The Secretary of the Navy
that ordered a side-wheeler for a war ship must have
been born and brought up in the backwoods. If we
could have got the Colorado over the bar I wouldn’t
be here. She’s the ship we ought to have if we’re
going to knock those forts to pieces.”

“I’m not sure that the largest ships are the best
for this work,” said the sailmaker. “ This whole fleet
was built for sea service, and it’s out of place in a
river like this.”

“Of course it’s a loss not to have the Colorado
with us,” said the boatswain’s mate. “ But the best
thing that was aboard of her is with us.”

“ What’s that?” said several.

“That old sea dog Bailey,” answered the boat-
swain’s mate. “ He’s no dandy, but he knows what
to do with a ship in a fight or in a storm or any-
where else. I was with him on the Lexington in
forty-six, when we went round Cape Horn to Cali-



80 THE HERO OF MANILA.



fornia. That was the beginning of the Mexican War.
We carried troops and army officers. Bill Sherman,
who commanded a brigade at Bull Run, was among
them. So was General Halleck—he was only a lieu-
tenant then.”

“ Bailey’s on the Cayuga now,” said the sailor
from the Colorado, “and if Farragut understands his
business he’ll let him lead the line, unless Farragut
leads it himself in the flagship. I wish I could be
with him; but when we had to leave the Colorado
outside they scattered our crew all through the fleet,
and I just had the luck to be sent to this old coffee
mill.”

“As long as Doc. Dewey’s on the bridge you
needn’t be afraid of her,” said Sim Nelson, “ whether
she’s a spinning wheel or a coffee mill—and your
opinion seems to vary on that point. There was lots
of good fighting before propellers were invented, but
you appear to think we can’t do anything without a
propeller.”

“A propeller isn’t very likely to be struck by a
shot,” said the man from the Colorado; “but these
old windmill sails going round on each side of this
tub can hardly help being hit.”

“Now you just quit worrying, and settle your
mind on an even keel,” said Sim Nelson. ‘“ There’s
such a thing as ability, and there’s such a thing as



Full Text


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THE HERO OF MANILA






YOUNG HEROES OF OUR NAVY.

Uniform Edition. Each, 12mo, cloth, $1.00.

The Hero of Manila.

Dewey on the Mississippi and the Pacific. By ROSSITER
Jouwnson, author of ‘‘ Phaeton Rogers,” ‘‘ A History of
the War of Secession,” etc. Illustrated by B. West Cline-
dinst and Others.

The Hero of Erie (Commodore Perry).

By JAMES BARNES, author of ‘‘ Midshipman Farragut,”
‘““Commodore Bainbridge,” etc. With so full-page Ilus-
trations.

Commodore Bainbridge. From the Gunroom to
the Quarter-deck.
By JAMES BARNES. Illustrated by George Gibbs and
Others,
Midshipman Farragut.
By JAMES BARNES. Illustrated by Carlton T. Chapman,

Decatur and Somers.

By MoLty ELLIoT SEAWELL, author of ‘‘ Paul Jones,”
‘Little Jarvis,” etc. With 6 full-page Ilustrations by
J. O. Davidson and Others.

Paul Jones.

By Motiy ELLIOT SEAWELL, With 8 full-page Ilus-
trations.

Midshipman Paulding.

A True Story of the War of 1812, By MOLLY ELLIOT
SEAWELL. With 6 full-page Illustrations.

Little Jarvis.

The Story of the Heroic Midshipman of the Frigate Con-
stellation. By MOLLY ELLIOT SEAWELL. With 6 full-
page Illustrations.

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, NEW YORK.




Dewey.

Midshipman
THE HERO OF MANILA

DEWEY ON THE MISSISSIPPI
ND EE PACE Ee

BY

ROSSITER JOHNSON

AUTHOR OF PHAETON ROGERS,
A HISTORY OF THE WAR OF SECESSION, ETC.

WITH ILLUSTRATIONS BY B. WEST CLINEDINST AND OTHERS



NEW YORK
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY

1899
CopyRiGHT, 1899,
By D. APPLETON AND COMPANY.
1P IR Te, JY ANG 18,

Ir this little book does not show for itself why it
was written, how it was written, and for whom it
was written, not only a preface but the entire text
would be useless. The author believes that in every life
that is greatly useful to mankind there is a plan and
a purpose from the beginning, whether the immediate
owner of that life is aware of it or not; and that the
art of the biographer—whether he is dealing with facts
exclusively or is mingling fact and fiction—should
make it discernible by the reader.

The authorities that have been consulted include
the Life of David Glasgow Farragut, by his son; Ad-
miral Ammen’s Atlantic Coast; Greene’s The Missis-
sippi; Battles and Leaders of the Civil War; The Re-
bellion Record; Marshall’s History of the Naval Acad-
emy, and especially Adelbert M. Dewey’s Life and

Letters of Admiral Dewey.
1,

AMAGANSETT, September 8, 1899.
a

2
2 y




CO NMeERNGESe

CHAPTER PAGE
I.—THE PHILOSOPHY OF FIGHTING . 3 : . . . I
IJ.—ON THE RIVER BANK. : : : a . , eet)
III.—BATTLE ROYAL : : , . , ‘ ‘ f eee
IV.—EpDvuCcATION AT NORWICH 3 es : ; : . aod:
V.—LIFE AT ANNAPOLIS ‘ . : ; 5 ; a AL
VI.—THE BEGINNING OF WAR F . , i , ‘ eS o
VII.—THE FIGHT FOR NEW ORLEANS . . . 0 OS
VIII.—THE BATTLE AT PorT HuDson . . 5 : : 2)
IX.—THE CAPTURE OF ForT FISHER . ‘ P . , » 105
X.—IN TIME OF PEACE. i 5 . A : : : eee
XI.—THE BATTLE OF MANILA : j i : ; ‘ 5 1K
XII.—AFTER THE BATTLE . , ; . ; , . . 130
XIII.—THE PROBLEM ON LAND . , : . : : 2 . 139
XIV.—Honors . 5 ; 5 : . . . : 5 IR

XV.—LETTERS . : 3 . . . G . : . - 149
vii

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

FACING
PAGE
Midshipman Dewey : i : : . , Frontispiece

By B. West Clinedinst

An early battle Y . : , ; 5 6 : - Io
By B. West Clinedinst

A schoolroom episode . 5 . : 3 s , : eS
By B. West Clinedinst

Scene of naval operations in Western rivers. 2 : OS;

Farragut and Dewey. 3 , 3 5 : 5 , OG
By B. West Clinedinst

Whitewashing the decks ‘ : a : A eee /3)
By B. West Clinedinst

Order of attack on Forts Jackson and St. Philip 0 ; Oa:

Farragut’s fleet passing the forts . . : 7 7 0 &

Order of attack on Port Hudson . : i 2 . , » 95

Passage of the batteries of Port Hudson . , . 5 oo

Removing the wounded , F : a eae . . 04
By B. West Clinedinst

Diagram of Manila Bay : , 5 , o 1303)

U.S. Cruiser Olympia, Admiral Dee Flagship . . eee 22

The battle of Manila. : 5 : : , eeE2O)

Admiral Dewey on the bridge of the OnnEn : , 5 o ithe

Medal presented by Congress ; : , . , . eS 9)

Sword presented by Congress . . , , , . . 145

Shield presented to the Olympia . . , A ; : - 148

Dewey Triumphal Arch, New York . . 5 . : . I51
Charles R. Lamb, Architect

ix





The house in which Admiral Dewey was born in Montpelier, Vermont.

THE HERO OF MANILA.

Girt AEA EARee
THE PHILOSOPHY OF FIGHTING.

Ir is not necessary to visit the Bay of Naples in
order to witness a beautiful sunset. Our.own atmos-
phere and our own waters produce those that are
quite as gorgeous, while our own mountains and
woodlands give them as worthy a setting as any in
the world.

Half a century ago a little boy sat at his chamber
window in Vermont looking at a Summer sunset.
He was so absorbed in the scene before him and in
his own thoughts that he did not notice the entrance
of his father until he spoke.
2 THE HERO OF MANILA.



“What are you thinking about, George?” said the
father.

“ About ships,” the boy answered, without turning
his head.

“What kind of ships?”

“T can see nearly every kind,” said George.

“See them—where?”’ said his father, looking over
his shoulder.

“Right there in the sunset clouds,” said the boy.

“Oh!” said his father; and then, after looking a
while, added, “Suppose you point out a few of
them.”

“Do you see that small cloud, at some distance
from the others—the one that is rather long and
narrow, with a narrower one alongside?”

“Yes, I see that.”

“Well, that,’ said the boy, “is a Brazilian cata-
maran, and those little knobs at the top are the heads
of the men that are paddling it.”

“Just so,” said his father. “What else can you
see?”

“The catamaran,” said George, “is pulling out to
that clipper ship which has just come to anchor off
the port. The clipper is the large one, with her sails
furled. Probably the Indians have some fruit on board,
which they hope to sell to the sailors.”

“ Quite natural,” said the father.
THE PHILOSOPHY OF FIGHTING. 3



“ And that smaller one, under full sail, fore-and-aft
rigged, is a schooner in the coasting trade.”

“That one appears to be changing shape rapidly,”
said the father.

“Ves,” said the boy. “She is tacking, and you
see her at a different angle.”

“T might have suspected as much,” said the fa-
ther, “ but I never was a good sailor.”

“That very large one,” continued the boy, “ with
a big spread of canvas and holes in her hull, where
the red sunlight pours through, is an old-fashioned
seventy-four, with all her battle-lanterns lit.”

“A pretty fancy,” said the father, who evidently
was becoming more interested and better able to see
the pictures that were so vivid to his son.

“Do you see that dark one over at the right, with
one near it that is very red and very ragged?” said
the boy.

ele lOng

“Those are the Constitution and the Java. They
had their famous battle yesterday, and the Java was
so badly cut up that to-day Bainbridge has removed
her crew and set her on fire. She will blow up pretty
soon.”

“T should like to see it,’ said the father.

“ And if you look over there to the left,” said the
boy, “you see quite a collection of rather small
4 THE HERO OF MANILA.



ones, most of them very red, some half red and _ half
black. It looks a little confused at first, but when
you know what it is you can see plainly enough that
it is the battle of Lake Erie. In the very center
there is a small boat, and on it something that looks
black and blue and red, with a little white. The black
is cannon smoke. The blue and red and white is the
American flag, which Perry is taking over to the
Niagara, because the Lawrence is so badly damaged
that he has had to leave her. That one with only
one mast standing is the Lawrence.”

“Yes, my son, I think you have accounted beau-
tifully for everything there except one. What is that
dark one, with rounded ends and no mast, just be-
yond the clipper? ”’

“Oh, that,” said the boy, taking a moment for
reflection, “I think that must be a bullhead boat on
the Delaware and Hudson Canal.”

“It is a good representation of one,” said his fa-
ther, smiling. “ But, George, how came you to know
so much about ships and boats and naval history?”

“ By reading all I could find about them, sir.”

“Well, George, I am really pleased,” said Dr.
Dewey; “pleased and encouraged to know that you
have taken to reading instead of fighting. I was afraid
you never would love books; but now that you have
begun, you shall have all the good ones you will read.”

Pra
THE PHILOSOPHY OF FIGHTING. 5



“Thank you, father, I shall be glad of them.”

“But come now, my son, supper is ready, and your
sister is waiting for us.”

“T will come pretty soon,” said George, and his
father descended the stairs.

A little later the boy went slowly down, and quiet-
ly slipped into his place at the table.

In a few minutes Dr. Dewey looked up, then
started as if surprised, and dropped his hands to the
edge of the table. He took a sharp look at George,
and then said:

“What does that mean? How came you by that
black eye?”

“There is only one way to get a black eye that
I know of,” said the boy.

“ Fighting? ”

“Yes, sir.”

The doctor was silent for several minutes, and then
said:

“T don’t know what to say to you or do‘to you,
my son. You know what I have said to you about
your fighting habit, and you know that I mean it, for
I have not only talked to you, but punished you.
When I found you had been reading history I took
new hope, for I thought you must have got past the
fighting age and given your mind to better things.

But here you are again with the marks of a pugilist.”
6 THE HERO OF MANILA.



“JT don’t fight when I can help it, and I’m afraid
I never shall get past the fighting age,” said George.

“Don’t fight when you can help it?” said his fa-
ther. “Can’t you always help it?”

“JT might by running away. Do you want me to
do that?” the boy answered quietly.

“Of course I don’t,’ said the doctor quickly.
“But can’t you keep away?”

“T have to go to school,” said George, “and I
have to be with the boys; and some of them are quar-
relsome, and some are full of conceit, and some need
a good licking now and then.”

“ And you consider it your duty to administer it,”
said the doctor. ‘“ Conceit is a crime that can not be
too severely punished.”

The boy felt the irony of his father’s remark,
and saw that he did not quite understand that
use of the word “conceit,” so he proceeded to ex-
plain:

“When a boy goes about bragging how many
boys he has licked, and how many others he can lick,
and how he will do this, that, and the other thing,
if everybody doesn’t look out, we say he is too con-
ceited and he ought to have the conceit taken out
of him; and the first good chance we get we take
ipo:

“ Suppose you left it in him and paid no atten-
THE PHILOSOPHY OF FIGHTING. 7

what would happen in that case?”’ said the



tion to it
doctor.

~“ He would grow more and more conceited,” said
George, “and make himself so disagreeable that the
boys couldn’t enjoy life, and before a great while you
would find him picking on smaller boys than himself
and licking them, just to have more brag.”

“Do you really have any such boys among your
schoolfellows, or is this only theoretical?’ the doctor
inquired.

“There are a few,” said George.

“And how do you determine whose duty it is to
take the conceit out of one of them? Do you draw
lots, or take turns?”

“The boy that enjoys the job the most seu
oer it,” said George.

“Just so,” said the doctor. ‘And is there some
one boy in the school who enjoys the job, as you call
it, more than all the others?”

George evidently felt that this question came so
near home he ought not to be eee to answer it,
and he was silent. :

His elder sister, Mary (they had lost their mother
five years before), now spoke for the first time.

“Perhaps,” said she, “we ought to ask George to
tell us the circumstances of this last fight: I don’t

believe he is always the one to blame.”
2
8 THE HERO OF MANILA.



“Certainly,” said: the doctor; “that is only fair.
Tell us all about it, George.”

- Thereupon the boy proceeded to tell them all
about it in a very animated manner.

“Bill Ammon,” he began, “is one of the bossing-
est boys in school. He expects to have everything
his way. I don’t blame a boy for wanting things his
own way if he takes fair means to get them so, but
Bill doesn’t always. You and the teacher tell me
that bad habits grow worse and worse, and I sup-
pose it was that way with Bill. At any rate, we
found out a few days ago that he was taking regu-
lar toll out of two smaller boys—Jimmy Nash and
Teddy Hawkins—for not licking them. Each of them
had to bring him something twice a week—apples, or
nuts, or marbles, or candy, or something else that he
wanted—and he threatened not only to lick them if
they did not bring the things, but to lick them twice
as hard if they told any one about it.”

“Why did those boys submit to such treatment?”
said the doctor.

“Well, you see,” said George, “Jimmy Nash’s
father is a Quaker, and doesn’t believe in hurt-
ing anybody, and so if Jimmy gets into any trouble
he whales him like fury as soon as he finds it out.
And Teddy Hawkins’s mother gives him plenty of
spending money, so he is always able to buy a little
THE PHILOSOPHY OF FIGHTING. 9

something to please Bill, and I suppose he would
rather do that than fight.”

“If they were boys of any spirit,” said the doctor
indignantly, “I should think they would join forces
and give Bill the thrashing he deserves. The two
together ought to be able to do it.”

“Yes, they could,” said George; “but, you see,
they are not twins, and can’t always be together—in
fact, they live a long way apart—and as soon as Bill
caught either of them alone he would make him pay
dear for it. He needed to be licked by some one
boy.”

““T see,” said the doctor; ‘‘a Decatur was wanted,.
to put an end to the tribute.”

“Exactly!” said George, and his father’s eyes twin-
kled with pleasure to see that he understood the allu-
sion. He was specially anxious that his boy should
become familiar with American history, but he had no
anticipation that his son would one day make Ameri-
can history.

“When we found it out,” George continued, “ Bill
tried to make us believe that Jimmy and Teddy were
simply paying him to protect them. He said he was
their best friend. ‘What protection do they need?’
said I. ‘They are peaceable little fellows, and there
is nobody that would be coward enough to attack
them.’ Bill saw that he was cornered on the argu-
10 THE HERO OF MANILA.



ment, and at the same time he got mad at the word
coward, thinking I meant it for him. I didn’t, for I
don’t consider him a coward at all.”

“Not if he is a bully?” said the doctor.

“No, sir,” said George. “He certainly is some-
thing of a bully, but he is not cowardly.”

“There you agree with Charles Lamb,” said the
doctor.

“Who is Charles Lamb?” said George.

“He was an Englishman, who died fifteen or
twenty years ago,” said the doctor, “and I hope you'll
read his delightful essays some day—but not till you’ve
mastered American history. Attend to that first.”

“T’ll try to,” said George. “ When Bill flared up
at that word he seemed to lose his head a little.
‘Who are you calling a coward?’ said he, coming up
close to me, with his fist clenched. I said I never
called anybody a coward, because if he wasn’t one it
wouldn’t be true, and if he was everybody would find
it out soon enough, without my telling them. ‘ Well,
you meant it for me,’ said he, ‘and you'll have to
fight it out, so you'd better take off your jacket

”

mighty quick.’ I said I had no objection



“You had no objection!” exclaimed his sister
Mary.

“ Well—that is—under the circumstances,” said
George, “I didn’t see how I could have any. I had


An early battle.
THE PHILOSOPHY OF FIGHTING. . II

no right to have any. Those two boys did need pro-
tection—they needed to be protected against Bill Am-
mon, who was robbing them. And I thought I might
as well do it as anybody. So I said, ‘Come over to
‘the orchard, boys,’ and we all went. Teddy Hawkins
held my jacket, and Sim Nelson held Bill’s. We
squared off and sparred a little while, and I suppose
I must have been careless, for Bill got the first clip
at me, landing on my eye. But pretty soon I fetched
him a good one under the cheek bone, and followed

9



that up with a smasher on

Here Mary turned pale, and showed signs of un-
easiness and repugnance. George, who was warming
up with his subject, did not notice her, but was going
on with his description of the fight, when his father
stopped him.

“ Your sister,” he said, “ has no taste for these par-
ticulars. Never mind them until some time when you
and I are alone. Only tell us how it turned out.”

“The boys said it turned out that I gave Bill
what he deserved, and I hope I did, but I didn’t tell
them what a mighty hard job I found it.”

“Bravo, George!” exclaimed the doctor, and then
quickly added: “ But don’t fight any more.”
CHAPTER all.
ON THE RIVER BANK.

A Group of boys sat on the bank of Onion River,
’ looking at the water and occasionally casting pebbles
into it. Wet hair, bare feet, and other circumstances
indicated that they had not long been out of it. Be-
low them, in one of the comparatively shallow, flat-
bottomed reaches, a company of smaller boys were
paddling about, some taking their first lessons in
swimming, some struggling to duck each other, and
some carefully keeping aloof for fear of being ducked.
Trees, rocks, broken sunlight, and a summer breeze
made the little scene quite Arcadian.

“My uncle is going to California to dig gold,”
said one of the larger boys, who answered to the name
of Tom Kennedy. é

“My father says they have discovered gold mines
in Australia that are richer than those in California,”
said another, Felix Ostrom by name.

“But that is twice as far away,” said the first
speaker, “and you can only get there by a long sea

voyage. You can go overland to California, and be
I2
ON THE RIVER BANK. 13



in our own country all the time. Isn’t that a great
deal better, even if you don’t get quite so much gold?”

“It wouldn’t be better for me,’’ answered George
Dewey. ‘I would rather go by sea, and would rather
go to other countries. I want to see as many of them
as I can. I would especially like to sail in the Pacific
Ocean.”

“Why the Pacific?’’ said Tom.

“ Because,” said George, “that is not only the
largest ocean in the world, but it has the most islands
and touches the countries that we know the least
about.”

“Tt’s an ugly thing to get to it, round Cape Horn,”
said Felix.

“You can go through the Strait of Magellan,”
said George. “ Last week I found a book of voyages
in my Aunt Lavinia’s house, and I’ve been reading
all about Magellan. He was the discoverer of the
Pacific Ocean, and he sailed through that strait to
finde baw

“He must have been a very modest man,’’ said
Tom.

mVihiys ois

“ Because he didn’t name it Magellan Ocean.” --

“He called it the Pacific because he found it so

’

calm,” said George. ‘And he sailed clear across it.

Just think of coming to an unknown sea five or six
14 THE HERO OF MANILA.



thousand miles wide, and sailing right out into it, and
on and on, past islands and reefs, and sometimes long
stretches with nothing in sight but sky and water,
and no way to tell when you'll come to the end of it!
And when you stop at an island you don’t know
what. you'll find, or whether you'll find anything—
even good drinking-water. And he didn’t know
whether the earth was really round, for no one had
ever sailed round it before. I think that beats Co-
lumbus.”

“Was he really the first one to sail round the
world?” said Felix.

’

“Not exactly,” said George. ‘His ship was the
first that ever went round, but he didn’t get round
with her.”

“Why not?”

“‘ Because when they got to the Philippine Islands,
which they discovered, they went ashore on one of
them and had a fight with the natives, and Magel-
lan was killed.”

“TI guess the Philippine Islands are pretty good
ones to keep away from,” said Sammy Atkinson.

“T should be willing to take my chances, if I
could get there,” said George. “ But I suppose I never
shall.”

we scanntaatelliaasaid Satay Miller, a boy who
had recently come from Scotland with.his parents,
ON THE RIVER BANK. 15



“what savage countries you may visit afore you die.
Two years ago I didn’t dream [Td ever come to
America.”

“Do you call ours a savage country?” said Felix,
with a twinkle in his eye.

“T didn’t exactly mean to,” said Sandy, “and yet
I think I might, when I remember how all you boys
wanted to fight me the first week I was here, only
because I was a stranger.”

“ Not quite all,” said George.

“No, I take that back,” said Sandy. “You say
truly not quite all, for you yourself didn’t, and I
mustn’t forget it of you. I suppose it’s human na-
ture to want to fight all strangers, and maybe that’s
the reason the Philippine men killed Master Ma-
gellan. I suppose they'd try to do the same if any-
body went there now. But | wish you'd tell us
more about him and about the Pacific and the
Philippines, for I am aye fond of the sea; I en-
joyed every wave on the Atlantic when we came
over.”

Thereupon George, being urged by the other
boys as well, gave an account, as nearly as he could
remember, of what he had read.

“What has become of those islands?” said Bill
Ammon. |

“They are there yet,” said George.
16 THE HERO OF MANILA.
0 eee ee er ET

“Did you think they were sunk in the sea?” said
Tom Kennedy.

“It might not be very ridiculous if he did,” said
George, “for they have terrific earthquakes, and a
good many of them.”

“ Of course I meant,” Bill explained, “who owns
them?”

“Spain says she does,
had them a long time, for she took possession of them

oBy

said George, “and she has

about fifty years after they were discovered; but she
came pretty near losing them forever about a century
ago.”

“How was that?” Bill inquired.

“A British force attacked them,” said George,
“and stormed Manila, the capital, and the city had
its choice to pay five million dollars or be given up to
the soldiers for plunder. It paid the money.”

“Do you think that was right?” SEE Ostrom
asked.

“I don’t know enough about it to say,” George
answered; “but I suppose war is war, and when it
has to be made at all it ought to be made so as to
accomplish something.”

“What was the name of Magellan’s ae a asked
Tom Kennedy.

“He started with five ships,” said George, “ but
four of them were lost. The largest was only eighty
-ON THE RIVER BANK. 17)

——_———

feet long. The one that went round the world and
got home was the Victoria.”

“Huh!” said Tom, “I might have known it—just
like those Britishers, naming everything after their
queen.”

“Magellan was not a Britisher, he was Portu-
guese,” said George. “And Queen Victoria was not
born till about three hundred. years after his famous
voyage.”

The boys burst into a roar of laughter and hooted
at Tom.

“Tt’s all very well for you to laugh,” eal Tom
when the merriment had subsided a little, “but I’d
like to know how many of you would have known
that I made a blunder if George Dewey hadn’t ex-
plained it to you—probably not one. I can’t see that
anybody but George has a right to laugh at me, and
I noticed that he laughed least of all.”

The boys appeared to feel the sting of Tom’s argu-
ment, but at the same time they felt that any op-
portunity to laugh at him should be improved, be-
cause he was critical and sarcastic above all the rest.
They wanted to resent his remark, but did not know
of any way to do it effectively, and were all getting
into ill humor when Felix Ostrom thought of a way
to turn the subject and restore good feeling.

“Took here, boys,” said he, “as we’ are talking
18 THE HERO OF MANILA.



about the sea, and some of us intend to be sailors
when we are old enough, I’d like to propose that
Sandy Miller sing us a sea song. He knows a rip-
ping good one, and I know he can sing it, for I heard
him once at his house.”

There was an immediate demand for the song,
which was so loud and emphatic and unanimous that
Sandy could not refuse.

“It’s one that my great aunt, Miss Corbett,
wrote,” said he. “I can’t remember it all, but I'll
sing you a bit of it as well as I can. Ye’ll just re-
member that I’m no Jenny Lind nor the choir of the
Presbyterian church.’’ Then he sang:

“T’ve seen the waves as blue as air,
I’ve seen them green as grass;
But I never feared their heaving yet,
From Grangemouth to the Bass.
I’ve seen the sea as black as pitch,
I’ve seen it white as snow;
But I never feared its foaming yet,
Though the waves blew high or low.
When sails hang flapping on the masts,
While through the waves we snore,
When in a calm we're tempest-tossed,
We'll go to sea no more—
No more—
We'll go to sea no more.

“The sun is up, and round Inchkeith
The breezes softly blaw;
The gudeman has the lines on board—
Awa’! my bairns, awa’!
ON THE RIVER BANK. 19



An’ ye'll be back by gloamin’ gray,
An’ bright the fire will low,
An’ in your tales and sangs we'll tell
How weel the boat ye row.
When life’s last sun gaes feebly down,
An’ death comes to our door,
When a’ the world’s a dream to us,
We'll go to sea no more—
No more—
We'll go to sea no more.”

When the applause that greeted the song had sub-
sided, little Steve Leonard asked: “I suppose that
means they'll sail all their lives, doesn’t it?”

“Yes, it means just about that,” said Tom Ken-
nedy.

Paying no attention to the touch of sarcasm in
Tom’s intonation, Steve added:

“Well, they might do that in a fishing boat, but
they couldn’t do it in the navy. My Uncle Wal-
ter is an officer in the navy, and he’s got to
get out of it next year, because he’ll be sixty-two
years old, though there isn’t a gray hair in his
head.”

“The people in the song were fishermen,” said
Sandy.

At this moment there was a cry of alarm among
the small boys in the stream.. One of them had got
beyond his depth and had disappeared beneath the
surface.
20 THE HERO OF MANILA.

The larger boys rushed down the bank with
eager inquiries: “Where?” “Where did he go
down?”

But two of them—George Dewey and Bill Ammon
—did not need to wait for the answer. They knew
the exact depth of every square yard in that part
of the river, and the set of the current at every point,
for they had been in it and through it more than a
hundred times.

“Run down the bank and go in by the pine tree,
Bill,” said George. “I'll go in just below the riffle
and explore the cellar-hole!”

A few seconds later both of these boys had disap-
peared under water.

The “cellar-hole,’ as the boys called it, was a
place where some natural force, probably frost and
the current, had excavated the bed of the river to
a depth of eight or ten feet, with almost perpendicu-
lar walls. It was a favorite place for the larger boys
to dive; and another of their amusements consisted
in floating down into it with the current, which, just
before entering the cellar-hole, ran swiftly through a
narrow channel.

The two boys were under water so long that their
companions began to fear they never would come up.
From the excited state of their minds it seemed even
longer than it really was. ,
ON THE RIVER BANK. 21



Bill was the first to appear, and as soon as he
could get his breath he reported ‘“ No luck!”

A moment later George came up, and it was evi-
dent that he was bringing something. As soon as Bill
saw this he swam toward him, and at the same time
two other boys plunged in from the bank. They
brought ashore the apparently lifeless body of little
Jimmy Nash and laid it on the grass.

“What shall we do?” said several.

“Shake the water out of him,” said one.

“Stand him on his head,” said another.

“Roll him over a barrel,’ said a third.

“Somebody run for a doctor,” said a fourth; and
this suggestion was quickly carried out by two of the
smaller boys, who scampered off in search of a physi-
cian.

“The barrel is the right idea,” said George, “ but
there is no barrel anywhere in sight. Boys, bring us
that big log.”

Half a dozen boys made a rush for the log, rolled
it down the slope, and brought it to the place where
it was wanted. They laid Jimmy across it, face down,
and gently rolled him back and forth, which brought
considerable water out of his lungs.

One of the boys who had run for a physician had
the good fortune to come upon Dr. Dewey, who was
passing in his gig, and shouted:
22 THE HERO OF MANILA.



“Doctor! Doctor! there’s a drownded boy down
here! Come quick!” *,

The doctor sprang to the ground, tied his horse
to the fence in less time than it takes to tell it, and
followed the excited boy across the field and down
the bank.

After working over the little fellow about half an
hour he brought him back to consciousness, and at
the end of another half hour Jimmy was well enough
to be taken to his home. He was very weak, and two
large boys walked beside him, supporting him by the
arms, while all the others followed in a half-mournful,
half-joyful procession.

“T wonder if Jimmy’s father will lick him for be-

ing drowned,” said Tom Kennedy.
CHAPTER III.
BATTLE ROYAL.

WINTER came to Montpelier, and with it frost,
snow, and a new school year.

The first snowfall was in the night, and by noon
of the next day it was soft enough to pack, presenting
an opportunity for fun such as American boys never
forego. Big or little, studious or indolent, every one
of those whose acquaintance we have made in the pre-
ceding pages, together with many of their schoolmates
whom we have not named, took up handfuls of the
cold, white substance, fashioned them into balls, and
tried his skill at throwing. It is the Yankee form of
carnival, and woe to him who fails to take the pelt-
ing good-naturedly.

That day the fun was thickest at the orchard near
the schoolhouse. Half a dozen boys, partly sheltered
by the low stone wall, were considered to be in a fort
which a dozen others were attacking. At first it was
every man for himself, “load and fire at will,” but
as the contest grew hotter (if that term will do for a

snow battle) it was necessary to organize the work
3 23
24 THE HERO OF MANILA.

a little. So the smaller boys were directed to give
their attention entirely to the making of balls, which
the larger ones threw with more accuracy and force.
One boy, having a notion to vary the game with an
experiment, rolled. up a ball twice as large as his
head, managed to creep up to the wall with it, and
then threw it up into the air so that it came down
inside the fort. When it came down it landed on
the head and shoulders of Teddy Hawkins, broke
into a beautiful shower, and for a moment almost
buried him out of sight. This feat of military skill
received its appropriate applause, but the author of
it had to pay the cost. Before he could get back
to his own lines he was a target for every marksman
in the fort, and at least half a dozen balls hit him, at all
of which he laughed—with the exception of the one
that broke on his neck and dropped its fragments
inside his collar.

When there was a lull in the contest a boy looked
over the wall and hailed the besiegers with:

“ Boys, see who’s coming up the road!”

A tall man who carried a book under his arm and
apparently was in deep thought was approaching.
This was Pangborn, the schoolmaster, fresh from col-
lege, still a hard student, and assumed by the boys
to be their natural enemy from the simple fact that
- he had come there to be their teacher.
BATTLE ROYAL. 25

When he appeared at this interesting moment there
was no need of any formal proclamation of truce be-
tween the contending forces. The instinct of the
country schoolboy suggested the same thought prob-
ably to every one, whether besieger or besieged. The
word passed along, “ Make a lot of them, quick! and
make them hard.”

The little fellows whose hands were red and sting-
ing with cold worked with double energy, and the
larger ones ceased throwing at one another, stepped
back to places where they were not so likely to be
seen from the road, and by common consent formed
an ambush for the unsuspecting teacher.

When he came within range a ball thrown by
George Dewey, which knocked off his cap, was the
signal for a general attack, and the next minute he
thought himself in the center of a hailstorm, the hail-
stones being as large as country newspapers ever rep-
resent them. After the first sensation of bewilderment;
he realized the situation, and being a man of quick
wit, with some experience of boys, he saw what was
the one proper thing to do.

Coolly laying down his book on his cap where it
rested on the snow, and paying little attention to the
balls that were still whizzing round him, he proceeded
to make five or six, as round and solid as could be
desired. Then, looking for the leader of the attack,
26 THE HERO OF MANILA.

and recognizing him in Dewey, he charged upon that
youngster and delivered every ball with unerring aim.
It was so good an exhibition of marksmanship that
all the other combatants stood still and looked on,
their appreciation of all good throwing balancing their
repugnance to all teachers.

When he had delivered his last ball, which Master
Dewey received ‘courageously and good-naturedly in
the breast, Mr. Pangborn picked up his book and
his hat and resumed his walk, the small boys now
coming to the front and sending their feeble shots
after him.

“Tm afraid he’s game,” said Tom Kennedy.

“Tm not afraid of it, I’m glad of it,” said Sim
Nelson. “I want him to be game. Of course we
must try to lick him, before the term’s over, but I
hope we won’t succeed. I want the school to go
on, and want to learn something. This may be my
last winter, for I’ve got to go to a trade pretty
soon. I was just getting a good start last winter. I
was nearly through fractions when we licked old Hig-
gins and he gave up the school.”

“Then why do we lick the teacher at all?” said
Sammy Atkinson.

“T suppose it wouldn’t answer not to,” said Sim.
“What would the boys over in the Myers district say
if we didn’t give him a tug?”
BATTLE ROYAL, — 27
a a ee ee
“ The boys in the Myers district tried it with their
teacher last week, and got licked unmercifully,” said
Bill Ammon.

“At any rate,” said Sim, “it appears to be an old
and settled fashion. Father had a visit last night from
a schoolmate, and they were talking over old times,
and I heard them give a lively description of a fight
with a teacher. After they had driven out three
men in three winters, the trustees engaged a woman
teacher. She was tall and strong, and not afraid of
anything. Of course they couldn’t fight her, because
she was a woman; but all the same she laced those
boys with a rawhide whenever they broke the rules.
But father said she hadn’t much education; she never
took them beyond simple fractions, because she didn’t
understand arithmetic beyond that point herself.
When they got there she would say, ‘I think now
we ought to take some review lessons; I believe in
thoroughness.’ And in the reading class she taught
them to say So’-crates and Her’-cules, instead of Soc’-
ra-tes and Her’-cu-les. Father said the boys learned
lots of obedience that winter, but nothing else.”

“Well, of course,” said Teddy Hawkins—and his
words were slow, because he was trying at the same
time to bite off the end of a big stick of Spanish
licorice—“ if it was the custom of our forefathers—
we must keep it up. But we want a good boy—to
28 THE HERO OF MANILA.

Dh pele ee
lead the fight and manage it. If we do it—in a
helter-skelter way—we’ll—get—licked.”

“Certainly!” said Sim. “And that may be the
result of it any way. Dewey’s the fellow to lead the
crowd and take charge of it. What do you say—will
you do it, George?”

“Tf he does anything that we ought to lick him
for, I will,” said George. “ But if you're going to be
the ones to pick the quarrel, you may count me out.”

The next day the teacher brought a mysterious
parcel and laid it in his desk without undoing it.
He had had charge of the school only a week, and
by overlooking many occurrences that might have
been taken as a deliberate challenge, he had hoped to
make the boys see for themselves that he bore them
no ill-will. His forbearance had been taken for timid-
ity, and many of his pupils saw in the tall young
graduate only another victim who was destined very
soon to follow the vanquished teacher of the preceding
winter.

Contrary to their expectations, Mr. Pangborn
opened the school as usual, and made no allusion to
the snowballing affair.

The first class was ordered to take position be-
fore his desk. As they filed past, one of the boys,
extending his foot, tripped another. The boy that
was tripped made a great fuss about it, fell unneces-
BATTLE ROYAL. 29

oe ee

sarily over a bench, and professed to be hurt both
in mind and in body.

Mr. Pangborn called the aggressor before him and
said:

“I was willing to pass over what occurred yes- —
terday at the orchard, and I had no intention of in-
forming your parents about it. I recognize the fact
that you are boys, and I know that boys like fun
and must have it. If you sometimes misplace your
fun and overdo it, and act like highwaymen instead
of good, healthy, civilized boys, if it is outside the
schoolhouse and school hours I have no more to say
about it than any other citizen. But when you're
here you’ve got to behave yourselves. I will say no
more about what has just occurred, but at the least
sign of any further riot or misbehavior I'll put a stop
to it in a way that you'll remember, and this will
help me.”

With that he opened the parcel and displayed a
large new rawhide.

For a few seconds there was a dead silence in
the room. Then a boy in one of the back seats—it
was George Dewey—stood up and said:

“Mr. Pangborn, I want to tell you what I think
about that, and I guess most of the boys think as
I do. If they don’t, I hope you'll let them say what
they do think. You've been giving us sums in pro-
30 THE HERO OF MANILA.



portion, and my father tells me I must try to apply
everything I learn. If I do anything wrong I’m will-
ing to be licked according; but I don’t want to take
a big thrashing for a little thing. I don’t believe
any boy in this school will do anything bad enough
to deserve that rawhide; you can’t give any but the
biggest thrashings with it. And so if you attempt
to use it at all we’ll all turn in and lick you.”
“Vou’ve made quite a good show of argument,
George,” said the teacher, “and I like to have a boy
exercise his reasoning powers—that’s one thing I’m
here to teach you. But there is a serious fault or
two in your statement of the case. In the first place,
no boy is obliged to do any wrong, little or great;
he is at perfect liberty to obey all the rules and be-
have like a gentleman, and if he does so he'll not
be touched by this rawhide or anything else. If he
chooses to break the rules he knows beforehand what
it will cost him, and he has no right to complain.
In the second place, the trustees have not put you
here to govern the school or judge how it ought to
be governed. They have employed me for that; and
I intend to do what I have agreed to do and am paid
for doing. I have come here to teach the school, but
I can’t teach without order and obedience on the part
of the pupils; and order and obedience I will have—
pleasantly if I can, forcibly if I must. If you had


RCSA aee an

A schoolroom episode.
BATTLE ROYAL. 31
So SR re Fe Se eee

stopped, George, at the end of your argument, I
should stop here with my answer, and should praise
you for, having reasoned out the case as well as you
could, though you did not arrive at the right conclu-
sion. Nothing will please me better than for the boys
to cultivate a habit of doing their own thinking and
learn to think correctly. You will always find me
ready to listen to reason. But you did not stop at
the end of your argument; you added a threat to
attack me with the whole school to help you and
overcome me. Whatever you may say of big and
little faults, you have now committed one of the
greatest. If I passed over such a breach of discipline,
my usefulness here would be at an end. Unless I am
master there can be no school. If you see the jus-
tice of this and are manly enough to acknowledge it,
you may simply stand up and apologize for your threat,
and then we'll go on with the lessons as if nothing
had happened. If not, of course you must take the
consequences.”

“TI don’t know how to apologize,” said George,
“and I’m not going to.”

“Then step out here,” said the teacher, as he
took up the rawhide.

The boy went forward at once, with his fists
clenched and his eyes blazing.

Mr. Pangborn saw there was good stuff in him,
32 THE HERO OF MANILA.



if only it were properly cultivated, and could not re-
press a feeling of admiration for his courage.

?

“ Now let’s see you strike me,” said George.

The next instant the rawhide came down across
his shoulders, and with a cry of rage the boy threw
himself upon his teacher, fighting like a terrier.

Then five or six of the larger boys came to
George’s aid; most of the smaller ones followed them;
those who were not anxious to fight did their part
by yelling, overthrowing desks, and spilling ink; and
the whole place was in a hideous uproar. They
charged upon the teacher from all sides, but he held
fast to Dewey’s collar with one hand while he plied
the rawhide with the other. The largest boy, who
had received a stinging cut across the face, got a
stick from the wood-box and let it fly at the master’s
head, which it narrowly missed. Feeling that his life
might be in danger, Mr. Pangborn picked up the stick
and waded into the crowd, using it as a policeman
uses his club. The boy who had thrown it was toppled
over with a blow on the head, and in three minutes
all the others were driven out of the schoolhouse,
some of them feeling a little lame about the shoulders
and sides—all except Dewey, on whom the teacher
had not relaxed his grip. He now resumed the raw-
hide and gave the boy as much more as he thought
he deserved.
BATTLE ROYAL. 33



A little later they left the house together and
walked up the street to Dr. Dewey’s office, where the
boy was turned over to his father, with a brief state-
ment of the circumstances. Dr. Dewey thanked the
teacher for what he had done, and the lesson to
George was complete.

The next morning George was in his seat at the
tap of the bell, and throughout the day he was as
orderly and studious as could be desired. When
the session was over and the teacher was leaving the
house, he found the boy waiting for him at the door.
George extended his hand and said:

“Father and I talked that matter all over, and
we both came to the conclusion that you did exactly
right. I thank you for it.”

From that time Zebina K. Pangborn and George
Dewey were fast friends.
CHAPAERETWVE
EDUCATION AT NORWICH.

A YEAR later George Dewey left the school and
went to the Morrisville Academy, and there also Mr.
Pangborn’s teachings stood him in good stead. His
aptitude in sports always made Dewey a favorite with
his companions. He was one of the fastest runners
and the best skaters, and he had the knack of do-
ing everything he did quickly and neatly, in the way
that shows the properly balanced relations between
mind and eye and body. He acted as he thought—
quickly and surely—and he was certain to resent any
insult or infringement of what he considered his rights.

Dr. Dewey had been thinking over his son’s fu-
ture, and had decided upon sending George to West
Point, although even at this time the boy’s inclinations
turned more strongly to the other branch of the serv-
ice. Yet he did not strenuously object, and so after
a year at Morrisville he was sent to Norwich Uni-
versity at Northfield, Vermont.

Norwich University stands on a plateau above the

town of Northfield. It is a fine old place, with a wide
34
EDUCATION AT NORWICH. 35



parade-ground extending before the buildings, and
back of it are the brick barracks that contain the
cadets’ quarters and the armory and recitation rooms.
Everything was managed in military fashion, and there
was no better school in which to fit a boy for the
life and habits of a soldier. It was in the year 1851
that George Dewey became a pupil there, and from
the day of his coming he manifested the powers of
leadership that afterward distinguished him.

Four or five young fellows in uniform were seated
in one of the rooms in the South Barrack. They
belonged to the second-year men, and the second
year at any institution of learning is perhaps the cru-
cial one. If a boy gets into any mischief that is
serious, it is generally in his second year. The doings
of the sophomore have cost many a dollar out of the
college treasury, to pay for stolen gates and burned
fences, smashed lamp-posts and injured constables.
And it was so with the second year’s men at Norwich.

“Where’s Doc. Dewey?” asked one of the boys.
“We must get him into the scheme, or the whole
thing will fall through.”

“Tf any of you fellows want to see Doc. Dewey,
all you’ve got to do is to come to the window,” said
a boy who was gazing out on the parade ground.

At the farther end a solitary figure was patrolling
up and down, turning at the end of his beat about a
36 © THE HERO OF MANILA.



large elm that stood in the corner of the campus.
The punishments at Norwich were of a military char-
acter, and extra sentry duty was the reward for any
breach of discipline.

“T ought to be the one doing all that march-
ing,” said one of the boys, “for George only tried to
get me out of the scrape, but he wouldn’t let me tell.”

“Well, he’ll be off in half an hour,” said another,
“and we'll meet in his rooms. What do you say?”

“So say we all of us,” was the return. ‘“ We can
hatch up the scheme there better than anywhere else.”

In a few minutes the party broke up, to meet later
in a room down the hallway.

Across the Connecticut River, which skirts the town
of Northfield, is the town of Hanover, the seat of
old Dartmouth College. From time immemorial the
greatest rivalry had existed between the two institu-
tions, and in the years that preceded the civil war
this feeling had almost grown into a feud, and for a
member of either institution to cross the river was
to enter the enemy’s country, with all the attendant
risk. Only three or four evenings previously Dewey
and one of the other cadets had boldly crossed the
bridge and appeared in the Hanover streets in broad
daylight. It had not taken long for the news to reach
the ears of a few of the Dartmouth sophomores, who
were spoiling for a row, and soon Dewey and his
EDUCATION AT NORWICH. 37



companions had found out that they were followed.
But it was not until they had reached the entrance
to the bridge that there was any sign of trouble.
There, sure enough, they saw four of the Dartmouth
belligerents waiting for them. An old farmer, crossing
the bridge from Hanover to Northfield, was driving
a pair of rather skittish horses that were prancing as
they heard the rattling of the boards beneath their
feet. It was almost time for the evening assembly,
and if the boys were to be prompt they must not be
stopped, although such, it was plain, was the intention
of the Dartmouth boys who were awaiting them.
They asked the farmer if he would give them a ride,
and he declined; but they had jumped into the wagon,
and, when near the spot where their four enemies had
lined across the causeway, one of the cadets leaned
forward and, picking up the whip, struck the two
horses across their backs. This was all they needed;
the Dartmouth boys had barely time to jump aside
when the team went tearing by. But it was easier
to get the young horses going than to stop them.
The rattling of the bridge frightened them more and
more, and the people on the streets of Northfield were
surprised to see a runaway come roaring into town
with an old man and two hatless cadets hauling at
the reins without result. It was fortunate that no
harm was done, and the horses were stopped halfway
38 THE HERO OF MANILA.

up the hill that leads to the University; but the
president had seen and recognized the two uniformed
figures, and that was one reason why Doc. Dewey
was walking about the old elm on this fine spring
day.

The evening before, one of the cadets had re-
turned from a nocturnal excursion across the river
with his coat torn and a story of being badly treated.
Revenge was being planned, and the plotters had
chosen Dewey as their leader for the coming expedi-
tion that was meant to teach the Dartmouth fellows
a lesson. This expedition resulted in a lively en-
counter, in which, though outnumbered, the Norwich
boys are said to have been victorious. In the tradi-
tions of the school it is known as the Battle of the
Torn Coats.

In Dewey’s last year at Norwich the faculty pro-
cured two fine six-pounder howitzers, with limbers,
to replace the old iron guns at which the cadets had
been exercised. When they arrived, the cadets took
down the old guns and brought up the new ones from
the railway station. As boys naturally would, they
divided into two parties and made a frolic of the
occasion. It was tedious work getting the guns out
of the car, but as soon as they were out and limbered
up the fun began. One of the cadets has told the
story very prettily in his diary.
EDUCATION AT NORWICH. 39



“Ainsworth and Munson chose squads to draw
them to the parade. I chanced to be in Ainsworth’s
squad. Ainsworth’s squad wanted to lead, but as
Munson’s squad had the road ahead and we were at
the side and in sandy gutters, it was doubtful how
we were to do it. They started off with a fine spurt,
getting a big lead. Going up the hill where the road
was broader we steadily gained until only the length of
the trail in the rear; then we gathered and started on
a run, passing and keeping the lead, with cheers and
great glee. Climbing the hill, we proceeded more
slowly, Munson quietly in the rear, on our way round
the North Barracks and then through the usual gate-
way to position. As we entered the village near the
southeast corner of the parade, we noticed Munson’s
squad, apparently under the lead of Dewey, making
for a short cut across the grounds, first breaking down
the fence for passage. Now our efforts were re-
doubled, and the boys of the other squad declare that
they never saw fellows run as we ran, or expect to
see a gun jump as that six-pounder bounded along
the main street and around the corner. But we
led; round the North Barracks at double quick went
gun and gun squad, entered the barrack yard and
placed the gun in position before the west front
of the South Barracks, giving three cheers for No. 1

to the chagrin of No. 2, just approaching position.
4

See
40 THE HERO OF MANILA.”

It was a great race and pleased the faculty exceed-
ingly.”

This was only one of many episodes that prevented
life at Norwich from being dull for the boys, and
sweetened their memories in after time, though not
assisting directly in any useful branch of education.
Cry NEE Rave
LIFE AT ANNAPOLIS.

WueEn Dr. Dewey had consented to his son’s wishes
for a naval education, the next step was to secure
his appointment to a cadetship at the Academy at
Annapolis. Each member of Congress has the privi-
lege of appointing a candidate when there is no cadet
from his district in the Academy; and the President
has ten appointments at large, besides one for the
District of Columbia. The giving of these appoint-
ments after a competitive examination was not so
common forty years ago as it is now. They were
almost invariably bestowed arbitrarily, according to
the Congressman’s personal relations with those who
sought them or his idea of his own political interests.
But it was of little use to appoint a boy who could
not pass the mental and physical entrance examina-
_tions.. George Dewey obtained an appointment, but
“only as alternate. The first place was given to a
schoolmate two years older than he, George B. Spal-
ding. For some reason Spalding, though a bright boy,

failed to pass, while the alternate answered the re-
41
42 THE HERO OF MANILA.



quirements and was admitted to the Academy. Mr.
Spalding was graduated two years later at the Uni-
versity of Vermont, studied theology at Andover, and
has had a creditable career as a clergyman and legis-
lator. It is said that only about forty per cent of the
appointees are able to pass the entrance examinations,
and of those who are admitted, only about half finish
the course.

Dewey entered the Academy September 23, 1854,
being then in his seventeenth year. He was born
December 26, 1837. The number of cadets was then
one hundred and sixty, the curriculum had been re-
cently remodeled for a four-years’ course, and the
first class under the new regulation was graduated that
year. Captain Louis M. Goldsborough (afterward
rear admiral) was the superintendent.

The classes are designated by numbers, the lowest
(corresponding to freshmen in a college) being called
the fourth. The cadets (or midshipmen, as they were
then called; that term is no longer in use) were under
the immediate charge of an officer called the Com-
mandant of Midshipmen. He ranked next to the
superintendent, and was the executive officer of the
institution and the instructor in seamanship, gunnery,
and naval tactics. He had three assistants. There
were eight professorships—Mathematics; Astronomy,
Navigation and Surveying; Natural and Experimental
LIFE AT ANNAPOLIS. 43

Philosophy; Field Artillery and Infantry Tactics; Ethics
and English Studies; French; Spanish; and Drawing.

The examinations of all the classes were held in
February and June. A very strict record was kept
of the conduct of every student; and after the June
examination those in the second class who had not
received more than a hundred and fifty demerit marks
during the year were furloughed till October, while
the others were at once embarked for the annual prac-
tice cruise. This appears like a great number of de-
merit marks for even the worst student to receive,
but some offenses were punished with more than one
mark. Thus, for neglect of orders or overstaying leave
of absence the penalty was ten marks; for having a
light in one’s room after taps, eight; for absence from
parade or roll call, six; for slovenly dress, four, etc.
Any cadet who received more than two hundred de-
merits in a year was dropped from the rolls; and it
was optional with the superintendent to dismiss a
cadet from the service for being intoxicated or having
liquor in his possession; for going beyond the limits
of the institution without permission; for giving, car-
rying, or accepting a challenge; for playing at cards
or any game of chance in the Academy; for offering
violence or insult to a person on public duty; for
publishing anything relating to the Academy; or for
any conduct unbecoming a gentleman.
44 THE HERO OF MANILA.



The daily routine of the Academy is of interest as
showing to what discipline the cadets were subjected,
and what habits of promptness, regularity, and ac-
curacy were cultivated. Marshall’s History of the
Academy shows us what it was at that time, and it
is still practically the same.

The morning gun-fire and reveille with the beating

sol the drum was at 6.15 A. M., or at 6.30, according to
the season. Then came the police of quarters and in-
spection of rooms. The roll call was at 6.45 or at
7-15, according to the season. From December tst
to March 1st the later hour was the one observed.
Chapel service followed, and afterward breakfast at a
or at 7.30. The sick call was thirty minutes after
breakfast. Then the cadets had recreation till 8
o’clock, when the study and recitation hours began.

Section formations took place in the front hall of
the third floor, under the supervision of the officer of
the day, who, as well as the section leaders, was
responsible for preservation of silence and order. When
the signal was given by the bugle, the sections were
marched to their recitation rooms. They marched in
close order, in silence, and with strict observance of
military decorum. Whenever a section left its recita-
tion room it was marched by its leader to the third
floor, and there dismissed.

Study alternated or intervened with recitations
LIFE AT ANNAPOLIS. 45
a ee ee

until one o’clock, when the signal for dinner was given.
The cadets were again formed in order by the captains
of crews, and marched into the mess hall. The or-
ganization was into ten guns’ crews, for instruction in
seamanship and gunnery, and for discipline, The cap-
tains of crews, when at the mess table, repressed
promptly all disorderly conduct, unbecoming language,
and unnecessary noise. They enforced perfect silence
among their guns’ crews until the order “ Seats!” had
been given. Then conversation was permitted. Si-
lence was enforced again after the order “ Rise!” until
the crews reached the main hall. At all times, in mus-
tering their crews, the captains were required to call
the names in the lowest tone that would secure at-
tention. They were required to report any irregular-
ity in uniform or untidiness which they perceived at
any formation, as well as any infraction of regulations,
disregard of orders, or other impropriety.

The Professor of Field Artillery and Infantry Tac-
tics was inspector of the mess hall, and presided at
the mess table. He had charge of the police and order
of the mess hall, in which duty he was assisted by
the officer of the day and the captains of crews. Each
student had a seat assigned to him at table, which
he could not change without the sanction of the in-
spector of the mess hall; and no student must appear
at meals negligently dressed.
46 THE HERO OF MANILA,

Thirty minutes were allowed for breakfast, and the
same time for supper. Forty minutes were allowed for
dinner.

After dinner the young gentlemen had recreation
again until two o’clock, when the afternoon study and
recitation hours began. These continued until four
o'clock, followed by instruction in the art of defense,
infantry or artillery drill, and recreation until parade
and roll call at sunset. Supper followed immediately;
then recreation and call to evening studies at 6.25 or
6.55, according to the season. Study hours continued
until tattoo at half past nine, which was a signal for
extinguishing lights and inspection of rooms. After
“taps” at ten o’clock no lights were allowed in any
part of the students’ quarters, except by authority of
the superintendent.

On the school-ship attached to the Academy there
was another set of rules and regulations, concerning
duty, conduct, and etiquette, so minute and exacting
that one would think it was a liberal education merely
to learn them all, to say nothing of obeying them daily
and hourly. Here are the greater part of them:

At reveille the midshipmen will immediately turn
out, arrange their bedding, and taking the lashing
from the head clews of their hammocks, where it was
neatly coiled the night before, will lash up their ham-
mocks, taking seven taut turns at equal distances, and
LIFE AT ANNAPOLIS. 47



tucking in their clews neatly. They will then place
their hammocks under their right arms, and first cap-
tains will give the order, “Stand by your hammocks,
No. — forward, march!” at which order they will pro-
ceed in line, by their allotted ladders, to their allotted
places in their respective nettings; when there, they
will in order deliver their hammocks to those ap-
pointed to receive them. Each first captain delivering
his hammock and falling back, will face the line of
his gun’s crew, and see that proper order is main-
tained; each midshipman, after delivering his ham-
mock, will fall back, facing outboard, forming line from
first captain aft. When all are stowed, the first cap-
tains, each at the head of his crew, will face them in
the direction of their ladder, and march them to the
wash room—odd-numbered crews on starboard, even
numbers on port side of the wash room. Towels will
be marked and kept in their places, over each respec-
tive basin. No one will leave the wash room until
marched out; three guns’ crews will wash at the same
time, and each week the numbers will be changed.
When ready, the first captains will march their crews
to their places on the berth deck, where they will dis-
miss them.

Guns’ crews Nos. 1 and 2 stow hammocks in for-
ward netting—No. 2 on port, and No. 1 on starboard
side; Nos. 3, 5, and 7 in starboard, and Nos. 4, 6,
48 THE HERO OF MANILA.



and 8 in port quarter-deck nettings, lowest numbers
of each crew stowing forward.

Nos. 1 and 2 guns’ crews leave berth deck by fore-
hatch ladders, Nos. 3, and 4 by main-hatch ladders,
Nos. 5 and 6 by after-hatch ladders, and Nos. 7 and
8 by steerage ladders, each on their respective sides,
and each march to their allotted places on spar deck.

Twelve minutes from the close of reveille (which
will be shown by three taps on the drum) are allowed
for lashing hammocks and to leave the berth deck.

The guns’ crews will form in two ranks, at their
respective places on gun deck: Nos. Sanat ae
on port side, and Nos. 2, 4, 6, and 8 on starboard
side; first and second captains on the right of their
crews, officer in charge, and adjutant forward of main-
mast. Officer of the day and superintendents forward
of main hatch, fronting officer in charge; when formed
they will be faced to the front, and dressed by first
captains by the orders, “Front; right dress.” The
adjutant then gives the order, “ Muster your crews!”
when each first captain, taking one step to the front,
faces the line of his crew, second captain stepping for-
ward into his interval; first captain then calls the roll
from memory, noting absentees; when finished, faces
toward his place, second captain takes backward step
to his former position, and first captain faces about to
his place in the front rank; the adjutant then gives the
LIFE AT ANNAPOLIS. 49

order, “ First captains front and center!” First cap-
tains take one full step to the front, and face the
adjutant’s position, second captains filling intervals as
before; the adjutant then gives the order, ‘“ March!”
at which captains march in direction of the adjutant,
forming in line abreast of him. The adjutant then
gives the order, “ Front! report!” The captains report
all present, thus: “ All present, No. 1!” or, if any are

““



absent, thus: absent, No. 1!” First captain of
No. 1 will begin in a short, sharp, and intelligible
tone, making the salute when he has finished, which
will be the signal for first captain of No. 2 to report,
and so on to the last. The adjutant then gives the
order, ‘“ Posts! march!” the first captains facing, at
the order “posts!” in the direction of their crews,
advance at the word “ march!” to their places in the
ranks. The adjutant then reports to the officer in
charge, and receives his instructions; if there be any
orders he publishes them; he then gives the order,
“Two files from the right, two paces to the front,

{»

march!’’ when the two files from the right of each
rank step two paces to the front, and the adjutant
gives the order, “ Battalion right dress!” The bat-
talion dresses on the two files, and the adjutant gives
the order, “ Battalion to the rear, open order, march! ”
when the rear rank will take two steps to the rear,

halt, and be dressed by the second captain.
50 THE HERO OF MANILA.

The officer in charge, with the adjutant, will pro-
ceed to inspect the battalion. The adjutant will then
give the order, ‘“ Rear rank, close order, march!” when
the rear rank will take two steps forward. The adju-
tant then gives the order, “ Officer of the day and
superintendents, relieve!” at which the officer of the
day and superintendents of the day previous will face
about, and pass the orders to their reliefs, the officer
of the day delivering his side arms; they will then take
position in their respective crews.

When the officer of the day and superintendents
of the day previous have taken their places in their
crews, the adjutant gives the order, ‘‘ March to break-
fast!” the first captains will direct their crews by their
respective ladders to their respective mess tables.
On arriving at the mess tables, each first captain will
take position in rear of his camp stool, at the after
end of the table, second captain taking the forward
end, and the crew taking position corresponding to
their places in the ranks; all will remain standing in
rear of their respective camp stools until the officer
in charge gives the order, “Seats!” at which word
the midshipmen will place their caps under their camp
stools, and quietly take their seats. As the midship-
men at each table shall have finished the meal, the
first captain will rise and look at the adjutant, who
will acknowledge the report by raising his right hand;
LIFE AT ANNAPOLIS. 51



the first captain will then resume his seat; when all
shall have reported, the adjutant will make it known
to the officer in charge, who, rising from his seat, will
tap on the table and give the order, “ Rise!’ at which
order each midshipman will rise, put on his cap, step
to the rear of his camp stool, putting it in place, and
facing aft; at the order “ March!” from the adjutant,
first captains will advance, followed by their crews in
their proper order, and proceed to their parade stations
on the gun deck, where they will form and dress their
command, and bring them to parade rest in order for
prayers. All will take off their caps at the opening
of prayers, and put them on at the order “ Attention!”
at the close of prayers, from the adjutant, who gives
the order “ Battalion, attention! right face, break
ranks, march!”

The hours for recitation and study were the same
on board the training ship as in quarters—from about
eight o’clock in the morning to one o’clock, and from
about two o’clock in the afternoon to four o’clock. The
guns’ crews were then assembled for exercise at the
great guns for an hour or more, or perhaps in in-
fantry drill, or in practical seamanship, including ex-
ercises with boats, the lead, log, etc. Evening parade
intervened, and after supper the fourth class were
called to their studies again. At tattoo, half past nine
in the evening, the midshipmen were required to ar- |
52 THE HERO OF MANILA,



range their books and papers neatly, place their chairs
under their desks, and at gun-fire form by crews,
when the officer in charge inspected the study tables.
At “taps” all must turn in, and all noise must cease
at four bells.

The rules of etiquette were very minute. Here
are some of them:

The midshipmen will not use the steerage ladders,
the after ladder from the gun deck, the starboard poop
ladder, the starboard side of the poop, quarter-deck,
or gangway abaft No. 2 recitation room; they are par-
ticularly enjoined to keep the starboard gangway clear.
The etiquette of the quarter-deck will be strictly ob-
served. Officers on coming up the quarter-deck lad-
ders will make the salute. No running, skylarking,
boisterous conduct, or loud talking will be permitted
on the quarter-deck or poop. The midshipmen will
never appear on the gun deck or quarter-deck without
their caps, jackets, and cravats. They will, in ascend-
ing and descending the ladders, avoid the heavy step
upon them which is made by shore people; when ab-
sent in boats they will yield implicit and prompt obedi-
ence to their captains, or those placed in charge. It
is particularly forbidden to get out of or into the ship
through the ports, or to sit on the rail of the ship. No
one is permitted to go out on the head-booms during
study hours, or to go aloft, without authorized per-
LIFE AT ANNAPOLIS. 53



mission. No one is permitted to go or come from
the berth deck during study hours by any other than
the main-hatch ladders. The midshipmen are forbid-
den to sit upon the study tables.

A young man who could go through with four
years of such discipline as this, and at the same time
keep up such proficiency in his studies as to pass
the examinations, might well be supposed to-be thor-
oughly fitted for the duties of life. George Dewey
went through with it, and on graduation, in 1858,
stood fifth in a class of fourteen. His classmate,
Captain Henry L. Howison, says of him: “In his
studies Dewey was exceedingly bright. At gradua-
tion he was No. 5 in our class and I was No. 4,
but after the rearrangement at the end of our final
cruise he was No. 4 and I was No. 5. He was a
born fighter. He was just as much of a fighter in a
small way when he was a boy as he has been in a
large way as a man. His days at the Naval Academy
proved this. He is quick at the trigger and has a
strong temper, but he has excellent control over it.
When a cadet he would always fight, and fight hard
if necessary, but he was never known to be in a brawl.
I do not want to convey the idea that he ever wanted
to get into a row, because he didn’t. He would go
a long way to get out of fighting if the affair was
none of his business. He was sure to be on the right
54 THE HERO OF MANILA.



side of every fight, but the fight had to come to him.
He did not seek it. If he saw a quarrel on the street
and he thought it the part of a gentleman to help
one or the other of the contestants, he would not
hesitate a moment about pitching in. He would go
miles to help a friend who was in trouble. He was
fond of animals, and especially fond of horses. Ever
since I have known him he has gone horseback ‘rid-
ing whenever he had a chance, and has owned several
fine animals. At the Academy he would ride when-
ever he could get anything to ride. He had a fine
horse when we lived in Washington. I recall that
Dewey as a lad was very fond of music, and, indeed,
quite a musician himself. He had a really good bari-
tone voice, nearly a tenor, and he used it well and
frequently, too. He also played the guitar well. He
was no soloist, but could play accompaniments all
right.”

When Dewey was in the Academy there was a spe-
cial source of misunderstanding, ill feeling, and quar-
rels in the heated condition of politics and sectional
jealousy; and then, as ever, it was customary for the
boys to settle their differences with their natural
means of offense and defense. Dewey did not escape
the peculiar peril of those days. There is a story to
the effect that the leader of the Southern party among
the cadets made an occasion to give George an un-
LIFE AT ANNAPOLIS. 55

mistakable statement of his opinion of Yankees in
general and George in particular, whereupon he pres-
ently found himself provided with a black eye. Then
came a challenge to mortal combat, which George
promptly accepted. Seconds were chosen, and a meet-
ing would undoubtedly have taken place had not some
of the students informed the faculty, who put a stop
to the scheme and made the boys give their word of
honor to keep the peace.

George participated in the annual practice cruises
with his classmates, and after graduation they were
sent on a two-years’ cruise in European waters in the
steam frigate Wabash, commanded by Captain Samuel
Barron. The ship attracted a great deal of attention
in every port she visited. Steam had been only re-
cently adopted for naval vessels, and the Americans
had constructed a type of steam frigate that was
superior to anything in the other navies of the world.
While the Wabash lay at Malta a fine steam yacht
came in from the sea and anchored near her. It was
said that she was the property of a distinguished noble-
man, and was one of the few first-class steam yachts
then in existence. She excited a great deal of curiosity
among the officers of the Wabash. A few days later
Captain Barron gave out a general invitation, and
many visitors from the garrison,and from British men-

of-war in the harbor came to inspect the new war ship
: 5


56 THE HERO OF MANILA.



from the West. Dewey and the other midshipmen were
on hand to assist in doing the honors, and when a
kindly-looking gentleman with a small party came up
the gangway and saluted the quarter-deck with a
nautical air, George returned the salute and asked if
he could be of any service. The gentleman said he
would like to see whatever was to be seen, and the
self-possessed young midshipman proceeded to show
him and his party over the vessel. When they had
nearly completed the rounds, Dewey ventured to offer
his card by way of introduction. The gentleman took
out his own card and gave it in return, and Dewey,
as he glanced at it, read one of the highest names —
in the British peerage. “ Yes,” said the gentleman,
“that is my little teakettle anchored under your quar-
ter. I fear she’ll seem rather cramped after we go
aboard of her from this.” Dewey’s conscience now
began to trouble him, and he insisted on taking the
party to his commanding officer, though, as he an-
ticipated, from that moment his own existence was
ignored.

While nothing strictly historical took place in con-
nection with this cruise, there were many pleasant inci-
dents and some that made strong impressions on the
young midshipmen in regard to duty and discipline.
Several Italian ports were visited, princes and ambas-
sadors were received on board, and courtesies were
LIFE AT ANNAPOLIS, 57



exchanged with the war vessels of several nations. The
Fourth of July and Washington’s Birthday were duly
observed, and on the former occasion one of the
officers read the Declaration of Independence to the
ship’s company assembled on deck. At Leghorn the
Wabash ran aground, and a British merchant steamer
assisted in getting her off. At Genoa some of the petty
officers and seamen got into a street fight, in which
aman was killed; and the captain sent them all ashore
next day for the civil authorities to identify the par-
ticipants. At Spezia, Dewey records in his journal,
“five hundred and fifty gallons of beans were surveyed,
condemned, and thrown overboard,” furnished prob-
ably by contract. This is in striking contrast with
what afterward he was able to say concerning the sup-
plies of the fleet at Manila. On November 13, 1859,
they sailed for home, and on December 16th arrived
at the port of New York. A little later Midshipman
Dewey was examined at Annapolis for a commission,
and he not only passed the examination, but was ad-
vanced in his relative standing. He then received leave
of absence to visit his home. He was commissioned
lieutenant April 19, 1861, and was ordered to the
steam sloop Mississippi.
Gi EAR le
THE BEGINNING OF WAR.

Tue United States navy had done little to distin-
guish itself since its wonderful achievements in the
War of 1812 with Great Britain. During the Mexican
War it took part in the occupation of California, and
performed what service it could in the Gulf, but there
was no opportunity for anything remarkable. Wilkes
had made his exploring expedition in Pacific and Ant-
arctic waters; Ingraham, in the St. Louis, had de-
manded and secured the release of Martin Koszta at
Smyrna; Tatnall, with his famous “blood is thicker
than water,” had participated in the bombardment of
the Chinese forts at Peiho; Hudson, in the Niagara,
had assisted in laying the first Atlantic cable; and sev-
eral cruisers had pursued pirates in the West Indies. But
with the exception of these occurrences the navy had
done nothing to attract popular attention for more
than forty years. Yet it had quietly accomplished
much good work on the Coast Survey; and the Naval
Academy at Annapolis, from its establishment in 1845,

educated officers who gave character and efficiency to
58
THE BEGINNING OF WAR. 59

the service, and when the day of battle came showed
themselves to be worthy successors of the famous cap-
tains who had preceded them.

A great crisis in the nation’s history was now ap-
proaching, more rapidly than any one suspected. The
older statesmen were .gone. Adams, Jackson, Clay,
Calhoun, and Webster, all had passed away within a
period of seven years. Their successors were men of
different mold, and the problem that had given them the
most serious trouble, while comparatively small in their
day, had now grown to monstrous proportions. The
difficulty arose from the existence of two exactly op-
posite systems of labor in the two parts of the coun-
try. In the Southern States the laborers were of a
different race from the capitalists and ruling class, and
were slaves; in the Northern States all (except a very
small proportion) were of the white race and all were
free. The different ideas and interests that arose from
these two different states of society had constantly
tended to alienate the people of one section from those
of the other, and the frequent clashing of these in-
terests in the halls of legislation had obscured the fact
that in a much larger view, and for permanent reasons,
the interests and destiny of the whole country were
the same. In the summer when young Dewey was
graduated at the Naval Academy, Abraham Lincoln,
then in the midst of a heated canvass on this question,
60 THE HERO OF MANILA.



said in a speech that became famous: “I believe this
Government can not endure permanently half slave
and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dis-
solved, I do not expect the house to fall, but I do
expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all
one thing, or all the other.” Most of the Southern
statesmen, and a few of those at the North, looked
to a division of the country as the best, if not the
inevitable, solution of the problem. But against this
there was a barrier greater and more permanent than
any wording of constitution or laws enacted in the
last century by a generation that had passed away.
This was the geography of our country. Mr. Lincoln
did not distinctly name it as the reason for his faith
in the perpetuity of the Union, but he probably felt
it. History shows unmistakably that the permanent
boundaries of a country are the geographical ones.
Conquest or diplomacy occasionally establishes others,
but they do not endure. Separate tribes or peoples,
if living within the same geographical boundaries, ulti-
mately come together and form one nation. Had our
country been crossed from east to west by a great
river like the Amazon, or a chain of lakes like those
that separate us from Canada, or a high mountain
‘range, the northern and southern sections might never
have come together, or would have been easily sepa-
rated into two .distinct peoples. But with no such
THE BEGINNING OF WAR. 61



natural line of division, and with the Mississippi run-
ning south through the center of the country, and
with railroads, telegraphs, and other rapidly multi-
plying means of communication tying the sec-
tions together, the perpetuity of the Union was
a foregone conclusion, whatever might be the argu-
ments of the politician or the passions of the
people.

Nevertheless, the struggle had to come, whether
this great consideration was realized or not, and come
it did. .The Southern statesmen were in earnest in
their threat of disunion, and when Abraham Lincoln
was elected to the presidency in 1860 they proceeded
to carry it out. South Carolina passed an ordinance
of secession in December, and most of the other
Southern States followed quickly, and the new gov-
ernment, called the Confederate States of America,
was organized at Montgomery, Alabama, in February,
1861. They proceeded to take possession of the United
States forts, arsenals, and navy yards within their ter-
ritory, and soon had them all without firing a gun,
except those at Pensacola and Fort Sumter in Charles-
ton harbor. The Confederate forces erected several
batteries within reach of Sumter, and on April 12th
opened fire on the fort and compelled its surrender.
This was the actual beginning of hostilities, and within
‘twenty-four hours the whole country, North and
62 THE HERO OF MANILA,



South, was ablaze with the war spirit. The President
called for volunteers to suppress the rebellion and re-
store the national authority, and was offered several
times as many as he asked for. The South was
already in arms. Many of the military and naval
officers who were from the South went with their
States, and young men who had been educated to-
gether at West Point or Annapolis were now to take
part on opposite sides in one of the greatest
conflicts the world has ever seen. In some in-
stances brother was against brother, and father
against son.

Gideon Welles, of Connecticut, was Secretary of
the Navy in President Lincoln’s cabinet. Though
some of the naval officers resigned their commissions
and offered their services to the Confederacy, the ves-
sels of the navy, except a very few that were cap-
tured at Norfolk navy yard, remained in the possession
of the National Government. There was need of all
these and more, for a mighty task was about to be
undertaken, and there were large bodies of troops to
be transported by sea, cities to be captured, fortifica-
tions to be bombarded, and ports to be held under
blockade.. This last was a most important duty,
though little idea of glory was connected with it, and
popular reputations could not be made in it; for the
Southern States had very few manufactures, and for
THE BEGINNING OF WAR. 63



arms, ammunition, and other necessaries they de-
pended mainly on importation.

At this time the United States navy was under-
going transformation. In the more important vessels
steam had been substituted for sail power, but they
were still constructed of wood, and the development
of the ironclad was just beginning. In the emergency
the Government bought a large number of merchant
vessels of various kinds, including some ferryboats,
turning them into gunboats and transports, and
began the construction of ironclads. Many ironclads
of light draught for use on the western rivers
were built in a hundred days. The Southerners were
almost without facilities for building vessels from
the keel, but they made two or three formidable
rams and floating batteries by covering the wooden
hulls of some of the captured ships with railroad
iron.

The first naval expedition of the war sailed in
August, 1861, commanded by Flag-Officer Silas H.
Stringham. It consisted of ten vessels, including two
transports, carried about nine hundred soldiers, and
was directed against the forts that guarded Hatteras
Inlet, North Carolina. The troops, with some diffi-
culty, were landed through the surf, and a combined
attack by them and the naval force reduced the de-
fenses and compelled their surrender with about seven
64 THE HERO OF MANILA.

hundred prisoners. The garrisons had lost about fifty
men, the assailants not one. This was due to the fact
that the work was done chiefly by rifled guns on the
vessels, which could be fired effectively while out of
range of the smooth-bore guns of the forts.

Late in October another expedition, commanded
by Flag-Officer Samuel F. Du Pont, sailed from
Hampton Roads. It consisted of more than fifty ves-
sels, and carried twenty-two thousand men. A ter-
tific gale was encountered, one transport and one
storeship were lost, and one gunboat had to throw
its battery overboard. When the storm was over, only
one vessel was in sight from the flagship. But the
scattered fleet slowly came together again and pro-
ceeded to its destination—the entrance to Port Royal
harbor, South Carolina. This was guarded by two
forts. The attack was made on the morning of No-
vember 7th. The main column, of ten vessels, led by
the flagship, was formed in line a ship’s-length apart,
and steamed past the larger fort, delivering its fire at
a distance of eight hundred yards, and then turned
and sailed past again, somewhat closer. In this man-
ner it steamed three times round a long ellipse, de-
livering its fire alternately from the two broadsides.
Some of the gunboats got positions from which they
enfiladed the work, and two of the larger vessels went
up closer and poured in a fire that dismounted several


SCENE OF THE
NAVAL OPERATIONS
IN THE

WESTERN RIVERS.

Springfield
Landing
Pleasant
Hill.
‘ 2
East; ee
“ Denron
/Cane R,, xe,
8

—_Albxandria

i \
Simmesport.eQ



Moon Lake

Tallahatehye

Ft.Pemberton

is

fe
Haines Bluff

Carthage Vicksburg \

Grand Gulf

Natchez
Ellis Cliff

e.Port Hudson

Baton Rouge




THE BEGINNING OF WAR. ~ 65



guns. This was more than the garrison could endure,
and they evacuated the fort and were seen streaming
out of it as if in panic. The other column, of four
vessels, attacked the smaller fort in the same manner,
with the same result.

Meanwhile, a much larger and more important
naval expedition than either of these was planned at
Washington. New Orleans was the largest and rich-
est city in the Confederacy. It had nearly one hun-
dred and seventy thousand inhabitants—more than
Charleston, Mobile, and Richmond together. In the
year before the war it had shipped twenty-five mil-
lion dollars’ worth of sugar and ninety-two million
dollars’ worth of cotton. In these two articles its ex-
port trade was larger than that of any other city in
the world. And as a strategic point it was of the
first importance. The Mississippi has several mouths,
or passes, and this fact, with the frequency of violent
gales in the Gulf, made it very difficult to blockade
commerce there. Moreover, if possession of the Mis-
sissippi could be secured by the national forces it
would cut the Confederacy in two and render it dif-
ficult if not impossible to continue the transporta-
tion of supplies from Arkansas and Texas to feed the
armies in Virginia and Tennessee. Add to this the
fact that any great city is a great prize in war, highly
valuable to the belligerent that holds it, and the im-
66 THE HERO OF MANILA.



portance of New Orleans at that time may be readily
appreciated.

The defenses of the city consisted of two forts—
Jackson and St. Philip—on either bank of the stream,
thirty miles above the head of the passes and about
twice that distance below New Orleans. They were
below a bend which had received the name of English
Turn, from the circumstance that in 1814 the British
naval vessels attempting to ascend the stream had
here been driven back by land batteries. The forts
were built by the United States Government, of earth
and brick, in the style that was common before the
introduction of rifled cannon. They were now gar-
risoned by fifteen hundred Confederate soldiers, and
above them lay a Confederate fleet of fifteen vessels,
including an ironclad ram and an incomplete floating
battery that was cased in railroad iron. Below the
forts a heavy chain was stretched across the river,
supported on logs; and when it was broken by a
freshet the logs were replaced by hulks anchored at
intervals across the stream, with the chain passing over
their decks and its ends fastened to trees on the banks.
A similar chain was.stretched across the Hudson at
the time of the Revolutionary War. In addition to
all this, two hundred Confederate sharpshooters con-
stantly patrolled the banks between the forts and the
head of the passes, to give notice of any approach-
THE BEGINNING OF WAR. 67

ing foe, and fire at any one that might be seen on
the deck of a hostile vessel. The Confederate au-
thorities fully appreciated the value of the Crescent
City. The problem before the national authorities
was, how to take that city in spite of all these barriers.
OETAIE aE aaa
THE FIGHT FOR NEW ORLEANS.

Miuitary scholarship is a good thing; military
genius is sometimes a better thing. When it was re-
solved by the authorities to attempt the capture of New
Orleans it was assumed that the two forts on the
river below the city must be first destroyed or com-
pelled to surrender. The chief engineer of the Army
of the Petomac, whose ability was unquestioned, made
a long ‘report to the Navy Department, in which,
after describing the forts and their situation, he said:
“To pass these works merely with a fleet and appear
before New Orleans is merely a raid, no capture.”
And in describing the exact method of attack he said:
“Those [vessels] on the Fort Jackson side would
probably have to make fast to the shore; those on
the Saint Philip side might anchor.” Substantially the
same view was afterward taken by Captain David D.
Porter, who was to have an important part in the en-
terprise. It was also assumed that the forts could be
reduced by bombardment, if this was only heavy and

persistent enough. In accordance with this idea,
68


Farragut and Dewey.

®
THE FIGHT FOR NEW. ORLEANS. 69

i a Eg ce ee
twenty-one large mortars were cast for the work.
They threw shells that were thirteen inches in diam-
eter and weighed two hundred and eighty-five pounds.
For each of these mortars a schooner was built; and
so great was the concussion of the atmosphere when
one was fired, that no man could stand near it with-
out being literally deafened. Therefore platforms
projecting beyond the decks were provided, ‘to which
the gunners could retreat just before each shot. The
remainder of the fleet, when finally it was mustered,
was made up of six sloops of war, sixteen gunboats,
five other vessels, and transports carrying fifteen thou-
sand soldiers to co-operate in the attack or hold the
forts and the city after it should be captured. The
number of guns in the fleet was more than two
hundred.
After this expedition (the most powerful that ever
had sailed under the American flag) was planned and
partly organized, and the mortar schooners nearly:
completed, the Navy Department looked about for a
suitable officer to command it, and Secretary Welles
finally chose Captain David G. Farragut. This officer
had his own ideas of the best way to effect the capture.
He would have preferred to dispense with the mor-
tars, in which he had no faith; but they had been
prepared at great expense, and that part of the fleet
was to be commanded by his friend Porter, and so
70 THE HERO OF MANILA.

he accepted them, and as soon as it could be got
ready the expedition sailed from Hampton Roads.

When it arrived at the mouths of the Mississippi
there was a gigantic task to be performed before the
fleet could enter the stream. An American poet has
thus described the delta of the great river:

“Do you know of the dreary land,

If land such region may seem,
Where ’tis neither sea nor strand,
Ocean nor good dry land,

But the nightmare marsh of a dream—
Where the mighty river his death-road takes,
Mid pools and windings that coil like snakes—
A hundred leagues of bayous and lakes—

To die in the great Gulf Stream?”

*

There are five mouths or passes, spread out like
the fingers of a hand. Of course no one of them was
as large and deep as the river above, and the entrance
of each was obstructed by a bar. The smaller vessels
—mortar schooners and gunboats—were taken in
without difficulty, but the larger ones required enor-
mous labor to get them over the bar. The Missis-
sippi—of which Captain Melancton Smith was the
commander, and Lieutenant George Dewey the ex-
ecutive officer—was lightened of everything that could
be taken off, and even then had to be dragged over
by tugboats, with her keel a foot deep in the mud.
She was the only side-wheel war vessel in the fleet.
THE FIGHT FOR NEW ORLEANS, 71



It required two weeks’ labor to get the Pensacola in ;
and the Colorado could not be taken in at all, as
she drew seven feet more of water than there was on
the bar.

The masts of the mortar schooners were dressed
off with bushes so that they could not be distinguished
easily from the trees along the shore; and as soon as
they were moored in their chosen position the bombard-
ment was begun. The forts could not be seen from
them, and the gunners fired with a computed aim,
throwing the immense shells high into the air, that
they might fall almost perpendicularly into the forts
and explode. The bombardment was kept up steadily
for six days and nights, nearly six thousand shells be-
ing thrown. They fell in and around the fortifica-
tions, destroyed buildings, cut the levee, and killed
fourteen men and wounded thirty-nine. It is said
that in modern warfare a man’s weight in lead is fired
for every man that is killed; in this instance about
sixteen tons of iron were thrown for every man that
was injured. The main object, however, was not to
disable the garrisons, but to dismount the guns and
render the fortifications useless; and this result was
not accomplished. The forts and their armaments
were in almost as good condition for service as ever.

Meanwhile, Farragut had made up his mind that
to guchiot abreast of these fortifications and attack
72 THE HERO OF MANILA.

them would simply be to lose his vessels. It is only
in its ability to keep moving that a war ship (at least
a wooden one, and there was not an ironclad in this
fleet) has an advantage over land works of equal
armament. To surrender this advantage at the begin-
ning is to lose the fight at the end. Furthermore,
he believed that as the sole purpose of the forts was
to protect the city, if he could lay the city under
his guns the forts would be abandoned. Consequent-
ly, in spite of the advice of the eminent army engineer.
and his friend and brother officer, Porter, he deter-
mined to pass the forts with his whole fleet (except
the mortar schooners) and appear before New Orleans.

This was a new thing in warfare, and it is im-
portant to note it here, because George Dewey, who
had been promoted to a lieutenancy at the beginning
of the war, was in that fleet, and Farragut was his
instructor as well as his commander.

The passage was to be made in the night, and
Farragut—who had learned to perform every duty
that is ever required on shipboard, except those of
the surgeon—gave in his general orders minute in-
structions for every preparation, and suggested that
the officers and crew of each vessel add any other
precautions that their ingenuity might devise.

Every man in the fleet was busy. In the fore-
castle of the Mississippi a group of sailors were mak-
7

Whitewashing the decks.


THE FIGHT FOR NEW ORLEANS. 73
i oe ek ee ee
ing splinter nettings, criticising the arrangements for
the attack, and speculating as to the result.

“ What’s Bill Ammon going to do with that white
paint?” said one.

“He’s going to paint the gun deck,” answered a
comrade.

“What! paint it white?”

aeccrmayy atten

“What’s that for? To make us a better target for
the reb gunners? ”

“Tt’s to make it so that we can see what we're
about, and find things when we need them.”

“That seems to say we’re going up in the night,”
said the first speaker.

“You've hit it,” said another; ‘that’s exactly
what we are in for.”

“Whose idea is this of painting the decks?” asked
a fourth.

“ Bill pretends it’s his,” said the boatswain’s mate.
“He thinks it’s a great idea. But I was by when
he got his orders, and I know it originated with
Dewey.”

“T don’t care where the idea came from,” said
the sailmaker, ‘I don’t admire it.”

“Why not?”

“ Because it’s just the wrong thing. The boys on
the Pensacola and the Oneida are rubbing the decks
74 THE HERO OF MANILA.



over with mud, so that the Johnnies will have a hard .
time to distinguish them. I think that’s the true
idea.”

“T can’t agree with you there,” said the boat-
swain’s mate. “As soon as we get fairly into it the
smoke will be so thick that the Johnnies can’t see
through it very perfectly anyway. And that’s just
when we want to see everything on our own deck.”

“Tt may be so,” grumbled the sailmaker; “ but if
it comes to that, old Dewey’d better have the river
whitewashed, so that he can see to con the ship.”

This bit of sailor wit created laughter, of which
the little company were in much need, for some of
them were not at all hopeful of the coming contest.

“ He'll con the ship all right,” said another sailor,
who had not spoken before, and who answered to the
nickname of Slippery Sim (his real name being Simeon
Nelson). “I knew him in Montpelier, and I know
you can depend on him every time.”

“In Montpelier?” said the boatswain’s mate.
“Why, that was about Bill Ammon’s latitude and
longitude, if my reckoning’s right.”

“Tt was, exactly,’ said Nelson.

“ Then he ought to have known Dewey too,” said
the boatswain’s mate.
“Know him?” said Nelson. “I should say he

did know him. The most famous of all the fights
a

THE FIGHT FOR NEW ORLEANS. 75



that ever took place among our boys was between
him and Dewey.”

“Did you see it?” said the sailmaker eagerly.

“T did,” said Nelson in an impressive tone. “I
had the honor of holding Ammon’s coat.”

“And which licked?” asked the sailmaker.

“Hold on!” said the boatswain’s mate. “ Don’t
answer that question. Never spoil a good story by
telling it stern foremost. Give us the whole narra-
tyve from beginning to end, and don’t let us know
which licked till you get to the very last. If those
two fellows were at it, I know it must have been
a tug. A good description of it ought to brace us
up for the lively fight that’s before us.”

“Ves,” said another, “it may be the last story
that some of us will ever hear.”

“Don’t be down-hearted, Ned,’ said the first
speaker. “I’ve sailed with old Farragut nearly eight-
een years, and I know he’ll pull us through.”

“TJ haven’t any doubt that he'll pull the fleet
through all right,” said Ned. “But even a victori-
ous fleet generally has a few red spots on the decks,
and not so many gunners when it comes out as when
it went in. It’s all right, of course. I’m not finding
fault, and I’m not any more afraid than I ought to
be. I expect to stand up and do my duty, as I know
the rest of you will. But a man can’t help being a
Pad

76 THE HERO OF MANILA.



human creature, with human feelings, if he zs a sailor;
and when he’s killed he’s just as much killed, and
all his pretty plans spoiled, whether it’s in a victory
or in a defeat.”

“That’s all true enough, Ned,” said the boat-
swain’s mate; “but what we want to cultivate just
now is the spirit of fight, not the spirit of philosophy.
Save your philosophy till after the battle, and then
you'll have plenty of good company, for then every-
body will be philosophizing about it.”

“They will, indeed,” said the sailmaker, “and a
good many of them will be telling how they could
have managed it better that we did. The great trouble
in this war is that so many of our best generals and
admirals who ought to be in the field or on ship-
board have jobs in barber shops that they don’t like
to give up, or can’t be spared from country stores and
newspaper offices.”

“Oh, belay your sarcasm,” said the boatswain’s
mate. “ Let’s have the story of the big fight between
Dewey and Ammon, Sim.”

Thereupon Nelson gave a minute and graphic
account of that schoolboy contest.

“T don’t see,” said Ned, “why Bill Ammon never
has mentioned that he was a schoolmate of Dewey’s.
I should think he would be proud of it.”

“The reason is plain enough,” said the sailmaker.
THE FIGHT FOR NEW ORLEANS. 77

“He was afraid that might lead up to the story of
this fight. Probably he would be quite willing that
it should remain untold.” :

“Well, whatever he was in school days,” said Ned,
“ Bill’s a pretty good fellow now; and I don’t see
that he has much to be ashamed of. It seems he
put up a good stiff fight then, and I think he'll do
his duty with the best of us now.”

“Yes, that’s so!”’ responded two or three.

“ Talking about that whitewashing,” said the sailor
who had opened the conversation, “I think it’s all
right enough, but it seems to me it might have been
applied where it would have done still more good.”

“ Where’s that, Tom?” said the boatswain’s mate.

“T suppose you know,” said Tom, “ that the Itasca
and Pinola went up last night to break the chain and
make an opening for the fleet to pass through. Cald-
well did that all right. But it’s going to be a mighty
hard matter to steer these big sea-going vessels
‘through that narrow place in the current of a river
like this and in the smoke of battle. The thing ’m
most afraid of is that some one of our ships will get
tangled up among those hulks, and then the rebs can
just pound her as if they had her in a mortar. Suppose
the ship at the head of the line should get caught
across the opening, where would the whole fleet be
then? ”
78 THE HERO OF MANILA.



“Of course there is great risk,” said the boat-
swain’s mate, “ but how are you going to avoid it?
They took up a new-fangled torpedo to blow up some
of the hulks and make a wider opening, but the thing
wouldn’t work. Those machines that are to go off
under water seldom do work.”

“T was thinking,” said Tom, “that if they had
whitewashed the decks of the hulks next to the open-
ing it would go far to prevent such an accident.”

“You didn’t go up there with Caldwell, and
neither did your brother,” said the sailmaker. saa lt
you had, I don’t think you’d have been anxious to
whitewash anything and make yourselves a better
target for the sharpshooters on shore. Our men were
fired on all the while as it was.”

“TJ think I could have managed it,” said Tom.

“Tell us how.”

“TJ would have taken up some buckets of white
paint—I see you smile, but you've got ahead of your
reckoning. No, I wasn’t going to say I’d take some
brushes along and make a nice job painting the decks.
I’d keep the buckets covered up till just as we were
ready to come away, and then I’d simply overturn
them on the decks and push off. That would whiten
them enough to help our pilots through.”

“Tm not sure but that’s a good idea,” said an-
other sailor.
‘THE FIGHT FOR NEW ORLEANS. 79



“Ts it?” said the boatswain’s mate. “I guess
you’ve never sailed with Caldwell or Dewey. If you
had you’d know that either of them would be more
horrified at the idea of any such sloppy work, even
on the deck of an old hulk, than at doubling the
risk of his ship. They’re dandies, both of ’em.”

“Tf anything gets afoul of the hulks,” remarked
a sailor who had not spoken before, “it will probably
be this old spinning wheel. The Secretary of the Navy
that ordered a side-wheeler for a war ship must have
been born and brought up in the backwoods. If we
could have got the Colorado over the bar I wouldn’t
be here. She’s the ship we ought to have if we’re
going to knock those forts to pieces.”

“I’m not sure that the largest ships are the best
for this work,” said the sailmaker. “ This whole fleet
was built for sea service, and it’s out of place in a
river like this.”

“Of course it’s a loss not to have the Colorado
with us,” said the boatswain’s mate. “ But the best
thing that was aboard of her is with us.”

“ What’s that?” said several.

“That old sea dog Bailey,” answered the boat-
swain’s mate. “ He’s no dandy, but he knows what
to do with a ship in a fight or in a storm or any-
where else. I was with him on the Lexington in
forty-six, when we went round Cape Horn to Cali-
80 THE HERO OF MANILA.



fornia. That was the beginning of the Mexican War.
We carried troops and army officers. Bill Sherman,
who commanded a brigade at Bull Run, was among
them. So was General Halleck—he was only a lieu-
tenant then.”

“ Bailey’s on the Cayuga now,” said the sailor
from the Colorado, “and if Farragut understands his
business he’ll let him lead the line, unless Farragut
leads it himself in the flagship. I wish I could be
with him; but when we had to leave the Colorado
outside they scattered our crew all through the fleet,
and I just had the luck to be sent to this old coffee
mill.”

“As long as Doc. Dewey’s on the bridge you
needn’t be afraid of her,” said Sim Nelson, “ whether
she’s a spinning wheel or a coffee mill—and your
opinion seems to vary on that point. There was lots
of good fighting before propellers were invented, but
you appear to think we can’t do anything without a
propeller.”

“A propeller isn’t very likely to be struck by a
shot,” said the man from the Colorado; “but these
old windmill sails going round on each side of this
tub can hardly help being hit.”

“Now you just quit worrying, and settle your
mind on an even keel,” said Sim Nelson. ‘“ There’s
such a thing as ability, and there’s such a thing as
THE FIGHT FOR NEW ORLEANS. 81



luck. Ability and luck don’t always go together—
more’s the pity! There’s McDowell at Bull Run, as
able as any general there, and he planned the battle
well, and our boys put up a good stiff fight; but
just at the last the luck turned against him, and then
where was he? ’Tisn’t so with Doc. Dewey. I’ve
known him ever since we were boys, and his ability
and luck always went together. I’ve no doubt there
are plenty of good officers in the fleet, but ’m glad
to have him on the bridge of the ship that I sail
in, whether it’s an old spinning wheel, or a coffee
mill, or a windmill, or whatever other name you may
invent for it.”

The man from the Colorado said no more, and
a few minutes later the boatswain called away half
of the men who were making netting to assist in pro-
tecting the boilers and machinery. They piled up
hammocks and coal in such a way as to stop a good
many shots that might otherwise reach these vital
parts of the ship.

They had not quite finished this task when there
was a cry of “Fire raft!” followed quickly by an
order to man two boats. Hardly any time seemed
to elapse before the boats swung down from the davits
and the oarsmen pulled away with a strong, steady
stroke. In the stern of each stood two men with a
long pole, on the end of which was an iron hook.
82 THE HERO OF MANILA.



Up the stream a little way was an immense mass
of flame, gliding down with the current. In the
center it was crackling, at the side occasionally hiss-
ing where a burning stick touched the water, and
above it rose a dense column of smoke, curved at
the top and swaying in the light breeze.

“That’s the fifth of those villainous valentines
they’ve sent us,” said the man from the Colorado.
said

?

“Well, we took good care of the other four,’
the boatswain, “and I guess we can take care of this,
though it’s the biggest and ugliest of all. It won't
be long now before we send ’em the answer, post
paid. Back water, there! back water!”

This command was uttered and obeyed none too
quickly. Two of the gunboats—the Kineo and the
Sciota—trying to avoid the fire raft, collided violently,
and the mainmast of the Sciota went overboard with
a crash and just missed striking the boat. Then both
the gunboats dragged across the bows of the Mis-
sissippi, but skillful management prevented any fur-
ther damage there, and the two small boats pulled
up close to the windward side of the fire raft, at the
same time with four boats from two other ships. The
men in the stern struck their hooks into the side of
the flatboat that formed the base of the blazing pile,
and the oarsmen pulled for the shore. The heat al-
most shriveled the skin on their faces, but they bent
THE FIGHT FOR NEW ORLEANS. 83



to the work with a will, and slowly towed the mon-
ster away from the line of the fleet, down stream
more than two miles, and then over to the western
bank, where they pushed it into the shallow water and
mud and left it to burn itself away, a beautiful and.
harmless spectacle.

As they pulled back to their ships they noticed
that the various crews were at work “stopping” the
sheet cables up and down the sides, in the line of
the engines.

“That’s a splendid idea; whose is it?” asked the
man at the stroke oar.

“Ves” said the boatswain, “it makes them iron-
clad as far as it goes. They say it was suggested by
Engineer Moore, of the Richmond.”

“ Splendid fellow!” said the man from the Colo-
rado. ‘“ He was a schoolmate of mine.”

“ Where was that?” said the boatswain.

“ Detroit,” said the man from the Colorado. “He
and I used to run away from school together and
swim across to Windsor.”

“Um—about half a mile,’ said the boatswain,
musingly, “and current eight miles an hour—very
good swimming for boys. But,” he added aloud, “ Mr.
Moore ought to know about that. He thinks he
was born and brought up in Plattsburg, New York—
I heard him say so—and that his father was in the
84 THE HERO OF MANILA,

battle of Lake Champlain. What funny mistakes men
make about themselves sometimes!”

The man from the Colorado said no more.

Two o'clock in the morning of April 24, 1862, was
fixed as the hour for the fleet to weigh anchor and
steam up the river. The moon would rise an hour
and a half later, and it was the intention to pass the
forts in darkness and have the benefit of moonlight
after the gauntlet had been run. Five minutes be-
fore two the signal was given—two red lights at the
masthead of the flagship; but it was moonrise before
all were ready and in motion. The question of a
moon, however, was no longer of any consequence,
for the Confederates had observed the preparations,
and had set fire to immense piles of wood that they
kept for the purpose at the ends of the chain, so that
the whole scene was as light as day. This did not
stop Farragut, who had made up his mind to pass the
forts and lay the city under his guns.

The mortar schooners moved up stream to a point
near Fort Jackson, and began a heavy bombardment.
Then the fleet, in a long line, steamed steadily up
the river, passed through the opening in the chain,
and with rapid broadsides swept the bastions of the
forts as they went by. It was in three divisions.
The first, consisting of eight vessels, was led by Cap-
tain Theodorus Bailey in the Cayuga; the second, of


FT ST PHILIP



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FORT
JACKSON

SPACE CLEARED @y REBELS
TO GET UNOBSTRUGTED RANGE ‘i
UPON APROACHING VESSELS

First Division—Leading under command of
Captain Theodorus Bailey.

Cayuga, Flag-Gunboat, Lieut.-Com. Harrison.

Pensacola, Captain H. W. Morris.

Mississippi, Captain M. Smith.

Oneida, Commander S. P. Lee.

Varuna, Commander C. S. Boggs.

Katahdin, Lieut.-Com. G. H. Preble.

. Kineo, Lieut.-Com. Ransom.

Wissahickon, Lieut.-Com. A. N. Smith.

CENTER Division—Admiral Farragut.
9. Hartford, Commander Wainwright.

Dae Ca CUE Ca Cole

701M SauvA OS sonoy 30 1139

Tht,

12,
13.
14.

15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

. Brooklyn, Captain T. T. Craven.

Richmond, Commander J. Alden.

TuirD Division—Capiain H. H. Bell.

Sciota, Lient.-Com. Edward Donaldson.
Iroquois, Com. John De Camp.

Kennebec, Lieut.-Com. John H. Russell.
Pinola, Lieut.-Com. P. Crosby.

Itasca, Lieut.-Com. C. H. B. Caldwell.
Winona, Lieut.-Com. E. T. Nichols.
COMMANDER PORTER’s GUNBOATS.

Sloop Portsmouth, Commander S. Swartwout.

Order of attack on Forts Jackson and St. Philip.




SONS ATeans


THE FIGHT FOR NEW ORLEANS. 85



three vessels, by Farragut in the Hartford; and the
third, of six vessels, by Captain Henry H. Bell in the
Sciota.

Following the gunboat Cayuga in the first division
was the sloop-of-war Pensacola; and next came the
side-wheel steamer Mississippi, commanded by Cap-
tain Melancton Smith. Her conning bridge rested
with its ends on the tops of the high paddle-boxes,
and Lieutenant George Dewey, the executive officer,
was stationed there to direct her course.

When the signal was given to go ahead Captain
Smith asked, a little anxiously, ‘“‘Do you know the
channel, sir?”

“Ves, sir,’ answered Dewey.

The question was repeated at intervals, and every
time it received the same confident answer. The
lieutenant afterward admitted that his knowledge of
the channel was gained by study of a chart, which
was supplemented by his confidence that he could tell
from the appearance of the water. Here his usual
luck stood him in good stead, as the sailor in the
forecastle had declared.

As soon as the Cayuga had passed through the
opening in the chain, both forts began to fire on her.
Within a few minutes she was pouring a sheet of
grape and canister across Fort St. Philip, but she did
not slacken her pace, and in ten minutes more was
86 THE HERO OF MANILA.



engaged with the Confederate fleet that was waiting
for her up the stream.

The Pensacola, next in line, steamed steadily but
slowly by, firing with perfect regularity, and doing
specially fine execution with a rifled eighty-pounder
and an eleven-inch pivot gun. But she paid for her
deliberation, as her loss—thirty-seven men—was the
greatest in the fleet.

Then came the Mississippi—the old spinning wheel,
coffee mill, windmill, as the discontented sailor called
her. By this time the air was so thick with smoke
from the guns, bonfires, and fire rafts that it was only
by the flashes that the gunners could see where to
aim. The Mississippi went by the forts in good style,
pouring in her fire as she passed, and suffering but
slight loss from them. But immediately afterward,
like the two vessels that had preceded her, she en-
countered the Confederate fleet, which consisted of
the ironclad ram Manassas, the unfinished ironclad
floating battery Louisiana, and a dozen gunboats, some
of which were fitted to be used as rams. The Ma-
- nassas drove straight at the Mississippi, with intention
to sink her, and would have done so had not Dewey
ordered a quick shift of the helm, which changed the
direct blow into a slanting one. This, indeed, gave
her a severe cut on the port quarter, and disabled
some of her machinery; but at the same moment the
THE FIGHT FOR NEW ORLEANS. 87

le I rn

Mississippi poured a tremendous fire into the ram.
Then she found herself in the thick of the fight with
the Confederate fleet. The Oneida and the Varuna
came close after her, and here was the most desperate
encounter. Shells, round shot, and canister were ex-
changed as rapidly as the guns could be handled, some
of which tore through the sides and found their way
to the interior, there to break the machinery or burst
and scatter death, while some swept along the decks
and struck down the men at the guns. In an action
like that the men are under the greatest excitement,
with every muscle tense and every nerve strained; and
when a ball strikes one it shivers him as if he were
made of glass, and scatters ghastly fragments over his
comrades. In the confined space where the men work
the guns, and with the smoke of battle enveloping
them, there is no opportunity to dodge the shot or
know they are coming before they have done their
work. The only defense consists in rapid and accurate
firing by the men, with skill and quick judgment on
the part of him who directs the movements of the
ship. Everything was ablaze, and the roar was ter-
rific, when a great shot bounced in at one of the
ports of the Mississippi, knocked over a gun, killed
one gunner and wounded three others, and passed out
on the other side. Almost at the same moment the

ship from which it was fired received a discharge from
7
88 - THE HERO OF MANILA.



the Mississippi that swept away a whole gun’s crew.
Then there were rapid maneuvers, to ram or avoid
ramming, rake or avoid raking, and all the while the
guns were booming, shot and splinters were flying
across the decks, man after man was struck down, and
blood ran out at the scuppers. Signal men in the rig-
ging, sailors with howitzers and muskets in the tops,
officers on the bridges, gunners between decks, en-
gineers, firemen, and surgeons below—all were in a
state of intense action. The largest of the Confed-
erate vessels, a powerful steamer fitted as a ram, at-
tacked the Varuna, and was subjected to a murder-
ous raking fire from that ship. Finding that his bow
gun was mounted too far aft to strike her when at
such close quarters, the Confederate commander de-
pressed it and fired through the bow of his own ves-
sel. Then another ram came up and joined in the
attack, and the Varuna was reduced to a wreck and
driven ashore.

Meanwhile, the second division of the fleet came
up, led by the Hartford. This vessel, in attempting
to avoid a fire raft, struck on a shoal; then the
ram Manassas pushed another blazing raft against
her quarter, and in a moment she was on fire. The
great excitement thus produced on board the flag-
‘ ship did not for a moment interfere with the discipline.
A part of her crew were called to: fire quarters and


















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Hartiord. ; Mississippi.

Farragut’s fleet passing the forts,
THE FIGHT FOR NEW ORLEANS. 89



put out the flames, while the rest continued to work
the guns with perfect regularity. Then she was backed
off into deep water, and continued up stream, firing
into every enemy she could reach. A steamer loaded
with men (probably intended as a boarding party) bore
down upon the flagship, but the marines promptly
fired a shell into her which exploded, and she dis-
appeared.

While the Mississippi was engaged in this desper-
ate battle an officer on board kept his eye on Lieu-
tenant Dewey—for on him every movement of the
ship depended—and he has described the figure of the
young officer on the high bridge as it was alternately
‘hidden by the smoke and illuminated by the flashes
of the artillery.

“Every time the dark came back,” he says, “I
felt sure that we never should see Dewey again.
His cap was blown off, and his eyes were aflame; but
he gave his orders with the air of a man in thorough
command of himself.”

The ram Manassas, after her encounter with the
Mississippi, had passed down the river in pursuit of
other prey, and delivered a blow at the Brooklyn which
failed to sink her only because she was promptly
turned so as not to receive it at right angles. Then
the ram was discovered coming up stream, and Cap-
tain Smith signaled to the flagship for permission to
90 THE HERO OF MANILA.



attack her with the Mississippi. This being promptly
granted, the brave old side-wheeler swung about in
the stream and went straight for her dangerous ene-
my. She failed in an attempt to run down the ram,
but crippled it and drove it ashore, when the crew
were seen to come out at the little hatch, jump to
the levee, and disappear in the swamp. The Missis-
sippi then poured into her another broadside, and she
drifted down the stream and blew up.

Fourteen of Farragut’s seventeen vessels had suc-
ceeded in passing the obstructions and participating
in the battle. One of these, the Varuna, was de-
stroyed. All the others carried the scars of battle,
and all save one had casualties on board, varying in
number from thirty-seven on the Pensacola, thirty-
five on the Brooklyn, and twenty-eight on the Iro-
quois, to a single one on the Portsmouth. The Mis-
sissippi lost two men killed and six wounded. The
total loss in the fleet was thirty-seven men killed and
a hundred and forty-seven wounded. On the other
hand, the Confederate fleet was destroyed, the last
vessel afloat—the ironclad Louisiana—being blown up
by her commander three days later; and the next day
after that a land force commanded by General Butler
came up in rear of the forts, and they were sur-
rendered.

When the dead were laid out side by side on the
THE FIGHT FOR NEW ORLEANS. gt

Pecan ive aie eepeeneneomer cL ae
decks for the last rites, there were manly tears on
the faces of many of their shipmates, and the eyes of
dear old Farragut were not dry.

The larger part of the fleet pushed on up the river,
and the next day the city of New Orleans was cap-
tured.

No such battle as this had been seen before, and
no such ever will be seen again. A fleet of wooden
vessels, all built for sea service, had entered a river
and fought against obstructions, fire rafts, fortifica-
tions, rams, ironclads, and gunboats, and had won a
complete victory over all. This was a wonderful
school for a young officer.
CHAP DDR .VALns
THE BATTLE AT PORT HUDSON.

New OrveaNs being captured and firmly held,
the next problem was to patrol and police the Mis-
sissippi from that point to Cairo, Hlinois, and pre-
vent the Confederates from crossing it with troops
and supplies. Thus only could the full fruits of Far-
ragut’s original and brilliant exploit be secured. As
soon as the war was fairly begun, the Government
had ordered an ironclad fleet of light draught to be
built for service on the Western rivers, and many of
these vessels were completed in a hundred days from
the laying of the keel. They took pretty good care
of the river above Vicksburg, and below that point
Farragut’s fleet was expected to do the work. This
was an arduous and monotonous task, calling for
patience, endurance, and skill, involving almost daily
loss of single lives from field artillery and sharp-
shooters on shore, but giving few opportunities for
glory.

At two points, both on the eastern side of the

river, the Confederates constructed formidable works,
g2
THE BATTLE AT PORT HUDSON. 93



with heavy artillery. These were Vicksburg and Port
Hudson, about a hundred miles apart. The choice
of these points was for a double reason. At each of
them a line of transportation from the southwest
reached the river, by which supplies were brought for
the Confederate armies in the States farther east; and
at each of them there was a bend in the stream, with
high bluffs on the eastern side and low land on the
western. Thus the two points that it was most de-
sirable to protect were most easily protected.

General Butler was superseded in command at
New Orleans by General Banks; and after a time it
was planned that Banks should move up with a large
force to attack Port Hudson, while an army under
General Grant came from above to capture Vicksburg;
and the fleets were expected to assist in both of these
campaigns.

Great difficulties were met by the national armies,
and everything appeared to move with insufferable
slowness. The authorities at Washington seemed to
think that as Farragut’s fleet had passed the batteries
below New Orleans, it could pass any batteries, and
a spirit of impatience was manifest because the river
was not quickly and thoroughly cleared and held. A
very important difference in the circumstances was
overlooked. The forts below New! Orleans were on
‘low ground, and as the fleet sailed by, its decks were
94 THE HERO OF MANILA.

a a Ew ee lr ee

nearly or quite on a level with the bastions, which
could be swept by the fire. of the broadsides. But
at Vicksburg and Port Hudson the batteries were on
high bluffs and could send down a plunging fire on
the ships, to which the fleet could hardly reply with
much effect.

Finally, the Admiral received peremptory orders
to “clear the river through,” which meant, run by
the fortifications of Vicksburg and capture or destroy
the Confederate vessels above that point that were
either afloat or being built. The most important of
these was the powerful ironclad ram Arkansas, which
was expected to come out of the Arkansas or the
Yazoo River into the Mississippi and attack the fleet
of gunboats. ,

Farragut had appeared before Vicksburg in May
and demanded the surrender of the place; but this
was refused, and without the co-operation of an army
the demand could not be enforced. The construction
of the defenses then proceeded more rapidly than be-
fore, and when his peremptory orders came, late in
June, the place was very strong. On the 28th he
attempted the passage with ten vessels, aided by the
mortar flotilla. While the mortars were raining shells
into the works the vessels steamed up the river in
two columns, and all passed the batteries except three
of the rear division, which, from a misunderstanding
PORT HUDSON







Order of attack on Port Hudson.

A. Hartford (flag-ship), Captain James S. Palmer. a@. Albatross, Lieut.-Com, John
-B. Hart. B. Richmond, Commander James Alden. 0. Genesee, Commander W. H. Ma-
comb. C. Monongahela, Captain J. P. McKinstry. c. Kineo, Lieut.-Com. John Waters.
D. Mississippi, Captain Melancton Smith. E. Essex. Commander C. TH. B. Caldwell.
F. Sachem, Act. Vol. Lieut. Amos Johnson, G. G. Mortar schooners, HH. Spot where
Mississippi grounded.
THE BATTLE AT PORT HUDSON. 95



of orders, fell back. The losses in the fleet were fifteen
men killed and forty wounded. One gunboat re-
ceived a shot through the boiler, which killed six
men by scalding. No other vessel was _ seriously
injured.

Dewey’s ship, the Mississippi, did not participate
in this exploit. The affair has been described briefly
here because of its influence on a later and more
hazardous one in which she did take part, to her cost.
The passage of the Vicksburg batteries convinced the
men of the navy that, with small loss, they could pass
any batteries, no matter how situated. Farragut
wrote: “The Department will perceive from my re-
port that the forts can be passed, and we have done
it, and can do it again as often as it may be required
of us.”

That was in the summer of 1862, when Vicksburg
was but partially fortified and Port Hudson hardly
at all. But the Confederate Government awoke to the
extreme importance of those points, and the work
of fortifying them went on rapidly. In some respects
the fortifications of Port Hudson, on the river side
at least, were even more formidable than those of
Vicksburg. After a reconnoissance in the autumn of
1862, Commander Lowry reported: “ The plan appears
to be this: to place their works in such a position
that, we having passed or silenced one or more of
96 THE HERO OF MANILA.



the lower batteries, other concealed batteries open,
which will throw a cross fire into the stern of the
vessels, which would then be exposed to a cross fire
from batteries yet to be approached and silenced and
from the masked ones left astern.”

In March, 1863, it was arranged that Farragut
should run by the batteries of Port Hudson, while
Banks, with twelve thousand men, should assail them
on the land side. The objects to be gained by
running by the batteries were: To concentrate the
fleet above Port Hudson for the destruction of the
Confederate vessels; to blockade Red River and the
bayous; and to communicate with the naval and mili-
tary forces that were besieging Vicksburg.

On the 14th Farragut completed his preparations,
and that night was selected as the time for the move-
ment. His fleet consisted of four ships and three
gunboats, besides the mortar schooners and their .at-
tendant gunboats. Each of the ships, except the Mis-
‘sissippi, was to have a gunboat lashed to its port side,
so that if one were disabled its gunboat could tow
it through or out of the fight. The Mississippi could
not take a gunboat, because she was a side-wheeler.
All the vessels were trimmed by the head, so. that
if one grounded it would strike bow first and: would
not be swung round by the current.. And the. elab-
orate precautions that had been taken below New
THE BATTLE AT PORT HUDSON. 97



Orleans were repeated. The order of the column was
this:

The flagship Hartford, with the gunboat Albatross.

The Richmond, with the gunboat Genesee.

The Monongahela, with the gunboat Kineo.

The Mississippi.

The “old spinning wheel” was still commanded
by Captain Melancton Smith, with Lieutenant Dewey
as his executive officer, as when she participated in
the capture of New Orleans.

At Port Hudson there is a sharp bend in the
river, and the deep channel runs close under the bluffs
of the eastern bank, while the water shoals off to
the low western shore. At dusk the signal was dis-
played for the fleet to form in line and follow the
flagship. This was a red lantern hung out over the
stern of the Hartford. The order was quietly and
promptly obeyed. Like every officer in the fleet,
Lieutenant George Dewey was at his post and eager
for the adventure. His post now, as before, was.on
the bridge, to direct the course of the ship.

Every man on board was alert. The splinter net-
tings were on, and the carpenters were ready to stop
shot holes or repair other damage. The marines had
their muskets in hand to repel boarders. One officer
was making sure that all was in shape for “fire quar-
ters” if that order should be sounded, and another
98 THE HERO OF MANILA.



was looking to the rifled gun. The men at the great
guns stood with their sleeves rolled up for instant
work.

The darkness closed in rapidly, and the night was ©
absolutely calm. The Hartford slowly steamed ahead,
and the other ships took their places in the line.

But with all possible quietness of preparation the
vigilant Confederates were not to be deceived or sur-
prised. Hardly was the fleet under way when two
rockets rose into the air from the right bank of the
river, and then the first of the shore batteries dis-
charged its guns. At the same time several great
bonfires were lighted, and then everything on the
river was in plain sight until the battle had gone on
long enough to produce a great pall of cannon smoke.
The other shore batteries opened in rapid succession,
and the mortar schooners promptly began their work.
The great thirteen-inch shells, with their burning fuses,
rose in beautiful curves and passed overhead like me-
teors, to fall and explode within and around the fortifi-
cations. As the several ships came within reach of the
enemy they opened fire, and in a little time the
smoke was so thick that the gunners could only aim
at the flashes. But they forged ahead steadily, doing
their best under a terrific fire from the batteries on
the bluff and the constant rifle practice of sharp-
shooters on the western bank. The Hartford and her


Passage of the batteries of Port Hudson.
THE BATTLE AT PORT HUDSON. 99

gunboat got by, losing only one man killed and two
wounded; but, though she had two of the most skill-
ful pilots, she grounded directly under the enemy’s
guns, and for a little while was in danger of destruc-
tion. By skillful handling of the gunboat she was
backed off, and then continued up stream beyond the
range of fire. The Admiral now looked for his other
vessels, and they were nowhere to be seen.

The Richmond, which had almost run into the
Hartford when she grounded, had reached the last
battery, and in a few minutes would have been be-
yond the reach of its guns, when a shot struck her
steam pipe near the safety valves and disabled her.
The gunboat was not able to take her farther against
the strong current, and they were obliged to drop
down stream out of the fight. They had lost three
men killed and twelve wounded. A cannon shot took
off the leg of the executive officer, and he died a few
days later. An attempt was made to blow her up
with a torpedo, but at the moment of explosion,
though it shattered the cabin windows, it was not
quite near enough to do serious damage.

The Monongahela grounded on the western shore
near the bend of the river, and for half an hour was
exposed to a merciless fire. The rudder of her gun-
boat had been rendered useless, and then a shot
wrecked the bridge of the Monongahela, throwing
100 . THE HERO OF MANILA.

i ee ee ee
Captain McKinstry to the deck and disabling him,
and, passing on, killed three men. Though shots were
constantly striking her, and had dismounted three of
her guns, perfect coolness was maintained by the
officers, with discipline on the part of the crew. The
gunboat was shifted to the other side of the ship, and
presently she was pulled off into deep water and re-
sumed her course up stream, firing shells and shrapnel
into the fortifications. She had almost passed the
principal battery when the crank pin of her engine
became heated, and she could go no farther. Then
she also was obliged to run down with the current
out of range. She had lost six men killed and twenty-
one wounded.

While Farragut was anxiously looking down
stream in hope to see the approach of his missing
fleet, suddenly a great light shot up into the sky, and
the man at the masthead reported that a ship was
on fire.

The Mississippi, like the other vessels, had fol-
lowed steadily after the flagship, feeling her way amid
the smoke and rapidly firing her starboard guns, when
she, like the other ships, grounded at the turn and
“heeled over three streaks to port.’ The engine was
at once reversed, the port guns were run in, and the
pressure of steam was increased to the greatest
amount that the boilers would bear, but all in vain—
THE BATTLE AT PORT HUDSON. IOI



she could not move herself off and she had no gun-
boat to assist.

Meanwhile, three batteries had got her range, and
under this terrible cross fire she was hulled at every
discharge. Her starboard guns were still worked
regularly and as rapidly as possible, to diminish the
enemy’s fire. Then in quick succession came the
commands from Captain Smith:

“Spike the port battery and throw it overboard!”

“Spike the pivot gun and throw it overboard! ”

“Bring up the sick and the wounded!”

The spiking was done by the hands of Lieutenant
Dewey, Ensign Bachelder, and Assistant-Engineer
Tower, but there was no time to throw the guns
overboard.

Every man in the ship knew the meaning of these
preparations for abandoning her.

Captain Smith was determined that, as he must
lose his vessel, nothing should be left of it for the
enemy. While he was lighting a cigar he said to
Dewey:

“Tt is not likely that we shall escape, and we
must make every preparation to insure the destruction
of the ship.”

The crew were ordered to throw the small arms
overboard, and the engineers to destroy the engine.
Then fire was set in the forward storeroom, but very
102 THE HERO OF MANILA.



soon three shots that penetrated the side below the
line let in enough water to extinguish it. After
that she was fired in four places. She had been
struck by the enemy’s shot two hundred and fifty
times.

There were but three small boats, and these were
used first to take away the sick and the wounded.
At no time was the least confusion or disorder appar-
ent among the crew; but when they saw how rapidly
the old ship was approaching destruction, and how
limited were the means of safety, some of them jumped
overboard and swam for the shore, and these were
fired at by sharpshooters on the bank. Dewey, no-
ticing that one of them, a strong swimmer, suddenly
became almost helpless, guessed that he had been
struck by a bullet. As the lieutenant then had
little to do but wait for the return of the boat, he
plunged into the stream, struck out for the disabled
sailor, and very soon was near enough to recognize
him.

“Hello! is that you, Bill Ammon?” said Dewey.

“Tt is, sir,” said Bill, not even in his agony for-
getting the etiquette of shipboard.

“What has happened to you?”

“ A musket ball in the shoulder, sir.”

The lieutenant had now reached him, and with
one arm sustained him while he swam slowly to a
THE BATTLE AT PORT HUDSON. 103

broken spar that fortunately was afloat at a little
distance. Finding that his old schoolmate had strength
enough to cling to this till he should be picked
up (for the Essex had now come up to assist,
and her boats were out), Dewey swam back to the
ship.

When all had been taken off except the captain
and the executive officer, who were standing on the
quarter-deck, Captain Smith said:

“ Are you sure she will burn to the water?”

“JT will go down and make sure,’ Dewey an-
swered; and down he went into the wardroom, at
the risk of his life, and saw that everything was
ablaze.

When he returned to the deck and reported, the
captain was satisfied, and then the two officers left
in the last boat and passed down to the Richmond
under the fire of the batteries.

When the flames had sufficiently lightened the
Mississippi she floated off, swung round into the cur-
rent, and drifted down stream, bow foremost.

The port battery, which had been loaded but not
fired, now went off, sending its shot toward the ene-
my, as if the old craft knew herself and wanted to
do her duty to the last. At half past five o’clock in
the morning the fire reached her magazine, and the

terrific explosion that followed not only blew the
8
104 THE HERO OF MANILA.

vessel to fragments, but was heard and felt at a dis-
tance of several miles. She had lost sixty-four of her
crew, some of whom were killed by shot, some
drowned, and some made prisoners when they swam

ashore.


Removing the wounded.
CEE RW Rae
THE CAPTURE OF FORT FISHER.

THE port of Wilmington, North Carolina, on Cape
Fear River, about twenty miles from its mouth, was
one of the most difficult to blockade, and when the
other ports of the Southern States had been closed
one after another, this became the Confederacy’s main
reliance for such supplies as had to be imported.
Hence the desire of the national administration and
military authorities to seal it up. This could be done
only by capturing its defenses, and the principal of
these was Fort Fisher, the strongest earthwork then
in existence. This fortification, with its outworks,
occupied the end of the narrow peninsula between
Cape Fear River and the ocean. It mounted thirty-
eight heavy guns; the parapets were twenty-five feet
thick and twenty feet high; there were heavy traverses,
bombproofed; ditches and palisades surrounded it; and
outside of these were buried torpedoes connected with
electric batteries in the casemates. The garrison con-
sisted of about two thousand men.

In December, 1864, it was proposed to capture
105
106 THE HERO OF MANILA.



this work by a combined land and naval force. The
troops sent for the purpose were commanded by
General Butler. The fleet was the largest that ever
had been gathered under the American flag, and was
commanded by Rear-Admiral David D eeoctet tame it
consisted of fifty-six wooden vessels and four iron-
clads. The Colorado, commanded by Captain Henry
K. Thatcher, was one of the largest wooden ships;
she was the one that could not be taken over the bar
to participate in the attack on the forts below New
Orleans. Her place in this battle was second ship in
second division.

Lieutenant George Dewey, after his experience
on the Mississippi, had served for a time in the James
River flotilla under Commander McComb, and then
was ordered to the Colorado, in which he participated
in both attacks on Fort Fisher.

An accidental explosion of a boat load of powder,
a short time before, which produced a concussion that
shook down buildings, suggested the possibility of
damaging the fort by similar means, and it was re-
solved to try the experiment. An old steamer filled
with powder and disguised as a blockade runner was
taken in close to the fort in the night of December
23d and exploded within three hundred yards of the
beach. But no effect whatever was produced upon
the fort or its equipment.
HE CAPTURE OF FORT FISHER. 107



The next day two thirds of the fleet—the re-
mainder being held in reserve—steamed slowly in,
anchored in their appointed order, and began a bom-
bardment, directing their fire principally at the guns
of the fort. This was kept up all day, and there was
such a play of bursting shells over and within the
works as never had been seen before. Two magazines
were exploded, and several buildings were burned.
The fire was returned by the fort, and some vessels
were injured by the shells, but no casualties resulted
from it except by the explosion of a shell in the
boiler of the Mackinaw. There were serious casualties
in the fleet, however, from the bursting of hundred-
pounder rifled guns. There were four of these acci-
dents, by which fifteen men were killed and twenty-
two wounded.

The next day, which was Christmas, the troops
were landed from the transports, and the fleet re-
newed the bombardment in the expectation that the
troops would be marched to the rear of the fort and
storm it. But General Butler and General Weitzel
made a reconnoissance, and agreed that the works
could not be carried by assault. They therefore re-
embarked the troops and steamed back to Fort Mon-
roe. In the two days the fleet had fired fifteen thou-
sand shells, and disabled nine guns in the fort.

This fiasco was a disappointment and mortifica-
108 THE HERO OF MANILA.



tion to the President and General Grant, who believed
they had furnished a force to which they had a right
to look for substantial results. They therefore re-
solved upon a second attempt, and this time the com-
mand of the troops was intrusted to General Alfred
H. Terry. Porter’s fleet renewed its supplies of coal
and ammunition, and at the same time kept up a
moderate fire on the fort to prevent repair of the
works or erection of new ones.

Terry’s transports arrived the first week in Janu-
ary, in the midst of a heavy storm. But the vessels
rode it out safely, and then preparations were made
for an early assault. On the 13th the fleet anchored
as near the fort as the depth of water would permit,
in the same order as before, and bombarded nearly
‘all day while the troops were debarking. A curious
incident occurred when they shelled the woods back
of the fort; several hundred cattle there, intended for
the garrison, were frightened by the bursting shells
and rushed down to the beach, where Terry’s men
secured them.

Admiral Ammen, who commanded the Mohican
in the first division, says: “As the sun went down
and the shadows fell over the waters, the spectacle
was truly grand; the smoke rose and partially drifted
off, permitting glimpses now and then of the earth-
work, and the fitful yet incessant gleams from the
THE CAPTURE OF FORT FISHER. 109

NO RE DOPE Sh SA ae Se ea as Des Ei Leto
hundreds of shells bursting on or beyond the parapet
illuminated, like lightning flashes, the clouds above
and the smoke of battle beneath.”

General Terry gave his troops a day to rest, get
over the effects of the sea voyage, and throw up in-
trenchments across the peninsula two miles above the
fort. The 15th was fixed upon for the grand assault,
and the entire fleet had orders to move up and bom-
bard at an early hour. Admiral Porter thought to
assist the army further by detailing sixteen hundred
sailors and four hundred marines to land on the beach
and assail the sea face of the fort while the army
stormed the land side. The sailors were armed with
cutlasses and revolvers, and looked upon this new
service as a sort of lark, but they found it a serious
matter before the day was over. They came in sev-
eral detachments, from different ships, and, never
having been drilled together for any task of this
kind, did not know how to work together. But, even
if they had, it is doubtful if they could have accom-
plished anything; for, though they sprang to the as-
sault nimbly enough, a large part of the garrison were
called to that side of the work to repel them, and
before they could get near enough to use their pis-
tols their ranks were so thinned by grape shot and
musketry that they were compelled to fall back and
seek shelter. Three times they were rallied by their
110 THE HERO OF MANILA.



officers, and once they got within fifty yards of the
parapet; but the murderous fire from a dense mass
of soldiers behind it was too much for them. Four
of their officers were killed and fifteen were wounded,
while the number of sailors killed or wounded was
about three hundred.

But though this assault by the sailors and marines
was a failure in itself, it assisted the work of capture
by calling a considerable part of the garrison to the
sea face while the army assailed the rear of the fort.
And the bombardment by the fleet was much more
effective than in the first battle. Colonel Lamb,
who commanded the fort, says: “In the former bom-
bardment the fire of the fleet had been diffuse, but
now it was concentrated and the definite object was —
the destruction of the land defenses by enfilade and
direct fire. All day and night of the 13th and 14th
the navy continued its ceaseless torment; it was im-
possible to repair damages at night on the land face.
The Ironsides and the monitors bowled their eleven
and fifteen-inch shells along the parapet, scattering
shrapnel in the darkness. We could scarcely gather
up and bury our dead without fresh casualties. At
least two hundred had been killed and wounded in
the two days since the fight began.” ie

In those three days the fleet fired nearly twenty-
two thousand shells. Terry’s troops worked up to
THE CAPTURE OF FORT FISHER. III



positions near the fort, and on the 15th, when the
fleet gave the signal for assault by blowing the steam
whistles, rushed to the work. In spite of all obstruc-
tions, they gained the parapet; but this was only the
beginning of the task, for the work was provided with
heavy traverses, and the defenders had to be driven
from one to another of these, fighting obstinately all
the way, until the last was reached and surrender
could no longer be avoided. The assailants had lost
about seven hundred men, killed or wounded. When
Fort Fisher fell, the minor defenses at the mouth
of the Cape Fear fell with it, and the port of Wil-
mington was closed. General Lee, then besieged at
Petersburg by Grant, had sent word to its com-
mander that Fort Fisher must be held or he could
not subsist his army.

Thus the young officer on the Colorado, who
was to become the Hero of Manila thirty-three years .
later, participating in this great conflict and the re-
sulting victory, received one more lesson in the ter-
rible art of war.
CHAPTER XS
IN TIME OF PEACE.

COMMODORE THATCHER, in his report of the at-
tacks on Fort Fisher, paid the highest compliment to
Lieutenant Dewey, and that officer, for his meritorious
services in those actions, was promoted to the rank
of Lieutenant Commander. The next year (1866) he
was sent to the European station, on the Kearsarge,
the famous ship that fought a duel with the Alabama
one Sunday in June, 1864, off the harbor of Cher-
bourg, and sent her antagonist to the bottom.

Early in 1867 he was ordered to duty at the Ports-
mouth (New Hampshire) navy yard; and in that city
he met Miss Susie Goodwin, daughter of Ichabod
Goodwin, the “ War Governor’”’ of New Hampshire.
In the autumn of that year Commander Dewey and
Miss Goodwin were married.

After service in the Colorado, the flagship of the
European squadron, he was detailed as an instructor
at the Naval Academy, where he spent two years. In
1872 Mrs. Dewey died in Newport, and the same

year he was made commander of the Narragansett and
II2
IN TIME OF PEACE. 113



sent to the Pacific Coast Survey, on which he spent
four years. Then he was lighthouse inspector and
secretary of the Lighthouse Board till 1882, when he
was assigned to the command of the Juniata in the
Asiatic squadron. The fact that he spent two years
there was probably one of the reasons that caused the
administration to choose him for a much more im-
portant mission in those waters sixteen years later. In
1884 he received his commission as captain and was
assigned to the command of the Dolphin. This was
a new steel vessel, one of the four that formed the
original “ White Squadron,” marking a significant
turning-point in naval architecture.

The next year Captain Dewey was in command of
the Pensacola, flagship of the European squadron; and
in 1889 he was promoted to the rank of commodore
and made chief of the Bureau of Equipment and Re-
cruiting at Washington. In 1893 he became a mem-
ber of the Lighthouse Board, and in 1896 President
of the Board of Inspection and Survey.

Such is the record of an eminent naval officer in
time of peace. But though the record is brief and
makes a very simple story, the services that it repre-
sents were long and important. From the firing of
the last gun in the civil war to the first in the war
with Spain, a period of thirty-three years—the life
of a generation—had elapsed. In that interval naval
114 THE HERO OF MANILA.



architecture, naval gunnery, and naval tactics under-
went a greater change than any that they had seen
since the days of Antony and Cleopatra. If George
Dewey had stepped out of the naval service when —
the smoke rolled away after the battle of Fort Fisher,
in 1865, he could not have been the man to win a
victory that astonished the world in 1898. The maxim
“In time of peace prepare for war” never was better
observed than by the United States Government in
its construction and treatment of the new navy in the
eighties and the nineties; and it recognized the vital
point when it secured the highest possible develop-
ment of gun power by furnishing the man behind the
gun with plenty of ammunition, however costly, for
constant target practice, and established prizes for
good shots. The idea of a modern torpedo boat dart-
ing at a great cruiser and with one charge of a high
explosive sending her to the bottom is a terror, but
the terror is transferred to the other deck when the
torpedo boat finds herself met with a shower of balls,
every one having great penetrating power and aimed
with deadly precision. It is said that the credit for
the system of target practice belongs primarily to
Dewey’s classmate and lifelong friend, Rear-Admiral
Francis M. Bunce.

In those years of peace George Dewey gained many
friends and admirers by his evident ability, his modest
IN TIME OF PEACE. 115



firmness of character, his kindly courtesy, and his wide
range of interest. In one respect he resembles Gen-
eral Grant. A brother officer says of him: “I have
known him fairly well for twenty years, and I have
never heard him swear or brag.”
CEN EEE ey ale
THE BATTLE OF MANILA.

THREE centuries ago the power of Spain in the
western hemisphere covered a larger area than the
foreign possessions of any other country in Europe.
And in the same year in which Cortes, by a romantic
and amazing military exploit, brought her the king-
dom of Mexico, Magellan discovered for her another
rich empire in the Pacific, which she governed, robbed,
and oppressed for three hundred and seventy-seven
years, until she lost it—probably forever—one May
morning, when an American fleet sailed into the bay
of Manila and won a victory as complete and aston-
ishing as that of Cortes. The greater part of the
reasons why such a victory was possible are indicated
in the foregoing. pages, but the circumstances that
gave occasion for it need explanation.

Spain’s misrule in her colonies finally produced in
most of them a chronic state of insurrection, and one
after another they slipped from her grasp. Peru, Bo-
livia, Colombia, the Argentine, Mexico, Louisiana,

Florida, and the greater part of the West Indies once
116




































































ie











Diagram of Manila Bay.
THE BATTLE OF MANILA. 117



were hers. She ceded Louisiana to France in 1800,
and Florida to the United States in 1819, and two
years later Mexico achieved her independence. She
still had the rich islands of Cuba and Porto Rico in
the West Indies, and the Philippine group in the East.

Though there have been revolutions and counter
revolutions in Spain since the beginning of this cen-
tury, the colonies have profited by none of them.
Whether the home government was republic or mon-
archy, it was equally impressed with the idea that
colonies were for plunder only. In 1848 the United
States offered to buy Cuba for one hundred million
dollars, but the offer was indignantly rejected with
the remark that there was not gold enough in the
world to buy that island from Spain. Of the many
insurrections there, the most serious were that which
lasted from 1868 to 1878, costing Spain a hundred
thousand lives and Cuba nearly sixty thousand, and
that which broke out in 1895. In the former of
these, forty thousand prisoners who were captured by
the Spanish troops were deliberately put to death; and
in the latter such barbarous measures of repression
were resorted to as subjected, not men alone, but
women and children, to the most cruel suffering.
Meanwhile, the United States Government was doing
its utmost to enforce the laws of neutrality, and a
part of its navy was kept busy watching the coasts
118 THE HERO OF MANILA.



and thwarting filibustering schemes, some of which
were successful in spite of them.

The feelings of horror excited among the Ameri-
can people by the atrocities of the Spanish commander
in Cuba began to demand that somehow or other an
end be put to them; and every comment on the great
powers of Europe for permitting the massacre of
Armenians by the Turks, suggested a parallel criticism
in regard to the United States and Cuba.

A similar insurrection was in progress in the
Philippine Islands. That group is about two hun-
dred miles from the coast of China. The largest of
them, Luzon, is about as large as the State of Ohio,
and the next, Mindanao, is almost as large; while the
smallest are mere islets. There are nearly two thou-
sand in all. The total area is estimated at one hundred
and fourteen thousand square miles (about equal to the
combined areas of New York, New Jersey, Pennsyl-
vania and Maryland), and the total population at seven
million (about equal to that of the State of New
York). Of this population more than half are on the
island of Luzon. Here also is the capital city, Manila,
with a population (including suburbs) of a quarter of
a million.

Some of the original tribes remain in the islands,
but the present inhabitants are largely Malay, with
about ten thousand Spaniards and a good many
THE BATTLE OF MANILA. 11g



Chinese. The principal exports were hemp, sugar,
rice, coffee, cocoa, and tobacco. The annual revenue
before the war was about fourteen million dollars.

The capital is in latitude fifteen degrees north,
about the same as that of Porto Rico, and the south-
ern point of Mindanao is within five degrees of the
equator. The group has a length, north and south,
of twelve hundred miles. The capital city contained a
cathedral, a university, and a palace for the governor.
It is on a beautiful land-locked harbor, twenty-six
miles from the entrance. This entrance is twelve miles
wide, but it is divided by two islands, giving one chan-
nel two miles wide and another five miles. The city
is divided by the River Pasig, the old town being
on the south side, and the new town on the north.
The principal fortifications were at Cavité, on a prom-
ontory seven miles south of the city, but there were
others on Corregidor Island, at the entrance.

In the autumn of 1897 Commodore Dewey’s health
was impaired—possibly from indoor service—and he
was advised to apply for sea duty to restore it. Vari-
ous accounts are given of his next assignment, not
all of which can be true, but on the last day of
November he was made commander of the Asiatic
squadron, and a month later he hoisted his flag on
the Olympia at Nagasaki, Japan.

The growing feeling in the United States of hor-
9
120 THE HERO OF MANILA.’



ror and indignation at the state of affairs in Cuba
and the Philippines found free expression; this roused
the resentment of the Spanish Government and people,
and it became evident that not much was required
to bring on a war between the two nations. An oc-
currence most deplorable—whether caused by accident
or by design—in the harbor of Havana, in the night
of February 14, 1898, brought on the crisis. This
was the blowing up of the United States battle ship
Maine by a submarine mine or torpedo. The vessel
was completely wrecked, and two hundred and sixty-
six lives were destroyed. She was riding at anchor,
on the spot selected for her by the Spanish harbor
authorities, and the greater part of the crew were
asleep in their hammocks. Probably nine tenths of
the American people believed that the ship had been
blown up by treachery, but the moderation and for-
bearance of both people and Government, while they
waited for the result of an official investigation, were
remarkable. The Court of Inquiry was composed of
experienced officers of high rank, who sat twenty-
three days and employed divers and experts. Their
unanimous verdict, delivered on March atst, declared
that “the ship was destroyed by the explosion of a
submarine mine, which caused the partial explosion
of two or more of her forward magazines, and no
evidence has been obtainable fixing the responsi-
THE BATTLE OF MANILA. 121



bility for the destruction of the Maine upon any
person or persons.” If it was proved that the wreck
was the work of a submarine mine, it was not dif-
ficult to guess where the responsibility lay. Congress
boldly attributed the disaster to “the crime or the
criminal negligence of the Spanish officials,’ and the
people generally agreed with Congress on this point.

Several members of Congress, notably Senator
Proctor, formerly Secretary of War, visited Cuba to
see the condition of affairs for themselves; and their
reports, with the sickening details, increased the de-
termination of the American people to interfere in the
cause of humanity.

On March oth, at the President’s request, Congress
passed unanimously a bill appropriating fifty million
dollars as an emergency fund to be used for the na-
tional defense.

In a special message, April 11th, the President
recited the facts, and said: “‘ The forcible intervention
of the United States as a neutral to stop the war,
according to the large dictates of humanity, and fol-
lowing many historical precedents where neighboring
states: have interfered to check the hopeless sacrifice
of life by internecine conflicts beyond their borders, is
justifiable on rational grounds.” Eight days later Con-
gress passed a joint resolution declaring war. This date,
April 19th, was the anniversary of the first bloodshed
122 THE HERO OF MANILA.



in the American Revolution (1775), and also of the
first in the civil war (1861). Measures for increasing
both the army and the navy had been taken already.

The United States naval squadron at Hong Kong
included most of our force in the Pacific and was well
supplied; and the cruiser Baltimore, with a large quan-
tity of stores and ammunition, was added.. It now
consisted of four protected cruisers—the Olympia, the
Baltimore, the Boston, and the Raleigh—from 3,000
to 5,870 tons each, and the gunboats Concord and
Petrel. It carried in all one hundred and thirty-three
guns. Its commander, George Dewey, was of the
same age as Farragut at the beginning of the civil
war—sixty.

The Commodore had received provisional orders,
instructing him, in case of war with Spain, to cap-
ture or destroy the Spanish fleet in the Pacific and
' take possession of the Philippine Islands; and he was
now promptly notified that he might carry them out.
The British authorities at Hong Kong gave notice
that the fleet must leave that port at once, in accord-
ance with the laws of neutrality, and on April 27th
Dewey sailed for the Chinese port in Mirs Bay, and
there completed his preparations. One day later,
having given the American consul time to get away
from Manila, he sailed for Subig Bay, thirty miles
north of that city, expecting to find the Spanish fleet


U.S. Cruiser Olympia, Admiral Dewey’s FI
THE BATTLE OF MANILA. 123



there; but it had just gone to Manila Bay, where it
could have the protection of shore batteries.

This fleet was commanded by Admiral Montojo.
Its fighting vessels were seven cruisers—the Reina
Maria Cristina, the Castilla, the Velasco, the Don
Antonio de Ulloa, the Don Juan de Austria, the Isla
de Cuba, and the Isla de Luzon—the gunboats El
Cano and General Lezo, and four torpedo boats. The
size of the cruisers was from 1,030 to 3,520 tons, and
the whole number of guns carried was one hundred
and thirty-five.

Some of the Spanish officials cherished certain de-
lusions that appear to have originated with the Span-
ish newspapers. One was, that if the United States
Government engaged in a foreign war the Southern
States would again secede. Another was, that the
United States navy was without discipline and without
competent officers, and that the crews were the mere
riffraff of all nations, attracted thither by the liberal
pay. The Governor-General of the Philippines issued
a boastful proclamation in which he set forth these
ideas, and added (more truthfully, perhaps, than he
suspected), “ The struggle will be short and decisive.”

Whether justly or not, there were suspicions of
the genuineness of the neutrality to be observed by
other powers, and an incident at Hong Kong showed
that Commodore Dewey was not to be trifled with
124 THE HERO OF MANILA.»

in the discharge of his duty. The German Emperor’s
brother, Prince Henry, called on Dewey in the flag-
ship, and said in the course of the conversation, “I
will send my ships to Manila, to see that you be-
have.” “TI shall be delighted to have your Highness
do so,” Dewey answered, “ but permit me to caution
you to keep your ships from between my guns and
the enemy.”

The American fleet followed the Spanish fleet to
Manila Bay without loss of time, and early Sunday
morning, May ist, the Spaniards were astonished to
see their enemy sailing in through the south chan-
nel. When half the squadron had passed in, one of
the land batteries opened fire, but without effect. The
ships continued at slow speed across the great bay,
looking for their antagonists, and found them in a
smaller bay—known as Baker Bay—anchored in line
across its entrance, their left and right protected by
batteries on the inclosing peninsula and on the main-
land. Two mines were exploded ahead of the Ameri-
can flagship as it advanced, but produced no dam-
age. When the fleets were nearly parallel with each
other, the distance being two thousand to five thou-
sand yards, the Commodore said to the captain of the
Olympia: “ You may fire when you are ready, Grid-
ley,” and at once the battle began. Then was seen
the advantage of training and target practice to the
THE BATTLE OF MANILA. 125

men behind the guns. The American fire was remark-
able for its precision, and almost every shot told, while
the Spanish fire, though vigorous, was ineffective.
The Spanish flagship attempted to leave the line and
go out to engage the Olympia. at close range, but
at once the entire battery of the Olympia was con-
centrated on her, and she retreated to her former place.
Following the example set by Du Pont at Hilton
Head in 1861, the fleet steamed steadily by and re-
turned in a long ellipse, firing the starboard broad-
sides as they went up, and the port broadsides as they
came back. This was repeated five times. The land
batteries near the city, as well as those on Cavité
point, opened fire on the fleet, but the Americans did
not reply to them, their first business being with the
Spanish vessels. Dewey sent word to the Governor-
General that unless the city batteries ceased the city
would be shelled, and this had the desired effect. The
terrific assault crippled the Spanish vessels, set two
of them on fire, and killed a great many men; but the
Spanish sailors were not so deficient in courage as
in skill, and they stood by their guns manfully.
Admiral Montojo says in his report: “The enemy
shortened the distance between us, and, rectifying his
aim, covered us with a rain of rapid-fire projectiles.
At half past seven one shell completely destroyed the
steering-gear. I ordered to steer by hand while the
126 THE HERO OF MANILA.”

rudder was out of action. In the meanwhile another
shell, exploded on the poop and put nine men out of
action. Another carried away the mizzen masthead,
bringing down the flag and my ensign, which were
replaced immediately. A fresh shell exploded in the
officers’ cabin, covering the hospital with blood and
destroying the wounded who were being treated there.
Another exploded in the ammunition room astern, fill-
ing the quarters with smoke and preventing the work-
ing of the hand steering-gear. As it was impossible
to control the fire, I had to flood the magazine when
the cartridges were beginning to explode. Amidships
several shells of smaller caliber went through the
smokestack, and one of the large ones penetrated the
fire room, putting out of action one master gunner
and twelve men serving the guns. Another rendered
useless the starboard bow gun. While the fire astern
increased, fire was started forward by another shell
which went through the hull and exploded on the
deck. The broadside guns, being undamaged, con-
tinued firing until only one gunner and one seaman
remained unhurt for working them, as the guns’
crews had been frequently called upon to substitute
those charged with steering, all of whom were out
of action. The ship being out of control, . . . I gave
the order to sink and abandon her before the maga-
zines should explode.”


Isle de Cuba. Isle de Luzon. Reina Cristina. Cavite Ketteries. Boston. Baltimore, Raleigh. Concord.

The battle of Manila.
(By the courtesy of I’, A. Munsey.)
THE BATTLE OF MANILA. 127



All this was on the flagship, and the other Span-
ish vessels had been used only a little less roughly
when the American fleet drew off to rest the men and
have breakfast. How much the rest and refreshment
were needed can be realized only by those who them-
selves have been at work in “ the iron dens and caves ”
while the battle was raging overhead. A stoker on
the Olympia, giving an account of his experiences
during the fight, said: “ The battle hatches were all
battened down, and we were shut in this little hole,
the ventilating pipes being the only things left open.
The temperature was nearly up to two hundred de-
grees, and it was so hot our hair was singed. There
were several leaks in the steam pipes, and the hiss-
ing steam made things worse. The clatter of the en-
gines and the roar of the furnaces made such a din
it seemed one’s head would burst. When a man could
stand it no longer he would put his head under the
air pipe for a moment. We could tell when our guns
opened fire by the way the ship shook. Once in a
while one of the apprentice boys would come to our
ventilating pipe and shout down to tell us what was
going on.”

Soon after eleven o'clock the American fleet re-
turned to the attack, and at this time the Spaniard’s
flagship and most of his other vessels were in flames.
At half past twelve the firing ceased, for the task was
128 THE HERO OF MANILA.

substantially completed; one after another the hostile
ships had been sunk or driven ashore and burned, and
the Americans had also poured such a fire into the
batteries at Cavité as compelled their surrender.
Dewey’s fleet then anchored near the city, leaving the
gunboat Petrel to complete the destruction of the
smaller Spanish boats that remained, which was done.

Thus in about four hours of fighting the American
had annihilated the Spanish power in the Pacific and
won a new empire. Admiral Montojo reported his
losses as three hundred and eighty-one men killed or
wounded. In the American fleet seven men were
slightly wounded, but none were killed. Some of the
ships were struck by the Spanish shot, but not one
was seriously injured.

A pretty anecdote is told of Dewey after the battle.
When the order had been given to strip for action
a powder boy lost his coat overboard. He asked per-
mission to go for it, but was refused. He went
to the other side of the ship, went over, and recovered
his coat, and was then placed under arrest for dis-
obedience; and after the battle he was tried and found
guilty. When the sentence was submitted to the Com-
modore he was curious to know why any one should
risk his life for a coat, and asked the boy. The little
fellow, after some hesitation, told him it was because
his mother’s picture was in the pocket. The tears came
THE BATTLE OF MANILA. 129



to Dewey’s eyes as he gave orders for his release, say-
ing, “A boy that loves his mother enough to risk
his life for her picture can not be kept in irons on
this fleet.”

While no American had any doubt of the re-
sult of a war with Spain, the whole world was aston-
ished at a battle that had completely destroyed one
fleet without serious damage to the other. It was
evident that a people who had produced John Paul
Jones, Hull, Porter, Stewart, Bainbridge, Perry, De-
catur, Farragut, Worden, and Winslow had not yet
lost the power of producing worthy successors to. those
naval heroes.

If one wishes to muse on the historic achievements
of sea power, it is not necessary to visit Copenhagen
or the Nile, or sit on the shore of Trafalgar Bay;
the Mississippi and Manila Bay will answer quite as
well. The United States navy has often been criticised
at home and sneered at abroad; but it is notable that
in every war in which it has engaged it has surpassed
all expectations; and there is no reason to suppose it
will not continue to do so as long as the nation en-
dures.

‘‘When life’s last sun gaes feebly down,
And death comes to their door,
When a’ the world’s a dream to them,
They’ll go to sea no more.”
CHAPTER XII.
AFTER THE BATTLE.

THE first reports of the victory in Manila Bay were
received with amazement and with considerable in-
credulity. Among Americans there was little doubt
—perhaps none at all—as to the result of the war;
but they did not think to get through it without con-
siderable losses, and they expected the heaviest ones
to fall on the navy. The reason for this was in the
new and untried character of naval architecture and
armament. From the sailing vessels that fought the
famous battles of 1812 to the steamers with which
Farragut passed the batteries on the Mississippi the
change was not so great and radical as from these to
the fleet commanded by Dewey. The cruiser of to-day,
with its massive sides of metal, its heavy rifled guns
with improved projectiles, its rapid fire, its electric
lights and signals, its search-lights and range-finders,
and other apparatus contributing to celerity and accu-
racy of work, is more dangerous and destructive, so
long as it remains intact, than anything that Hull or

Bainbridge, Du Pont or Farragut, ever saw. But it is
130


Admiral Dewey on the bridge of the Olympia.

(By the courtesy of the Judge Company.)
AFTER THE BATTLE. 131



a complicated machine, and nobody knew what it
would do if seriously crippled, the probability being
that it would go to the bottom and leave not a floating
plank to which any poor sailor could cling. At the
same time a great deal of money and ingenuity had
been spent in building torpedo boats—more by Euro-
pean governments than by ours—and it was apprehended
that these at sea would be like the proverbial snake
in the grass on land—able to dart quickly and inflict
a mortal wound on greater and nobler creations than
themselves. And then came the construction of the
still swifter craft known as torpedo-boat destroyers,
with appalling stories of their deadly nature. And
with all these complex forces afloat there was a very
natural dread of seeing them tried in actual battle, for
it was feared that even the victor could not attain
his victory without fearful disaster.

So when the news was confirmed that an Ameri-
can fleet, paying no heed to the probability of tor-
pedoes in the channel, had steamed into Manila Bay
by night and in a few hours had sunk or destroyed a
fleet of nearly equal rating, and then had silenced and
captured powerful land batteries—and this without the
loss of a ship or a man—“all the world wondered,”
not merely in the imagination of a poet describing a
useless exploit, but in reality, because it recognized a
marvelous revolution in the art of war. History re-
132 THE HERO OF MANILA.



corded no such victory until this was repeated in Cuban
waters, two months later, by another American fleet.
Nelson had destroyed the fleets of England’s enemies,
but not without blood on the English decks and sor-
row in English homes. He lost nearly nine hundred
men in the battle of the Nile, nearly a thousand in the
battle of the Baltic, and more than fifteen hundred at
Trafalgar.

Throughout the United States there was pride and
rejoicing, and Dewey became a household word. It
appeared everywhere, and was given as an honored
name to all sorts of things, from a popgun or a terrier
to a park or a theatre. In Europe the student of his-
tory could hardly help putting together four facts and
suspecting the existence of some significant condition
or principle behind them—that American naval vessels
had demonstrated their superiority over the English
in 1812; that it was an American fleet that, a little later,
put an end to the payment of tribute by civilized na-
tions to the Algerine pirates; that the Monitor, an
American invention, had revolutionized warfare by
water in 1862; and that American cruisers and gun-
boats had now had it all their own way in spite of Span-
ish cruisers, submarine mines, forts, and torpedo boats.
European governments were anxious to know how it
was done, and their military authorities dispatched
officers across the Atlantic to find out. The general
AFTER THE BATTLE. 133



explanation was the superiority of the men behind the
guns, with their abundant training and perfect disci-
pline. The particular reasons for the result were given
by Admiral Dewey in conversation with a friend. He
said:

“The battle of Manila Bay was fought in Hong
Kong Harbor—that is, the hard work was done there;
the execution here was not difficult. With the co-
operation of the officers of the fleet, my plans were
carefully studied out there, and no detail was omitted.
Any man who had a suggestion to offer was heard,
and if it was a good one it was adopted. After the in-
dications of war were so strong that it appeared inevi-
table, I devoted my time and energies to making every
preparation possible. When we left Hong Kong and
anchored in Mirs Bay, outside of the neutrality limits,
I had determined upon my line of action. When we
left there a few days later we sailed away ready for
battle, and expecting it as soon as we reached the
neighborhood of Manila. ;

“From that hour of departure until we drew out
of action, Sunday morning, May Ist, after destroying
the Spanish squadron, we practically did not stop the
engines of our ships. We came directly across from
the China port to that of Luzon, headed down toward
the entrance of Manila Bay, reconnoitred Subig Bay,
where it had been rumored we would find the enemy,
134 THE HERO OF MANILA.

made the entrance to Manila, passed Corregidor Island
by the south channel in the darkness of the night, and
steamed across the bay close to Manila, where at break
of day we discovered the Spanish fleet off Cavité. Sig-
naling to prepare for action and follow the flagship,
I gave orders to steam past the enemy and engage
‘their ships. The result you can see by looking at the
‘sunken vessels in the harbor.

“Every ship and every man did his duty well, and
the marvel of it all is, that not one man on our side
was killed or even seriously injured. The only harm
inflicted on the ships was of'a trivial nature, although
the Spaniards kept up a lively fire until their gun
decks were no longer out of water or they had no men
to man the guns. The Spanish admiral and officers
and crew fought bravely, and deserve credit for their
valor.”

In giving his views of the action, he said:

“The first lesson of the battle teaches the impor-
tance of American gunnery and good guns. It con-
firms my early experiences under Admiral Farragut,
that combats are decided. more by skill in gunnery
and the quality of the guns than by all else. Tor-
pedoes and other appliances are good in their way, but
are of secondary importance. The Spaniards, with
their combined fleet and forts, were equal to us in gun
power, but they were unable to harm us because of
AFTER THE BATTLE. 135



bad gunnery. Constant practice had made our gun-
nery destructive, and won the victory.

“The second lesson of this battle is the complete
demonstration of the value of high-grade men. Cheap
men are not wanted, are not needed, are a loss to the
United States navy. We should have none but the
very best men behind the guns. It will not do to have
able officers and poor men. The men in their class
must be the equal of the officers in theirs. We must
have the best men filling all the posts on shipboard.
To make the attainments of the officers valuable, we
must have, as we have in this fleet, the best men to
carry out their commands.

“The third lesson, not less important than the
others, is the necessity for inspection. Everything to
be used in a battle should have been thoroughly in-
spected by naval officials. If this is done, there will
be no failure at a crisis in time of danger. Look at
the difference between our ships and the Spanish ships.
Everything the Spaniards had was supplied by con-
tract. Their shells, their powder, all their materials
were practically worthless, while ours were perfect.”

While the engagement was in progress every place
in Manila that commanded a view of the bay was
crowded with spectators. There is a curious mingling
of simplicity and pathos in the comments of a Spanish
newspaper published in Manila. It said: ‘ Who could

Io
136 THE HERO OF MANILA,



have imagined that they would have the rashness
stealthily to approach our shores, provoking our de-
fenders to an unavailing display of skill and valor, in
which, alas! balls could not be propelled by heart
throbs, else the result would have been different? The
sound of the shots from our batteries and those from
the enemy’s ships, which awakened the citizens of
Manila at five o’clock on that May morning, trans-
formed the character of our peaceful and happy sur-
roundings. Frightened at the prospect of dangers that
seemed greater than they were, women and children
in carriages, or by whatever means they could, sought
refuge in the outskirts of the city, while all the men,
from the highest to the lowest, the merchant and the
mechanic, the soldier and the peasant, the dwellers in
the interior and those of the coast, repaired to their
posts and took up arms, confident that never, except
by passing over their dead bodies, should the soil of
Manila be defiled by the enemy, notwithstanding that
from the first it was apparent that the armored ships
and powerful guns were invulnerable to any effort at
our command. ... A soldier of the first battalion of
sharpshooters, who saw the squadron so far out of
range of our batteries, said, glancing up to heaven,
‘If the Holy Mary would only transform that water
into land, then the Yankees would see how we could
fight.’ And a Malay who was squatting near by ex-
AFTER THE BATTLE. 137



claimed, ‘Let them land, and we will crush them
under heel.’ ”

The relative power of the opposing fleets may be
seen from this summary: The Americans had four
cruisers, two gunboats, and one cutter, carrying fifty-
seven classified large guns, seventy-six rapid-firing and
machine guns, and one thousand eight hundred and
eight men. The Spaniards had seven cruisers, two gun-
boats, and four torpedo boats, carrying fifty-two classi-
fied large guns, eighty-three rapid-firing and machine
guns, and one thousand nine hundred and forty-nine
men.

Commodore Dewey’s fleet officers were: Com-
mander Benjamin P. Lamberton, chief of staff; Lieu-
tenant Thomas M. Brumby, flag lieutenant; Ensign
Harry H. Caldwell, secretary.

The line officers of the Olympia were: Captain
Charles V. Gridley, Lieutenant-Commander Sumner C.
Paine, Lieutenants Corwin P. Rees, Carlos G. Calkins,
Valentine S. Nelson, Stokely Morgan, and Samuel M.
Strite, and Ensigns Montgomery M. Taylor, Frank B.
Upham, William P. Scott, Arthur G. Kavanaugh, and
Henry V. Butler.

The line officers of the Baltimore were: Captain
Nehemiah M. Dyer, Lieutenant-Commander Gottfried
Blockinger, Lieutenants William Braunersreuther,
Frank W. Kellogg, John M. Ellicott, and Charles S.
138 THE HERO OF MANILA,

Stanworth, and Ensigns, George H. Hayward, Michael
J. McCormack, and N. E. Irwin.

The line officers of the Boston were: Captain Frank
Wildes, Lieutenant-Commander John A. Norris, Lieu-
tenants John Gibson and William L. Howard, and
Ensigns Samuel S. Robinson, Lay H. Everhart, and
John S. Doddridge.

The line officers of the Raleigh were: Captain Joseph
B. Coghlan, Lieutenant-Commander Frederic Singer,
Lieutenants William Winder, Benjamin Tappan, Hugh
Rodman, and Casey B. Morgan, and Ensigns Frank L.
Chadwick and Provoost Babin.

The line officers of the Concord were: Commander

~ Asa Walker, Lieutenant-Commander George P. Colvo-
coresses, Lieutenants Thomas B. Howard and Patrick
W. Hourigan, and Ensigns Louis A. Kaiser, William
C. Davidson, and Orlo S. Knepper.
_ The line officers of the Petrel were: Commander
Edward P. Wood, Lieutenants Edward M. Hughes,
Bradley A. Fiske, Albert N. Wood, and Charles P.
Plunkett, and Ensigns George L. Fermier and William
S. Montgomery.

The cutter McCulloch was commanded by Captain
Daniel B. Hodgsdon.


Designed and copyrighted, 1898, by D. C. French.

Medal authorized by Congress for presentation to Admiral Dewey and his officers and men,
CHAPTER XII.
THE PROBLEM ON LAND.

AFTER the Spanish fleet had been destroyed and
the forts surrendered, Admiral Dewey demanded the
surrender of the city of Manila with all its fortifica-
tions and military stores. This the Governor-General
refused. The fleet could have bombarded the citadel
and the fortifications, but as no land force was at
hand to garrison the place, and the foreign consuls
advised against it from fear of revengeful action of
the insurgents, the Admiral refrained. Instead, he
established a strict blockade of the port, while the
Filipinos were besieging the city on the land side. He
destroyed six batteries at the entrance of the bay, and
occupied Cavité, where he established hospitals in
which the sick and wounded Spaniards were protected
and cared for. As his proposal that both sides use
the telegraph cable unmolested was not accepted by
the Governor-General, he had it lifted and cut.

The possibility of a peaceful settlement of affairs
in the island had been destroyed by this same Gov-

ernor, who in an official proclamation had told the
139
140 THE HERO OF MANILA.



natives that the Americans had murdered all the
original inhabitants of North America, and that now
they were coming to rob the Filipinos of their lands,
reduce many of them to slavery, and substitute the
Prostestant religion for the Catholic. And the Arch-
bishop of Manila supplemented this with a pastoral
letter in which he told the natives that if the Ameri-
cans were victorious their altars would be desecrated,
their churches turned into Protestant chapels, vice in-
culcated instead of morality, and every effort made to
lead their children away from the true faith.

While affairs on shore were thus working toward
a serious condition of things for all concerned, there
had been indications of unfriendliness and a disposition
to embarrass the operations of the Americans by some
of the commanders of foreign war ships. This was
so marked on the part of the Germans that there was
serious danger of a rupture of the friendly relations
between the two countries: but the tact and firmness
of Dewey, who had been intrusted with full discretion
by his Government, prevented it. None the less anx-
iously he looked for the arrival from the United States
of a sufficient land force to capture and hold Manila,
and he was obliged to use all his skill in diplomacy
to restrain the Filipinos from attacking the city.

As soon as an expedition could be prepared, the
Government sent one, in three divisions. The first,
THE PROBLEM ON LAND. 141



under General Francis V. Greene, sailed from San
Francisco May 25th, and arrived at Manila June 30th;
the second, under General Thomas H. Anderson, sailed
June 3d; and the third, under General Arthur McAr-
thur, arrived July 31st. The whole number of troops
was nearly twelve thousand. With the third section
went General Wesley Merritt, commander of the ex-
pedition, who also had been appointed Military Govy-
ernor of the Philippines; and with him went General
Elwell S. Otis, to whom was given the command of
all the troops in the Philippines, leaving General Mer-
ritt free to give his energies to the administrative and
political problems. On the 4th of August the fleet
was strengthened by the arrival of the monitor Mon-
terey, which had heavier ordnance than the ten-inch
Krupp guns that the Spaniards had mounted in the
shore batteries.

The troops were landed at Cavité, and occupied
the trenches on the south side of the city, while the
Filipino insurgents held those on the east and north.
The Spanish Governor-General resigned his authority
to the military commander, and, with the permission
of Admiral Dewey, was taken away on a German
cruiser. On the 28th of July the Spaniards made a
determined assault on the American lines, but were
driven back; and on August 7th Admiral Dewey and
General Merritt gave notice that in forty-eight hours
142 THE HERO OF MANILA.



they would attack the defenses. Parleying ensued,
and the Americans extended the time nearly a week
in order that General Merritt might push his lines
farther east and take possession of the bridges, and
thus be able to prevent the insurgents from entering
the city to loot it and massacre the Spaniards, which
they were bent upon doing. On the morning of
August 13th the fleet bombarded the fortifications of
Malaté, setting fire to the stores and ammunition,
while the Utah battery played on the breastworks.
Then the Colorado regiment and the California troops
stormed the works, drove out the Spaniards, and
fought them from house to house till they reached
the esplanade, when a white flag was displayed and
the Spanish commander surrendered and was accorded
the honors of war. Bodies of insurgents were found
entering the city, and were driven back by General
Greene’s troops.

General Merritt issued a proclamation in which he
assured the inhabitants of the islands that he had only
come to protect them in their homes, their occupa-
tions, and their personal and religious rights; that the
port of Manila would be open to the merchant ships
of all neutral nations; and that no person would be
disturbed so long as he preserved the peace. Addi-
tional troops were sent out, and General Merritt re-
turned home, leaving General Otis in command.
THE PROBLEM ON LAND. 143



Meanwhile, the Spanish fleet on the coast of Cuba
had been destroyed, July 3d, by an American fleet
under Acting Rear-Admiral William T. Sampson, with
Commodore Winfield S. Schley second in command;
the defenses of Santiago had been captured by the
land forces under General William R. Shafter; the
island of Porto Rico was crossed and occupied by an
expedition under General Nelson A. Miles; and the
French Ambassador at Washington, in behalf of the
Spanish Government, had opened negotiations for
peace. He and Secretary of State William R. Day
signed a protocol on August 12th. This provided
for a cessation of hostilities; that Spain should relin-
quish all claim to Cuba, and cede Porto Rico to the
United States; that the American forces should hold
the city and bay of Manila pending the conclusion of
a treaty of peace, which should determine what would
be done with the Philippines; and that peace com-
missioners should be appointed by both governments,
to meet in Paris not later than October 1, 1898. The
commissioners on the part of the United States were
Secretary Day, Senator Cushman K. Davis, Senator
William P. Frye, Hon. Whitelaw Reid, and Senator
George Gray. The treaty of peace, as finally agreed
to, November 28th, gave the Philippines to the United
States, with the stipulation that the American Gov-

ernment should pay twenty million dollars to Spain for
II
144 THE HERO OF MANILA.

her betterments in those islands. This treaty was
promptly signed by President McKinley, and after
much delay was ratified by the Senate, in spite of a
determined attempt to defeat it. The opponents based
their objections mainly on what they considered the
bad policy and dishonesty of retaining the Philip-
pines.


The Dewey Sword, the gift of the nation to Admiral Dewey.
(Tiffany & Co., New York, makers.)
CIEUAUEIDIEIR. DW,
HONORS.

Dewey’s dispatches of May 1st and 4th, announc-
ing the naval victory and the capture of Cavité, were
as brief and modest as possible. The shower of honors
that immediately fell upon him was such as perhaps
no other man has received within the memory of this
generation. The Secretary of the Navy, John D.
Long, telegraphed to him, under date of May 7th:
“The President, in the name of the American peo-
ple, thanks you and your officers and men for your
splendid achievement and overwhelming victory. In
recognition he has appointed you Acting Admiral,
and will recommend a vote of thanks to you by Con-
gress.”

Two days later the President sent a special mes-
sage to Congress, in which, after briefly recounting
the victory, he said: “ Outweighing any material ad-
vantage is the moral effect of this initial success. At
this unsurpassed achievement the great heart of our
nation throbs, not with boasting nor with greed of

conquest, but with deep gratitude that this triumph
145
146 THE HERO OF MANILA.



has come in a just cause, and that by the grace of
God an effective step has thus been taken toward the
attainment of the wished-for peace. To those whose
skill, courage, and devotion have won the fight, to the
gallant commander and the brave officers and men who
aided him, our country owes an incalculable debt.
Feeling as our people feel, and speaking in their name,
I sent a message to Commodore Dewey, thanking him
and his officers and men for their splendid achieve-
ment, and informing him that I had appointed him
an Acting Rear Admiral. I now recommend that, fol-
lowing our national precedents, and expressing the
fervent gratitude of every patriotic heart, the thanks
of Congress be given Acting Rear-Admiral George
Dewey, of the United States navy, for highly distin-
guished conduct in conflict with the enemy, and to
the officers and men under his command for their gal-
lantry in the destruction of the enemy’s fleet and the
capture of the enemy’s fortifications in the bay of
Manila.”

Congress promptly, enthusiastically, and unani-
mously, by a rising vote, passed the joint resolution
of thanks to Admiral Dewey and to the officers and
men of his fleet.

Then a bill was passed unanimously increasing the
number of rear admirals from six to seven, and the
President at once promoted Dewey to the full rank.
HONORS. 147

Furthermore, a resolution was passed unanimously
instructing the Secretary of the Navy to present a
sword of honor to Admiral Dewey, and cause bronze
medals to be struck commemorating the battle of
Manila Bay, and distribute them to the officers and
men who had participated in the battle, and the sum
of ten thousand dollars was appropriated for the pur-
pose.

Two days before the adjournment, in March, 1899,
Congress passed, without division, a bill reviving the
grade and rank of Admiral in the United States navy,
“to provide prompt and adequate reward to Rear-
Admiral George Dewey, the said grade and rank to
exist only during the lifetime of this officer.” The
President signed the bill and gave Admiral Dewey
the commission on the 2d of March. This made him
the ranking officer not only of the navy, but of the
army as well, in any operations where the two arms
of the service are employed.

Montpelier celebrated the victory with a public
demonstration on the gth of May, in which ten thou-
sand persons participated.

The legislatures of several States passed compli-
mentary resolutions, and in Pennsylvania and Cali-
fornia May 1st was made a legal holiday in commem-
oration of the victory.

Money was raised by private subscription for a
148 THE HERO OF MANILA.



statue of Admiral Dewey, to be cut in Vermont marble
and placed beside that of Ethan Allen in the State
House at Montpelier. Many colleges conferred hon-
orary degrees upon him, and learned societies and
social organizations elected him to honorary member-
ship.

It is proposed to erect a beautiful memorial hall,
as an addition to the buildings of Norwich Academy,
and name it Dewey Hall.

When, in the summer of 1899, he was relieved and
ordered home, he came slowly, stopping often for rest
on shore and being everywhere received with honor.
A great reception, with an immense procession and
other demonstrations, was prepared for him in the city
of New York, where he was to arrive on the 28th
of September.




Copyright, i894, by D. C. French.

Bronze tablet for forward turret of Admiral Dewey’s
flagship, Olympia.

Presented by citizens of Olympia, Wash.
Ce Neale ee
LETTERS.

WHEN a man has become famous, there is at once
a desire on the part of the public to know something
of his character and habits of thought aside from the
work that has brought him into notice, and these are
generally shown best by his letters. We are permitted
to make a few significant extracts from Admiral Dewey’s
correspondence, with which we will close this volume.

Several Confederate veterans at Clarksville, Tenn.,
some of whom had belonged to the battery that de-
stroyed the Mississippi when she was trying to pass
Port Hudson, sent him a letter of congratulation. In
his reply, dated July 23, 1898, he said: “I can assure
you that, although I have had letters, resolutions, tele-
grams, etc., from all parts of the United States, none
has given me more pleasure than the communication
from you. One fortunate result of this war with Spain
is the healing of all the wounds that have been rank-
ling since 1865, and I believe that from now on we
will be a united people, with no North, no South.

That result alone will be worth all the sacrifices we
149
150 THE HERO OF MANILA.

have made. It would give me much pleasure to talk
over with you those stirring days around Port Hud-
son, and I hope that pleasure may be in store for me.”
Under date of October 3, 1898, he wrote to Mrs.
Noss, of Mount Pleasant, Penn., whose husband had
been killed in the battle of Maleté: “I wish to express
to you my deepest sympathy. It must lessen your
sorrow somewhat to know that your young husband
fell fighting bravely for his country, the noblest death
a man can know. From the Olympia I watched the
fight that fearful night, and wondered how many Ameri-
can homes would be saddened by the martyrdom suf-
fered by our brave men, and my sympathy went out to ©
each and every one of them. Your loss has been
sadder than the others, and I am unable to express the
sorrow I feel for you. Tears came to my eyes as I read
the sad story of the father who never saw his child,
and then the loss of all that was left to the brave
mother. It is hard sometimes to believe, but our Heav-
enly Father, in his infinite goodness, always does things
for the best, and some day father, mother, and daugh-
ter will be joined, never again to be parted. With my
tenderest sympathy, believe me your sincere friend.”
In a letter to a friend he wrote, after briefly de-
scribing the battle: “The Spanish Admiral Montojo
fought his ships like a hero. He stood on his quarter-
deck until his ship was ablaze from stem to stern, and


The Dewey Triumphal Arch in Madison Square,
New York.

(From the model, by the courtesy of the designer, Charles R. Lamb.)
LETTERS. 151

absolutely sinking under his feet; then, transferring
his flag to the Isla de Cuba, he fought with what was
left of his fleet, standing fearlessly amid a hail of shrap-
nel until his second ship and over one hundred of her
crew sank like lead in a whirl of water. It seems to
me that history in its roll of heroes should make men-
tion of an admiral who could fight his ships so bravely
and stand on the bridge coolly and calmly when his
fleet captain was torn to pieces by one of our shells at
his side. I sent him a message telling him how I ap-
preciated the gallantry with which he had fought his
ships, and the deep admiration my officers and men
felt for the commander of the Reina Cristina, who
nailed his colors to his mast and then went down with
his gallant crew. I think, my dear Norton, that had
you witnessed this, as I did, you too would have sent
the brave sailor the message I caused to be sent to him,
to which he responded most courteously.”

Political parties are fain to seize upon popular heroes
for their presidential candidates—often without. much
reference to the hero’s former political affiliations: or
want of them. The response is not always such an
emphatic refusal as was given once by General Sher-
man, and now by Admiral Dewey. This is what the
Admiral said:

“T would not accept a nomination for the presi-
dency of the United States. I have no desire for any
152 THE HERO OF MANILA.



political office. I am unfitted for it, having neither the
education nor the training. I am deeply grateful for
many expressions of kindly sentiment from the Ameri-
can people, but I desire to retire in peace to the en-
joyment of my old age. The navy is one profession,
politics is another. I am too old to learn a new pro-
fession now. I have no political associations, and my
health would never stand the strain of a canvass. I
have been approached by politicians repeatedly, in one
way or another, but I have refused absolutely to con-
sider any proposition whatever. This is final.”

THE END.




A STORY OF SCHOOL, FOOTBALL,
AND GOLF.





The Half-Back.

By RatpH Henry Barzovur. Illustrated by B.
West Clinedinst. 12mo. Cloth, $1.50.

This breezy story of outdoor sport will be read with the most
intense interest by every healthy boy, and by many girls. Mr.
Barbour’s hero is introduced to the
reader at a preparatory school, where
the serious work and discipline are
varied by golf and football matches
and a regatta. Later, the young half-
back of the school earns a place upon
a ’varsity team and distinguishes him-
self in a great university game, which

is sketched in a most brilliant and



stirring chapter. Mr. Barbour’s vivid

RALPH HENRY BARBOUR.

and picturesque sketches of sports are
not permitted to point a false moral. Without obtruding the
lesson upon the reader, he shows that the acquisition of knowl-
edge, and not athletics, is the end and aim of school and college
life.



D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, NEW YORK.






FOR YOUNG READERS.





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And Other Stories for Boys and Girls. By F. ANSTEY,
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Cloth, $1.50.

The curious and fascinating tales and pictures of this unique
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«« The only apology the author can make in this case is that he
never meant to do it. He had told his own children many
stories of many kinds, some original, some imitative, some traves-
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Gc WDED OUT O’ CROFIELD. The story of

a country boy who fought his way to success in the great me-
tropolis. With 23 Illustrations by C. T. Hill.

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, NEW YORK.




BY HEZEKIAH BUTTERWORTH.
Uniform Edition. Each, {2mo, cloth, $1.50.





The Story of Magellan.
A Tale of the Discovery of the Philippines. Illustrated by F. T.
Merrill and Others,

The Treasure Ship.
A Story of Sir William Phipps and the Inter-Charter Period in Massa-
chusetts. Illustrated by B. West Clinedinst and Others.

The Pilot of the Mayflower.
Illustrated by H. Winthrop Peirce and Others.

True to his Home.
A Tale of the Boyhood of Franklin. Illustrated by H. Winthrop
Peirce.

The Wampum Belt;
Or, The Fairest Page of History. A Tale of William Penn’s Treaty
with the Indians. With 6 full-page Illustrations.

The Knight of Liberty.
A Tale of the Fortunes of Lafayette. With 6 full-page Illustrations.

The Patriot Schoolmaster.
A Tale of the Minutemen and the Sons of Liberty. With 6 full-page
Illustrations by H. Winthrop Peirce.

In the Boyhood of Lincoln.
A Story of the Black Hawk War and the Tunker Schoolmaster.
With 12 Illustrations and colored Frontispiece.

The Boys of Greenway Court.

A Story of the Early Years of Washington. With ro full-page Illus- |

trations.

The Log School-House on the Columbia.

With 13 full-page Illustrations by J. Carter Beard, E. J. Austen, and x

Others.

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, NEW YORK.
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY’S PUBLICATIONS,



GOOD BOOKS FOR YOUNG READERS,
Te EXPLOITS OF MYLES STANDISH. By

HENRY JOHNSON (Muirhead Robertson), author of ‘From
Scrooby to Plymouth Rock,” etc. Illustrated. 12mo. Cloth, .
$1.50. :

“A vivid picture, keen and penetrating in its interests, and familiarizing young
people in a popular way with the hardships endured by the early settlers of New Eng-

- land.”’—Boston Herald.

‘* All that concerns the settlement at New Plymouth is told with fine skill and vivid-
ness of description. . . . A book that must be read from cover to cover with unfalter-
ing interest.” —Boston Saturday Evening Gazette.

( FRISTINE'S CAREER. A Story for Girls. By
PAULINE KinG. [Illustrated. 12mo. Cloth, specially bound,
$1.50.

The story is fresh and modern, relieved by incidents and constant humor, and the
lessons which are suggested are most beneficial.

OHN BOVD’S ADVENTURES. By THomas
W. Knox, author of ‘‘ The Boy Travelers,” etc. With 12 full-
page Illustrations. 12mo. Cloth, $1.50.

ALONG THE FLORIDA REEF. By CHARLES
F. Houper, joint author of “Elements of Zoélogy.” With
numerous Illustrations. r2mo. Cloth, $1.50.

EENGLISHMAN’S HAVEN. By W. J. Gorpon,
author of “ The Captain-General,” etc. With 8 full-page Illus-
trations. 12mo. Cloth, $1.50.

[pz ALL. A Story of Outdoor Life and Adventure
in Arkansas. By OCTAVE THANET. With 12 full-page Illus.
trations by E. J. Austen and Others. 12mo. Cloth, $1.50,

Ke ING TOM AND THE RUNAWAYS. By

Louis PENDLETON. The experiences of two boys in the forests
of Georgia. With 6 Illustrations by E. W. Kemble. 12mo.,
Cloth, $1.50.

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, NEW YORK.


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