Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 The philosophy of fighting
 On the river bank
 Battle royal
 Education at Norwich
 Life at Annapolis
 The beginning of war
 The fight for New Orleans
 The battle at Fort Hudson
 The capture of Fort Fisher
 In time of peace
 The battle of Manila
 After the battle
 The problem on land
 Back Cover

Group Title: Young heroes of our navy
Title: The hero of Manila
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087552/00001
 Material Information
Title: The hero of Manila Dewey on the Mississippi and the Pacific
Series Title: Young heroes of our navy
Physical Description: ix, 152, 6, 19 leaves of plates : Ill. ; 20 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Johnson, Rossiter, 1840-1931
Clinedinst, B. West ( Benjamin West ), 1860-1931 ( Illustrator )
D. Appleton and Company
Publisher: D. Appleton and Company
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1899
Subject: Manila Bay, Battle of, Philippines, 1898 -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Admirals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Midshipmen -- Juvenile literature -- United States   ( lcsh )
Naval education -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Voyages and travels -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Seafaring life -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Fathers and sons -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Children -- Attitudes -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Sailors -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Adventure and adventurers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Warships -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Courage -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Diligence -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
War -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
War stories   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- Mississippi   ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature -- Manila (Philippines)   ( lcsh )
History -- Naval operations -- Juvenile literature -- United States -- Civil War, 1861-1865   ( lcsh )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1899   ( rbgenr )
Juvenile literature -- 1899   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1899
Genre: Biographies dy 1899   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' catalogues   ( rbgenr )
Juvenile literature   ( rbgenr )
Biographies dy 1899.   ( rbgenr )
individual biography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
Statement of Responsibility: by Rossiter Johnson ; with illustrations by B. West Clinedinst and others.
General Note: Publisher's catalogue precedes and follows text.
General Note: Title page engraved.
General Note: Pictorial front cover and spine.
General Note: Contains prose and verse.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087552
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002232254
notis - ALH2646
oclc - 02084542
lccn - 99004661

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
    Half Title
        Half Title
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
    List of Illustrations
        Page ix
        Page x
    The philosophy of fighting
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 10a
        Page 11
    On the river bank
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Battle royal
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 30a
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Education at Norwich
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Life at Annapolis
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    The beginning of war
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 64a
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    The fight for New Orleans
        Page 68
        Page 68a
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 72a
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 84a
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 88a
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    The battle at Fort Hudson
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 94a
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 98a
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 104a
    The capture of Fort Fisher
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    In time of peace
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
    The battle of Manila
        Page 116
        Page 116a
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 122a
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 126a
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
    After the battle
        Page 130
        Page 130a
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 138a
    The problem on land
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 144a
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 148a
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 150a
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text


Uniform Edition. Each, 12mo, cloth, $1.oo.

The Hero of Manila.
Dewey on the Mississippi and the Pacific. By ROSSITER
JOHNSON, author of Phaeton Rogers," "A History of
the War of Secession," etc. Illustrated by B. West Cline-
dinst and Others.

The Hero of Erie (Commodore 'Perry).
By JAMES BARNES, author of Midshipman Farragut,"
Commodore Bainbridge," etc. With o1 full-page Illus-
Commodore Bainbridge. From the Gunroom to
the Quarter-deck.
By JAMES BARNES. Illustrated by George Gibbs and
Midshipman Farragut.
By JAMES BARNES. Illustrated by Carlton T. Chapman.
Decatur and Somers.
By MOLLY ELLIOT SEAWELL, author of Paul Jones,"
Little Jarvis," etc. With 6 full-page Illustrations by
J. O. Davidson and Others.
Paul Jones.
By MOLLY ELLIOT SEAWELL. With 8 full-page Illus-
Midshipman Paulding.
A True Story of the War of 1812. By MOLLY ELLIOT
SEAWELL. With 6 full-page Illustrations.
Little Jarvis.
The Story of the Heroic Midshipman of the Frigate Con-
stellation. By MOLLY ELLIOT SEAWELL. With 6 full-
page Illustrations.


I-. '

Midshipman Dewey.

- ,-4











IF this little book does not show for itself why it
was written, how it was written, and for whom it
was written, not only a preface but the entire text
would be useless. The author believes that in every life
that is greatly useful to mankind there is a plan and
a purpose from the beginning, whether the immediate
owner of that life is aware of it or not; and that the
art of the biographer-whether he is dealing with facts
exclusively or is mingling fact and fiction-should
make it discernible by the reader.
The authorities that have been consulted include
the Life of David Glasgow Farragut, by his son; Ad-
miral Ammen's Atlantic Coast; Greene's The Missis-
sippi; Battles and Leaders of the Civil War; The Re-
bellion Record; Marshall's History of the Naval Acad-
emy, and especially Adelbert M. Dewey's Life and
Letters of Admiral Dewey.
AMAGANSETT, September 8, 1899.


















Midshipman Dewey
By B. West Clinedinst
An early battle
By B. West Clinedinst
A schoolroom episode
By B. West Clinedinst
Scene of naval operations




in Western rivers

Farragut and Dewey
By B. West Clinedinst
Whitewashing the decks .
By B. West Clinedinst
Order of attack on Forts Jackson and St. Philip
Farragut's fleet passing the forts .
Order of attack on Port Hudson .
Passage of the batteries of Port Hudson
Removing the wounded .
By B. West Clinedinst
Diagram of Manila Bay .
U. S. Cruiser Olympia, Admiral Dewey's Flagship
The battle of Manila
Admiral Dewey on the bridge of the Olympia
Medal presented by Congress
Sword presented by Congress
Shield presented to the Olympia.
Dewey Triumphal Arch, New York
Charles R. Lamb, Architect


S 84
S 89
. o104


The house in which Admiral Dewey was born in Montpelier, Vermont.




IT is not necessary to visit the Bay of Naples in
order to witness a beautiful sunset. Our.own atmos-
phere and our own waters produce those that are
quite as gorgeous, while our own mountains and
woodlands give them as worthy a setting as any in
the world.
Half a century ago a little boy sat at his chamber
window in Vermont looking at a summer sunset.
He was so absorbed in the scene before him and in
his own thoughts that he did not notice the entrance
of his father until he spoke.


"What are you thinking about, George? said the
"About ships," the boy answered, without turning
his head.
"What kind of ships?"
"I can see nearly every kind," said George.
See them-where? said his father, looking over
his shoulder.
Right there in the sunset clouds," said the boy.
Oh! said his father; and then, after looking a
while, added, "Suppose you point out a few of
"Do you see that small cloud, at some distance
from the others-the one that is rather long and
narrow, with a narrower one alongside?"
"Yes, I see that."
"Well, that," said the boy, "is a Brazilian cata-
maran, and -those little knobs at the top are the heads
of the men that are paddling it."
"Just so," said his father. "What else can you
see? "
The catamaran," said George, is pulling out to
that clipper ship which has just come to anchor off
the port. The clipper is the large one, with her sails
furled. Probably the Indians have some fruit on board,
which they hope to sell to the sailors."
Quite natural," said the father.


"And that smaller one, under full sail, fore-and-aft
rigged, is a schooner in the coasting trade."
That one appears to be changing shape rapidly,"
said the father.
"Yes," said the boy. She is tacking, and you
see her at a different angle."
"I might have suspected as much," said the fa-
ther, but I never was a good sailor."
That very large one," continued the boy, "with
a big spread of canvas and holes in her hull, where
the red sunlight pours through, is an old-fashioned
seventy-four, with all her battle-lanterns lit."
"A pretty fancy," said the father, who evidently
was becoming more interested and better able to see
the pictures that were so vivid to his son.
Do you see that dark one over at the right, with
one near it that is very red and very ragged?" said
the boy.
I do."
"Those are the Constitution and the Java. They
had their famous battle yesterday, and the Java was
so badly cut up that to-day Bainbridge has removed
her crew and set her on fire. She will blow up pretty
"I should like to see it," said the father.
And if you look over there to the left," said the
boy, "you see quite a collection of rather small


ones, most of them very red, some half red and half
black. It looks a little confused at first, but when
you know what it is you can see plainly enough that
it is the battle of Lake Erie. In the very center
there is a small boat, and on it something that looks
black and blue and red, with a little white. The black
is cannon smoke. The blue and red and white is the
American flag, which Perry is taking over to the
Niagara, because the Lawrence is so badly damaged
that he has had to leave her. That one with only
one mast standing is the Lawrence."
Yes, my son, I think you have accounted beau-
tifully for everything there except one. What is that
dark one, with rounded ends and no mast, just be-
yond the clipper? "
Oh, that," said the boy, taking a moment for
reflection, I think that must be a bullhead boat on
the Delaware and Hudson Canal."
It is a good representation of one," said his fa-
ther, smiling. But, George, how came you to know
so much about ships and boats and naval history? "
By reading all I could find about them, sir."
"Well, George, I am really pleased," said Dr.
Dewey; "pleased and encouraged to know that you
have taken to reading instead of fighting. I was afraid
you never would love books; but now that you have
begun, you shall have all the good ones you will read."


Thank you, father, I shall be glad of them."
But come now, my son, supper is ready, and your
sister is waiting for us."
"I will come pretty soon," said George, and his
father descended the stairs.
A little later the boy went slowly down, and quiet-
ly slipped into his place at the table.
In a few minutes Dr. Dewey looked up, then
started as if surprised, and dropped his hands to the
edge of the table. He took a sharp look at George,
and then said:
What does that mean? How came you by that
black eye? "
"There is only one way to get a black eye that
I know of," said the boy.
Fighting? "
"Yes, sir."
The doctor was silent for several minutes, and then
"I don't know what to say to you or do to you,
my son. You know what I have said to you about
your fighting habit, and you know that I mean it, for
I have not only talked to you, but punished you.
When I found you had been reading history I took
new hope, for I thought you must have got past the
fighting age and given your mind to better things.
Butjhere you are again with the marks of a pugilist."


"I don't fight when I can help it, and I'm afraid
I never shall get past the fighting age," said George.
Don't fight when you can help it?" said his fa-
ther. Can't you always help it?"
"I might by running away. Do you want me to
do that?" the boy answered quietly.
Of course I don't," said the doctor quickly.
" But can't you keep away? "
"I have to go to school," said George, "and I
have to be with the boys; and some of them are quar-
relsome, and some are full of conceit, and some need
a good licking now and then."
And you consider it your duty to administer it,"
said the doctor. Conceit is a crime that can not be
too severely punished."
The boy felt the irony of his father's remark,
and saw that he did not quite understand that
use of the word conceit," so he proceeded to ex-
"When a boy goes about bragging how many
boys he has licked, and how many others he can lick,
and how he will do this, that, and the other thing,
if everybody doesn't look out, we say he is too con-
ceited and he ought to have the conceit taken out
of him; and the first good chance we get we take
it out."
Suppose you left it in him and paid no atten-


tion to it-what would happen in that case? said the
He would grow more and more conceited," said
George, and make himself so disagreeable that the
boys couldn't enjoy life, and before a great while you
would find him picking on smaller boys than himself
and licking them, just to have more brag."
Do you really have any such boys among your
schoolfellows, or is this only theoretical? the doctor
"There are a few," said George.
"And how do you determine whose duty it is to
take the conceit out of one of them? Do you draw
lots, or take turns? "
"The boy that enjoys the job the most generally
gets it," said George.
"Just so," said the doctor. "And is there some
one boy in the school who enjoys the job, as you call
it, more than all the others? "
George evidently felt that this question came so
near home he ought not to be expected to answer it,
and he was silent.
His elder sister, Mary (they had lost their mother
five years before), now spoke for the first time.
Perhaps," said she, we ought to ask George to
tell us the circumstances of this last fight. I don't
believe he is always the one to blame."


"Certainly," said the doctor; "that is only fair.
Tell us all about it, George."
Thereupon the boy proceeded to tell them all
about it in a very animated manner.
Bill Ammon," he began, is one of the bossing-
est boys in school. He expects to have everything
his way. I don't blame a boy for wanting things his
own way if he takes fair means to get them so, but
Bill doesn't always. You and the teacher tell me
that bad habits grow worse and worse, and I sup-
pose it was that way with Bill. At any rate, we
found out a few days ago that he was taking regu-
lar toll out of two smaller boys-Jimmy Nash and
Teddy Hawkins-for not licking them. Each of them
had to bring him something twice a week-apples, or
nuts, or marbles, or candy, or something else that he
wanted-and he threatened not only to lick them if
they did not bring the things, but to lick them twice
as hard if they told any one about it."
"Why did those boys submit to such treatment? "
said the doctor.
"Well, you see," said George, "Jimmy Nash's
father is a Quaker, and doesn't believe in hurt-
ing anybody, and so if Jimmy gets into any trouble
he whales him like fury as soon as he finds it out.
And Teddy Hawkins's mother gives him plenty of
spending money, so he is always able to buy a little


something to please Bill, and I suppose he would
rather do that than fight."
If they were boys of any spirit," said the doctor
indignantly, "I should think they would join forces
and give Bill the thrashing he deserves. The two
together ought to be able to do it."
Yes, they could," said George; but, you see,
they are not twins, and can't always be together-in
fact, they live a long way apart-and as soon as Bill
caught either of them alone he would make him pay
dear for it. He needed to be licked by some one
I see," said the doctor; "a Decatur was wanted,.
to put an end to the tribute."
Exactly! said George, and his father's eyes twin-
kled with pleasure to see that he understood the allu-
sion. He was specially anxious that his boy should
become familiar with American history, but he had no
anticipation that his son would one day make Ameri-
can history.
"When we found it out," George continued, Bill
tried to make us believe that Jimmy and Teddy were
simply paying him to protect them. He said he was
their best friend. 'What protection do they need?'
said I. 'They are peaceable little fellows, and there
is nobody that would be coward enough to attack
them.' Bill saw that he was cornered on the argu-


ment, and at the same time he got mad at the word
coward, thinking I meant it for him. I didn't, for I
don't consider him a coward at all."
Not if he is a bully? said the doctor.
No, sir," said George. He certainly is some-
thing of a bully, but he is not cowardly."
There you agree with Charles Lamb," said the
"Who is Charles Lamb?" said George.
He was an Englishman, who died fifteen or
twenty years ago," said the doctor, and I hope you'll
read his delightful essays some day-but not till you've
mastered American history. Attend to that first."
I'll try to," said George. When Bill flared up
at that word he seemed to lose his head a little.
'Who are you calling a coward?' said he, coming up
close to me, with his fist clenched. I said I never
called anybody a coward, because if he wasn't one it
wouldn't be true, and if he was everybody would find
it out soon enough, without my telling them. 'Well,
you meant it for me,' said he, 'and you'll have to
fight it out, so you'd better take off your jacket
mighty quick.' I said I had no objection-- "
"You' had no objection!" exclaimed his sister
"Well-that is-under the circumstances," said
George, "I didn't see how I could have any. I had

I *



An early battle.



no right to have any. Those two boys did need pro-
tection-they needed to be protected against Bill Am-
mon, who was robbing them. And I thought I might
as well do it as anybody. So I said, 'Come over to
the orchard, boys,' and we all went. Teddy Hawkins
held my jacket, and Sim Nelson held Bill's. We
squared off and sparred a little while, and I suppose
I must have been careless, for Bill got the first clip
at me, landing on my eye. But pretty soon I fetched
him a good one under the cheek bone, and followed
that up with a smasher on-- "
Here Mary turned pale, and showed signs of un-
easiness and repugnance. George, who was warming
up with his subject, did not notice her, but was going
on with his description of the fight, when his father
stopped him.
Your sister," he said, has no taste for these par-
ticulars. Never mind them until some time when you
and I are alone. Only tell us how it turned out."
"The boys said it turned out that I gave Bill
what he deserved, and I hope I did, but I didn't tell
them what a mighty hard job I found it."
Bravo, George! exclaimed the doctor, and then
quickly added: But don't fight any more."



A GROUP of boys sat on the bank of Onion River,
S-looking at the water and occasionally casting pebbles
into it. Wet hair, bare feet, and other circumstances
indicated that they had not long been out of it. Be-
low them, in one of the comparatively shallow, flat-
bottomed reaches, a company of smaller boys were
paddling about, some taking their first lessons in
swimming, some struggling to duck each other, and
some carefully keeping aloof for fear of being ducked.
Trees, rocks, broken sunlight, and a summer breeze
made the little scene quite Arcadian.
"My uncle is going to California to dig gold,"
said one of the larger boys, who answered to the name
of Tom Kennedy.
My father says they have discovered gold mines
in Australia that are richer than those in California,"
said another, Felix Ostrom by name.
But that is twice as far away," said the first
speaker, "and you can only get there by a long sea
voyage. You can go overland to California, and be


in our own country all the time. Isn't that a great
deal better, even if you don't get quite so much gold? "
It wouldn't be better for me," answered George
Dewey. I would rather go by sea, and would rather
go to other countries. I want to see as many of them
as I can. I would especially like to sail in the Pacific
"Why the Pacific?" said Tom.
Because," said George, that is not only the
largest ocean in the world, but it has the most islands
and touches the countries that we know the least
It's an ugly thing to get to it, round Cape Horn,"
said Felix.
"You can go through the Strait of Magellan,"
said George. Last week I found a book of voyages
in my Aunt Lavinia's house, and I've been reading
all about Magellan. He was the discoverer of the
Pacific Ocean, and he sailed through that strait to
find it."
"He must have been a very modest man," said
Because he didn't name it Magellan Ocean."
He called it the Pacific because he found it so
calm," said George. "And he sailed clear across it.
Just think of coming to an unknown sea five or six


thousand miles wide, and sailing right out into it, and
on and on, past islands and reefs, and sometimes long
stretches with nothing in sight but sky and water,
and no way to tell when you'll come to the end of it!
And when you stop at an island you don't know
what you'll find, or whether you'll find anything-
even good drinking-water. And he didn't know
whether the earth was really round, for no one had
ever sailed round it before. I think that beats Co-
"Was he really the first one to sail round the
world?" said Felix.
Not exactly," said George. His ship was the
first that ever went round, but he didn't get round
with her."
"Why not?"
Because when they got to the Philippine Islands,
which they discovered, they went ashore on one of
them and had a fight with the natives, and Magel-
lan was killed."
"I guess the Philippine Islands are pretty good
ones to keep away from," said Sammy Atkinson.
"I should be willing to take my chances, if I
could get there," said George. But I suppose I never
"You can't tell," said Sandy Miller, a boy who
had recently come from Scotland with his parents,


" what savage countries you may visit afore you die.
Two years ago I didn't dream I'd ever come to
Do you call ours a savage country? said Felix,
with a twinkle in his eye.
"I didn't exactly mean to," said Sandy, and yet
I think I might, when I remember how all you boys
wanted to fight me the first week I was here, only
because I was a stranger."
Not quite all," said George.
No, I take that back," said Sandy. You say
truly not quite all, for you yourself didn't, and I
mustn't forget it of you. I suppose it's human na-
ture to want to fight all strangers, and maybe that's
the reason the Philippine men killed Master Ma-
gellan. I suppose they'd try to do the same if any-
body went there now. But I wish you'd tell us
more about him and about the Pacific and the
Philippines, for I am aye fond of the sea; I en-
joyed every wave on the Atlantic when we came
Thereupon George, being urged by the other
boys as well, gave an account, as nearly as he could
remember, of what he had read.
What has become of those islands?" said Bill
They are there yet," said George.


Did you think they were sunk in the sea? said
Tom Kennedy.
It might not be very ridiculous if he did," said
George, for they have terrific earthquakes, and a
good many of them."
Of course I meant," Bill explained, "who owns
them? "
Spain says she does," said George, and she has
had them a long time, for she took possession of them
about fifty years after they were discovered; but she
came pretty near losing them forever about a century
How was that? Bill inquired.
A British force attacked them," said George,
"and stormed Manila, the capital, and the city had
its choice to pay five million dollars or be given up to
the soldiers for plunder. It paid the money."
"Do you think that was right?" Felix Ostrom
"I don't know enough about it to say," George
answered; "but I suppose war is war, and when it
has to be made at all it ought to be made so as to
accomplish something."
"What was the name of Magellan's ship? asked
Tom Kennedy.
He started with five ships," said George, but
four of them were lost. The largest was only eighty


feet long. The one that went round the world and
got home was the Victoria."
Huh!" said Tom, I might have known it-just
like those Britishers, naming everything after their
Magellan was not a Britisher, he was Portu-
guese," said George. And Queen Victoria was not
born till about three hundred. years after his famous
The boys burst into a roar of laughter and hooted
at Tom.
It's all very well for you to laugh," said Tom
when the merriment had subsided a little, but I'd
like to know how many of you would have known
that I made a blunder if George Dewey hadn't ex-
plained it to you-probably not one. I can't see that
anybody but George has a right to laugh at me, and
I noticed that he laughed least of all."
The boys appeared to feel the sting of Tom's argu-
ment, but at the same time they felt that any op-
portunity to laugh at him should be improved, be-
cause he was critical and sarcastic above all the rest.
They wanted to resent his remark, but did not know
of any way to do it effectively, and were all getting
into ill humor when Felix Ostrom thought of a way
to turn the subject and restore good feeling.
Look here, boys," said he, as we' are talking


about the sea, and some of us intend to be sailors
when we are old enough, I'd like to propose that
Sandy Miller sing us a sea song. He knows a rip-
ping good one, and I know he can sing it, for I heard
him once at his house."
There was an immediate demand for the song,
which was so loud and emphatic and unanimous that
Sandy could not refuse.
"It's one that my great aunt, Miss Corbett,
wrote," said he. I can't remember it all, but I'll
sing you a bit of it as well as I can. Ye'll just re-
member that I'm no Jenny Lind nor the choir of the
Presbyterian church." Then he sang:

"I've seen the waves as blue as air,
I've seen them green as grass;
But I never feared their heaving yet,
From Grangemouth to the Bass.
I've seen the sea as black as pitch,
I've seen it white as snow;
But I never feared its foaming yet,
Though the waves blew high or low.
When sails hang flapping on the masts,
While through the waves we snore,
When in a calm we're tempest-tossed,
We'll go to sea no more-
No more-
We'll go to sea no more.

"The sun is up, and round Inchkeith
The breezes softly blaw;
The gudeman has the lines on board-
Awa'! my bairns, awa'!


An' ye'll be back by gloamin' gray,
An' bright the fire will low,
An in your tales and sangs we'll tell
How weel the boat ye row.
When life's last sun gaes feebly down,
An' death comes to our door,
When a' the world's a dream to us,
We'll go to sea no more-
No more-
We'll go to sea no more."

When the applause that greeted the song had sub-
sided, little Steve Leonard asked: I suppose that
means they'll sail all their lives, doesn't it? "
Yes, it means just about that," said Tom Ken-
Paying no attention to the touch of sarcasm in
Tom's intonation, Steve added:
"Well, they might do that in a fishing boat, but
they couldn't do it in the navy. My Uncle Wal-
ter is an officer in the navy, and he's got to
get out of it next year, because he'll be sixty-two
years old, though there isn't a gray hair in his
"The people in the song were fishermen," said
At this moment there was a cry of alarm among
the small boys in the stream.. One of them had got
beyond his depth and had disappeared beneath the


The larger boys rushed down the bank with
eager inquiries: "Where?" "Where did he go
But two of them-George Dewey and Bill Ammon
-did not need to wait for the answer. They knew
the exact depth of every square yard in that part
of the river, and the set of the current at every point,
for they had been in it and through it more than a
hundred times.
Run down the bank and go in by the pine tree,
Bill," said George. I'll go in just below the riffle
and explore the cellar-hole!"
A few seconds later both of these boys had disap-
peared under water.
The cellar-hole," as the boys called it, was a
place where some natural force, probably frost and
the current, had excavated the bed of the river to
a depth of eight or ten feet, with almost perpendicu-
lar walls. It was a favorite place for the larger boys
to dive; and another of their amusements consisted
in floating down into it with the current, which, just
before entering the cellar-hole, ran swiftly through a
narrow channel.
The two boys were under water so long that their
companions began to fear they never would come up.
From the excited state of their minds it seemed even
longer than it really was.


Bill was the first to appear, and as soon as he
could get is breath he reported No luck! "
A moment later George came up, and it was evi-
dent that he was bringing something. As soon as Bill
saw this he swam toward him, and at the same time
two other boys plunged in from the bank. They
brought ashore the apparently lifeless body of little
Jimmy Nash and laid it on the grass.
What shall we do? said several.
Shake the water out of him," said one.
Stand him on his head," said another.
Roll him over a barrel," said a third.
Somebody run for a doctor," said a fourth; and
this suggestion was quickly carried out by two of the
smaller boys, who scampered off in search of a physi-
"The barrel is the right idea," said George, "but
there is no barrel anywhere in sight. Boys, bring us
that big log."
Half a dozen boys made a rush for the log, rolled
it down the slope, and brought it to the place where
it was wanted. They laid Jimmy across it, face down,
and gently rolled him back and forth, which brought
considerable water out of his lungs.
One of the boys who had run for a physician had
the good fortune to come upon Dr. Dewey, who was
passing in his gig, and shouted:


Doctor! Doctor! there's a drowned boy down
here! Come quick!" .
The doctor sprang to the ground, tied his horse
to the fence in less time than it takes to tell it, and
followed the excited boy across the field and down
the bank.
After working over the little fellow about half an
hour he brought him back to consciousness, and at
the end of another half hour Jimmy was well enough
to be taken to his home. He was very weak, and two
large boys walked beside him, supporting him by the
arms, while all the others followed in a half-mournful,
half-joyful procession.
"I wonder if Jimmy's father will lick him for be-
ing drowned," said Tom Kennedy.



WINTER came to Montpelier, and with it frost,
snow, and a new school year.
The first snowfall was in the night, and by noon
of the next day it was soft enough to pack, presenting
an opportunity for fun such as American boys never
forego. Big or little, studious or indolent, every one
of those whose acquaintance we h1ve made in the pre-
ceding pages, together with many of their schoolmates
whom we have not named, took up handfuls of the
cold, white substance, fashioned them into balls, and
tried his skill at throwing. It is the Yankee form of
carnival, and woe to him who fails to take the pelt-
ing good-naturedly.
That day the fun was thickest at the orchard near
the schoolhouse. Half a dozen boys, partly sheltered
by the low stone wall, were considered to be in a fort
which a dozen others were attacking. At first it was
every man for himself, "load and fire at will," but
as the contest grew hotter (if that term will do for a
snow battle) it was necessary to organize the work
3 23


a little. So the smaller boys were directed to give
their attention entirely to the making of balls, which
the larger ones threw with more accuracy and force.
One boy, having a notion to vary the game with an
experiment, rolled up a ball twice as large as his
head, managed to creep up to the wall with it, and
then threw it up into the air so that it came down
inside the fort. When it came down it landed on
the head and shoulders of Teddy Hawkins, broke
into a beautiful shower, and for a moment almost
buried him out of sight. This feat of military skill
received its appropriate applause, but the author of
it had to pay the cost. Before he could get back
to his own lines he .was a target for every marksman
in the fort, and at least half a dozen balls hit him, at all
of which he laughed-with the exception of the one
that broke on his neck and dropped its fragments
inside his collar.
When there was a lull in the contest a boy looked
over the wall and hailed the besiegers with:
Boys, see who's coming up the road!"
A tall man who carried a book under his arm and
apparently was in deep thought was approaching.
This was Pangborn, the schoolmaster, fresh from col-
lege, still a hard student, and assumed by the boys
to be their natural enemy from the simple fact that
She had come there to be their teacher.


When he appeared at this interesting moment there
was no need of any formal proclamation of truce be-
tween the contending forces. The instinct of the
country schoolboy suggested the same thought prob-
ably to every one, whether besieger or besieged. The
word passed along, Make a lot of them, quick! and
make them hard."
The little fellows whose hands were red and sting-
ing with cold worked with double energy, and the
larger ones ceased throwing at one another, stepped
back to places where they were not so likely to be
seen from the road, and by common consent formed
an ambush for the unsuspecting teacher.
When he came within range a ball thrown by
George Dewey, which knocked off his cap, was the
signal for a general attack, and the next minute he
thought himself in the center of a hailstorm, the hail-
stones being as large as country newspapers ever rep-
resent them. After the first sensation of bewilderment,
he realized the situation, and being a man of quick
wit, with some experience of boys, he saw what was
the one proper thing to do.
Coolly laying down his book on his cap where it
rested on the snow, and paying little attention to the
balls that were still whizzing round him, he proceeded
to make five or six, as round and solid as could be
desired. Then, looking for the leader of the attack,


and recognizing him in Dewey, he charged upon that
youngster and delivered every ball with unerring aim.
It was so good an exhibition of marksmanship that
all the other combatants stood still and looked on,
their appreciation of all good throwing balancing their
repugnance to all teachers.
When he had delivered his last ball, which Master
Dewey received courageously and good-naturedly in
the breast, Mr. Pangborn picked up his book and
his hat and resumed his walk, the small boys now
coming to the front and sending their feeble shots
after him.
I'm afraid he's game," said Tom Kennedy.
"I'm not afraid of it, I'm glad of it," said Sim
Nelson. "I want him to be game. Of course we
must try to lick him, before the term's over, but I
hope we won't succeed. I want the school to go
on, and want to learn something. This may be my
last winter, for I've got to go to a trade pretty
soon. I was just getting a good start last winter. I
was nearly through fractions when we licked old Hig-
gins and he gave up the school."
"Then why do we lick the teacher at all?" said
Sammy Atkinson.
"I suppose it wouldn't answer not to," said Sim.
"What would the boys over in the Myers district say
if we didn't give him a tug? "


The boys in the Myers district tried it with their
teacher last week, and got licked unmercifully," said
Bill Ammon.
"At any rate," said Sim, it appears to be an old
and settled fashion. Father had a visit last night from
a schoolmate, and they were talking over old times,
and I heard them give a lively description of a fight
with a teacher. After they had driven out three
men in three winters, the trustees engaged a woman
teacher. She was tall and strong, and not afraid of
anything. Of course they couldn't fight her, because
she was a woman; but all the same she laced those
boys with a rawhide whenever they broke the rules.
But father said she hadn't much education; she never
took them beyond simple fractions, because she didn't
understand arithmetic beyond that point herself.
When they got there she would say, 'I think now
we ought to take some review lessons; I believe in
thoroughness.' And in the reading class she taught
them to say So'-crates and Her'-cules, instead of Soc'-
ra-tes and Her'-cu-les. Father said the boys learned
lots of obedience that winter, but nothing else."
Well, of course," said Teddy Hawkins-and his
words were slow, because he was trying at the same
time to bite off the end of a big stick of Spanish
licorice-" if it was the custom of our forefathers-
we must keep it up. But we want a good boy-to


lead the fight and manage it. If we do it-in a
helter-skelter way-we'll-get-licked."
Certainly!" said Sim. "And that may be the
result of it any way. Dewey's the fellow to lead the
crowd and take charge of it. What do you say-will
you do it, George? "
If he does anything that we ought to lick him
for, I will," said .George. But if you're going to be
the ones to pick the quarrel, you may count me out."
The next day the teacher brought a mysterious
parcel and laid it in his desk without undoing it.
He had had charge of the school only a week, and
by overlooking many occurrences that might have
been taken as a deliberate challenge, he had hoped to
make the boys see for themselves that he bore them
no ill-will. His forbearance had been taken for timid-
ity, and many of his pupils saw in the tall young
graduate only another victim who was destined very
soon to follow the vanquished teacher of the preceding
Contrary to their expectations, Mr. Pangborn
opened the school as usual, and made no allusion to
the snowballing affair.
The first class was ordered to take position be-
fore his desk. As they filed past, one of the boys,
extending his foot, tripped another. The boy that
was tripped made a great fuss about it, fell unneces-


sarily over a bench, and professed to be hurt both
in mind and in body.
Mr. Pangborn called the aggressor before him and
"I was willing to pass over what occurred yes-
terday at the orchard, and I had no intention of in-
forming your parents about it. I recognize the fact
that you are boys, and I know that boys like fun
and must have it. If you sometimes misplace your
fun and overdo it, and act like highwaymen instead
of good, healthy, civilized boys, if it is outside the
schoolhouse and school hours I have no more to say
about it than any other citizen. But when you're
here you've got to behave yourselves. I will say no
more about what has just occurred, but at the least
sign of any further riot or misbehavior I'll put a stop
to it in a way that you'll remember, and this will
help me."
With that he opened the parcel and displayed a
large new rawhide.
For a few seconds there was a dead silence in
the room. Then a boy in one of the back seats-it
was George Dewey-stood up and said:
Mr. Pangborn, I want to tell you what I think
about that, and I guess most of the boys think as
I do. If they don't, I hope you'll let them say what
they do think. You've been giving us sums in pro-


portion, and my father tells me I must try to apply
everything I learn. If I do anything wrong I'm will-
ing to be licked according; but I don't want to take
a big thrashing for a little thing. I don't believe
any boy in this school will do anything bad enough
to deserve that rawhide; you can't give any but the
biggest thrashings with it. And so if you attempt
to use it at all we'll all turn in and lick you."
You've made quite a good show of argument,
George," said the teacher, and I like to have a boy
exercise his reasoning powers-that's one thing I'm
here to teach you. But there is a serious fault or
two in your statement of the case. In the first place,
no boy is obliged to do any wrong, little or great;
he is at perfect liberty to obey all the rules and be-
have like a gentleman, and if he does so he'll not
be touched by this rawhide or anything else. If he
chooses to break the rules he knows beforehand what
it will cost him, and he has no right to complain.
In the second place, the trustees have not put you
here to govern the school or judge how it ought to
be governed. They have employed me for that; and
I intend to do what I have agreed to do and am paid
for doing. I have come here to teach the school, but
I can't teach without order and obedience on the part
of the pupils; and order and obedience I will have-
pleasantly if I can, forcibly if I must. If you had


A schoolroom episode.


i. ,

-~-- -



stopped, George, at the end of your argument, I
should stop here with my answer, and should praise
you for having reasoned out the case as well as you
could, though you did not arrive at the right conclu-
sion. Nothing will please me better than for the boys
to cultivate a habit of doing their own thinking and
learn to think correctly. You will always find me
ready to listen to reason. But you did not stop at
the end of your argument; you added a threat to
attack me with the whole school to help you and
overcome me. Whatever you may say of big and
little faults, you have now committed one of the
greatest. If I passed over such a breach of discipline,
my usefulness here would be at an end. Unless I am
master there can be no school. If you see the jus-
tice of this and are manly enough to acknowledge it,
you may simply stand up and apologize for your threat,
and then we'll go on with the lessons as if nothing
had happened. If not, of course you must take the
"I don't know how to apologize," said George,
"and I'm not going to."
"Then step out here," said the teacher, as he
took up the rawhide.
The boy went forward at once, with his fists
clenched and his eyes blazing.
Mr. Pangborn saw there was good stuff in him,


if only it were properly cultivated, and could not re-
press a feeling of admiration for his courage.
Now let's see you strike me," said George.
The next instant the rawhide came down across
his shoulders, and with a cry of rage the boy threw
himself upon his teacher, fighting like a terrier.
Then five or six of the larger boys came to
George's aid; most of the smaller ones followed them;
those who were not anxious to fight did their part
by yelling, overthrowing desks, and spilling ink; and
the whole place was in a hideous uproar. They
charged upon the teacher from all sides, but he held
fast to Dewey's collar with one hand while he plied
the rawhide with the other. The largest boy, who
had received a stinging cut across the face, got a
stick front the wood-box and let it fly at the master's
head, which it narrowly missed. Feeling that his life
might be in danger, Mr. Pangborn picked up the stick
and waded into the crowd, using it as a policeman
uses his club. The boy who had thrown it was toppled
over with a blow on the head, and in three minutes
all the others were driven out of the schoolhouse,
some of them feeling a little lame about the shoulders
and sides-all except Dewey, on whom the teacher
had not relaxed his grip. He now resumed the raw-
hide and gave the boy as much more as he thought
he deserved.


A little later they left the house together and
walked up the street to Dr. Dewey's office, where the
boy was turned over to his father, with a brief state-
ment of the circumstances. Dr. Dewey thanked the
teacher for what he had done, and the lesson to
George was complete.
The next morning George was in his seat at the
tap of the bell, and throughout the day he was as
orderly and studious as could be desired. When
the session was over and the teacher was leaving the
house, he found the boy waiting for him at the door.
George extended his hand and said:
"Father and I talked that matter all over, and
we both came to the conclusion that you did exactly
right. I thank you for it."
From that time Zebina K. Pangborn and George
Dewey were fast friends.



A YEAR later George Dewey left the school and
went to the Morrisville Academy, and there also Mr.
Pangborn's teachings stood him in good stead. His
aptitude in sports always made Dewey a favorite with
his companions. He was one of the fastest runners
and the best skaters, and he had the knack of do-
ing everything he did quickly and neatly, in the way
that shows the properly balanced relations between
mind and eye and body. He acted as he thought-
quickly and surely-and he was certain to resent any
insult or infringement of what he considered his rights.
Dr. Dewey had been thinking over his son's fu-
ture, and had decided upon sending George to West
Point, although even at this time the boy's inclinations
turned more strongly to the other branch of the serv-
ice. Yet he did not strenuously object, and so after
a year at Morrisville he was sent to Norwich Uni-
versity at Northfield, Vermont.
Norwich University stands on a plateau above the
town of Northfield. It is a fine old place, with a wide


parade-ground extending before the buildings, and
back of it are the brick barracks that contain the
cadets' quarters and the armory and recitation rooms.
Everything was managed in military fashion, and there
was no better school in which to fit a boy for the
life and habits of a soldier. It was in the year 1851
that George Dewey became a pupil there, and from
the day of his coming he manifested the powers of
leadership that afterward distinguished him.
Four or five young fellows in uniform were seated
in one of the rooms in the South Barrack. They
belonged to the second-year men, and the second
year at any institution of learning is perhaps the cru-
cial one. If a boy gets into any mischief that is
serious, it is generally in his second year. The doings
of the sophomore have cost many a dollar out of the
college treasury, to pay for stolen gates and burned
fences, smashed lamp-posts and injured constables.
And it was so with the second year's men at Norwich.
"Where's Doc. Dewey?" asked one of the boys.
"We must get him into the scheme, or the whole
thing will fall through."
If any of you fellows want to see Doc. Dewey,
all you've got to do is to come to the window," said
a boy who was gazing out on the parade ground.
At the farther end a solitary figure was patrolling
up and down, turning at the end of his beat about a


large elm that stood in the corner of the campus.
The punishments at Norwich were of a military char-
acter, and extra sentry duty was the reward for any
breach of discipline.
"I ought to be the one doing all that march-
ing," said one of the boys, for George only tried to
get me out of the scrape, but he wouldn't let me tell."
Well, he'll be off in half an hour," said another,
" and we'll meet in his rooms. What do you say?"
"So say we all of us," was the return. "We can
hatch up the scheme there better than anywhere else."
In a few minutes the party broke up, to meet later
in a room down the hallway.
Across the Connecticut River, which skirts the town
of Northfield, is the town of Hanover, the seat of
old Dartmouth College. From time immemorial the
greatest rivalry had existed between the two institu-
tions, and in the years that preceded the civil war
this feeling had almost grown into a feud, and for a
member of either institution to cross the river was
to enter the enemy's country, with all the attendant
risk. Only three or four evenings previously Dewey
and one of the other cadets had boldly crossed the
bridge and appeared in the Hanover streets in broad
daylight. It had not taken long for the news to reach
the ears of a few of the Dartmouth sophomores, who
were spoiling for a row, and soon Dewey and his


companions had found out that they were followed.
But it was not until they had reached the entrance
to the bridge that there was any sign of trouble.
There, sure enough, they saw four of the Dartmouth
belligerents waiting for them. An old farmer, crossing
the bridge from Hanover to Northfield, was driving
a pair of rather skittish horses that were prancing as
they heard the rattling of the boards beneath their
feet. It was almost time for the evening assembly,
and if the boys were to be prompt they must not be
stopped, although such, it was plain, was the intention
of the Dartmouth boys who were awaiting them.
They asked the farmer if he would give them a ride,
and he declined; but they had jumped into the wagon,
and, when near the spot where their four enemies had
lined across the causeway, one of the cadets leaned
forward and, picking up the whip, struck the two
horses across their backs. This was all they needed;
the Dartmouth boys had barely time to jump aside
when the team went tearing by. But it was easier
to get the young horses going than to stop them.
The rattling of the bridge frightened them more and
more, and the people on the streets of Northfield were
surprised to see a runaway come roaring into town
with an old man and two hatless cadets hauling at
the reins without result. It was fortunate that no
harm was done, and the horses were stopped halfway


up the hill that leads to the University; but the
president had seen and recognized the two uniformed
figures, and that was one reason why Doc. Dewey
was walking about the old elm on this fine spring
The evening before, one of the cadets had re-
turned from a nocturnal excursion across the river
with his coat torn and a story of being badly treated.
Revenge was being planned, and the plotters had
chosen Dewey as their leader for the coming expedi-
tion that was meant to teach the Dartmouth fellows
a lesson. This expedition resulted in a lively en-
counter, in which, though outnumbered, the Norwich
boys are said to have been victorious. In the tradi-
tions of the school it is known as the Battle of the
Torn Coats.
In Dewey's last year at Norwich the faculty pro-
cured two fine six-pounder howitzers, with limbers,
to replace the old iron guns at which the cadets had
been exercised. When they arrived, the cadets took
down the old guns and brought up the new ones from
the railway station. As boys naturally would, they
divided into two parties and made a frolic of the
occasion. It was tedious work getting the guns out
of the car, but as soon as they were out and limbered
up the fun began. One of the cadets has told the
story very prettily in his diary.


"Ainsworth and Munson chose squads to draw
them to the parade. I chanced to be in Ainsworth's
squad. Ainsworth's squad wanted to lead, but as
Munson's squad had the road ahead and we were at
the side and in sandy gutters, it was doubtful how
we were to do it. They started off with a fine spurt,
getting a big lead. Going up the hill where the road
was broader we steadily gained until only the length of
the trail in the rear; then we gathered and started on
a run, passing and keeping the lead, with cheers and
great glee. Climbing the hill, we proceeded more
slowly, Munson quietly in the rear, on our way round
the North Barracks and then through the usual gate-
way to position. As we entered the village near the
southeast corner of the parade, we noticed Munson's
squad, apparently under the lead of Dewey, making
for a short cut across the grounds, first breaking down
the fence for passage. Now our efforts were re-
doubled, and the boys of the other squad declare that
they never saw fellows run as we ran, or expect to
see a gun jump as that six-pounder bounded along
the main street and around the corner. But we
led; round the North Barracks at double quick went
gun and gun squad, entered the barrack yard and
placed the gun in position before the west front
of the South Barracks, giving three cheers for No. I
to the chagrin of No. 2, just approaching position.


It was a great race and pleased the faculty exceed-
This was only one of many episodes that prevented
life at Norwich from being dull for the boys, and
sweetened their memories in after time, though not
assisting directly in any useful branch of education.



WHEN Dr. Dewey had consented to his son's wishes
for a naval education, the next step was to secure
his appointment to a cadetship at the Academy at
Annapolis. Each member of Congress has the privi-
lege of appointing a candidate when there is no cadet
from his district in the Academy; and the President
has ten appointments at large, besides one for the
District of Columbia. The giving of these appoint-
ments after a competitive examination was not so
common forty years ago as it is now. They were
almost invariably bestowed arbitrarily, according to
the Congressman's personal relations with those who
sought them or his idea of his own political interests.
But it was of little use to appoint a boy who could
,not pass the mental and physical entrance examina-
tions.. George Dewey obtained an appointment, but
only as alternate. The first place was given to a
schoolmate two years older than he, George B. Spal-
ding. For some reason Spalding, though a bright boy,
failed to pass, while the alternate answered the re-


quirements and was admitted to the Academy. Mr.
Spalding was graduated two years later at the Uni-
versity of Vermont, studied theology at Andover, and
has had a creditable career as a clergyman and legis-
lator. It is said that only about forty per cent of the
appointees are able to pass the entrance examinations,
and of those who are admitted, only about half finish
the course.
Dewey entered the Academy September 23, 1854,
being then in his seventeenth year. He was born
December 26, 1837. The number of cadets was then
one hundred and sixty, the curriculum had been re-
cently remodeled for a four-years' course, and the
first class under the new regulation was graduated that
year. Captain Louis M. Goldsborough (afterward
rear admiral) was the superintendent.
The classes are designated by numbers, the lowest
(corresponding to freshmen in a college) being called
the fourth. The cadets (or midshipmen, as they were
then called; that term is no longer in use) were under
the immediate charge of an officer called the Com-
mandant of Midshipmen. He ranked next to the
superintendent, and was the executive officer of the
institution and the instructor in seamanship, gunnery,
and naval tactics. He had three assistants. There
were eight professorships-Mathematics; Astronomy,
Navigation and Surveying; Natural and Experimental


Philosophy; Field Artillery and Infantry Tactics; Ethics
and English Studies; French; Spanish; and Drawing.
The examinations of all the classes were held in
February and June. A very strict record was kept
of the conduct of every student; and after the June
examination those in the second class who had not
received more than a hundred and fifty demerit marks
during the year were furloughed till October, while
the others were at once embarked for the annual prac-
tice cruise. This appears like a great number of de-
merit marks for even the worst student to receive,
but some offenses were punished with more than one
mark. Thus, for neglect of orders or overstaying leave
of absence the penalty was ten marks; for having a
light in one's room after taps, eight; for absence from
parade or roll call, six; for slovenly dress, four, etc.
Any cadet who received more than two hundred de-
merits in a year was dropped from the rolls; and it
was optional with the superintendent to dismiss a
cadet from the service for being intoxicated or having
liquor in his possession; for going beyond the limits
of the institution without permission; for giving, car-
rying, or accepting a challenge; for playing at cards
or any game of chance in the Academy; for offering
violence or insult to a person on public duty; for
publishing anything relating to the Academy; or for
any conduct unbecoming a gentleman.


The daily routine of the Academy is of interest as
showing to what discipline the cadets were subjected,
and what habits of promptness, regularity, and ac-
curacy were cultivated. Marshall's History of the
Academy shows us what it was at that time, and it
is still practically the same.
The morning gun-fire and reveille with the beating
of the drum was at 6.r5 A. M., or at 6.30, according to
the season. Then came the police of quarters and in-
spection of rooms. The roll call was at 6.45 or at
7.15, according to the season. From December Ist
to March Ist the later hour was the one observed.
Chapel service followed, and afterward breakfast at 7
or at 7.30. The sick call was thirty minutes after
breakfast. Then the cadets had recreation till 8
o'clock, when the study and recitation hours began.
Section formations took place in the front hall of
the third floor, under the supervision of the officer of
the day, who, as well as the section leaders, was
responsible for preservation of silence and order. When
the signal was given by the bugle, the sections were
marched to their recitation rooms. They marched in
close order, in silence, and with strict observance of
military decorum. Whenever a section left its recita-
tion room it was marched by its leader to the third
floor, and there dismissed.
Study alternated or intervened with recitations


until one o'clock, when the signal for dinner was given.
The cadets were again formed in order by the captains
of crews, and marched into the mess hall. The or-
ganization was into ten guns' crews, for instruction in
seamanship and gunnery, and for discipline. The cap-
tains of crews, when at the mess table, repressed
promptly all disorderly conduct, unbecoming language,
and unnecessary noise. They enforced perfect silence
among their guns' crews until the order Seats! had
been given. Then conversation was permitted. Si-
lence was enforced again after the order Rise! until
the crews reached the main hall. At all times, in mus-
tering their crews, the captains were required to call
the names in the lowest tone that would secure at-
tention. They were required to report any irregular-
ity in uniform or untidiness which they perceived at
any formation, as well as any infraction of regulations,
disregard of orders, or other impropriety.
The Professor of Field Artillery and Infantry Tac-
tics was inspector of the mess hall, and presided at
the mess table. He had charge of the police and order
of the mess hall, in which duty he was assisted by
the officer of the day and the captains of crews. Each
student had a seat assigned to him at table, which
he could not change without the sanction of the in-
spector of the mess hall; and no student must appear
at meals negligently dressed.


Thirty minutes were allowed for breakfast, and the
same time for supper. Forty minutes were allowed for
After dinner the young gentlemen had recreation
again until two o'clock, when the afternoon study and
recitation hours began. These continued until four
o'clock, followed by instruction in the art of defense,
infantry or artillery drill, and recreation until parade
and roll call at sunset. Supper followed immediately;
then recreation and call to evening studies at 6.25 or
6.55, according to the season. Study hours continued
until tattoo at half past nine, which was a signal for
extinguishing lights and inspection of rooms. After
" taps" at ten o'clock no lights were allowed in any
part of the students' quarters, except by authority of
the superintendent.
On the school-ship attached to the Academy there
was another set of rules and regulations, concerning
duty, conduct, and etiquette, so minute and exacting
that one would think it was a liberal education merely
to learn them all, to say nothing of obeying them daily
and hourly. Here are the greater part of them:
At reveille the midshipmen will immediately turn
out, arrange their bedding, and taking the lashing
from the head clews of their hammocks, where it was
neatly coiled the night before, will lash up their ham-
mocks, taking seven taut turns at equal distances, and


tucking in their clews neatly. They will then place
their hammocks under their right arms, and first cap-
tains will give the order, Stand by your hammocks,
No. forward, march! at which order they will pro-
ceed in line, by their allotted ladders, to their allotted
places in their respective nettings; when there, they
will in order deliver their hammocks to those ap-
pointed to receive them. Each first captain delivering
his hammock and falling back, will face the line of
his gun's crew, and see that proper order is main-
tained; each midshipman, after delivering his ham-
mock, will fall back, facing outboard, forming line from
first captain aft. When all are stowed, the first cap-
tains, each at the head of his crew, will face them in
the direction of their ladder, and march them to the
wash room-odd-numbered crews on starboard, even
numbers on port side of the wash room. Towels will
be marked and kept in their places, over each respec-
tive basin. No one will leave the wash room until
marched out; three guns' crews will wash at the same
time, and each week the numbers will be changed.
When ready, the first captains will march their crews
to their places on the berth deck, where they will dis-
miss them.
Guns' crews Nos. I and 2 stow hammocks in for-
ward netting-No. 2 on port, and No. I on starboard
side; Nos. 3, 5, and 7 in starboard, and Nos. 4, 6,


and 8 in port quarter-deck nettings, lowest numbers
of each crew stowing forward.
Nos. I and 2 guns' crews leave berth deck by fore-
hatch ladders, Nos. 3 and 4 by main-hatch ladders,
Nos. 5 and 6 by after-hatch ladders, and Nos. 7 and
8 by steerage ladders, each on their respective sides,
and each march to their allotted places on spar deck.
Twelve minutes from the close of reveille (which
will be shown by three taps on the drum) are allowed
for lashing hammocks and to leave the berth deck.
The guns' crews will form in two ranks, at their
respective places on gun deck: Nos. I, 3, 5, and 7
on port side, and Nos. 2, 4, 6, and 8 on starboard
side; first and second captains on the right of their
crews, officer in charge, and adjutant forward of main-
mast. Officer of the day and superintendents forward
of main hatch, fronting officer in charge; when formed
they will be faced to the front, and dressed by first
captains by the orders, Front; right dress." The
adjutant then gives the order, Muster your crews! "
when each first captain, taking one step to the front,
faces the line of his crew, second captain stepping for-
ward into his interval; first captain then calls the roll
from memory, noting absentees; when finished, faces
toward his place, second captain takes backward step
to his former position, and first captain faces about to
his place in the front rank; the adjutant then gives the


order, "First captains front and center!" First cap-
tains take one full step to the front, and face the
adjutant's position, second captains filling intervals as
before; the adjutant then gives the order, March! "
at which captains march in direction of the adjutant,
forming in line abreast of him. The adjutant then
gives the order, Front! report! The captains report
all present, thus: All present, No. i!" or, if any are
absent, thus: "--absent, No. i!" First captain of
No. I will begin in a short, sharp, and intelligible
tone, making the salute when he has finished, which
will be the signal for first captain of No. 2 to report,
and so on to the last. The adjutant then gives the
order, "Posts! march!" the first captains facing, at
the order "posts!" in the direction of their crews,
advance at the word "march! to their places in the
ranks. The adjutant then reports to the officer in
charge, and receives his instructions; if there be any
orders he publishes them; he then gives the order,
"Two files from the right, two paces to the front,
march!" when the two files from the right of each
rank step two paces to the front, and the adjutant
gives the order, Battalion right dress! The bat-
talion dresses on the two files, and the adjutant gives
the order, Battalion to the rear, open order, march! "
when the rear rank will take two steps to the rear,
halt, and be dressed by the second captain.


The officer in charge, with the adjutant, will pro-
ceed to inspect the battalion. The adjutant will then
give the order, Rear rank, close order, march! when
the rear rank will take two steps forward. The adju-
tant then gives the order, Officer of the day and
superintendents, relieve! at which the officer of the
day and superintendents of the day previous will face
about, and pass the orders to their reliefs, the officer
of the day delivering his side arms; they will then take
position in their respective crews.
When the officer of the day and superintendents
of the day previous have taken their places in their
crews, the adjutant gives the order, March to break-
fast! the first captains will direct their crews by their
respective ladders to their respective mess tables.
.On arriving at the mess tables, each first captain will
take position in rear of his camp stool, at the after
end of the table, second captain taking the forward
end, and the crew taking position corresponding to
their places in the ranks; all will remain standing in
rear of their respective camp stools until the officer
in charge gives the order, "Seats!" at which word
the midshipmen will place their caps under their camp
stools, and quietly take their seats. As the midship-
men at each table shall have finished the meal, the
first captain will rise and look at the adjutant, who
will acknowledge the report by raising his right hand;


the first captain will then resume his seat; when all
shall have reported, the adjutant will make it known
to the officer in charge, who, rising from his seat, will
tap on the table and give the order, Rise! at which
order each midshipman will rise, put on his cap, step
to the rear of his camp stool, putting it in place, and
facing aft; at the order March! from the adjutant,
first captains will advance, followed by their crews in
their proper order, and proceed to their parade stations
on the gun deck, where they will form and dress their
command, and bring them to parade rest in order for
prayers. All will take off their caps at the opening
of prayers, and put them on at the order Attention! "
at the close of prayers, from the adjutant, who gives
the order Battalion, attention! right face, break
ranks, march! "
The hours for recitation and study were the same
on board the training ship as in quarters-from about
eight o'clock in the morning to one o'clock, and from
about two o'clock in the afternoon to four o'clock. The
guns' crews were then assembled for exercise at the
great guns for an hour or more, or perhaps in in-
fantry drill, or in practical seamanship, including ex-
ercises with boats, the lead, log, etc. Evening parade
intervened, and after supper the fourth class were
called to their studies again. At tattoo, half past nine
in the evening, the midshipmen were required to ar-


range their books and papers neatly, place their chairs
under their desks, and at gun-fire form by crews,
when the officer in charge inspected the study tables.
At taps all must turn in, and all noise must cease
at four bells.
The rules of etiquette were very minute. Here
are some of them:
The midshipmen will not use the steerage ladders,
the after ladder from the gun deck, the starboard poop
ladder, the starboard side of the poop, quarter-deck,
or gangway abaft No. 2 recitation room; they are par-
ticularly enjoined to keep the starboard gangway clear.
The etiquette of the quarter-deck will be strictly ob-
served. Officers on coming up the quarter-deck lad-
ders will make the salute. No running, skylarking,
boisterous conduct, or loud talking will be permitted
on the quarter-deck or poop. The midshipmen will
never appear on the gun deck or quarter-deck without
their caps, jackets, and cravats. They will, in ascend-
ing and descending the ladders, avoid the heavy step
upon them which is made by shore people; when ab-
sent in boats they will yield implicit and prompt obedi-
ence to their captains, or those placed in charge. It
is particularly forbidden to get out of or into the ship
through the ports, or to sit on the rail of the ship. No
one is permitted to go out on the head-booms during
study hours, or to go aloft, without authorized per-


mission. No one is permitted to go or come from
the berth deck during study hours by any other than
the main-hatch ladders. The midshipmen are forbid-
den to sit upon the study tables.
A young man who could go through with four
years of such discipline as this, and at the same time
keep up such proficiency in his studies as to pass
the examinations, might well be supposed to be thor-
oughly fitted for the duties of life. George Dewey
went through with it, and on graduation, in 1858,
stood fifth in a class of fourteen. His classmate,
Captain Henry L. Howison, says of him: "In his
studies Dewey was exceedingly bright. At gradua-
tion he was No. 5 in our class and I was No. 4,
but after the rearrangement at the end of our final
cruise he was No. 4 and I was No. 5. He was a
born fighter. He was just as much of a fighter in a
small way when he was a boy as he has been in a
large way as a man. His days at the Naval Academy
proved this. He is quick at the trigger and has a
strong temper, but he has excellent control over it.
When a cadet he would always fight, and fight hard
if necessary, but he was never known to be in a brawl.
I do not want to convey the idea that he ever wanted
to get into a row, because he didn't. He would go
a long way to get out of fighting if the affair was
none of his business. He was sure to be on the right


side of every fight, but the fight had to come to him.
He did not seek it. If he saw a quarrel on the street
and he thought it the part of a gentleman to help
one or the other of the contestants, he would not
hesitate a moment about pitching in. He would go
miles to help a friend who was in trouble. He was
fond of animals, and especially fond of horses. Ever
since I have known him he has gone horseback rid-
ing whenever he had a chance, and has owned several
fine animals. At the Academy he would ride when-
ever he could get anything to ride. He had a fine
horse when we lived in Washington. I recall that
Dewey as a lad was very fond of music, and, indeed,
quite a musician himself. He had a really good bari-
tone voice, nearly a tenor, and he used it well and
frequently, too. He also played the guitar well. He
was no soloist, but could play accompaniments all
When Dewey was in the Academy there was a spe-
cial source of misunderstanding, ill feeling, and quar-
rels in the heated condition of politics and sectional
jealousy; and then, as ever, it was customary for the
boys to settle their differences with their natural
means of offense and defense. Dewey did not escape
the peculiar peril of those days. There is a story to
the effect that the leader of the Southern party among
the cadets made an occasion to give George an un-


mistakable statement of his opinion of Yankees in
general and George in particular, whereupon he pres-
ently found himself provided with a black eye. Then
came a challenge to mortal combat, which George
promptly accepted. Seconds were chosen, and a meet-
ing would undoubtedly have taken place had not some
of the students informed the faculty, who put a stop
to the scheme and made the boys give their word of
honor to keep the peace.
George participated in the annual practice cruises
with his classmates, and after graduation they were
sent on a two-years' cruise in European waters in the
steam frigate Wabash, commanded by Captain Samuel
Barron. The ship attracted a great deal of attention
in every port she visited. Steam had been only re-
cently adopted for naval vessels, and the Americans
had constructed a type of steam frigate that was
superior to anything in the other navies of the world.
While the Wabash lay at Malta a fine steam yacht
came in from the sea and anchored near her. It was
said that she was the property of a distinguished noble-
man, and was one of the few first-class steam yachts
then in existence. She excited a great deal of curiosity
among the officers of the Wabash. A few days later
Captain Barron gave out a general invitation, and
many visitors from the garrison. and from British men-
of-war in the harbor came to inspect the new war ship
41 5


from the West. Dewey and the other midshipmen were
on hand to assist in doing the honors, and when a
kindly-looking gentleman with a small party came up
the gangway and saluted the quarter-deck with a
nautical air, George returned the salute and asked if
he could be of any service. The gentleman said he
would like to see whatever was to be seen, and the
self-possessed young midshipman proceeded to show
him and his party over the vessel. When they had
nearly completed the rounds, Dewey ventured to offer
his card by way of introduction. The gentleman took
out his own card and gave it in return, and Dewey,
as he glanced at it, read one of the highest names
in the British peerage. Yes," said the gentleman,
" that is my little teakettle anchored under your quar-
ter. I fear she'll seem rather cramped after we go
aboard of her from this." Dewey's conscience now
began to trouble him, and he insisted on taking the
party to his commanding officer, though, as he an-
ticipated, from that moment his own existence was
While nothing strictly historical took place in con-
nection with this cruise, there were many pleasant inci-
dents and some that made strong impressions on the
young midshipmen in regard to duty and discipline.
Several Italian ports were visited, princes and ambas-
sadors were received on board, and courtesies were


exchanged with the war vessels of several nations. The
Fourth of July and Washington's Birthday were duly
observed, and, on the former occasion one of the
officers read the Declaration of Independence to the
ship's company assembled on deck. At Leghorn the
Wabash ran aground, and a British merchant steamer
assisted in getting her off. At Genoa some of the petty
officers and seamen got into a street fight, in which
a man was killed; and the captain sent them all ashore
next day for the civil authorities to identify the par-
ticipants. At Spezia, Dewey records in his journal,
" five hundred and fifty gallons of beans were surveyed,
condemned, and thrown overboard," furnished prob-
ably by contract. This is in striking contrast with
what afterward he was able to say concerning the sup-
plies of the fleet at Manila. On November 13, 1859,
they sailed for home, and on December I6th arrived
at the port of New York. A little later Midshipman
Dewey was examined at Annapolis for a commission,
and he not only passed the examination, but was ad-
vanced in his relative standing. He then received leave
of absence to visit his home. He was commissioned
lieutenant April 19, 1861, and was ordered to the
steam sloop Mississippi.



THE United States navy had done little to distin-
guish itself since its wonderful achievements in the
War of 1812 with Great Britain. During the Mexican
War it took part in the occupation of California, and
performed what service it could in the Gulf, but there
was no opportunity for anything remarkable. Wilkes
had made his exploring expedition in Pacific and Ant-
arctic waters; Ingraham, in the St. Louis, had de-
manded and secured the release of Martin Koszta at
Smyrna; Tatnall, with his famous "blood is thicker
than water," had participated in the bombardment of
the Chinese forts at Peiho; Hudson, in the Niagara,
had assisted in laying the first Atlantic cable; and sev-
eral cruisers had pursued pirates in the West Indies. But
with the exception of these occurrences the navy had
done nothing to attract popular attention for more
than forty years. Yet it had quietly accomplished
much good work on the Coast Survey; and the Naval
Academy at Annapolis, from its establishment in 1845,
educated officers who gave character and efficiency to


the service, and when the day of battle came showed
themselves to be worthy successors of the famous cap-
tains who had preceded them.
A great crisis in the nation's history was now ap-
proaching, more rapidly than any one suspected. The
older statesmen were .gone. Adams, Jackson, Clay,
Calhoun, and Webster, all had passed away within a
period of seven years. Their successors were men of
different mold, and the problem that had given them the
most serious trouble, while comparatively small in their
day, had now grown to monstrous proportions. The
difficulty arose from the existence of two exactly op-
posite systems of labor in the two parts of the coun-
try. In the Southern States the laborers were of a
different race from the capitalists and ruling class, and
were slaves; in the Northern States all (except a very
small proportion) were of the white race and all were
free. The different ideas and interests that arose from
these two different states of society had constantly
tended to alienate the people of one section from those
of the other, and the frequent clashing of these in-
terests in the halls of legislation had obscured the fact
that in a much larger view, and for permanent reasons,
the interests and destiny of the whole country were
the same. In the summer when young Dewey was
graduated at the Naval Academy, Abraham Lincoln,
then in the midst of a heated canvass on this question,


said in a speech that became famous: "I believe this
Government can not endure permanently half slave
and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dis-
solved, I do not expect the house to fall, but I do
expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all
one thing, or all the other." Most of the Southern
statesmen, and a few of those at the North, looked
to a division of the country as the best, if not the
inevitable, solution of the problem. But against this
there was a barrier greater and more permanent than
any wording of constitution or laws enacted in the
last century by a generation that had passed away.
This was the geography of our country. Mr. Lincoln
did not distinctly name it as the reason for his faith
in the perpetuity of the Union, but he probably felt
it. History shows unmistakably that the permanent
boundaries of a country are the geographical ones.
Conquest or diplomacy occasionally establishes others,
but they do not endure. Separate tribes or peoples,
if living within the same geographical boundaries, ulti-
mately come together and form one nation. Had our
country been crossed from east to west by a great
river like the Amazon, or a chain of lakes like those
that separate us from Canada, or a high mountain
range, the northern and southern sections might never
have come together, or would have been easily sepa-
rated into two .distinct peoples. But with no such


natural line of division, and with the Mississippi run-
ning south through the center of the country, and
with railroads, telegraphs, and other rapidly multi-
plying means of communication tying the sec-
tions together, the perpetuity of the Union was
a foregone conclusion, whatever might be the argu-
ments of the politician or the passions of the
Nevertheless, the struggle had to come, whether
this great consideration was realized or not, and come
it did. The Southern statesmen were in earnest in
their threat of disunion, and when Abraham Lincoln
was elected to the presidency in 1860 they proceeded
to carry it out. South Carolina passed an ordinance
of secession in December, and most of the other
Southern States followed quickly, and the new gov-
ernment, called the Confederate States of America,
was organized at Montgomery, Alabama, in February,
1861. They proceeded to take possession of the United
States forts, arsenals, and navy yards within their ter-
ritory, and soon had them all without firing a gun,
except those at Pensacola and Fort Sumter in Charles-
ton harbor. The Confederate forces erected several
batteries within reach of Sumter, and on April 12th
opened fire on the fort and compelled its surrender.
This was the actual beginning of hostilities, and within
-twenty-four hours the whole country, North and


South, was ablaze with the war spirit. The President
called for volunteers to suppress the rebellion and re-
store the national authority, and was offered several
times as many as he asked for. The South was
already in arms. Many of the military and naval
officers who were from the South went with their
States, and young men who had been educated to-
gether at West Point or Annapolis were now to take
part on opposite sides in one of the greatest
conflicts the world has ever seen. In some in-
stances brother was against brother, and father
against son.
Gideon Welles, of Connecticut, was Secretary of
the Navy in President Lincoln's cabinet. Though
some of the naval officers resigned their commissions
and offered their services to the Confederacy, the ves-
sels of the navy, except a very few that were cap-
tured at Norfolk navy yard, remained in the possession
of the National Government. There was need of all
these and more, for a mighty task was about to be
undertaken, and there were large bodies of troops to
be transported by sea, cities to be captured, fortifica-
tions to be bombarded, and ports to be held under
blockade. This last was a most important duty,
though little idea of glory was connected with it, and
popular reputations could not be made in it; for the
Southern States had very few manufactures, and for


arms, ammunition, and other necessaries they de-
pended mainly on importation.
At this time the United States navy was under-
going transformation. In the more important vessels
steam had been substituted for sail power, but they
were still constructed of wood, and the development
of the ironclad was just beginning. In the emergency
the Government bought a large number of merchant
vessels of various kinds, including some ferryboats,
turning them into gunboats and transports, and
began the construction of ironclads. Many ironclads
of light draught for use on the western rivers
were built in a hundred days. The Southerners were
almost without facilities for building vessels from
the keel, but they made two or three formidable
rams and floating batteries by covering the wooden
hulls of some of the captured ships with railroad
The first naval expedition of the war sailed in
August, 1861, commanded by Flag-Officer Silas H.
Stringham. It consisted of ten vessels, including two
transports, carried about nine hundred soldiers, and
was directed against the forts that guarded Hatteras
Inlet, North Carolina. The troops, with some diffi-
culty, were landed through the surf, and a combined
attack by them and the naval force reduced the de-
fenses and compelled their surrender with about seven


hundred prisoners. The garrisons had lost about fifty
men, the assailants not one. This was due to the fact
that the work was done chiefly by rifled guns on the
vessels, which could be fired effectively while out of
range of the smooth-bore guns of the forts.
Late in October another expedition, commanded
by Flag-Officer Samuel F. Du Pont, sailed from
Hampton Roads. It consisted of more than fifty ves-
sels, and carried twenty-two thousand men. A ter-
rific gale was encountered, one transport and one
storeship were lost, and one gunboat had to throw
its battery overboard. When the storm was over, only
one vessel was in sight from the flagship. But the
scattered fleet slowly came together again and pro-
ceeded to its destination-the entrance to Port Royal
harbor, South Carolina. This was guarded by two
forts. The attack was made on the morning of No-
vember 7th. The main column, of ten vessels, led by
the flagship, was formed in line a ship's-length apart,
and steamed past the larger fort, delivering its fire at
a distance of eight hundred yards, and then turned
and sailed past again, somewhat closer. In this man-
ner it steamed three times round a long ellipse, de-
livering its fire alternately from the two broadsides.
Some of the gunboats got positions from which they
enfiladed the work, and two of the larger vessels went
up closer and poured in a fire that dismounted several

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guns. This was more than the garrison could endure,
and they evacuated the fort and were seen streaming
out of it as if in panic. The other column, of four
vessels, attacked the smaller fort in the same manner,
with the same result.
Meanwhile, a much larger and more important
naval expedition than either of these was planned at
Washington. New Orleans was the largest and rich-
est city in the Confederacy. It had nearly one hun-
dred and seventy thousand inhabitants-more than
Charleston, Mobile, and Richmond together. In the
year before the war it had shipped twenty-five mil-
lion dollars' worth of sugar and ninety-two million
dollars' worth of cotton. In these two articles its ex-
port trade was larger than that of any other city in
the world. And as a strategic point it was of the
first importance. The -Mississippi has several mouths,
or passes, and this fact, with the frequency of violent
gales in the Gulf, made it very difficult to blockade
commerce there. Moreover, if possession of the Mis-
sissippi could be secured by the national forces it
would cut the Confederacy in two and render it dif-
ficult if not impossible to continue the transporta-
tion of supplies from Arkansas and Texas to feed the
armies in Virginia and Tennessee. Add to this the
fact that any great city is a great prize in war, highly
valuable to the belligerent that holds it, and the im-


portance of New Orleans at that time may be readily
The defenses of the city consisted of two forts-
Jackson and St. Philip-on either bank of the stream,
thirty miles above the head of the passes and about
twice that distance below New Orleans. They were
below a bend which had received the name of English
Turn, from the circumstance that in 1814 the British
naval vessels attempting to ascend the stream had
here been driven back by land batteries. The forts
were built by the United States Government, of earth
and brick, in the style that was common before the
introduction of rifled cannon. They were now gar-
risoned by fifteen hundred Confederate soldiers, and
above them lay a Confederate fleet of fifteen vessels,
including an ironclad ram and an incomplete floating
battery that was cased in railroad iron. Below the
forts a heavy chain was stretched across the river,
supported on logs; and when it was broken by a
freshet the logs were replaced by hulks anchored at
intervals across the stream, with the chain passing over
their decks and its ends fastened to trees on the banks.
A similar chain was.stretched across the Hudson at
the time of the Revolutionary War. In addition to
all this, two hundred Confederate sharpshooters con-
stantly patrolled the banks between the forts and the
head of the passes, to give notice of any approach-


ing foe, and fire at any one that might be seen on
the deck of a hostile vessel. The Confederate au-
thorities fully appreciated the value of the Crescent
City. The problem before the national authorities
was, how to take that city in spite of all these barriers.



MILITARY scholarship is a good thing; military
genius is sometimes a better thing. When it was re-
solved by the authorities to attempt the capture of New
Orleans it was assumed that the two forts on the
river below the city must be first destroyed or com-
pelled to surrender. The chief engineer of the Army
of the Potomac, whose ability was unquestioned, made
a long report to the Navy Department, in which,
after describing the forts and their situation, he said:
"To pass these works merely with a fleet and appear
before New Orleans is merely a raid, no capture."
And in describing the exact method of attack he said:
"Those [vessels] on the Fort Jackson side would
probably have to make fast to the shore; those on
the Saint Philip side might anchor." Substantially the
same view was afterward taken by Captain David D.
Porter, who was to have an important part in the en-
terprise. It was also assumed that the forts could be
reduced by bombardment, if this was only heavy and
persistent enough. In accordance with this idea,


Farragut and Dewey.


twenty-one large mortars were cast for the work.
They threw shells that were thirteen inches in diam-
eter and weighed two hundred and eighty-five pounds.
For each of these mortars a schooner was built; and
so great was the concussion of the atmosphere when
one was fired, that no man could stand near it with-
out being literally deafened. Therefore platforms
projecting beyond the decks were provided, to which
the gunners could retreat just before each shot. The
remainder of the fleet, when finally it was mustered,
was made up of six sloops of war, sixteen gunboats,
five other vessels, and transports carrying fifteen thou-
sand soldiers to co-operate in the attack or hold the
forts and the city after it should be captured. The
number of guns in the fleet was more than two
After this expedition (the most powerful that ever
had sailed under the American flag) was planned and
partly organized, and the mortar schooners nearly
completed, the Navy Department looked about for a
suitable officer to command it, and Secretary Welles
finally chose Captain David G. Farragut. This officer
had his own ideas of the best way to effect the capture.
He would have preferred to dispense with the mor-
tars, in which he had no faith; but they had been
prepared at great expense, and that part of the fleet
was to be commanded by his friend Porter, and so


he accepted them, and as soon as it could be got
ready the expedition sailed from Hampton Roads.
When it arrived at the mouths of the Mississippi
there was a gigantic task to be performed before the
fleet could enter the stream. An American poet has
thus described the delta of the great river:

"Do you know of the dreary land,
If land such region may seem,
Where 'tis neither sea nor strand,
Ocean nor good dry land,
But the nightmare marsh of a dream-
Where the mighty river his death-road takes,
Mid pools and windings that coil like snakes-
A hundred leagues of bayous and lakes-
To die in the great Gulf Stream ?"

There are five mouths or passes, spread out like
the fingers of a hand. Of course no one of them was
as large and deep as the river above, and the entrance
of each was obstructed by a bar. The smaller vessels
-mortar schooners and gunboats-were taken in
without difficulty, but the larger ones required enor-
mous labor to get them over the bar. The Missis-
sippi-of which Captain Melancton Smith was the
commander, and Lieutenant George Dewey the ex-
ecutive officer-was lightened of everything that could
be taken off, and even then had to be dragged over
by tugboats, with her keel a foot deep in the mud.
She was the only side-wheel war vessel in the fleet.


It required two weeks' labor to get the Pensacola in;
and the Colorado could not be taken in at all, as
she drew seven feet more of water than there was on
the bar.
The masts of the mortar schooners were dressed
off with bushes so that they could not be distinguished
easily from the trees along the shore; and as soon as
they were moored in their chosen position the bombard-
ment was begun. The forts could not be seen from
them, and the gunners fired with a computed aim,
throwing the immense shells high into the air, that
they might fall almost perpendicularly into the forts
and explode. The bombardment was kept up steadily
for six days and nights, nearly six thousand shells be-
ing thrown. They fell in and around the fortifica-
tions, destroyed buildings, cut the levee, and killed
fourteen men and wounded thirty-nine. It is said
that in modern warfare a man's weight in lead is fired
for every man that is killed; in this instance about
sixteen tons of iron were thrown for every man that
was injured. The main object, however, was not to
disable the garrisons, but to dismount the guns and
render the fortifications useless; and this result was
not accomplished. The forts and their armaments
were in almost as good condition for service as ever.
Meanwhile, Farragut had made up his mind that
to anchor abreast of these fortifications and attack


them would simply be to lose his vessels. It is only
in its ability to keep moving that a war ship (at least
a wooden one, and there was not an ironclad in this
fleet) has an advantage over land works of equal
armament. To surrender this advantage at the begin-
ning is to lose the fight at the end. Furthermore,
he believed that as the sole purpose of the forts was
to protect the city, if he could lay the city under
his guns the forts would be abandoned. Consequent-
ly, in spite of the advice of the eminent army engineer,
and his friend and brother officer, Porter, he deter-
mined to pass the forts with his whole fleet (except
the mortar schooners) and appear before New Orleans.
This was a new thing in warfare, and it is im-
portant to note it here, because George Dewey, who
had been promoted to a lieutenancy at the beginning
of the war, was in that fleet, and Farragut was his
instructor as well as his commander.
The passage was to be made in the night, and
Farragut-who had learned to perform every duty
that is ever required on shipboard, except those of
the surgeon-gave in his general orders minute in-
structions for every preparation, and suggested that
the officers and crew of each vessel add any other
precautions that their ingenuity might devise.
Every man in the fleet was busy. In the fore-
castle of the Mississippi a group of sailors were mak-

Whitewashing the decks.


ing splinter nettings, criticising the arrangements for
the attack, and speculating as to the result.
What's Bill Ammon going to do with that white
paint? said one.
He's going to paint the gun deck," answered a
"What! paint it white?"
Yes, white."
What's that for? To make us a better target for
the reb gunners? "
It's to make it so that we can see what we're
about, and find things when we need them."
That seems to say we're going up in the night,"
said the first speaker.
"You've hit it," said another; that's exactly
what we are in for."
Whose idea is this of painting the decks? asked
a fourth.
Bill pretends it's his," said the boatswain's mate.
He thinks it's a great idea. But I was by when
he got his orders, and I know it originated with
"I don't care where the idea came from," said
the sailmaker, I don't admire it."
"Why not?"
Because it's just the wrong thing. The boys on
the Pensacola and the Oneida are rubbing the decks


over with mud, so that the Johnnies will have a hard
time to distinguish them. I think that's the true
"I can't agree with you there," said the boat-
swain's mate. "As soon as we get fairly into it the
smoke will be so thick that the Johnnies can't see
through it very perfectly anyway. And that's just
when we want to see everything on our own deck."
It may be so," grumbled the sailmaker; "but if
it comes to that, old Dewey'd better have the river
whitewashed, so that he can see to con the ship."
This bit of sailor wit created laughter, of which
the little company were in much need, for some of
them were not at all hopeful of the coming contest.
He'll con the ship all right," said another sailor,
who had not spoken before, and who answered to the
nickname of Slippery Sim (his real name being Simeon
Nelson). "I knew him in Montpelier, and I know
you can depend on him every time."
In Montpelier?" said the boatswain's mate.
"Why, that was about Bill Ammon's latitude and
longitude, if my reckoning's right."
It was, exactly," said Nelson.
"Then he ought to have known Dewey too," said
the boatswain's mate.
"Know him?" said Nelson. "I should say he
did know him. The most famous of all the fights


that ever took place among our boys was between
him and Dewey."
Did you see it?" said the sailmaker eagerly.
"I did," said Nelson in an impressive tone. "I
had the honor of holding Ammon's coat."
And which licked? asked the sailmaker.
Hold on!" said the boatswain's mate. "Don't
answer that question. Never spoil a good story by
telling it stern foremost. Give us the whole narra-
tyve from beginning to end, and don't let us know
which licked till you get to the very last. If those
two fellows were at it, I know it must have been
a tug. A good description of it ought to brace us
up for the lively fight that's before us."
"Yes," said another, "it may be the last story
that some of us will ever hear."
Don't be down-hearted, Ned," said the first
speaker. I've sailed with old Farragut nearly eight-
een years, and I know he'll pull us through."
"I haven't any doubt that he'll pull the fleet
through all right," said Ned. But even a victori-
ous fleet generally has a few red spots on the decks,
and not so many gunners when it comes out as when
it went in. It's all right, of course. I'm not finding
fault, and I'm not any more afraid than I ought to
be. I expect to stand up and do my duty, as I know
the rest of you will. But a man can't help being a


human creature, with human feelings, if he is a sailor;
and when he's killed he's just as much killed, and
all his pretty plans spoiled, whether it's in a victory
or in a defeat."
"That's all true enough, Ned," said the boat-
swain's mate; but what we want to cultivate just
now is the spirit of fight, not the spirit of philosophy.
Save your philosophy till after the battle, and then
you'll have plenty of good company, for then every-
body will be philosophizing about it."
They will, indeed," said the sailmaker, and a
good many of them will be telling how they could
have managed it better that we did. The great trouble
in this war is that so many of our best generals and
admirals who ought to be in the field or on ship-
board have jobs in barber shops that they don't like
to give up, or can't be spared from country stores and
newspaper offices."
Oh, belay your sarcasm," said the boatswain's
mate. Let's have the story of the big fight between
Dewey and Ammon, Sim."
Thereupon Nelson gave a minute and graphic
account of that schoolboy contest.
"I don't see," said Ned, why Bill Ammon never
has mentioned that he was a schoolmate of Dewey's.
I should think he would be proud of it."
"The reason is plain enough," said the sailmaker.


" He was afraid that might lead up to the story of
this fight. Probably he would be quite willing that
it should remain untold."
Well, whatever he was in school days," said Ned,
"Bill's a pretty good fellow now; and I don't see
that he has much to be ashamed of. It seems he
put up a good stiff fight then, and I think he'll do
his duty with the best of us now."
"Yes, that's so!" responded two or three.
"Talking about that whitewashing," said the sailor
who had opened the conversation, I think it's all
right enough, but it seems to me it might have been
applied where it would have done still more good."
Where's that, Tom? said the boatswain's mate.
I suppose you know," said Tom, that the Itasca
and Pinola went up last night to break the chain and
make an opening for the fleet to pass through. Cald-
well did that all right. But it's going to be a mighty
hard matter to steer these big sea-going vessels
through that narrow place in the current of a river
like this and in the smoke of battle. The thing I'm
most afraid of is that some one of our ships will get
tangled up among those hulks, and then the rebs can
just pound her as if they had her in a mortar. Suppose
the ship at the head of the line should get caught
across the opening, where would the whole fleet be


"Of course there is great risk," said the boat-
swain's mate, but how are you going to avoid it?
They took up a new-fangled torpedo to blow up some
of the hulks and make a wider opening, but the thing
wouldn't work. Those machines that are to go off
under water seldom do work."
"I was thinking," said Tom, that if they had
whitewashed the decks of the hulks next to the open-
ing it would go far to prevent such an accident."
"You didn't go up there with Caldwell, and
neither did your brother," said the sailmaker. If
you had, I don't think you'd have been anxious to
whitewash anything and make yourselves a better
target for the sharpshooters on shore. Our men were
fired on all the while as it was."
"I think I could have managed it," said Tom.
"Tell us how."
"I would have taken up some buckets of white
paint-I see you smile, but you've got ahead of your
reckoning. No, I wasn't going to say I'd take some
brushes along and make a nice job painting the decks.
I'd keep the buckets covered up till just as we were
ready to come away, and then I'd simply overturn
them on the decks and push off. That would whiten
them enough to help our pilots through."
I'm not sure but that's a good idea," said an-
other sailor.


"Is it?" said the boatswain's mate. "I guess
you've never sailed with Caldwell or Dewey. If you
had you'd know that either of them would be more
horrified at the idea of any such sloppy work, even
on the deck of an old hulk, than at doubling the
risk of his ship. They're dandies, both of 'em."
If anything gets afoul of the hulks," remarked
a sailor who had not spoken before, "it will probably
be this old spinning wheel. The Secretary of the Navy
that ordered a side-wheeler for a war ship must have
been born and brought up in the backwoods. If we
could have got the Colorado over the bar I wouldn't
be here. She's the ship we ought to have if we're
going to knock those forts to pieces."
I'm not sure that the largest ships are the best
for this work," said the sailmaker. This whole fleet
was built for sea service, and it's out of place in a
river like this."
Of course it's a loss not to have the Colorado
with us," said the boatswain's mate. But the best
thing that was aboard of her is with us."
What's that? said several.
"That old sea dog Bailey," answered the boat-
swain's mate. He's no dandy, but he knows what
to do with a ship in a fight or in a storm or any-
where else. I was with him on the Lexington in
forty-six, when we went round Cape Horn to Cali-


fornia. That was the beginning of the Mexican War.
We carried troops and army officers. Bill Sherman,
who commanded a brigade at Bull Run, was among
them. So was General Halleck-he was only a lieu-
tenant then."
Bailey's on the Cayuga now," said the sailor
from the Colorado, and if Farragut understands his
business he'll let him lead the line, unless Farragut
leads it himself in the flagship. I wish I could be
with him; but when we had to leave the Colorado
outside they scattered our crew all through the fleet,
and I just had the luck to be sent to this old coffee
"As long as Doc. Dewey's on the bridge you
needn't be afraid of her," said Sim Nelson, "whether
she's a spinning wheel or a coffee mill-and your
opinion seems to vary on that point. There was lots
of good fighting before propellers were invented, but
you appear to think we can't do anything without a
"A propeller isn't very likely to be struck by a
shot," said the man from the Colorado; "but these
old windmill sails going round on each side of this
tub can hardly help being hit."
Now you just quit worrying, and settle your
mind on an even keel," said Sim Nelson. There's
such a thing as ability, and there's such a thing as

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