Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Summary and conclusions
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087472/00001
 Material Information
Title: The concept of marriage among the Washo
Physical Description: Archival
Creator: Spring, Anita
Publisher: Spring, Anita
Publication Date: 1965
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Source Institution: University of Florida
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System ID: UF00087472:00001

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
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    Summary and conclusions
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Full Text


Field ''l::i.n: Project in Antihr oloLy, 'nLv.:i:it-- of -: ..'', Suer

T. Introduction
1110 Sito
Infformrm'tu and Troccduros
Statemncrt oC fhC3 -. t b1

I. 1, ita on ITarri--c
L..21Y~~ orrns
flo ~.23h0) jThl~s:?~ l O% 02 .'~~f

il -2: and Czm ir~~ad
Close1,Lin 7 r 1
Ec~;R:~;L: COM1fl011-fas M-C -I1d T

Children an.vd ai i
1ai:yl ari ~ wi

IM. DTommmion
Tho Uitoratn.uro on *
:~r:L'r .7~r23s'A cr'i:. -',
Punctjions oC r -,o
and i kbT-C 7t-div-ni
~.w.vcin :r~1~~.M

IV. ir.Trmr and Cononluoions

A* ?onivln ion D-iistr'ibnton

CD T.r-Ial Or-. c-i

D. Lo~oon OCf 3.cr-1


L. Introduction
+.. plpeor is h.-sd. on uner:: dooneas a tudt on o he tr-....: project i field

wor a.- mnoroed '-- the T.'-- ....r"y of -e-:zda .'..'. c'" '' "t ,. "y.:C'" prnda "oV;.

I r: r in the .fiold : iHn carried out r. A' the h:.o C" \'"-zs ".:i'vitlo :,lon ,

INovI. -., :" oi "1 '1 wo:- in thl ficLd ?'- th su m:or of -1 I a- L. -*'! N

to -fch i: ,brs the ) .i' : h n'- ?r t-' cottnt ..ice. a n cr "tic .

thrIn-houtb tho e r;o' -art *- A j 'arrn d'Azevdo ad1vhisod :iLnt u tra t'r;u to tho

n3d for :'- .ch on ar':- and ~ .-lndad ...:. rl fld wor

did r: .'- :.'r :.r 1"' and Sautlon. A, Jacobson advised o:a on .:: '.- :'.l ir.ti

nattors and asho iWords r-t..-i hero ouso bin .' :::. '. c ins =Aa
the roswon'o of. the autho.r.

-'**+ fiold situation cons'isted of 11-.' l i .L:W..-.-* v...n...-11 .ov ...1

to t'o "aDr, s 7..-.. ''. 1.:*-.- sinco roSidanoc in the cj" -y ws not wOu: :ible.

Only rosd .nt of Colony .r." considered as -.' informants. ..'. icho

in Gardnorville on NC.s.-.. lrV1.a r$Icho ;,nd on .-.--.: ].. -1...; er'"on3 tor --t

contactedd, Tho non-mndian co:ii t;r xaro oft:on cl.'ful in prZ-.v torical

inf .otito+n as woll as p-.Li-..z It tV0o u.. and Inda.r-'-:hitea r IatL .,I. I

ould li'Pe to thank Tisc. w-. i-. Dan.borg of "It .-, E-.. for thy use of her

common ratcril and Xocend n*' Ir athd of K .:...'2, Uovtd a Jo: hi;s coxn1ts on

current .'--:.; in --* :7illo,

.: 2? tjin .1 '-rville arnd Carson '- ll;y are one of t'xiroo gop a pioal

divisions Wt0 the 'aho MtYbo. 2hor northXnm grn up (
Caron City to : ., ::..-:; : '-d ,oyjt.-, 'io so urn groap (1 ol'i) is

ound south c.id :.est o' : ro. n ": 'ly and :. .".: i nto alifor.ni in .ords,


*'.rz and ColI.:llo, and Antelope Vllo. ':'. rTihi: !uL.p, to Uhich the U 10 -3

,lcm...I.o -L'.:h bo-l i_ thV' n p -lou or ll .. e., Thr' o-'. to be .'o::

Oditral dl:--o ne.- '",cv" tho tro" :...... ..~:- : 5 C." tiI i 2-2 ri.'-. 'n "'ou. areO

aid to a .-...: in a olour mraor, Aloa those of the r :.:torn'u group s)2: ra-p)idl-.r

'"-:? 'e.all'y people coZi..?. t":::sDlvQe aW :M,.'.n% a.l. a rato in bnt;.:mo-i tho oti'.c-Z.

T:;r are .o::CL: 1~?r- rlC c orce on1 :-: o, O Th first -' rks

oreo n.-1. out .in .:1 s .rC. '',t (1917) aw-i L9.:o (1939) mrO the 2irt'

t2 ;:r!. on thi 'azho. Pa?-ct di::isncs -iznly ri7':riv.1 c.uluara-. 7.a::os mat-

orial on a c-rl and :- -- icl life is bi2', Ho c1.': -acc- nost of otho lasho

ryths. an.;',r ::"c.' 1. : ..::t' on '":o.

Jhulin St.ou:t' (71 in hi? :-.] r. te: *o0 G:3-:u Co.:in:u-n.T.cule outlCi::' -i

gro:.o-r.s as ucll as n.t-r co-oo. aic and social 1ic. t.2 did not include ;in

.asho c.,:-.ic'l: ; t'.. *;V ): pattorno i the 2-cd soc-T i..n arc a lic-

abcl. Qoer Sto.ant (t' ) Tr)rked rith t:'. : t 3 irn Pal.-lu.e, but his *r-it lists

includes "'sho, :.:...-:rt' (I'1-:) study of p:r:-,.l i aionitheo '-Aoa and northern

Paiuto shortly aftor the tieno th.t. the i.'ho in !....l '-- ---.o :::. Invlvd

rith it, ri'ovi.''.-3 -: into tho -.:. i.. "c :ru-.d ,-"

:.2 studio u.'i tVihe a--t fi-ve years hav b-o-n carried out 1ry d'Azovodo

(1'3), '.:.. (1'920)), t3.:.0 (1i), .i.1 fPrico (1962). A' G "' r;.~-'b; on cha---'-

in -l y -.'"". is -tc'lly rol-..t.. to atiz pi.:"- ais a Prices on cu-,: ;2

dt'A,:.v',- a ir7: is a con-:)':iaio of va-.'.us aspoctos o. asho culture as laid

out l-; theso taree oiL.'r cl'.;o ,.

r3 content -il Spoeific re:-. : s to -the lit-r.-.I:". n..t-.i -. to 'acho

:12.'ri ... rill be dci'zu-.: in .i.ii.. III- )cui.

Tho Saito

71 o wroa tmat o IIrlOrViltom fWL4 ;. raz -:ivm :. Z:113 to o! by9h iv b

F. D-,,3oclor on 2cI16, 117. f'-, acroa was rL?:.:nto 'thc "'Ab: Uin ti-za1t1

writh Vio w-ryi.'y1 t: -!-z-n Grv-l1it r th t0c~ry YnI tc ifl h t:ib:C~: z'c-

cd~lri.- on tlio mt4 it will rcv-zv- t1bo tho oimor or his hic-zj. ih'osx:lorvi-qo

is l2742 civ: I-Ilc:, couxthwost of C~r.:n1:willo ( 75. 70) in Douglas CoLunty,

;Iv ;_ mid lios -.:tiL sd U:.'_1'2m of1 the cas.t fork of7 tho On-son ~N.:'.

4Tho color.f is on theo 2tvahlo-y floor at on elevation ofi L47--2 ;t. Th tract

iQ lovol; t 0o soil bJi,3fl 2)jVOI' _a.h rJ7iT1 -.,-ash covzidz~cli)O

Tho :7~ai vc~3LZ.2tn is ramgo brush ('.'c.iral `,viTntata) ancl other nlKiirn

desert om' ltsnll desor-t shrubs uh:-ch grow ar-und t s--. ho ,,tUon :mCiu and ini vacant

areasao mIltJrhin the cal2-irkh. Ml troes and raost T .th h_ __s

nre not natiivo -Io thto area and have boon u'~it in. :. soao brash cv_'z, are

OJilcd -i-li j.c': rb~i~z (lno-.'i cmi. 2o-nic~z) rn~d other smr-0.l uield :Lfo :l0:e

rodents#, on-h:ez andc A-rXs n aoccaiona2. 'r1 andeor in froma thE3 foThl~

A of': -i"T2S oi trout mand other Li-Sh axore j Iii th CMarson Riyer 2r! da: hich

is the oast-2rn u," iAi tyo' 4 c -Wo~. iu o lre miorous imc~ta.

~2e h~ ?': ~s.>ic:2 in V.he il=.)n Vo~lley. T'herc arc 107 ~ fe

days. torr :.. ratumo is 49.60. Th. nliuim anun t :l is 33.20.

.zhie na~dxalm t.zaurcc roe -rd was 0k miad the r~miimuni n h average
ti I
annu-i r ",. a2l1 is 9.9" en cma Str0hj2 is 4o.71 '2ii ira~ ind as recorded

inl Carson City is 8.1 rVIUr.

r oO:lory aIt T") S_ x:'11t C02=3it ofh Otigio 2.ty acres '-2i cin

S'lUCML blocks cl :i ad-iLtional aroas djunm-1 to the 2w--t';a LrIL thea 1 2 Js

Both areas aro considered Th'ezzler'~tc but the peo1o theasolves 'cr to


th'- forty acroo as "wthe ,ty' or -c.e .villo"2'. the oethr area bo ;' called

- .lat'.on .a.nd iyiHouin

Prom a conous i-:on by the writer in Au-sL 1969, there are 18 year round

r.i.nds i plus 6 ae ,. 'n:. ulrinter rosidontos ..:i:; a total of 15.4 pr.oon,:o
;':'... are 3M heads of hiuS! :1ld~ (1~ imc ,,Id foemlo) and 7 ,-.i.l !.::;

6 malo and one fenallo). Thero aro 70 pro)'nn under txTonty or apiro:^:l. :'cl'-

half of heo po: ulai.'on (c.A-' ndi:: for 'on.u"-ltt' n -n'.Ai..-ibut..n).
Thse .'-.TLac.. ooem to b'; ,airly tablob. Fmrm aa consue taken in 2.936 by

r.co E.. Dni.-r t...r arc 137 :-i'orn, 3 r.. Iull- and 79 cild~rn. Only

five adult h-us..oholed heads are s 1-:, liviniz on D l. -lo..1?illo in 19''. .. omi

a concuo taemon frcm ono i::7-. :a, nm'iory- ( T.1 'II8/10) of residonto in 1932, nIino

adult er:rj rcin i,;'-:r. i.n e:.l..lle.. '1.-s Ic'irs do not i l.1:'-l

chil!dron. :'.r of :,'h 1E have b1.o:. ehdult and hl.'u.z .l:; heads at :'?.ocnt.

tiost of 1he o.'ina ~. c.tli r h:.v Li.ed a fc-: haOv noved arm:. Honrvovr,

0on 01new sr; .:ilio ave T-:'.': in. One r'..zn 1C S b-? en sooe of the lusn:

The ii-r'o residonto oiethor buiilt their oum houcos or shacko or uszl toenb-

li1e 't.uctura'eos The :o;''-erm:er'ic built f'ir _n .s.o for fr7.:r ne.: p'- in the

"140" crea and tihro for pijnoioncor' in the Ilor-tlicht endof riv.r D3in! prior to

1930. In 1938 13 2-b.:dro mm3o ho)os ~miro built aln -:; ivyi m ioad. T'li:o ar.

reofrred to as the :-tilo" houses. 'Txhlve remain toda-y sinco ono burned do:an

In 1964 a l:.:t al Self-IT'hl hIju,,n,; project wra b-)jn in connection t:ih the

?A and the gov c .ur.cn-1t. 'on 3-b.-'o.. i:z'.ec aro pr -c-.~tly undoe construction

b"- the rcsidoutc. ieon the :rojc, t .a r',-st initia:-.d, most of the pot.n..ia


omiors rosidod in Dxctl'villo, ":o- v.r. d.., to .!?:.y factors, nrmy of these

p.,:mplo have dro-od out of the projocL. Conccqu'.itly people .ro:i Foodf-ordz and

other areas of the Carson Vollcy have replaced thie. 'D-o 2::ilias wio had

rosidod in San Francisco have returned to Dresslerv-ill for the near housos.

In c..:i'i n to those ten houses under construction there are 37 houscos 29

occupied and 8 vacnt and 8 trailoC-. in 3rcs:1crv:il o, .ro:. Dandb~:r's census

thLcr'J more 32 houses, 29 occupied .:.1. 3 vacant in 193,.

In scu, the po:...lai on and ITribz of h~- should scon to be fairly conit.~jnt,

in the last thirm- yoars* The noe houses :i.21 increase the p-;ralatlon. It will

be ,:t:.zL.lng to s: i ..th.: )ouliJ.l.on T1 cLachi lovol off :n tohe t-r.h

Info'.nt:' and Pre3Lurc

The i:hi o::a' tn for this paper was col-octl .'.l "- '7 r o.- Scven i-norafint

Othor i :. ,1- in the c:. ...2n.i; w oe contacted at least once as potential in.'ona-.nts,

for specific ino ..r tin, and i A no interviow t or for sccilc:'.;hn.; purposco.

Gl.a .-j oihalkor was rry princi .'3. iniorn:nt. Tnh ohe's, in order Vf tihn imr!:Oed

and amount of infrorzai'ionb obtained wore Fricda Giraudi, Clar-a Franr:, 1;iinci O'UIol

Dill Jacm-s, GOorr c Snno!:, and nharieo Iier, all residents of Drczlorvillo.

Gld..-z lk~:r (ato 63) is nor a tr.id inferno ... he is c::;.llcnt on

gcne"1o-2 and i:C'o0:.'...c:. ab-iit p3:Plo past cni prosont as mwll as foodC and

plants and teorms. S, was r.; nost cOc! l)T:;t in. ..n.-nt". Sho is a vxry tradi-

tional Tvman and has a ',. sp of the boriCin.al pattor'n of liJLo, hli-_n.; lived

that lifo as a y uVn .--il.

r a g Gid (Go ) io t ost outc?,aa" :i.s ...n I not. She

speaks frooly on anry -tpic a.i:.I is CiL r o.li nnifid. She c:i~d.'.d'r herself a


a leale- in -:o-xrnis Cnr:os. She is a rpo.l : r of iil rr aid t'o dmco

sons. Her Uasho t" ;..iol -r is lit-.d, heoover, and she has a t-'.-nk:ny to

f0 -,a :'t1:" (a.. 03) i -fh c.d-i. u:'nin an .:- '-i o,. moI -:.''

r.oc.t A D. n 'r c c:n .?v.-2!"-',. c. .i.n.1of a- .L...'i r i o "-'.. :', ?.; .... :. .cn is accurate'

she cily rl.a ns h.:t !: :n ti' ha to x be ::l c iiCc P u7 IL^' .

How-tevor, hor .*:"-is l -Jclinh-r and -1-'ro a contort orzlT:c o2 t.-t:: h; :ltli

her l -..on-i and no- E -iin- '- L-.-.-ni t. by her son, ll !' .c."lhr-;

.irnic ,':"ic (age ) id a quiet but umiLenr,:r wzsan SI,' C: a a o -;d

1O-.e;1::O of Ut'I:3 Tir's for a :t_'n of her r.;c, b.vt is l- I Ad ce xa- :r,-1 .r.i

the older ,tr z I osho makes a s-Lit .:.iznt,it is ah'rly -tr-a:: .;z';t .0. She

has a i c:!orncy to concoal -1.:-- ilc.- :.2: 'o..: :..::on, bul des3 n!Dt r i' vo :ii_.?lr;lZ.-

tion. S'r usme ono -:h' :: nne cdo (1 not want t o bd o .:id sad so~mod

insuliltc; :
.1. J-o:s ("-:7 78) is ny. a tn-d ifo-.2-nt (after iu ith

:!C;an t.-t- a2l carr.!:) He -is c::cellIcnt on cp-nwl r_ and in?:..:. .'::1 on

npcl)lo and pl .coc.

Geor'c noo::c (ago 75) is a prajfc conil. inrtnoi'-.nt i:lho lo2-c tI* ntlrlo-

polosgi know it. ou also cs -aros' u'rLL'o ,o-'l,-,.. IHe is c::cUl1.;nt on Bisho

tones., Iic rezsid -n is a c..nt.c r d'in:In prtlos cuad I is oCo: un

a'vilblc1 as a r-'slt,
i :;'Mr (a.'- 0) is -!: .1t ru -:c'~: .i woman I Not. IIor asho is

vory 11 .2, bi. so -me :-'.:r; of the ch.e-C to th ro3.'. 'i as ::ah ::- l can be

-"loca;3rd by tal:'.: .n,; with hor'

Future ibmran Tno '1.1:L

nh.:;-.r Ju:.': (c'.-- 67) would be n ::,.--!.unt in -"'- or ;2y apootso of


shcho cultui'e ,-r;:.:2 o:, tc~bor :'; f-oodsL She t.~uld have :o be sUu-';l a~mny

r.i her husband, Gooro Snooks, and in a oobor co.v':Lt1:n.

T.':-.- Ua,, (a.:. 62-'i'.3) in .L C, f:, .'.1 (a'-: 76) and '.:x l (n 67) aro

othor 2c'..^-...... ..n; tho -.;:i' ..o:3u "L. n Soo (c.;- 2) and

D::r.n'.:.:. Ja oo (.:';: 1: ') -rwold be "io..! informants au-l;.,:.;ua neither spoao:k lhsho.

Th.;:m;- wore raised by Clara a1: aendl have boon z::" .L o 1 e...:, aspects of ."-nho

culture. ,':-. ar- both very .':r.' ;.: ,1-,- and oon '.w:oz,:3 a1id would bo c t.': to :ork:



After 9 -t_. e -e.on and :".n.Ln .t-.cr, monoable to b'.i: an iint.''-nt,

T ..'.u. 2. that the most valuable ioethod of *ot.i.:.n" :-;.' -.i-'.-n.on was vho:ini::; tho

intorviewr session i..il-.- fo.:al, i Oa sitting do -n with n -uL:boo: and ...-il.

S3ub;-u:znt: ossions i e r c.'-".nLcl. and the informant l ;:;:';* c:-r'.tld no and con-

sidorod tho* tino I a.s tlhro ..as a wXo'rk soesion. Thiv.; :aso t !' :'-'o all in-

forrmanto ,::c. -t for C. F. ith ;ho2 i:ir. '.ions froz other ,cl Luore al-

voys Im-oredictabloe All inoraantu were pi i CecXpt for i.O.IT. and I:.T'. to

nhoni ',L-': such as c:-':r wore r~V;i ,.

Iost .'.nt.'.: wire ...'air'.i." sti7uOuctuzod and R Ci.'l.c to .cs and -::.'.-tions

Iwro asked. The first fowa sossi.on with womonn iwi3'T:"_-: sore on fr3:d-T and

their p-oparation, This Tr." I obtained comeo o:tiJ ,i,'o of theo iu li.i-,.' s

Imsy.-lc. ,c cad r.c-acy of aborinal culture, as w.oll as :.ingas the .topic

noutrol, :.. I did not kInow ,lha rny topic ou ld

be and this sooend lilko n ir.'i o~t:'t and basic area to bogin wdith. Later

since I was r:n-nly imntres-td in vj--y i -2-.r:.l :tinci'for'.-lon, thoso oerly sessions

paved ll1n f17 r an ".:s-'.*.-.1. a -ch tO Jchyubjec-s.


Tho ;-Si::t .. ic- rAethod :r :.tho boost way for .elictic ng _.'o .: e on

Irlo.:._ his.. ..All .I-.,^i and consus material on rarr-i~ .o and

divorce .or ..z-civillo r. re obtained by -j.Y;:in tirouwh bi-L..:-:-s.

In:1:-. .'.o0n on ..q.) i, econoimy, ratori, cul2tu, ult f lifeo c ,-- c-roanios,

dmsoo a~d r ..r -, social and political or:.d.i.-.mion, reliion mand c.:.ir,

and world v-.:; is collected in .li ion to i-:or::.-.io on :~L' ., but

Twil not be prreseond lihro.

The -' obl ':

:.0 topic of thi ")mer is mi!.'':::.;- ind l.-: it is oonceptualizsd by the

hasho. in 2ho li'orat'ur, marr-ia:o is briof-- doscrib:,1 as Io:".:i-.'i.. ly

or .r:nc;D.. ':;. subject is touchy to c:31lor3 because the '2asho i--.- a sonse

of derision from- the c '... co:munitity Chich 0oes their -r-.'i'. -oo as untstable

and iutr.st,-:.lt:,- end often illegal and ri.Lrq2.

:; concern is to sho.-u ho-J h.^aho p) :-n.l thirik: nd: .:1.. about urria 2 o and

divorce, and ~1...;.-:' 1 rel-ations b'ot id."-.17 an.'. bh;.iora.ll T1 cultm_3

provides tho i'2r_...: :, but in t-is ; ...h:z.1L area, thore ocoras to be ruch in-

dividual variation. Thoe L itoer fools that data obtained on marriage ,o ao mainly

o3:'nt:--: -.': ..ith only .::--.i":,_ land overlay of the abo'-i;in.l .tt.ic-..

ITj ain is to m::lo: c2-:-; and attitude' in this rapidly

chn-2nr;in 2 fccot of sooiC a life,

The nrocodure is to discuss the cate-' ''-icr7 and crit-ic'., of :*..U'ia;.o

a nd ('.-zvc-c by build a construct of definitions abstracted -i'o:i idol and

bclh;c'voial p.'T~ital.j, .a.'4:t fron '.he lin;.uicLic c.t~j iesc and the .li-tii'
toer.inological syoten are given, Iloxt, the aboririn:1! rd c'.an;iL'; patterns

of iar::'i.:2 procedures and corononio, mato ; :- :'e']'? child care and snrc-

tion mad divorce are prosonted. DcnoLra-nhic in'o;,:.'ion on co:'.:.t')- '.- i:' arria;,


:An Drosolorvillo aro "':5-; i to c.:bzt : ial.o sone of the ,menortal uC:.-tt '--n. finally

r'-,'i,.-:c is related to other az ? t of tho culture c o:i r- lifo cyolf and

car:.. ig. Tii3 presentation i- -ii.ly preferonces -nd values connoctod ith



II. '-..- --,i: c

Earriage forms

In rb-r:riL-rVi days, po~l" ,:.i c..:l.:if practiced Olthough t is difficult

to ostato ito ro1 7, 0orr :l :.1',:.:,ir us .p.l.'i'r.:i. It is said that

oistor got alr: :it-hout 2fi-:tiv and :.u'inr~ uihercas non-rclatod women do not.

Usualy an had two wives wio w sist-rs. In i-r onraos :na uni-related wives

and tho r.aro rn.au;d i cose ; to have boon three wJ:ives. iTe rianL was usually part-

icL-ly l a .abl i.'ir as a hunter or .'or his ,3o:l looks or bath.

D. J. said "i;S rma can ir-ari a omoman shnl ':. she wants to". So the c-cond

irLC. I:-.'. to be i .rlliin. :TIit.j 'alluct. on nor bride capture, comi:on in nany :,-ts

of the Cr:,: .t T ..in, mI2ns :'r.-C .c?..' by the Washo. SorXtiess the :.' t'_ wrife based

hor l:u;i'n: to ti:o si ccond ifeo, u' lly her ;.'rtir, if she uore barren. This

provided a --,r for her to rotnin her i-;'.:n.1 sinoo ....- .:''ni.: wero common. A

Eman -ith two ipivos had both prost..3 and traces of derision. ,inc, tdhitc contact,

Dresolorville residents know of only one rman n the last fort-'L- "ar.3 ho had had

tw-o :ive. ; they a wre sisters, Ibe was :;c':p.cull--r -I.i-,1. l::;.-, and was proud

of himself for having two wrives.

People believe that as a 'ro-nJl ru-le a an r a mnts his rife's sister. Soeo-

tIm: a man has ox;xu: relations with lis v-if'"o's sister. Access to a -.O'cs

sistoc is part:-.curl/ nw.c..; :-j!.e as ~ri c:i.-Ti:1-o the cii The oaho

practic -d,. both cororato and levirato, neither of which was c: r-ul'o,.-ii

Proesnt I"aho beliuve that an l:-rl-' d.y,.;, relations tih a i tlf's sistor

occurred noro fir tu.l:7,. Ihither the wife nor others would do .-,iZ.-rlr;i about

it. In one case that occurred a;,u't tv ,y years a-o in :vl--illo, a mrsan

had a child by her sistor' ih; Td. :ot:l:e-r the wf-'cu nor anyone elso did any-

thin:i nor was conjure ap0:liod to 1t1 hu;b;ond or the sister. However, uhecn the

husband had anot':hor unrelated woman, es wifc and her relatives went arftr hi

and had him put in jail.


T1n'or31-i. said that when a wr-ian was -.'o-nanr t her iuzsbnr.i tould o"t'-,.: have

relations uith her young r unnrrrieod sister or leave, if thore "irre no siutor to

find a soexal patnl'.'r for part of Ihoh d;..l.tion.

The s rorato and lovirato .3r3 deicnldont on in.div-ird.i choico. But the rule

ims that -hon a man's wifo dieso h h has to leave t io fontly unless he rearrieos a

sistor. Tho same prc7..ilod for a woman, Thia means those irdoI-er 1 personal had the

choice of clihani-nz residence or arryin a brother or sister. Theo r.oIn that

pn oplc clhoz "to' ii-rr a scouc ts oibl-n- was b:causo of the ties and coquainmtancoe

alroaty fo:~.:d. .osto IJO'-'t~ iti va bAlioved that only a relative w'uld carol

for the children. In the man's case he could be writh his o~an clhildrcn sinco he

rarely tool: then if he loft the tom-an's ~-i2ily,

"heo t-oinol&ical system tends to (r'tl ct this oita.tion. Co-trivos called

each othor dibuc;i and their husband by tho roller .- torm (dibicaoli?). Children

of one nmothor c-ll-d: the oeh~-r dir:' ..' (mother's sister), The torn for ctSo-

r:athr is dji-j 'a anI. snto'a atihr di?6t~dY (FVPgro). Hence,. the same kn relations

and t,-' as before would hold in the sororato and lCvirati3. The lovirato appears

to have boon loss 'oquent, probably because of the t-n-mncy to matro-local rooi-

dence. :!0o-vr the a alication of the toer di?5;Y i to a non-relaotd stop-father

was wridospread.

Thoro has boon rntion in the l:'.t;raturo :n:: Stoe!a-. (19.36, 1930), Park

(1937), te.art (1937), r nd Prico (19r2) of pol-a. hnl arun.; the I'asho, ::t ~.:'

li.teod its as for of 2ar ::: in tho D:: 'asin *'c.f._cally ,2'r so0.' of the
,o_-'h'r:in and e:otoern '!oho'nj i r:o-' ,s. If .:il-Tl." is coii2id..'od as a fo:nal-

iod ,: --,1 union, in .' oh ha woman has nor, than onoe, siband ri-.-:i:i'; o-._ly and

ithe children ocn "ch are r cognpri: as ;h'lo .nt; to each IhUsband, than it is

difficult to make a case for I'asho nppoly'nir'y. 'hat appears to be the real Situa.


tion is that scm; priJLliScs -warc oxontiaoes c::t-'Ln-1 I by tho h!usb ln to a brother

or close friend. Only one hvzsbrad is recorl.zc aoiD ~ the children are oithor

thEouht of as his or as belonrin-i to the mother. Tio real a'rth:r is not reco-

nieodbeoin3 thought of as a parani.ur tho descrintive toe dr? _Jin,

hidden father, is used. Soraotrioo fa-ihr hosl is attribute: I but the nar-a is

novor r 3onisod as herloae l-.b .n

Let us consider the ra-in t~asho forL of marri~ a;nro'al and non-sororal

po'.1-hny.r has boon dcscrib:l above and are now on archI.ic foirT boouse of hite

contact. Thi cv-iraitc and sor'-ora't3 ar st-oil operative, but are n:t aos Lroqunt

as in aor' in.1'- tir:-ls. Polyandry is not a _cy.ni.c.1 rta-rrlan forn; the eocon-

Dion of sox privil -:.;. isa r.a.J. as a clal:s.ine affair nxt a marriage

11The vrice fom oLf contnr' _. asho is c.jr?..7 r3.:31oz-"r. Thi.. sooes cto

liavo boon in ab ri'ic2n. times f3:_' :..i-r .'L c ot'.er than p~L rmn:,U+: ones.

'y~).t ).;lIo there and still are omarric., fji lmost e .' r. r r:.'ult lii'o. All adult

wonmn soenod to have b)cn :i-"ied at least once. I-t i-io:.antis w uld n )t re-

noabor anir dlo toro n.t., (r, chlec':c.d Gcealoegis anr coirtznG rary p -o,)l-a A fov

adult mon had never b,.n married. rhis seems to be due to the fact that they

had some rhysic:l discbility e. r.., blindnss or cripplcr or in recent tino

had .)r!:od and St..eci on ranchos.

Usually a pr-..; on married fairly young in lifo, f unen lh to 20 and non,

16 and up. People usuQ2.y had two or thiroo spouse. in a l:-' time. Soee had

f.cur or five. In one raro case, a man had soven irivos. A person d'o had had

up to threoo pouses in a liotiw "is concidS.rfd aei: table and nomral. Poopo

trith moro were tal:Qed about as .vin.; lots of husbands a- uivos.


moUho-a-: nst -)OO ):)'U 0 thoy did. not 7un ai'-"v1

a~jin[; 5 1J1 ; an-' cc atii indiscrzixIinatoly and iztthout -ircasen.

Mhe nan anid reasCo::ar,- eOn for romarry1ng iwas a spowSOvs d(L-A. Sinco

r--m ao -as 1~i=111 an economic~2:2l in dborri-,nrl tl -*'*.---3~ a r,,te oa

noedod for c-.,Irh-Q. Imewer ,11,.ot no L'Dui- cb- or ', i' since -yDtmr
a~nd m* ddlle-amc1, rcza=rrIodo O:ldr pae cl ofton arc Larricl, u Lactor o n
nsocjbut factors of f~ji-in,

Sporsoncit 17e~in 0 toward tha previous spousej, the iniv2kJ' -1l~

a-. mnd the o ivsd or roalct1in'i of o,0;n10 C' n OThO'S 7Cidren wrore

lcuctorj. ?e Poilc in tE-Uir 60's v~e nar-.'iox1, b-ut. voi-; old 0 :v1oin their

70's and ')Is usually did not,

Coolols did not .1T2 wiJh'l-~t CIriz M; "lthti1ii c ~erati nz were COrTh:)1 focr

inco srr:- tab-Ilit or i;lity ;zirnrizsL3 dori- o4' a c weut! m '::wtizoez

czumscoz. 1eo Con-narr rule can be v:? 13 as to iir 'U-t!n_- Iirzt~ o9P s j'z u: ntl -

were moreo cjtabte or lasted ilcu:.v 1 Ui1tly. the, coanlc ra!in -,- t:lo

,,I anrrd if thero e wre, cIIL drcon at la-:for Li.or -ivc. 12? oo'e wre

nenY children the couple tried to -;*U_- t'ctro U '.Un thil : thc were Cro I.Dos2t

r.~r~r~ ~ ~ ~ in cor tact n r oi.,:br tnd to last Lo-: the remainder of7 the

~iwliv-~:du"1 ? rL.otlam, ('.theyr 1rot old to.-reUlnr!!) Tese cMse wAlo maiI4cd in

late rticdlo or old age oftoEn C-;=;- attaoeed to each other and the cmous:,- Itended
to dielieC-AJy. &Lter -LU, first ones death, or not re- at CallU.

arria-o `ora;y is less of7 an econo-ime nccozzii.Tr since ian c wii toa cmn

r a mnd oarn a living,, I!:C-,,t for a fonT !i ocrsons ih choose to be ch'ArLo rand

carouse, nest I-Tasho profor to be marriod. 2 -:! r u 1Ivino e'=unt~i arc

easier cand the norzn is conzJd:n' 1 a Of 0ho

Uasho coi-nuvdtj. Iziliid'jai c2 to have soneoono to rc-l-,- on and to t;kE care


of them in addition to their rolative.c

The lasho C-Jicon-b of ::' -zr..:.

T.. -.L %-1s .iwas to 0.:ci."3 the 'ash coneoptlic.i of ..:-' ..."'. and divy-rc

rati:_-:il a.;).ly T."n1lo-co': sion. It vas fe2l that irh)s those Iaho tc. z.ul-

og!ical yst cm r y.i-1:ht ycid now and unique cs'-.aric. since the nain problon by the

titor as the i--.li h designation "r -r:i.' ,;o". Hoe nco, trms for man ~id crifo

llvint- Jo erm, ar-riaeo cteo. vnre : C'icit ccl Jd in.Lor...ts ::.oro iurr- to add

-Llio:izl -tr. n1 to .LAborato o 1.ho1o. 1:c Cr-l-' yieldc! .o "." cal- .....iG

jubo:-uc-aly the inform- alt as asked .o-' toe s for .-n0lo distinctions such as

custom or trib!t rarriG..s, coe.on lawn lc.-:il cnd church ilarriago, iird marrag

and tixme facL .t-rc (th.}. r'.l ''r.i'.ria ;o" was used more than i:ould have boon desidl),.

Infori-,as r:,.''3 doocriptivo plrascs for most of those to-rms (cf..'.C l::

::2'i-2:^ and >3'us toms).

Tri. noa csL,.) was to ascertalin if theos phrases wro inventions or consistently

used by the i!foi :..: and 2)aoLt:.3 persons. Tluro' "!1 oon ino ?o~-Ynit (GU,, 1G, and

II?) -aro a.:ct to C;c'ib .l. the co:-n.zmzry and proviL3- 1Sr -'rria : of ir' ont

Drosolorville residents They wore as:c-d to d.-sO'Eibo in l-ashio the 1-ind of nar -

a. each ums and to discus sone bshvior'iJ.i ac-;'Zts (t-,-r.'O of in-i::.ao and divorcee

rra .c.nt, du'rationif, children wore present, etc.). .,rn- te-,ms wmro descriptive

and varied bou-r.n inior..ats. Th: consiotancy uas in vic.tin- each :i:liv:'.dualIs

marriage; there so-meod to be gonoerl conenn-Cs as to o ioas rac :- ly ~. arrived Mnd

4uho mas not and the shades of each. For c::.n'le n- o,ole who had boon imarriud for

a long tireo u:r-l:ut soor-"t-:.I n woreo :ivc: ULsho torms meaning "roaly nr'.-rid",-'

"nar-ried a long tirLo", [ro;m- old ttoeothr", ~heroas couples iTho had boon together

shor ti an-1 o-tni ca'rated ::. rofeorod to as "just a:I-.n to ':, ",

"fickleo mn or ,a,,r." or %-roten1 t'rri.-'. Ilenco, there a ":r. to be a moro


or loss consistent o>.'.uioi by the "alho abyj3u a p.rti cl- unionn ven C;.ou;h

diverse dcscri)tio:i so Io.a 31.

T:ccst for a fou ',rdinlolic.'! distinctions (oC, .n: '-::: Trii-e and

S3;.ras toer.m ) linp, ,-sti ccatc'oric. aro few and caro os33 rclica,,l than the

behavioral cara risc ccateritritoria.G. U, said: '""'3 don't say cor--on law,

or r-.-riod cIlly or Indian .. r..~L3, .-? 4.!-.< tin: -it .';--- liv-, to..ir as man and

i:rio". TI.--7.' r she di-'or C 3..ito the oases t:' 'o th couple oas not l-iv.Yi

together as such and coe discr-p:rcy frx ju'b married (dirr:a'.::rya) as

oe'id".nt fron behavioral as.c-cs,

....... ....ll~-o is a cDntL-tnct of 1acho criteria for miaarrir'-c and nin- ~:v'.age.

The do.Cinziions ,ind critb-~rla of marriage are co:. st,-c:,cic'.l by i.r: author 'frai idC-l

and behavorioral p.tti-rns given by in"-i'.rb' and co:iScnC33 of oi-nlio2 --3 ci-:' ac

royar-din aontorporary r.lat-ic:ships. In o-rd' for those to stumd as tru y valid

they c-juld,, be reohecked with ,.a- in':- r. .:nt di4.j J..a?'. 1a'-inc is a union

botteeon a man and woran in -lwrich ia4y tr -:o 1 u-) residence tso:cilth-r over a rio.iod

of t:-'.o with the intent o" :'~.i.:1,ienr. They h..-vo a on-mnc,- to e :clus'.v3 szaual

.:rioil.jo-s ;which may or rn- no'- result in offs,.)ri,. 'iy ar bOund to cur-

each other and the of.'i'Lin con.-ic-l. o ad to help each other in their -.or:

load and ob-t-n to provide c.:.w ni-.nici .:i. '".- *.,-7 rcornic -I:h.;.-lvos as married,

or man and if~1 as do others.

Cibuie:li? ; A ihu-sbazx is a man lho lives with' and :- or.s a wo1an over a
p:iod of ttidr with the intent of :.: :.n-r.y and ho fat'.crs and i-:lp:l:ar ..'o-

and support any oCfc.in iTchi- ro.- zlt -' ron! his o::clu.ivo osxual _.rsilcoc.

di~"l.:l'? y A T:i.o is a orman dio 1 iv.- with a man for a ,-.,riod of -,- L't.h

tho intent of -r:.:ulr, who :;n:c and *"-!:- ch_:.": of -oo!:-in and household
the~~~~ ~ inmn of -h= t':- o:m;s ..".>,-,1

arrangoronto c~a orffs.'ing and who considers herself bound and ooxumally faithful

to hor husband,

dni*t'. lay'lnu: CorU-lc who are eonrido'ad ro-o.17 Trieod have livo1 to'othcr

a lonrg tim~o oitIhr in the past or pc -c.;tly". sy tend to be compatible and

aii.!il and rarely :;opC'-.,t. T i_.,.' n,- or izn, not bo o~fi'r.

-ut:- 8... v,) C o;-.: who are n 2". ly m .iricd u;niL-.- livo A--:.-thr

for a raort time or not at ll, or ro b .cl:- ": fr-:-lh to e~ch othor. ->'e is a

-::r.:n.- ~to be un;aithrul and scparato ofton. U;7::o2y th're'o are no o.*. --'cin'

or the ..",7'h is :uncertain or does not eltin i.:-.r': o'..:1 Often, thoro is little

ovidonco of oc onomic u:,ter- One or both nr y harv had many ~ -Jeovou-: "-. :'? or

I-^r'.a ur p:.M-i.o 'rl-,-, u-!1 t1' -is does not soon to be tho f; 0:l one. The union is

not :- c.c-iL.o.2 b"- th couple or others as .a --,

ijvrn::li": ma and d .c:aj'-.f'. is a rr.e'ao-l Inhrbnl r.p"- ai'.i sn),one

tAlo doors not "oside p. ro!'a :t'.- irith the other, Tio individuals have soouail ro-

lation. Y-,- .zsu-.17 lime each c-'id.- and :-~ia marry if iT. ore not al -. "y

:.--L, ed. thoe wromn has a child from this union, the nan :':- or nay not marry

h-r and cla-m fathorhbhod. The rlat'.onln :".- or z.-7 not bA hidden .l secret

dy'*.l.mi:rl or tO :.:::..'L.? 4s a n-u-hty or ::.0:c :.ora-ml r.1 is ap li1.. to

a nan or ::.:. n Thno is thought of as a sox ."l;'. x1, soxeono to o'). lai ; with, and

rarel-'. as a ,r:onl, or 2i.-.i:': ..J, ro t s .o.)el.: eind to be ':. :-:'.. of as

:,7'oniscu .us. Usually ono in tihe .it.io.n-:ip is o 'al.7 12 ::' a. -'t and a,1no-

di?nolru, .i'.; ^ -- ; bi or 'o-nriend is a man in-

volvod in courtinM a woman. o vi:: an md roots with t-o Sirl or rwonan and T-'.'11:r

lilkos her mnd takO- he' pl c:;. IIe of r I- gvoO hr *:'. .~ nonoy, or licruor, II


is soon as a I-.,-r-.nt .l :f'.-ur:c .'.-b :.'.-. So:seti1ns thoro are s:6al relatiLns.

.d..rt'..l., "-.-_IL-_:_a'op..i ?.i.i, d '.y,.':4~a or r-lrl'rliond is a :.r :n in-

volved rith lInin- courted ba- a 1:on. She talk:s _nd dances rwih hinr, -3s placos

trith him, and somnsetiE has ,:uzL2- rlIations with hili. She cs~ hirmll if sle is

ca-%in_. ho iisecn as a notontia-1 -1..,

t'ie abovo -.,.,la.t.Lnhiyj are the : .o'; p!'o.in a4nt onoes but by n56 notue aro

c-*. iletoly exhaustive.

Critoria of '.'i.7 : Prima'y -.- om..i'

?.he r-:L-' criiv.ria of a luion bhin" c)nsid; ,Vr a n'--';., c o ..'.-..c. to-

gothoer,, eo- no:i. c cuiport, sex r.el 'ans ariy .'i'.ul.':c;, driration and .':--an'nco

and tioe self i.:. of ljing' mrarrio-:,- all over a period of 'ti.:,.

'1 n thero m7ero pl.nd n~ arri::::: and gift oxcEhancZ t the cou:)lo wore only

considered betrohDad before they a. r .! i.e-,-.d togo-thoer. If 'h'- w never lived

toZothlor, teo botrotlal ansd gif t c::ch'-nn oro voided and ',th'-y woro never con-

sidorod as husband ondi ,rifo or as rn.-.--''dr If th!o co:-lo commu--Iatcd the u io'i,

but did not continue to reside o "'.':.?:.' aftor an initial period, i; "- wre not

c ,nsid i. c married.

r,. hs-i') believo that non-rolatod mon and monen of no aroit ,-.. O.i3 c-r-:":,

cannot si .'Tr livre ior't'.iier as I-! n:;s or trhatcevor. r exa~l rclat'.io.:: aro acsmomod

(dep~ndi n' on the aro of tihe couple) al'1': 'jih the individual choice is private

The c1.n.o-. -; isaoe in that a rman and ta:::,n hrav to live .o::;~ r to be considorod

mnaried to each ot.hor, but there con be briof conSort relations or pr"' .nd sc-sJ3o

r' ::'.. a~ .."n. rtheboy wirald not be considered narriod.

her.-'e are sevoral nr.'il-, .' and dLstinisd'in" foeaturos of unions whichh

muot be procent boforoe t-'r- can b c:an c: d'd! as arr Fi':t is d&n.oiLi and

intent of '. ilrncyj -hat is, if th-e ana and waman sot up houIsckoopaing ,.-i-h tho

in-.:-nt.~on of *.r..i.ini.;, to-other over tino and actually do, Tho timo period is

tmportant5; .'::a~17 two to throe years is the mniiumm period for a miion to be

'a : i- i-.-. .ir ,ci J-in: ..-e.: s in reference to marital rolationos wro givon as

follo:.-: o:itor by ,- c..~.i:lnr.: the nmab.:r of r: or 1u'i. :; the phasaos, not too

lont (2-3 years); a long t::M (ca. 10 :--si's); q..iite a whi.(> 10 -:.'s). (1:o

Jasho wio: caat::,'rie weore eoailned and th-,s uould be a oonoorn for future work).

r.C ccn'l is ?'a cn:.nco. A nan tho lives .with a o man for a few months wo"'dL

be co:n.-idod the husband drIn'Y- this p.'-io:. If he c.",'x a-rl dooe not -'-.;.ir

or returns after a lon1 -'- it wll 1 co: id.-'.'.l a c-:u. con"ort. reol,.. I-:nhip

only, and theo ran as a pretend husband or paramour. If the nan visits and stays

titth a w roan a -s::7.n- ov r? a pri1o of '." z -', set es !?.r only: os .:lonllr otcd/or

has other womai, ho i considered a boyf.'l.ond or p'e-',ar.?n and not a real hui n-i: l

The r !. nc-.-;. hi- is not a real ,ar.-i.n"- The orlay thing that wold cianl-~ thoco

situations to t-.. r'o. o..O ulbed be if ~the ran took un pronanont e;'z:'.cUie and if

there Tore cilidron the man vo'.ld4 hav to clain pt' rii (C"hiGs will be discucsod


'Ti.rd is e.- .al privileges ad fai ,fii sb=l-o. Tor if h ave ox-

clusive rights -nile one e:tond them for the the other, o._-:., 3oly.n'rhous utnions

and cororal unions, ':ih ideal i;- c.clus ivnesss and o)pn lic-'nce is not _cc- t.d.n

Clan! ~r3tin'; ff.r oZc=Lr anod the rarriago can contir-lnu. if the spoouo chooses to

ignore them.

-,'i:m.-ic s rport for iho difo ai.'l f Iily consistently oUor a lo -.:1 of ti:m

is a pri.u.y critorion of the r:.:-:. :.n::'l!b-> 'i-.- cnitd -. 1. a niarrt g" o and a sec-

tion bolow will be devoted too te economic .:: .1-' bf :-rr'iaeo.


In thoe abnce. of 'written 2oc1ents and formal coro onico, tho self concept-

ions of the marri-,:'. as ouch are Linmortant. The i.ndivitdaiea has to consider .the

union a'har;:ia-:-o" (di-:.il :ya?) oand consider the nato as a .-,av- (dibmdo:l? and

S..l.?). If the indiviJdual or tho couple do not fulfi12 soma of the abo-e

criit-. 'a, the situation can bo be *v'--.uacd I2.Cr'ai-tl by outi .'.r;.. On tho

o.;J-h.a hand, the revoros does not hold, ic., if tho couple doos not c,-.-ir then-

solvos nmarriod and the nate as a true o C ouS outi.id!rs toond not to evaluate, tho

urion as a a rar. a-V amrl the mato :*; u' It is in '-:' -in that on .'.on

in a '.u_.ion can be- c):i;!--;de :'.r,: : -.r.';r."" Ih,-n F'- cotih-.:-r, if ho fulfills the

C:quli-.ca- ions better than the othoe, l*r', the? husband is u.' ait"i. and the

lrif2o is faithful.

In .a n:_:-:oe by license if somrt rn --, cicliar I:a-,?ns rith tho relatio lnhi

p-'l:o ar o o,?on at a loss to lknovt ho to consider it. 'nat is, if tho couple

is 1- 2.'Lr. nar'ried and nrt 7 iei.UtS!; -.'3: ":th, or if they arc not sT.')port:"i.

coach othor, otp. outsiders donmot knowr uhoelihe to evaluate the situation as

on on-c :i-n i arriar or not.

Sa" c ases ":In it 5" :.-:.. thhco criteria, P, K has been 1rith G.F. for

the last 4-5 ye.. 16"'.)..:ti..: "1:.h, livo 1-.lr:':1:';,-', c':i -*~:ils with others and

sonr3tirnos rith '1.!;.. -.ert : t- -'r-.nt. 'Te-- do not o .:-2:- say a;. .' o oan and

wifo, and ii .>.cL, -they are c'.;i ..'' as p-.l :n lln' to bo maxried or as o a i':..u:r

rather than as rnia-riod,

G. and .Il,. have lived .-:i ..t :r .'r t'in:,- ;.-'.;' 'i..r- do not Ihav cox.-

ual r,'lationo and ;- are not oon ox r' c. o aile either by thenuelvos or ou't

r..i.-, ?n-- do c :..f.'_:' t"!::-'l'.- .3 arricd and each other as husband and wifo,

and all outsiders do also,


FiG. considers hero2lf still married to JG. uho shio 2iv rui th for seven

years but no one olso does because '.,-, aro not living together at nroesnt.

!iorc.s I.G. is considered nxariod a .S. even -itl-.. 'h -1'- are apart (he is in

the sorvico) bca.us' they woro 1 gaily :.-rriod,

Outsiders do not conidor AF. and I. D, li.v in- oro '-_': a ~..ri.;-o:-. tui.oa.

Al' ou-"I havo roeidoed to-.3.';Tir for ihe last four years, and he provides

c-port, the comoe tih--:.-Ilvoe d: not say they aro ncn and wifo.

(nr:.r os .C::a. 'l-li:- -ith abovo cold be ,;.-:. ;:- arc included hero

to .r."''Ior give tlhe Iro.-'.-. Ma idea into factors to be co-.de':' in the formu.la-

tions of tholzo criotia,)

Secondary ,-t-ria : Cldcl:c:n

Chil"rc" ndo .not scooc_, to vilidate a.T'r.zrri-.:o. C.u -'1::- ti have, boon to-;ih-

.r a l-n_ tine are considorod nareiod if I;:'. hnve never had children. In short-

.unizz cou.l.es i..'. ch'ildron tend to be considered or ro.. b or .d as naz'i.od

teoreas childloss couples are often ithou-!.ht of a; pretend ~1ion; 's, I3 o. ncy

fnoen l3':iin; bad: on a moion is to :' /y that ;iw:- jora r !?-Y r:-.rI :! oevn for a
so) t ,e es
short timn if tlioere wor children and fatihrhood vas cc- -.':..ld by the ':.ic. If

tho nm did not .ac.. t x t "it:., tTi:y are n-t co.-. idWed n an and vi.c. n rO-"

Cards to on-in': l~".':iav s -ore:'3:3 who are n_--- '..I. u-and hav3 chiL-cI soee

to hnav noro en.-.. :r: .: thc,, are bo:i.ri.in: to rais a ?-;l7-r on the other hand,

childlOss cou!le. -) :- or n.' not r wa:ian t hehi-'lr,

A n'iarriT uni-on is ithe c.on': in 1 which children are conceived and nutuird.

Chil-roen dfinirt-l:, male a r.ar', '-.- in which the xrnan is of child-b:l-'ri ago

more Valid than others. ut ::inc3 manqy omen romarry after their ort'ic" aind


fiftics, those unions trll bo ca-scid2.:! jus-z:. as valid if tle coupiC rcnain

6to0o r:-- for o emO tirlo (mor; than five : c-'), Tho sanm is t:'wu .i-'o- barron

c' -7m-.o.--',

Teortiar- c.-'.i '.'ion B9havioral and Personal "I' .ir.ncos.

'-. 7 / !1, co.:l-"c.) of ro'antio love doon not- on tr A:nto th:e "'a:;1.': C!'.;''io:

of T.'. -'30, :;".:.n-r: .u-, :..:-~1. tlC ition and talento otihor tihan oconoric

ones tc:o a lo .;."^. C mo qtal-fica~,tion is cor atibility in behavior; the

.'ro ca.ll it "j ..';...:-: _lon;:" alnd lii~g each o'tr,''. The fomor has to do wi'th

r.-..t to.rl to help c.C. :=!1 ot,'- in c'~'::.;. -'rJi-" a. household i-- r;.::. ..

Co3n.nbiu:; iy :-: -i; tat in-.-. --,Jnnl relations aeo orlooth and clc ;t:2: 0 to

each r.-,';; each othor's behavior and .:'-' is c-;-stl'able. -ii:'., each other

to. '.1 =, li- .c coach o 'lor'so b ''r.--..',. ora.ntic 21...:-. i-s :- :. -. ay

lil:e oth as aa sox partneoy a cacpanton, a parent or a soo use. IHo~evor,-

nation of :,.- :,.i; lovo arc .-?o 1, : norec *:.-.'. --..; for : .-... and in chvr;zi

In carn, Pasih custon r ".':..: is oaen as a union of a nanz and rosran itio

litve *'r"-': ith tli :hreoiYT of w.:i retain rtxuSive Cazaial ri-7's;,

tho cupppor t each other o: .:-... ,-r ,-.5' '. ho believe .a.:..'- to be nan and

,if, r;o coT an"d nature C:Li,'h'on m1 ~ who are conpatible and like each o'ithr.

Soen oi' the criteria of marria r.- bo c.I.I.:e -ith the incre'.- of le; al

r '.*:.-.*:. There ic a tendoney to consider eporson. ::...:' rn-,-'. ..:':f -h!:;,- are

md L liconco. rym- are .,C'c to bo rOc .z'rojl Lo:jr and antr.ttl.!- S1Lit.c.'.y

:a-'ca.C previously tho ltn'-.. of tir.o t.*'!:-. .O the criterion for 0 f1-Y thoir

cc~:"i-L' .:-'.iL,


ilinsl~. n and ..:':-:.: :

.Tho. '... Iinal;o ,-.- ,' I .s ....- docnarib'd Zy Frool ( 1963) and "oroforO

by ...riter :'- al' il. .:.-...: .tnCioncd abovo (c.., iiold noto ). iHor3vor

certain -: or th; oyitr-; i nocz,.r.vly Inpin:oo U ;nT rarr. :'l in .-.*-.,

-fro :o bac i, of ;mrri". 1: ,;Lr ..:,;.. : and ITib1 bo disc tdsod horo.

'ho !:2h. :z '. ; r izs b::.. :;i2;Ll which causos thoi a'LiE J gi Lsl-b marry ifC

close rlaives (to bo ediocussoed o.nl.) ito t i both dCiroBI.onj. clo, o:

rlativ" on bot! S.id t areo rc cO.on'.d First nd a :econd cO'ci.S a;. 'o c7llod by

ciin .- h it-i. ocha .io. for dissolv-i:: kin :.-llc.:.t-,;I is found

in tinQ third u..t--.ii-j and 1.: 'JC L0 '.2.t r o I T tw v *' <'.-'L r oloiivca
7" -Z7_. lve :.." fc-ont a-I a'ulvcc

of b0)' Cidos arn. soxos ro e. cllo2d b-y to .:i.-:l- te-1 dSiL0'; c and 1C-o rLcip-ooal

is I i 0thoro1 1 o th0 sOcond aOclondin ` ard descCnd ing gorIcratcions tfio c*..o,

thoro nro '.':. (Usi". t-:.. as in ilTo .firt .*.. .-...:, ''..-2 ar a'so 0c::

:l-..iu ,. toGrns (tih0o s-,.:;-,_ bi..r- th ho b .La'-.j. ; collateral -:.-i;z)

Thicr. means that thoe fVa;:j i'l e;tCnsive It-.cl; on tho firSt and oeconCd C::nzc-

tiono fror ct bocono narroomd ;: :I:::.:;'l-,n the ithirtd cnd dissolved on tho fourth

cpnoration, A rmitne t '...L;?2 of -'lv....vei' in this snall j-r:T.:.lon -ould nndco

imax_-iago pattiArs Cifficult to find,

This r:-I:oo it easy to *:.J:t :.c'i!,r rolativos on tho l.-:.. r'-.. ,-i.n aind

cncblos doscendoins con noted -'A;i-h. th o ,'.'h 21 : r. .:.-tio: to havo the connoIot-

i:L,- b ;-', dissolvecd cowrplotly. iHe nzie, ose bccorn non-relatives and oalli; lo

for 91~3 ..

Tho prohibition ri-i;t -,: .li-.-L"; tho na. of th dead .:14 in 1 -'-tti

third ::ncra'ion cl.ti.-'. T: ^-i.mf;enco :.:.:i. is r-'eltlt?ih he dieo or

_Ilusi ?U:1i, our relative io d.

Contespoorcry ':'.o-l,.ical and 'tminologicl -~ -u.iU continues this

mechanism. In raost of r-. -co:'!loric., iL'c.r-:,-n.- did not :--..:~-br actual

nanoo nraore than tuo -marr-ons b.-.C!:, but the -*T:e.0 lorQ fairly eo:-

tonsiva"on tho fir S tto a3contdin :-'u-'rai-ons and all doeeondi g Z~'le.- tio:-

(u:oull-r two) from ego. The siblings of r'r",t gr.nd rx-ntc voro not re-

nmenbrod by most i'r.:-nf6 ts the 'Ieii-l. term din(cow ai,.id ;,, not to (i=.l)r-

ontiate then, For t-hose i:i.'c-:-n.t.z, rolativos conlooted ";.:' h the third

gonoration oreo dissolved this way.

Tuo informants (GS, 1 1*TT) could romeaber the relationships that rould

be c:=ant on the second accending c: nor..' ion but could not remembr the con-

r.cct.; rolativo. For e:exaro, GS.rec-abbored t hat hits Io: had courin-brother-3nd

sisters and 1..'. re --b- -.d that hor F-a had consin-bro-thna.i3 nd ciotors,

but neither could r:dir,-bor the c n-z tci fn rolativen IHowaver, theU o pc~o lo and

their C.'33Condonto woro co Cid:-rccd in the s rae kin relations as if the connect-

ing rlc'v-iv.: had been lacon.,

The question then bocomeoo uhon and hy certain r:lcT;'-ni ioro rcr tborod

and ro-.ainc, and others for.'rottcn and the bonds dissolved, No detailed stucd

Wae s '.., but two cu'..:;-.ions arc offorod from the aF-. .Al e ...ta. First th1 use

of certain kin terms a ofton d:cpe:i:.n~,- u-,in in'ividu. l civicc., I-1o-~-ty all ?irSt

cousin were c.:.i. .! by sibling tir n, olde r or y ,.:n-r brother or cistor depond-

ing on the relative a-cof of cos pirllCnt (i-.d,. used cousins o:m agoo). But cocond

and third cousins could be c-lled by sibling ornms, termn for distant relatives

or friend (cf, -.- :.i cousin sterns) d."3:;n:tin- on hou thi individual felt


toward thick porcon. Coso pro':.Sr.i-y aided in v:silr-: the closer kin terz tiiocroas

distance and little contact aided in the use of disLtant relative toms. IIowver,

pro::itrty somotiaes led to anir: sity and then the loss fa-iliar torms wroe used.

For example: G. Hi. used the to"a (ic' IL: (Yc) t' 'c to czr.'1o first and

soo-n-1 cousins on b-'th nid?, but a o'":. of thcse c3::sin woro on h1:." l:'3~'ts

Oi,'-.c he did not li1me or got alont rith and the:; :o2an call o d i-: disu (Irr

fcralto friend (~up) ).

The second r conl:1, ich li -.ro 'cla.Liv r3-'~ ;-'int rl. ive old

be if .thii,,: bou,; the relatives ovr hi descendontfs wro hrc :ci-l. If there

wore a closo in narrir.c the cofl'-:c Ctin relative wuld be fro-.-f d or if there

woro shnac connected wi'it the relative c. c, l closo kin :.i'':c or a 0oose

oCvnan, otc, this re-o-. iv 7 would bo c-,:'-lo.1 by the loss clo:,o kin teorm

The t7riter con)..u: .io that oll I.'c;r ni.:.. d.isc-i:'od hero wmoro r.ti)

but the o~~ent and ir.'i.~,.. of each, cz:-,cill/ the l."t t:., nood fu rth-er


Close Kin harria a

'Tn- prohibition a'ainszt i.', prinS relative ves s ery strong wnLz the 1 'aho

and persists today. Tho taboo and roultin2 dic'ir.-c is directly proportional

to the closeness of the rolationiip. It seems to be o:y to rrr dccn 3:'

of rolativoo connected on the third; and iouirth c;acncrtio'm: L b-::: as i:.Iuj!:-.. 1..-l above.

Theo acin:,ti..n and r.-n 1o closee kin ri-i-cr" thr .r, b~.-"in l.h' diCcor.. .nt

of r 'r n p.ronnts, :bl-,:li.n and half sblin-i, and ends -:i'W true f-ist co ainj.

heo roaoons for -he prohibi-tinsj and the v-L'h:-.:.:ncL with iich the taboo is

hold soams to be "flat'a the w y c di.na; believe". T1he aot of co:'j'ih.niol

relti:. i.s etramely in:.tnt to the i.~d .dal., ,f rin.-, on the other

ha=cd ar c idi. od trooasionto c s 1 rcl'cnbiLn tc:nuus.

F. G. cid that if you marry yoxu cmhin, ii -'ill go -.o. .ih

thue m irol-Ui: cU1.d2. Either thoe child T:Ill no-t livo o it trill be d:oz .?d.

:.C'.'i, said thoe CThiL .' ,i22 not .liv., Ti-. ould be a "t. Othor

:ClI;'-. -'i-.-< cand D3. J.) dd.-i,. t.It ch(il 'on would bo (!':-.::l or die.

It should be : n'.ion.L.: tt people orot orlulct :it to discuss cloco

k-in r:--.: of Oother 'cr -i.d ht they : wouldd not :-.n
thoir o.m .ol: xtve. ttoro :,'._ .:, :.. no;., thoro is ono case that C-'.Y:.n non-

tioned o ':in unsolicito'. This i..,t cousin r:eT>-."*.3 (wor x-r. e c-ri:~)

is disc'uscod, -.lTer rA-. l joked about as an cm''h t'ou-s r.:"i".7,-, but in-

f V,..:-. 2o0 armin -.f .--. l to spooify o'l This troild i-c-ic :'c that *th'.i-',

are skeletonss in tho cl-:-'t" and'that t!So ri- n oc- no~r- ro 'cn.r.

(as uIz. ':im; discovered at the 2_.1 of the field scc.:_, .D;." not t:alkinr about

Sthhesc unions L,:.r ar ch -int siho .hc..-n not i-r.r- them vm rort. 'oT:Y.-.:;-, by

'Ai*tll: one c-:.':'. c.1? this o'-c3s as a nativev ni.7o-ol nd ma crc"Eple of

the consuro.

In one oeae wLd.C' o.h.:i-'-rl iin ^L to-i last "-m.= ( 'c:- Bcruaiti, personal

co:"':: -.' i'. ..n) the girl ?1'-i'-'.; h=7r .:.?. :''s i:.'s3-. 7*.,'i, '.,o 'ur ion was not

loohod upon =s unfavorable as ic uual.cinzco tihe girl t.oS rotarded cnd hceo -ms

soreooneo w ou-o would tale caou o f hor. ".': tho 3a2all nur ior of "':.rlo in Loyalton

(11) nid the f:.c '; that no ct r ido ".i-;'t -.- ;n-it heor ast be cos...:'? 1..

Tho.co ra, :iano.a Co to be contracted by tha couple L.!:in; cadc other Lj 3 'z j

a closo -iJ;r.:-.L. I,7.nl ,....'.; som=:a. rtlatons otnz. r .m.Lti. in ro.nancy.


Since the boy is unlor; no obliration to marry the girl ho has to like her and

she hin (a "7'o.t do-l) in odor to .i-tzand the consuro and ridiculeo ziich results
if -t'hey boein to live together as ran and t;ife. Even though thic;o r1ariages

are joked about froan a so-aual point tho "lov" aipoc't or ihiatcvcr -:lich i a

foreign and d' .ite concc. to nost I'acl o, is prioba-bly vory ci-nificcnt.

Thio relatives of the couple are hold in accoIut i-.m iTays: tihe; aro su)poood

to aoquLint thcir childrmu with their rd tocivc, and toll t-hUr.1 bout the "taboo,

and thoy aro I-.sunpz-d to sto those unions if they disc.ver the cit'at-icn.

If th:-; are not aiccc=rnfl all they can do is adl-.it they are a=.lizrd and not

talk about it. Uioroas the relatives do not ap~rovoth'ro is n.otding :.;y can

do about it.

O.tsid'-'z say to tho niothor h you you lot your cr ldron do h2to. You
hao;o just as rn.ch as I do. l y y:u lot it hia- ;:m? Sho c.ls sho tried her
boost not to lo it h1?n-,on (B.J. 8Y.965)

A's (2) mother wao ar'o-'; and tell her not to, r'l-y snea ed off and
ri-.l.od by laZw. B ('-) did not have a fathior and his another was dead. He
don't bohaveo Inlien. lobod- scaid arnytlini about it to hi~. (G.U. 8/65)

In both cac.:-. the girl'v not yhr -' -'l; one -who felt ashamod mi was

blau d for it.

'Te r10 r-iar o is -roa'ily t1J:cd about %hcn it first occurs but la{-r' it 1 i11

be forgotten to somno c lnt and t'.JL:od about loos. In refcr.-en-e to ono case

G.WiJ said "!owr they scy man and idfe not cousins". People tend to forgot

the coi:icting; rolativco in t,'C.:I

Hasho believe that thi: couple themselves li:o the r:arria'og, C 2o soon to

got to-At;-?r booa-'s-, of sc: and clve. Ono inf'onr nt said of thic cous-in narzriago

"sex broujgt thos t"ogothir in the first placs since they uler ioie Ol tooeth'o"-",

but amthcr inf- u roforrin to the so a couple said "Co:: runs about the same

as for other couples, but more in love". It is not like any other marriage -

ihite people call that "Fall in love". There is no doubt that these :raTriages

are considered more coxual and rcaantic n others. People talk and joke about

them. A woman who zSco these unions as being particularly soer.aliz d said tlis

is the joke all people tell:

Y ou see some little dog jumn on one another, the male jumps on the

little fomalo one. They must be like little pups.

And the standard r-ibbinrg with und-rlying i~nlicatiion is is :' don't yoeUlike

him. and narry into ;'ur cnm -olativoQ'

From reports of those ;rriLngGc they seem to ;?orl: out ell and last as

long if not longcor than most narriagoo. The cou iles seoo to fight and argue loss

H owover, they do scan to keep to thlnsolvoc more and not ascociae 'with others.

The children of those inarriaraes are said to eoel ashamed if they find out

about it. Informants said the parents would not toll them, but Uith would

instruct their children not to marry their relatives One ino-urnant said the

children would do the same -hins then they grsc up (this seems to be an extension

of her disapproval).

It is intertting to note that the children of this first cousin r-arriaG3

mentioned above have rarricd ?auitos either Ua-iho would not have them or

they are getting as "unrelated" as possible (no conclusive statement could be


Informants -say tht in early days close kin mtrriages did not occur as

frequently because narriages im-re arranged. I ow people attribute the increase to

the fact that the younger gonoration des not Imow tfio their relatives are. It


tould bo iintc'rcztin; to soo if thi; is rozlly so or if this is Ymoroly attrikb-.ited

to the yoJncr' Ge:'oratnio: by tho old:.1r poplc h lac1: of uu.a::o of tho toe rmno-

loical cyi,-tn by the yo-unir '" 10io iho do i'ot c' :oe!: their lanTLaac could be a

-rc'o,. .irro io a tendency to t'ini: that arriagCo botuoon gniia.il ldron of

C.raU-l-I'ontio Mblini ('j ,coon d cousins) is not too clo3e and no roal o.forit mado

to cto:; .c 3. Also, now po-1lo can rarrm: by lau and no one can do anm hit:-t-c

:d Ceorn+n |e anio l\,a

Iahriuro Corc !ics and Axcn ;a:ata.r

I, -i-2acs were contracted and oonsj.iatccd ifrlth a rinir-Ln:. of cc'rulr.y C'nro

ca:o.! to be tiC-'o raian :,73 y 'o u'J b:co;3 r, narriod, (L._ acti.), Firot)tho

z~arei,'o could be arr'cjTd by the parents; reciprocal gi~- c::cli'nc' vao in-

volvcd. Thoso e-,, inr;o arrani;':s.:.n3s o2rtt wore i; ti*:'.tid i::hn the couplO was

pro-pubscnt if the Zr'ilioz laieir each other woll and livod near each other,

0-O;1i.-J 3ioro contracted at various tinoes ;en rcitlics3 oet at cath~r-Ins or if

fordlico sa tli:iru cild -o t,-l1:i:, or dcn -cl2-. at social cath-rin gs. The coiuleo

could be fourtoon to t::o:ty yeoarz old,

The ccconi mfsy marriages wore contrac-t'- -: sao by tlhe boy or ran initiatin

gift oxchangeo ijih the cl l's ::.y. .;L n, oti:c he asked the r -'1 firt and

she c3on'altcd ,ith hor r::-'-ly. This enabled :-':au non oith Ira-y oni their

ofail io asor as o- 7*lhm to y, Often the gift wmas not returned to the boys

The third Tay cmn.:ic-tod of the couple th!,rolvs e itiA.'l-ti *W the rr;-iago,

chooZigs cecith oothr and i tit occas ic lly o-e c::.inSc

A-gr.r:.^ __tl'h this sas rci*o. ULu-'-:L tho p)C."-:nte Cy'l1d do vary little to

sto or zanul thoo varriamgo' if ,.: i 7 did not a ~;--ove of Lh choice.

Fi-rst ::='r.a;C-o: wor contracted by azrr of theso Se.. C ubsO :.ont tc:'rriasO3

m7oro cnc- act'l by theo t:-id u- 4i" nly-,
\A Famdq Arrcm^e IcnrrnatcjC dar.yi iin .y.a rr( i ri aS .\
.2ieon a girl '-.s bo-n co:Ooe:. vould asy- -:1"i., thoy '::-uld ,.i.rry this jfirl

to -thci.clildrn, ~i hohn sho 'r;w up. Th fanilyC ciho~ the cirl end the fanmiy tha

iranted their chlddrn to r=~~7'r into. Par-onti ofr-n 'ran '! the xnIrriao before

theo children cr:r up, ~ 'iap whcn theo SirI. Cs ecvn to ten. The _-irl and boy

-'.r up Tith .a'o ro octiv. frlic, Teo parents would bring the couple too

C't h~-r i:ho n they woro old cnouh1i '.I-to (g'-'l.;' 1i.:?u. ?'C. I--din ovor in

r:r^riazl ), [Th! ,3-nti tr.x'l.' iti, thom to be man m.-1 wife. ITon if they did not

like each other at ii.t, th'xy would ac.cqL. :::.'.l and live 't-.o'. Tyli

'n2/':' "~I*0c :1 i-th rrhI z:D Mand i':.n a. in co4 'ion.

ini cit..:' rio frl chooi ;-:c c-ildr frl i'i, wa ct'10t they- coma from a

good rilyr. G. Y. said: "I you liike the I.?rlb 1.h3, [ood rzople, that's

tho one i.he nt TiChir kids to '--i'r-y. Hot-, th: one who are aoon and argue and

have trouble The family also looked .:'or a man who was a good )rntor or a wOuman

tAio was a Co3d 4athizror and cook and not l Far-. Families w-ho arranged their

chilcr- n r-'-CIs3 awre ofton rni fbrs, alh;-;ui not relatives. If they did

not li3T close o:;cthlr, -thliy ofton c'cnccr d tho nearai.cs at blg ga thr:incz and

social contnv.

rThe mariajo tns arranged and delded uyon ith theo giving of gifts. The ir-t

gift (:Tr C:?a?) 'as givon by *i buy fa' Thec--, or .cnt-o tio U1irls

a2crn'u T5ho boy's 1 sidz In cully -r.1y door neat ( i:: 7-i. ) ifthogh Ic-::tir:.

rabbit ( T-u) and fish (Ctbi?) woro given ao food 'its, or b-o.!:oin


(n..:,rL-~a) ,.rz also evonm. The 'rls ,-'.Tiiy did not have to return the gift
ri-t ar.-.. The .:'.: 'tror u'cur-l 7 ;c,,.n in tho fall whon food jI ,i!ntiiful.

The crift that the :irl'o I fely gavo to hL: boy'r- parcnt (fLr'laraila?) :Iz pine

nx-xs (i:: .M) d :I. or noctl1:. c *-cd, all of which h troe uncoo?:cd, or acorn

biscuit, (.r::*-'.;..)L. T 1 wordss fo- these gifts neans the caeo tlhz as bind-

ing caathtuing -o- ..;thr. Th:e the fr.-;A? '.icz ro cunsid-. od bound to each other,

as rT ll as ih cou!pl to each oLthr,

If the r~--i. ...- n. .15 a lon tiX before the co-,pol aos ra2 s to live

to-t['.h1', the f.: ;llic l vuld, givo each o th.r gift back and forth for noro thma

foum" to five --C ;'Z. 7n!. i .:.F' r ;;lv each other ca:thin ce or "trico a yea,

uporhas in t.1n f.ill rs z>ri'.

The girl's failyv almray socrod to hav e the aor;c.iv o. f c.'c Ai.g or re-

joc.ting the 'if- at any i'c. If the -ir's* fiXs ly aiec.p-e d tile cift, the girl

truld hrve to go -into the r..-~..l;a. m:n if she did not li:o the ita-, .iAon or

the boy, she could return to hoeyr f~_2y. (Theo cxa for the boy). I1 the fu.ily

did not irOnt tho boy in the first pI".-, the gift = not acc;e~td, I2 she or the

f rily chmk7zl : 3 -'.r mitnds aft!:r the ift ir3a accepted, theo Clft wmE r:'~3ly ro-

turned sircco it could be fco-l ond nost likely .1lrc1;...- counted, ITi Z -.r'V Uhe no=.t

t-IC the gift Ins of2cred to tho, :-y o.tild not accept it or it- rould bo rot-amrcd

If the boy or -ir7 did not hr.::-v -'..S, oithor thyr did not giv-o a gift

or the closo relative cCa-o it. Sanetites the clodoo rclativos fo the C~l return

od tho riif's but they did not have to do thiCz, ior did th give gift all tho

tile over theo _:;r

The bet ,rothasI -uz-:1ll2r ;-Ld a yocr if the arc......'... had been m.ado at

bi tUinm ga'th'_ir- in the fall e. g, Pino NTut Dance or fCabit Duanc, then the

couple bcgen to live o ?t1 -- follorinTh the rathcrin, in the succcd'lin yc.-'


hEo irl ms hm;ht rei -' for :1~.'-',io a cou~tle of years after her

danco (tCi?'l?) about ::T to41 ,ms MI or 1, '..lin the bo-; bc3C.iCO a ;roui;, nan

(d l.)," -b-.t 18 or soho .conzidaeo d :ha-.7 for r'.'i-.... e. It was considor-

od better to tr--:'-7 y. n'; than old.. .E cioul-o could havo :lo:'. chil-c''on, r:o--e

fr.4ly,. And ithe cIThidron wou Ld ":pou up ([uiLc-_ley aond be ble to tIoIlp the parents.

Thic; y would do :ork for (he pi'ciutz.

If the z:'r.n: Trr:nd tiho ?ci'ao the boy an'd Cil s would not havo oth]-r

xby :icnlc o:' -~r.rl frricniz t Iif -icir s:idLe nado a failso ovo C, g,-tall: to

soconoo also" or have othor boyfri*endo or girl fri.c:-!o, t1rim would be conciderod

a el-1 reason ,:*- broeddini te ..-.-."-.. amid -. i:. .. -.. c.ide d-1:..

The ,5.rl or 1)bo:" could !-.'-t o'.r, of an .-'-.:.'2 r'r:.'e by s:-inh ':.." did

not like -tho other potrson~, d -'.!:: t : world not .have to 13my thon. HI '-

evor, uizivlly t"-hy- stayed tor-.th~c_ for a while and h;l if *h: did not lile

each othor, either could Ic--V. .'- p'r:lt ,' ruld not say btin if the

children d:cidod not to G .t to;c. .h: 1 '', o h rl, for c::. hlo, would t: ll her

p'enit that she didn't like hio n It-.-o, ho ,a7 not go.d or he was lazy. O'tcn

she could not lik:o his f. n-ly. r ..l. coho irwould hoar ,hil :. '.I. t1.L!::;i about

hr and oho would not l:ko fi w, If ith.iTns would not :-aI: out, cS.:.-" they

only t.-, t.othe-..': ,.c. two cr three -:: :. (G.,. c:.id -:.' older people

tell: :about *.u; narriod. 7f:.7-t y they arc lazy and thinrIs liZe this. This

ca-^d t4h :,JII couple nUaoh J.:-'ri.)

2. (a). oy as th ..

Young n.iloe 1l-.jn_ to kImo coach other early in their lives. ?:..-.:- often mot

ot'':er.s i did not live cl .i by at doncoo and foaots. If -'' lived far a -

they would get .amintl;o byr looking at each o&Ii h' first and then h-- W''t:-

ipgto each other often on the second or scone cub:oqumnt r:cotini. Often a man

would come back to visit a girl he eot at a dance. This was a way that Uasho

from Reno could got together rirth a r.rson fro2- Topaz and marry. Perhaps the

boy wouldd visit once or tilco a month for two or three months. 'Tin they could

r;C acqur.nted and so if they really liked each other. Often if he lived far

aSy fro:1. the girl, ho would then bring her home to his fErnily. They walld

accept her even if they had not been told about her.

At gatherings and dances they showed that they liked each other by holding

hands (uuao9,2 ). They did not ask each other to dance.

The boy broujhr S-,t.3'Ihin, u n-lly so- :.t~in- heie I irlf I1lled like a deer

or rabbit to the girl's parents. If they accepted and used the gift (G'ri.-g?)

then they vmntod hti to have their daughter. Hoe as considered trcoloe.tf the

boy was not wanted (gaalmesaoai) tIhe gift was not asccpt:-,d The couple could

begin living together anytino a-f;tr the gift o:chan3Z:. This tyo of i.nrria:;o

ims contracted Trith pos-t-iubesccnt irl-s only.

2(b) Boys asktlihe girl (post:--.-ubocont j Sometimes to boy ascnl'h girl to

,arry r him instead of a!-in:- her parents. IHo;over, if her parcnts did not want

him tihey Could tell the girl to say no. The bY would hunt d.:-r or rabbit and

present the gift (~ ) to the girl's parents. If the girl didn't mant him

theo f,.-r-ly iould not eat theo moat, or would 3ive it to someone elseo or iwuld

toll him t kotake it bac.!: If the boy monted by the p'rontc, thioe points accepted

the food. Then the girl's -ar nt. often gave the gift (Grw.L-L~atila?) of pine

nuts b2!:ots, beaded Uolt to -the boy's ifc'ily This toms given aftor the couple

w7as living togothor.


3. C:,uGlos mnot and married on t! i-1 o rm.

As cta'd l'~3cr yaJmg pol03 nro:t at -ith-rin :;S or th-ou-?h rclativ.c. from

tho other side (a. 'in-1 relatives),.

At ai .hcrin'.u and dances th*ir shomwd that they l-l:-ed coach other by holding

Inndts (pr-lcp'?t.-i). They did not ack each other to dance. The dance ~emro

circle d:;ice rinl"- amv they rwoud go crouiL T.he i~ 'n -1: got into the circle

and hold hands with the one t.1;y wanted to n,-t or li:ed. Usaloly woaen

ct -rtal the circle and the r~n i.-jld break in. If the Gi- did not like the

boy nmrt to her cid Choe would get out of `-h-. circle and find w.ath.1 plrnC.

If ithe couple liked each other they wotld danco all ni'ht net to each othor.

Soome ur'.-_ leavo theI C-rm and go away toG~th3r (MguTfiil t'..r:1.c go s0oo-

plac; and have intercourse)someatimes returninT the n:et day).

If the come!O dccldc.:1T to mar1gr "rdr live o--`h1r they could j:'.:, leave

ogcth'er'. SC':ti.a they told othere. -.timzs thoroe .t a co.-rt~l~i.p pI.'od

and thoy ouald moot at -, c.oqu.nt dincae and C.'.tier-'nc. This ,ins so *1-:'

could tal: arnd at ac:juint:l trith each other.

In noro recent tinos coucles muld moot vat crat-', c.ad dances and

right oevn have intorcourse .bRtus.::Z ~1C; thic-:. would go tor;'.h--o' or gO Csa 1"

(2. :t:.ic.-; u?, .2 ) before living tol-:;ier. T7nh:' would go tbeth:' rabout half

a yoar. Tho boy oft.i'n rCia the girl money if and whtn he had it. ie usm-11--

gave her about 10 to $15.00. G. i. si-d her !hu.-.. (bcf ithe.y married) Cgvi

her about 21,.00 whcn hoe is paid on the ooehond and had :..::. to m'e., He

told I'c. to biy c.hoo ]-'Jl:circoiefor dress .i.-'..al. She ofton used the moncy

to c- t :c at cards. She ncvcr asked hin for it, G. said a c r'- n iht havo

sovoral byj~c.'ion'-3, but she r:x.ld li:Ac th hc)mno o r':* her monoy,.:;-! 1 'c ~inac

the one sho -ould marzy.


The nan would ask the girtl to iarry hbiu or live writh him. 11i saidb'a130o:l

hosholi?'", zill you r.=ar-r ai? 'Thl ,rl wuild think it over. If sho c-s:ntrbol

right a..,-, they could b:L-in to live ;toot"'cr in a wook or lc;.;3. Sontims he

had to :ait. a chle for her a.:-. In -Lth-r l:11'. of nt-,i.n the cor..uple Us-

ually ot o. cth.r and azrtitainjl a cair'tslhip boacuae i:'ic7 liT-,d each o-ther

( 3z3 ii
L-P.mcidmnca \

The -'end:n ,w mv for initial natrolosal 0oz-.Ilic' c '. all- in fir-t

r-rria-cS, but patrolocal residonco was ort?n the case. The dcci.ion ias con-

tinvcnt -.vorn the couplet's a the av,.illability anJ coi '""'"; of 1:-- fr-niy

group and4-ailablo fo'd s "-pl7. The wo3an 9ucu.7 rmifom_-c- to live -.,it her

fatdily ainco her in-lao w~ero -o'oin to ciiti.cis o her and n~ae her work harder

than her own rcfily w;ald, Ior ri'. --:. -uld helpp 1hrr moro; her another wo;ld

cool for her manad aid in child car

Sar.-tir:os the couple shifted residence a tct-: a year or tt,). If the

a'n'Zts died, the couple would shlft rcs'donsr: or nova out on theoi o n.

Today there is a Ltndonc4 for oopa-rabo houacholds, but they are u-~s2-:r

located i'firly closj- to one set of pa=-clnt- or rul.ativea.

Other I:--,-.,o Forzmo

In c.1i:Lijon to the T-z. "r o a.'- ..%:its and c v;- :.i ;,irvai abovc,

r.' ri-c.';o by liconseo an. in the chur ~chl a"t boein practiced to some extent

by the Uaslho today. The n-ir=br of legal 3rir.o is small (of. App ::ri::

-Thz._ c lcrillo I.Trl..-1:3). Thoreo eoon to have boon several : r'~-' of legal


ITh3 first cO-Tort .:n nade in the t7onti -. G. U says that an Indian

.oliceor." at the tir:3, ,wa3 "-i-21 to t rDA o i: ri:?'r:'. by

liconco. He was very mop)ul',r (a'ln:1lor run o--cr and killed), G. U. r:crm-


bore when this policc:'c.n took her rnd her husband after they had alreoa.ry boon

Iiv-inT togothor, ti :..- i Cnty- Co-rthou .. in : in5 no t a na rio lic.anc.

The p1oliccran then loft when he saw *'hoy ero obt..iinin th l n icn--i. -:er,

G, 1 and hcr husband nozr.-!r took it *'io tho jud'c d they rnii may and .8-lr con-

tinued to live .ogether.

The cz-ond stago :.c in the t-irticc and ''t:.c', ic'n the r.ouler then-

solves ap-lied ad ndmnted to obt.-n the license. F. G. :ns Theo irt legal

.,;3i3 Trl.r:ro in 7iulaz County and the ooc~crrc:c' ImS n iatlC in the local

inic..n'.-.'e? and by the 1.'Lito co-mnity.

After the initial csr-:c at thic.i time 'ihor i.o re r:lativoly fcr: in the

late -o,'ticcs and f"tic~s. 'nc. \Ar r'-i,-ht have been a .-actor. At this ti.i

' Hovada State lars wero chlecd mon.1 ommon law ar...^ge woro delalrc'd tllogal

and con_-idOrcd as filicitso-hbitatio:i. No 'cho Scoo to have boon per-

secuted anrd in fact, conti-l cd1 to say that they had cammion law or custm

In teo past five year there co.i~ to be a resuronce of lo-A. :,-nl iaos

'1onz ynI:om noo:lo 0 r. -,'~ i for the firjt ti-L j, i 1Thi r'n-i,.'iaco' have boon ini-

at.2d on their oim.

!.lotihor '.o.or'. n for -arriy.ng by the law has beon presented to the hUasho

and that is the incrozacd bonefiL.3 derived frorim legal rn'via.esQO oespozcl ~

in obtaini- n o ci-2- cciuriTfr Pol~el have boon r:aZle aiare of social sc-.uirity

and inhritance benefits by B.I.A. officials and social '-:--'c. This has

cazcd c:tirlos iio have alr:.-yb been livin~ together for ton or t-:=nty yoors or

more to file a license. B. J. said that many -. ant to other counties and often

did not tell m~n-aun about it, ?Th att it-'doc o. those people i etld be *interazt-

ii:n to obtain in future work.


In 1955 a ndu stato laiir as .L: .1 in -:iich Indian (only) could havo

his r:n-'-fi-. recorded (and thereby conide-c'1, Icgnl and co:"'rAbl to all

other leo";l arricor;s in the stato) by siply filing a ,fom (cf: yM:di::

legal forms) and hl vin the tribal chairn an sini it and ta!:i:3 it to the

courthouse and lhaIvi.- it recorded. The couple hioed-not br.n, it in person-

ally and no :',o charged.
t-ri thick fSield worl the social worker from S'~u at "i '. .; '-

enoouirt-aini n.o 11 in Dosslclrvillo to h.-,- their .arriag. .-hor 2. Only one

couplo had gono thir. r ~i zwidth it. According to thi3 wrmoan, sho thought that a

1c" i* .i marriage mrould koo her ;-.'. L':'.. runnrin- out on her as; h had done in

the -.--., and also enable her to obtain rvon'.'ic.'' bonofits such as hts .ocial


In all 3..'1.'"-. a xiaeo., aon L lnc. that they are .'-.iL.-: thn the r;an,if

,.:t:'i,::n-" hap ens to :; ":.' can colloot his c oi: scuri-ty a-nd other

bnifit. C,:.:'.no: itth "'Cortificate of Indian ".'ib. '- '" .Lar .'g" fom is the

"lAc'::;::1.:'-.nt!. by the I'the; of .i-'t:nit:I fori (fc: L- lntiL:: .r:cl1 Lornu)

In sOao past casoo, children have nCt bc.n able to obt.-in property and rn7y

bocauso there was no record of loal -,.t.Sornit'-,. .ith the chn'o in funorary

procedures of the '-cho, '^ils and inri'ite. 2ar c :7: -*'n'.oe the nore

is'.a'i:-. homes wmr built in DrosslCrv lle, trwhn a prison O..'= the house was

other burin, di:-;s'cald or abandoned and I.1 personal :-.2X-t.: wiroe dC.-tloy' ,d

1ith ithe new houses and itams of :i.o cu altur.e vrih ,ndure and W are cL-'.i,.,

e.r.p, tc'lianv^, m' 6 ob l2'^, titlJ *eorT-, those itcoe areo not ld" > rcd,

although houses o re ofton .ovrod oaut of and a neli-ne and autorC old. A fo

*-'oso)!.tc have aron left trills. IvC, in th3-se circmumstrnoos, q- qulostion of


of a "lot .ri s pouso or child cones up.

In sim~, 'aiho marri"-.c cermoonico have gone thxuorh throo 1'-. :U1.'.: rlthin the

lifio.:3 of thi oldest iif.':.-k:. cl o r'.o o .'bor whn airr.- od mo arrange red

-:'.: npro-puboscont children iad rciprocal gift' --:o':r involvCd and n1li cso

Xro c: '... ."-*, bwnd tc', *th"'.;!:.r. Host :~.,n-.o today met thoir O.'.JCs on their o-.:1

and nb-_ 1..i'. l'..'-: -tL:;- r wit. h no c 7r e1: I- or f.-i.-,- co.,'.t:.. .1.1 -ucn

they ca. e.o of -'1.-ir ch'i.'r13n ,.n~:-:. by license and sono not, and somo of their

grandch:l :ron wod in a cih rch c-r-'.nY. 0,?., for o:.~'l 1c, r:z. ". n.'.ai tylo

one of her d --.:.-;'S :Ia-'l ed by law, the d.u-. :ht.-r' s son narriod ihdin style, and

the dl;afhiter's son's daughter nar-rid byr a church c.'c.r-* Tho curront atti-

tudes and tbho c;l~:n.; in .i-c att.itude.l r '.din ndian nad lo.-'. 'ma~rricaEos in the

last fifty w7'0, Tould nako a f.- 'n1 tni topic for :rA'io work.

Separation and Divorce

There seems to be two main causes of separation, (1) incompati-

bility and (2) infidelity. The first may be temporary or permanent

and is usually accompanied with arguments and quarrels and even

fights, but is considered a private, individual concern although

outsiders know about and recognize the separation. The second is

permanent, as a result of jealousy and atultry, and is accompanied

by vicious gossip, violent fights, and is made public and involves

a third party. Two other separations could be included: separation

by death, and legal separation.

- 37-


Permanent separation (guma?ya)

People separated if they did not like each other or if they

couldn't get along. The man would leave if he did not like the womnn

or was jealous of her. The woman left if the man became too rough

or if her man went with others. "If they just don't want to live

together, one just walks out and goes to where their parents are."

Reasons for incompatibility often were not stated. No great crisis

had to occur for a separation to take place.

Even in arranged marriages if the couple did not like each other,

they might leave within a short time. Other reasons for separating

were personality reasons. A man was mean and treated his wife

badly, or he would fail to support his wife and family, or he was

lazy. The wife might not have fulfilled her wifely duties, gg.,

cooking or may have grossly neglected her children. A few separa-

tions occurred because of barrenness and sexual incompatibility.

There seemed to be little shame or condemnation in separations

because of incompatibility. It was simply accepted that not all

people could get along with each other. Actually, the degree of

compatibility mattered. Many couples remained together without

liking each other; they had to believe that they could do better by

separating than remaining together. The tolerance of incompatibility

was strictly an individual concern.

The separation itself was informal and could occur at any time

or place. The actual departure might not have been contingent on

immediate incompatibility but signs of previous marital disharmony

were usually evident.

38 -

The Washo say that the man is the one who most frequently leaves

the union. However, from the almost two hundred marriage histories

collected (Field Notes: ;W. 7/22/65 and F.G. 7/z2/65) women separated

from the men almost as frequently. The party leaving could depart

without informing the other, or simply say "I'm leaving you", or

discuss the separation fully. If the man left, he usually did not

take anything with him except his personal effects, eg.) hunting

accoutrements, blanket or coat. He never took the children. A

woman then disposed of htis clothing, sometimes she threw them away

or tore and burned them. If the woman left, she took the children

usually, and their clothes and blankets, her own clothes andhb&ankets

and some of her baskets. She did not take all of her cooking para-

phernalia like food and baskets or dishes.

If they were living in the woman's home or with her parents and

she wanted to leave, she would go to a relative's home and if she did

not return in a week the man would leave her home and she could

return. If they were living at the man's place she would take the

children and her things and go back to her 'parents' home or to a

close relative's. A man would leave the woman's place and return

to his relatives or go elsewhere, or he could just leave his place

if that was where the couple was residing. Then the woman could re-

turn to her relatives. The man might or might not return to his


Sometimes the woman just left without her children. If she re-

turned the couple could discuss subsequent child care, otherwise the

man was left with the children and usually brought them to his

mother or sister. If the man left he rarely returned or showed

further concern about the children.

39 -

The term for permanent separation and divorce (guma?ye) means

to throw away something and is the same term used for funerals where

the dead person and his possessions are "thrown away". The spouse

was told never to think about the dead spouse after the proper

mourning period. The spouse could remarry from six months to two

years after the death. It is said that a woman usually

longer than men, but in many cases she did not. In some cases people

never re-married. Re-marriage depended upon-how the living person

felt about the deceased. The term for widower isdinlI~ja?esi or

dimn/a:a?u:li meaning no wife or wife is dead. A bachelor or a man

without a wife is called dir. a:a es, which is practically the

same (the same for a widow dibumni.'t -?esi or -es). Therefore,

if terminology can be transferred into behavior, either a divorce or

a death was considered permanent and all relations with the other

person were severed. (

Temporary separation.

uma?Vatjgay1a pretend divorce of 4amppl:gela?Va? get back


Usually the couple tried to get back together at least once,

especially if children were involved. C.E said, "When a man has

lots of children, he goes back if he has separated. He feels sorry

for the kids. Now girls run off and leave their babies with their

mothers. In early days people just couldn't run off. They had to

be near relatives to get food. If they ran away they would starve

and die."

Separation because a person just wanted to be single for awhile

or "cool off" an argument were probably rare in early days with the

40 -

need to be with a spouse or family group for support and survival.

A woman especially was tied to her relatives. She could not leave

alone. A man had more freedom, since he could fend for himself, but

generally he was dependent on relatives.

Today persons go on a "fling" after an argument or for a trial

separation. Women who do not nurse their babies can leave the

children with their mothers or some close relative. People leave

for Carson, Reno, and San Francisco often to stay with relatives.

They generally return after a month or two.

Some couples fall into a pattern of separating and then return-

ing to each other. c t-,-7 is a carry-over from the couple's

courtship practices. There are some men and women who are notorious

for this behavior; outsiders keep track of whether they are together

or not.

Legal Divorce

Today with the increase in the number of legal marriages, the

number of legal divorces remains negligible. All my informants said

that even if a couple were married legally, they would not seek legal

divorces. People separate in the manner described above. They re-

marry by custom marriages. Occasionally after each party has re-

married, one serves divorce papers on the other, and sometimes the

divorce is processed. The main reason for a legal divorce is

financial; the man dissolves his economic responsibilities which

might continue otherwise.

Mate Preferences

Mate preferences give ideas of how and why people get together

initially and the expected characteristics and behaviors of male-

female relations. In answer to the question on what a good spouse

is or what a man or woman looks for in a mate, all informants were

adament about the necessity of a woman being a good cook and the man

a good hunter and wood chopper, and both being active and not lazy.

This cooking-hunting complex seemed to be the continual answer as

to why people marry and choose each other.

However, many other factors are important when considering the

actual choices. Looks, sexual attractiveness, behavior, talents,

and situational factors enter in. There seem to be both cultural

preferences and individual preferences in these categories. This

section begins with the cooking-hunting complexes which is the

ideal cultural pattern in making selection. Aesthetics and behav-

ioral preferences are often the qualifying and determining charac-

teristics and these are discussed later.

Good Cook Complex

The first step in being a good cook (dedule:k'ilaaw) was to

know how and where to gather food. A woman's activeness in gather-

ing the food was important; she should not be lazy or her family

would starve. A woman's industriousness in gathering and preparing

different kinds of foods was a measure of her ability to cook.

G.W. said a woman should be "not lazy, pick berries and cook Indian

way, gather food, that's what a man likes. Man's parents say,"this

girl is not lazy. She picks berries and knows how to cook food".

Gathering and industriousness were vital to the concept of a good


The woman was the gatherer and was mainly concerned with seeds,

roots and berries. The standard foods were pine nuts and acorns,

but a variety of berries, roots, potatoes, garlic, onions, plus

other delicacies like sugars and dessert and beverage stuffs were

often available if a woman would get them.

If the woman could also prepare food well, word would get around

that she was a particularly good cook. According to F. G., the order

of importance of food preparation skills are as follows. She would

have to know how to make three kinds of breads: t'idi~ wada wa: lasi?

grease bread, degik'idi wa:lad open fire bread, and dewgiiye wa:las

roasted in dirt bread. She had to know how to roast rabbit (pelew)

and prepare deer meat (memde:wi) and fish (?at6bi?) plus other

game and fowl, and how to dry the first three and store them for

winter. She would have to know how to pick pine nuts (t'a:gim)

and acorns (r;lI~)andd how to make pine nut and acorn soup (dayasmi?)

and acorn biscuits (makqgdidit). She should know how to gather seeds

and make soup (ecT ... dah.,' and meec'um ocda). She should

know how to .gt whatever was in season, e.g., fruits and seeds.

Women today who are considered good cooks know how to prepare

Indian foods, mainly mk@gdid__ t and da 6)m as W\e as s American fooddi

Women who are good bakers and who can prepare sour beans are consid-

ered good cooks. For example, for the Bar-B-Que held on July 17,

1965, women's clubs were assigned to provide certain foods; the

older women from one club were asked to prepare the beans, the

middle-age women from another club the pastries, and the younger

women of a third club the salad. There is some tendency for "exotic"

and novelty dishes to be valued and this person considered a good


The reason why the good cook was valued by a man was because a

man wasn't trained or capable of cooking for himself and needed a

woman -Ordo it. The time and labor involved in preparing food was

considered woman's work. Men did not even cook on hunting and

camping trips, but brought along prepared foods if no women were

nlonj, often returning for additional prepared foods. C. F. told

a story of her grandfather preparing acorn biscuits after the rest

of the men went hunting. They laughed at him when he said someone

had brought them. C. F. said it was easier for a man to prepare

acorn than pine nuts. Men would roast meat on camping trips.

A few men cooked regularly, and it was considered all right, but

these were rare. One man today (G. S.) is considered desirable be-

cause he does the cooking and washing. Men today often cook break-

fast or help in the cooking if their wife is ill. The American

pattern of men cooking more frequently and especially of men barbe-

quing is becoming acceptable to the Washo men.

The good hunter-wood chopper complex

A woman looked for a good hunter (dat'a:Yugi?; damt'a?ta); the

man who brought meat. G. W. said "If Indians don't have meat, they

think they are starving." The good hunter was looked up to by the

men for his still as a marksman and for the number of his catch, and

by the women for the food they were able to have as a result. Big

game was more desirable judging from both taste preferences and the

Shunting knives associated (deer memdc:w~ and rabbit pelew, and

in aboriginal times antelop ?ayes). Small game such as porcupine

(seewit), chipmunk ([~ \i? ), ground hog ( ; le ), prairie

dog ( d74'e ), squirrel ( b sa- ), and fowl such as sage

hen ( ), wild ducks ( ), grouse (),

mountain quail ( ___ ) were also eaten, some considered more

desirable and delicious than others.

A man who was a good wood chopper was valued.- a man who was

strong and not lazy would chop wood often and in quantity. Wood

was needed to'cook and for heat, especially in winter and at child-

birth. A good man would chop wood for his in-laws if he lived with

them. G. W. said "Old people re-marry to help each other. Men can

still chop wood. Women weaker than men, so they need a wood chopper."

Since hunting is no longer the sole occupation, a good provider

and worker are desirable characteristics, The man who can "bring

home the bacon" is a commonieppression among the Washo today. A

good wood chopper is valued since wood-burning stoves are used.

Aesthetics: Physical standards of beauty

Women looked for good looking men and the homely ones stayed

behind. (This discussion is more from a woman's point of view

since the writer had more women informants.) Very few men were not

married and the few who were not were often blind or crippled or had

some visible physical disability. The older informants said,

"Indians are different they didn't think about looks". While most

Washo would not admit that in aboriginal times people were concerned

with physical appearance, it would come out in comments like "In

early days good looking men would get two three sisters" or that

someone had been good looking in their youth or before some disease

or accident befell them.

Younger informants said that people try to marry better looking

people especially if they have several boy friends and girl friends

to choose from. All main informants, being over 50, derided the

younger generation for marrying for looks but this seems to be a

derision for not considering other factors as well.

The main distinction seemed to be between people who were good

looking (dek mi:gi?aawi_?), pretty or beautiful (dekmigilat'u?),

and those who were ugly (dekm~i:gi?anawi?-es-) not even half good

looking, and (mala?o~os ugly). Average looking people were not

differentiated. Behavior and personality were connected with looks

and are di curC hdbelow.

Fat women were considered good looking by both men and women.

G. W. said, "They like fat girls. All Indian girls are fat all

over, big breasts, big butt, and big lego. The bigger girls feel

better than the skinnier ones"; and also "pretty girls are husky and

strong, not lazy and sick looking". F. G. said, "a woman can be

short, but has to be a good cook".

The preference seems to be for men who were not fat. Women

could not pick out good looking men inb-reskrW\e- because "they're

all fat around here". Women seemed to like taller men, but short.

Lean men were also attractive. Both F. G. and G. W. preferred tall

men but gave conflicting statements about couples in early days.

G. W.', "Don't think much about shorter ones a long time ago.

See a lot of big men and short women."

F. G.: "In the old times women picked on short men. Little,

fat men had big fat women."I

Younger people, and people in their youth were considered

better looking than older people. I did not obtain preferences of

certain facial features. Some other aspects of a good looking pers-

on besides height and weight are skin color and clothes. Before

white contact and mixture there was less preference in skin coloring

although there were gradations in color. Now the preference is for

light skin (dak' aiw). Dislike of darker skinned (dak au p) people

and Negroes (dak'ipes) seem pronounced.

One informant said her mother must have had a white father.

2:.n she was born, prior to 1890, and the grandparents saw how light

she was, they almost buried her alive. They were afraid people

would laugh and make fun of them. In subsequent years when there

was more white mixture, and an increasing number of lighter skinned

people, they felt better. Now people prefer lighter skin. One of

the best looking women had light skin and the ugliest woman has the

darkest skin.

"Used to say ITyni was the best looking. She used to dress
pretty and flashy. Wear starchy clothes, almost all white .
.::.h She's not friendly with people who are not good looking.
She had light skin and good clothes. She didn't like people
who were dark."

"Daisy is the ugliest one around this 40. All consider her
that. She had dark skin all her life, but she had marks on
her face when she was pregnant.* Then she got real dark.
All her sisters were light. She had a light mother. Always
say she's the black shop."

People were eftcn Zratd, as to looks, within their family. If

most %were light, the one or two darker ones were not considered as

nice looking. If all were dark, no comment was made in this respect.

'hmriu was a tendency not to like ugly people. They might be

mean, or have a disease, or have some bad power. People did not

waht t6 help or be around ugly people. F. G., in answer to a lead-

ing question, said, "Even the ugliest men can be best sex and pro-

vider. But women look for the gocd looking men. Ugly ones stay


*Believed that if the child is a girl, the mother has marks on her
face. Daisy had two girl children.

Behavior, Actions and Talents

The way a person talked and act"e often incrc~as his physical

attractiveness. F. G., for example, equated a no good looking pers-

on with a no good person. People believed that they could tell by

Icookir- at and talking with a ,r'ro:n if he were a goo person or not.

7omen were often deceived by men who talked and acted nicely at

certain times, especially at initial or early meeting, and turned

cut to be nlcty arn mean. A nice person would be considered nice

looking although t hcr-:lihnot be particularly good looking or hand-


It was thought that especially good looking men often spent more

time :with women and did not: hunt as much. Very good looking men were

roeeos and could easily seduce women. They had many women and

wives. Most women tried to stay away from especially good looking

men because they acted this way; they tried to find someone who was

neither ugly or mean-ei-ther.

Uhen parents choose spouses for their children they were con-

cerned with the family and how they acted. Kind people who did not

argue and were not mean were sought. Personality qualities and

detr&ments were often within families and some families were kinder

or meaner than others.

One informant said he chose his wife because he liked the way

she talked and acted. She did not drink and join pZ"'Is but assoc-

iated with people at gatherings. He chose her and liked her as a

mate because of her behavior (Cc-. marriage history D. J. 8/4/65).

The ability to dance and sing was considered desirable. G. W.

said she did not like her first husband wben she first met him, but

"When he begin to dance, I begin to like him. When he sing, he sing

good and I used to like to dance by him". On the other hand, she

did not like her second husband who acted tough and drank a lot.

(:C,',. .::ir.:.-ge History G. W. 8/17/65)

One very .important qualification in a spouse is willingness to

help and 'evidence of financial support. Act~of giving, and hunting

or ,'ging food by the man duringg courtship is evidence of a man's

w.illin;:c. : c-.0i incicates he would do so when t'-,y were living to-

gother. 1...0''. liked the f.ct that her husband gave her things and

helped her clean house (i., c arr.ia; history. M.0Oc, 8/3/65).

Another factor in choosing second and subsequent spouses is

their willingness to care for the children 'I.-. ich a woman already had.

C. r. sai. she knew her third husband would help her and 4tre- her

children well because her previous husband's father sent him and in
c C
fact he did care for her children. ( M -F. Marriage History --,e .



Women, when asked, said they liked the man to be a good sex

partner, but never gave this desire as a characteristic of a good

husband or a decisive factor on choosing a mate. Before a person

settled on their spouse, they often had several boy friends and

often had a chance to have ser:ual relations with each. Old women

would joke about their boy friends and their ab- at sexual

relations and their physiology (the preference i ing for men with

largc c.ntclit (riaukus).

Virginity for either man or woman was not rn:'ntionec- as desirable.

No word for it exists in Washo. A distinction is made of a girl who

was old enough for intercourse (gayogoguyi), first intercourse

(quc'lloc'ihay) and a girl who already had intercourse (tebi2ayla 1

The couple was expected to know how to have sexual relations before

they woreo carried.

Some people were considered nc::y (J~3 c -:o ~n ..--., or t' e:mIybi?).

Those people were desirable as s:ex partners but not as sp-,.ces

since there was a feeling that those people were promiscuous. Un-

married men were t-hou'ht to be senior than r::-.rricd men. Since the

recent increase in alcoholic consumption, people are t-.ouDht to be

sexier when drinjXinc~"

In sum, men ,referred women w.ho were good cooks and women pre-

ferred men ,o were 9ood hunters and wood oppers, but they were

also interested in how they talked and acted and if a person were

good looking. In ;r''.....':'-d r.ria,.es, the parents considered the

gc.cr cook-hunter complex, but the kind of family was important.

In individual choices, a greater number of things besides these

ideal patterns were considered. The person as a worker, helper, sex

partner; and drinking companion as well as their "size and shape" and

skin color were considered.: The minds of the older people the younger

generation seems to marry more for looks and romantic love. C. W.

said,"Younger people marry for looks they love each other and kiss.

In e.rly days, never kiss".


Since there were fow rul.c about preferential jp.ouascc among the

Washo thenmselve, it is not surprising that intr.:erriagjc with other

Indian tribes wa.; practiced and not conderr..2. T~l-ho mainly inter-

married with other tribes in the area, usually "Digger" or California

Indians (t'aniw) and Paiutes (ba?lew)in Nevada. Perhaps marriage to

t'aniw w%:as : oore comnzon .caur'- the 2'`cC..o. went to California for

their y;carly acorn crop. Washo met the b?1low either in PRno, or

A.ntclcpe.alloy, a;:: also at some Paiutoe dances. -o estimate of the

frequency of intermarriage in early times can be made. The number

of present intermarriages in Dressleville is given in the Appendix.

Usually it wao the luasho woman who took a non--;;-' "o tman for a

husband. i .i often was not disploased, and they did not try

to split up the couli::. Leon often tool: non--fasho wives, if they

iappLI .'t. to be in non--Washo territory. IHowever, before English

was :lpj:u:n by both groupp,, z language barrier cl:istcd and often the

woman rctu'rned to .crTialiho family as a result of this barrier.

Cp~riations in intermarra.lic'::.; ere common and r'-rily acceptable

since incompatibility wvouldi be obvious (lj:n c jc and cultural dif-


Tha children wore never cen..i r.:d fully U''bo. Their tribal

affiliation dependd:.' upon .itch 4 "r\o, they lived with, and which

language they spoke. The minimum blood to be considered Washo and

for c:ample ac a recipient of the Laaho Land's Claim vas defined

in the .::,.. ; Constitition of 1P34 as one quarter blood. According

to the Constitution, the man has to be sTashc to apply for WTiasho

r-ights, e.g., to obtain a house which is under tribal jurisdiction.

This would sCe:. to w'ork against a ,woman marrying a non-\Va-.1no. She

would tend to lose her tribal status whereas a man would not.

Intermarriage with whiites usually nects with resistance on both

sids. In early contact days, very few whites would marry Indians.

Today, as 1-:.I;o attend white schools, and especially as they attend

schools of higj.er education, they marry Kinto white. The preference

for lighter skin discussed above makes intermarriage with whites

desirable. On the other hand, marriage to a Negro is strongly


In a few cases where white men have married Indian girls, they

have socialized and are known by the Washo community, although in

the majority, the woman leaves the area completely and lives in the

white community. There are no white men living in L.or.nlerville,

but there is one white woman.married to a Washo. She lives in a

trailer adjacent to the boy's parent's house, and is well accepted

into the family, but other Washo in Dresslerville do not know or

interact with her, and do not even know her name. In this family

two of the daughters have married whites-and live in .ardnerville,

and one has i.arried as Eskiio. The other son has a Shoshoni wife

and lives in Dresslerville.

Although no concrete data can be presented, my proposition is

that there is a trend toward intermarriages either to other Indians

or to whites, running more strongly in certain families since

som.ie families have long histories of intermarriage.

Children, and "arriarc and Divorce

Lone of my informants mentioned qualities of being a good

parent as- something to loo}k for in a spouse. One of my problems

was to discover the place of children and parenthood and to see

if the presence of children validated a marriage. A few statements

can be made.

marriage unions are the social relationship in which children

are to be conceived and nurtured. Cffujlinj do not necessarily

validate a .narrialo but they often strengthen the bonds especially

:-ooI t-..' outrii d.Lc v rt:"., point, If. t ro arc child. : r-n. a

utl..-, th" .n th : couple t I; .:" to :,.._:. -in to; -th~'.:- lonjcor,- To

oth :.'o, the couple 'I0p are to be on tho b .in_: o:; r:.i-in-r; n

faZnily Th'l prolb-T2'i. l-ty of pcite,'ncy in increased.
+'.u:.1 in._o':rLnt wereo ark-rd io diocuO .L' .e-,1'villo n.-u.ingeo,

they often i-o..I dc! out o ..o ,:th 1-r- .-il-i a c ly
n-'ried, iHo"' vr, ..r c.i:.S- c7 coP. loo who had 1 n1 to;,o th r o,

long ti.. (over 1"r-15 ye.- r- tore PJ.o cl-'c.:d in :th-ir' cr.tccory.

The diotainction occurred in short mcloni or in bcUi:.-hI'lai n :::.'iagoo

Tho.- -nio:'v which lact ( only a .orm tiu (l1on tir," 4 yoers),

are o tcr. con'i-idorcd to bc m rarai. G .e nnT.! n:. the nm.'t s a,

true i pouo,: i' there wore& chil&. *-, and th couple livcdl `o ether

durin t he time. Chille-,o couilo who t-j-.ed. toiC tL'rJ -for

Sil. :.' p d "iodo of timn c2r o' t n i n :.! rcld ta p!E o';J :o'-

-i not t-' ::-"igo on C,, i. l'):.'ly, the i'c )'r ncy is to

conoidor n.. ':ly :1. -: d c .,l. .c with children "I or'c2r T:.rl dc' than

rT o V.',it conel'd. 2 '," t kr rne 4'li. .... o ";. .L U op a

union toc: thor, th r'o h -: c 'u:-- notion of the rouplc being;
rrnI.in l!y n 'i d i1f (,hiih'.' :i ro presnt, thln i- they 13.r., not.

Ilov;"v' r, >-;.1-,-. ,1 n ither v,'1 idat- nor ar o c:ritori on o:- l-'riacr;

'ho n ::t n u tion to bLe ac.k d is if children *' not opl-1 cy

*../\-V \a4e a r,:,ri.r-, e, ho' r t"hi o i -," conofider, d? Id ally c .1 '..* '

are lik? d *.nI -. 'li d, but in :- 1!:> c e : of 0 ivorc. cd cer.tion

ohow th-t.G chizren r oft.n lc4- ith various rl.'tJ.vS t hecn a

union di.-olv :. and no't o~"rc.d :for by th;: -.-nt., t-eu.t-1.

loyt ''.n i to be m niest in r A iti-' '.LL.p^r+O Unl as the mera

has :"n c p ci'ylly ..:-i,_~l-mt reltion--i._. with child of a preZvious

dwifo th tlc:lIc.T i to care 'or and :. ,port thr, chi J.n of

the current wife,. "ith ; womnu the: citu.tico in di: crent. The

t-:iO.-c:-.r is to treat all children :.r i: rcC-y '.rloc ol' the: f-thir,

the onl; dil'ferntir ; tro:tment being b; .d on theh child's individ-

ual pj-rrn lity and bhv.iour, This onl; 2"..-. ;i'o iJi' the 1.ou.n h r

1 : th child. I: t' ns p'.a.-cs or he~r pt ent2s h raised

them, then close ,; r elati.-n 'i v.'ith th. r..oth- doe:s not .-ru Ily

dcvw lop.

Children n -. Divorc:.

:h,.. a co...ec separated the c. :.3&df. iruv".!'-.11r vwent vr'ith the

..no0th r. It the wi e a.il nl le:i.t ;nd d did :'Lt take ti-;..- c" :li.c -n

;tith her, the children vIcrc' lt ic h, 't the i'.-r., ocur r- ,. I)

the v-oman rtl.r:'. d, the couple diucise"ed nubcucnt child c::re.

0th-I:-rv.ice occ- ii"n'2l-, the ~'. i.lilr. n were split up, thle mothr'r
"t'.i:1- the rlo a,: th, othcr the bo'-,.. It th '-se cao wLoar-

r! rr, I

G-., i. _::;. snod chill car r.r,: .:-.;emnt,- in re -re-nce to hor

con .' his .'-. y, I-; her r:on -:i :.'a ttid "om his .i" '.-e vii '

v-.ul&d h.rv' to r :..it- the (:,ilJ_,'.n. In G. ,s cz -, when G- he

walled out on h'-,' husband she "lo't the children with him -.t tho

place o '--j:.. rtiou. .~t it h:-r .-r zt, not hic-, who :'-ired

the children.

In the r;.l'.t ir.ld, it does not r2 n_ to nt tt r :'-i.-h side

raises the chI'.ldrcn unleCs oni,, side is 1ncilecotful B, J. c.id,

"Th...; r- ..r thrt the kcides n:v n nt::.on r:nt: in-s .'t:-r they (Tcor: up.

They never -'v.- h-:.rd feolin' I--tl'e moth-::r never sees them

until th.-.' grow up, the-y be shy of her." How-.vcr, wThen asking

or -Ga w e- A"( 4<5 IV;iA) o'iL044jJD/ _Y ^ Lo+z- G4Aeo.A kIt.t \bC LU t\\U1
GiU' Wj c!. Iau-e w k 1-iaCu A,.( (.IM Sfi^-!

about the child's vivw of the ituati., some eon to hl.v f'lt

nolclcted by th, parent. B. T.-, for o-,lcj felt umwat by

hio th' vh nr his mother die;d "ndl hi:s th r,:, rc.-iod

one. o; her scirtcor On :th other hand, :* info:.'n r ~ts G. W.

rnd C. 0 clt very v it:d and enjoyed b- :in r- .icd by their cr-nd-

mothers, The mot. -.t asems to be an individual fooling to,: "d the

cr '.:"t-i;ker.

Children n:nd licnarriag

Sr.r-n t:ith children coms to be hindered in re--, r.. LinZ

b"c.-ous', of the children., Conac.quently he us.aully brought the

chilAr 1- to his '-nily if th- ya, left on his -idT. The r- .ron

is economic. It beccomes dif :icult to c: : or-t to'o .: ::ili a,

especially iif ;'-: :.-'n*ily. r- id, d apart,
-:. nt:-.n d .abov the.? sovrte a lefurtC :i-.i inr

n-i;~t iin, co',.nic :.' ., or2t for the children, i. J. a.id hin

mot'h u died prior to 1900,

"Liy dad married my mother's iscter, I- he maorric.d come
body clos, off distunoo, in t. t case his other v;io wouldn't
care to have mn.pnround vhoro ti were at. on ;eoplo are that
xn uth l, -:OllOe -aire,
xwy in the \..' o tribe. h :y don't c ..: too :.uch i'f a mn h.-- a
child. "

So, often thi new viec as vell as t,- man did not .-.t children

fron a 1. vionun wife

"o:.r did not oeem to be 'hinder-.d in rc-,- .-; ing if : -.:- hrd
c'.lr'rcn, provido:d th! -re were :o; too man1y chilten. 0::ten, she

brought r.:o:1 or all th cPil. ren to her .;other. Thi increased

her mobility and the cace with which she could olbt-in ;olt r


Thc nw ;lb-d on lacr .ed t:-- ci. il r.: of hic wi. Lo'

prc viou; hIueb'-,nd as his ncph':..:. and : i.cco

He act d _ik- Va '-.thr Lfor t.' :, .i:liy in providing economic

support. IHe troc ..tedthcm liice his ovt child:cLn altlhov-h he

uFuz'Lrally lik,:d his oval
oidc.r0-d .::ia nc third rcr- ather, juct their noth;re hlusb'-.nd.

G. 2mvr o of one c:-c ire the c::l. !-ci actually con.::idord

the .-t -f? th r as t ci ..'- thL A ',or.v'n rci : .t' .'>,r her

Ihueb'.ncI r.nd sh. mrrCidd TI.xic: n i,. i dcid not h v. chil-- i., He

raised her c:'.-.?.den :rncl g:--v them hio na m. Th r: ilthor

never helped th -n or ,.. 1..o:: -d them 'ancl hei cL'il.l- n : i,. he

v.re not their rr.l fath r, -.`*, the o:- i v;a;.

Usually i: the no the r r, -mnarri r: m one alerc, the ..t. -".

docr not vi it Ini'o:. i" 1:.- i; d '-t pr-- -ntly 3i:' the
"".?."- no rui' hi, t of' : 'on' or needs r :.r:,n L] .for the chiti.-.i-,

ehe would t.-:k the roeal fOa.th!..-r hv- often cent the children to

a-ck r`:or it. (hIat the' abor-cin.1 p' tt.rn .ne is rc vt' iln)

Illogitmiatc children

Children born out o0:' dlock '.- r_: not concidorod illogit;.t.-'

junt "t --rl' o (di:ol-en), ETh. r. 3.:.r: no otigma o: illcgitin. cy

attach.cd t t th' child. The mother O:"tr:n blmow .ho the ::.t::er va

but rh- 'it r-h na.d -. did not t.11 even her pa-' .,t:a. or,--

timen, the v:-on-- expect t d i 'lr noin to -n ;:-.:..' her .id i: he did not

thi 0 wan o t- n "big t o.:" on the womarn'e aide. '.:o.ti en th

nr'zi claincd the chil ., but unlac, he vntcd to marry the womt-n,

nothinC cm' l.1. bo done. Thore dos : ..t oc"n to ha:v. boon any

forced or "shotgun" m .rriag"s.

'o-' U-.tincn the v.-on:n just lruch.d about the t th th''.t a child

had a secret :-.th'r (C n) or w(is ."- h rl-ss. The rel-

atives did not seem to condlr n thi e girl or thinr too much about

it after the situation occurred. They coniid-L-r-d the action com-

pleted and nothing could be don. in the present to reconcile the

The Washo did not believe in abortion. So -oti';- the rel-

ativ._-c tried to get the nr'n to cl im I.i:, child, but ifi he did

not c-.r, there v: : really nothin; they could do.

In one recent case a 15 .y.'"r old girl b csmo prgc n nt. The

boys parents told him not to n-.rr, her, but the boy wanted to, so

he did. This is particularly intcrc; .ting since the boy himself

was di- y-es, since th- m n would not marry his mother. ( Hohow-

ever, the --o- r.n's next husband r-:.i-ed the boy)
There does seem to be a diotinct.ion on the .jrmouit of child-

ren a v:.on-n can have out of v: lock. If she has one child only,

it will be loolcd upon as prh'-:irf unfortunate th-.t the man did

not ::t,;. If she l!-.he many chilc.rend, she will be considered as

a v.-onmn who could not keep a meS--they all just mn-.d, her pi-'': -.nt

and left' Th--,re were two such women repe.'tr-.bT- talked bout by

people in Drosslerville. They -.ch had four dir:,r;-cr children.

They made interesting topics of gossip since th'.y h-.0 been with

n--in- men, but no "n'.n would stay vith them. Iowvever, the situation

though still talked about vwas temporary, both women did marry, one

married tvice. One of the woman's mother's rei -.i d all the child-

ren herself.

The chil- .on ocemed to be fairly dintouch .d by the '.cyt that

they were f;cthcrlss; T'ost of these *:o.:n's children live in

Dresclorville at present and are well liked.

:?or the last fifty or sixty years the 7:.tho Indians h'.vr

been requir,'rC to have a first tand last name. There v-;.. never

a problem of giving the progenitor's name to the child before

this time. The follov.in; are the. conventions v.'hich IhO-c been

develop, d.

The VWasho never change the child's name when the parents

nmarries PanothCr :ri; eu.. The child,( always carries the '..t'Lr's

name if there is a :-.th:r. Iif theris no father the child is

given the another's maiden namrn. Then if the ':on .n marries

tl child still c'-rries his mot'-r's r.ir.i,.cn n-.v.

'rri-go e-dnd Pconomy

Thl: rigid division of labor by sex ound in most hunting

and c..th-ring societies holds for the Viasho. The man as "Luntcr

and the v:o.:.ii as GAth]:rer and cook exhausted the technological

and survival possibiliti:r~ The re.:l '..e.-o feeling was t -.t

one could not exist without the other-a man needed a woman

for her economic r:;ill; and visa versa. The r.r1-iagc r l-tion-

ship vrith one spouse or another, th re .ore existed for most

persons :"or the majority of their adult lives.

"M'arriage exists only when the economic and the sexual

arec united into one relation-hip and this combination occurrs

only in marri'..go" (;Tu-rdock, 1949:8). The cn!rhani, on the sex-

03 :-
ual ri:t O.' oblic .tor, in marriage has b c.n dl'icvi. A .'.'bov- ..

Th. .-t .-th of orit -.ion .or "j, ..-.:.. ', .ut -. 1.. ..ce to, th.. r

is not no rniv ir '. as r- :". ik-l ri,:It.'. ut .0 c' ocL .t;

2 !.r :ore is cont ingont on "'aund" ow -: :'s action _-:i .ic._,ation
-, ...., c < -
Ip t ;a. Three ".: tvho couple hfad to reido tcit: .7, Th empht.is

on this vspei; ct vtrlo neccr:-'o when cliL: .ind food nCr.son

chanW & 1; people mov G in sc '':ob of mild. cl r;i to :: A in-

orn -' d. 'o".*u-..lly, ThoereU .oo,, the I.T1. r A\co6l oso m.nd

:i '-.Y. rc.i0 nc- wern more, olo- 1,7 linked .t ln labor anid c'x

przivrligcn. Of courzo tn tho nho mind, c-nr..o-n r' icence of

non-rn l: '"l:-ven i iliod cexuLal unions no n.x and rnsi'l..:oo w:nrc

linil:'d,. Doi.: vt"r, re. idence ak as lin of priority n.' r 0C*..

V: 1 :. 1 .o r ..

-'. .)dle 0o o -',- u outing a .: .'i : J.inv'olv, a n:rn--i r .t.on.

To, v -, the cons.l..-r. .tl.on was not conooivod o: ar a i-' z.ur r- tion

or c,:,.. :zsation for ith woman rs I:-bor or the P n*,' -'....ort. The

fact W;; .t r- :. :iCr e, alt',ouh bil6o.:1, was pnre:ferentially

rt.'-T' ooal', 1"'- l ._ :'. .'tv d "*Lih -. 'r._.,"'s 1 ..bo::", c1nd in i.act, : lt-,d

thi: r. '. The conri;. r...t-i'- -n Wa -- d c to bini. \;u.:: famnilcos to-

gether which ..was a neediCd mctlhod of ..:t'~ lin.; tic nd building

":oando in a society which' lack c othcr moohani: r:.

ih Ci 't ::h -.n- e ouLd t i .. r.i',i tIther; they 1 l not

mprovi j nT. -r. t.i .:n nuo:. ,ny i AAd of i.Te:.-.i to ;;h ot r, Th,

c-'to ..1 y.d v :ri th ec:n.omic division o- 1' 1 --t n ni's

side g:voe a "nt:culin1" gi.'t productt of a nan's role.) and. the

oumen's sidio '.1ini-n" i. :"t (products of na omnn'r labor).

The. gifts w.re -..r. :.in-' ; ly of of.:v..L v I.n;,, vith a profi-:r -,..

for the man's gift as evidence of his support (and contingent on

the preference for meat).

The marri-L, forms of p&lggymy, the sororal. and levirate,

in addition to serial monogamy, were also based on economic

factors to some degree. The man with two wives had to be a

particularly good hunter, but he would receive the labors of

more than one wife, and the women could help each oth.r. The

society could not support a large number of these unions how-

evur4 because there was no great excess of women and because

the economy and ecology did not provide an excess and abundance

of food.

The levirate and soroato was preferred because the economic

support of the children w:.as assured and family bonds continued.
Although individual preference for second and subsequent mates

were certainly the norm, a man or vomnii who did not marry the

deceased brother or sister wanted to know if the new spouse would

continue support for themselves and their children. The fact:

that ideal mates were not connected. ith kin or official rela- 7

tions, but rather with their economic capabilities ( the good ;

hu4ter-good cook complexes) points to the importance of an in-

dividual's economic responsibilities.

The chn:_r: to non-consire-a+ovi or lack of gift exchange has

not made marriage less of an economic concern, but rather has

served to make the families less bound. The hypothesis advanced

here is that discontuning gift exchange has facilitated Scnal

mono,- i- which is in reality only increasing the alr d- mani-

fest patterns. The f-i.il-ies were not bound and a union could be

arrr:id rith no eschn Qcoi gi-'t.

Th.' main ch n i in the conamic asp .ct or marr'i ; ..ron

aboriginal tim ti i hat tt the.. use o-f money to pIL-rc'-: ."., food rnd

oth-r items I7 v modi. iod the divi :ion o.i' labor, in Aznrican

culture, th* man is looked upon ao tho provider of r:.n:'y by

working on a job with the ':,on:.n 'r:uj',-nting' the income by in ]ing

b-.l: ts or doing ontic ar]:. In case os vherc th. ma:-n works -nd

can provide for the 2-2,ily adequately, the -.on n is reliecvwd of

her econ iical duties--she do 3;ot hav, to th- r -ood nor

work at a job and is placed in the housewi-::e c ,i.city, Ri ilar

to American ;;ol n.

One thing that a money eco.Ln mi. ha. done is to enabl.. both

men and v o:-r 2 to i or1: nd not have to rely on the other :'or

on -~port Thio hl.as not 1 .1 to a decline in marri g and

c.epci ily not :first and second ni.rriages.

However, fv narn hliv. preferred not to rcr --n'ri; or post-

pone re-marriag:, aft r a death or separation of a previous
Swc, tand work. h.eyl tirns they rely on their :f7 i. relativec

ior cool:in,- and vwashing, ;".o tin r they stay in bunkhouses om

the ranch o.

There could also be a tcid.- :c to have mall Jnuim.b.r o.

.",.nilieo tu:-rn into v'h::.t has boon dcscrib:d in the liter-.,-x as

a n.tri-cent red fr.nily, Sinco the '..on n c: n earn a living, and

use relatives for child cLro, she can do -without a -.:n's eco-

nomic cuippor Th..-re are a i few cases in Dreoslerville where

the woman with children works and no man is continually present

in the houcshold. Ic:- v. : this :-t.c .p. to b; t'-imor ,ry ?hC

dmI to huh11 ndo dc-.thi or separation and the v.oon n will prob .bly

Fcl ?rco, oocicl sccmrzity, i:n dion payrmnts aloo effect

t.:n-o-"_ r.r rv i' ,-n. r.nte "onr n and ., il. 's '.iho need

cup port can :--;y :1 :':or W2lS'rc if: t- i- husbfb:.nd is not procont or

o-nmnot T.rk. In oc.ercs viherc the mrnI is present but out o- a

job, or here .r :cjuent sco-..: -ions occur, the Oituw.tion ha:'- to

be shielded "ror.- t1h.' -,: nc..r or the n 'n h'.- to be ohe..,..ed out o

the hou:-e by the *:,on n. This cu !s ii, -uptCional ..r'.3..i th :,soho

mr.ri:g sty.los. a vwoll c. from the legr:l on.e'. In sIcO c"-. ,'

f a cptfA'e be ccmae officiLa:lly married from V. loga-l st,;" a.oint
then their inmlrl: n(. nct incomes L'r :!n ponsiono ,,.n.d soci:-l security

oulld be cut. In other c-ace "noni-l- 0 : 1 opouIscse'" loco out on

social security b no:i.ts. The c',oiic that the 0; -'.o rnlke on

th i-' mrit.;l situation ic -tending to be whichcv r encononic-

Smrrit:.l s::,t-u-p vill provide, the gr'.a",tcr ccoonomic b ne, ite r. on

-o cpntrozgS ing r ccgncy/ The recent :i.:-1t incrc)aite in 1 :l

n.-'ringS ac in ordrt..r to abt- in Socil $-5curity ->ny thio.

III. Dincu': L.on

t" o ,.'5ci o ran hL- on b '-'.io'-"'

." li.'-~' on 'j :=r'";.r.*; hass b p 'i y bri'.cf. and almost liz-

ited to a 1i-. : 'tr: o .-i'o:a-l athronoloicA:. c.'-,cCrios of r arriago and tho

?.-..ril Th )I r'""s ".2 -"nr':r'-- c',ei :.'!o:l .;"'h iotl.h':' ." -Te.- ,:; of 'the ct'.:tl.are

and mor.1-- c'h-co I for the presence or absence of certain f: .tu--':j.

Steward (193'"; 2,1--6) char,':o-''izel ;.arr. s in the ar.Q-n as :.a'nL:a an

ecoonoMic .lla.1in:e :': o....id, *"-".2 i_ rn te an coi- c unit' thico -'. :-'r:od

ca-.r-'iv t of thQe -'.mii'.-uI- a bliolo;iorl. unit which co3::,r.it -insur':1 c'rtai"n e:

prtvl_;'2s, and a sc.iml unit uliiclih cv'nted '3i.'./ -' children and ;:Amich du-

nited kinship ."s1.-sz. (p.1).-' c'-'n71i.cd -that clid cares ia of acconday

rntiv;.ti.on Stoward scnms to have based the fact T-L'.- ::.1,vzi sex "n'iiile,'s

wore cnoo?;'.Ir on t"he '.:ter."n :,hiohon.i -rn'.otico of n'. i*e by a)&duction tand the

-: .. O a h ,ochlni r-'ntice of iint-r; -'-in n-. as 'ell as the ni:e:r of ":rivlc-;o.d

relationships" fnr. I in {Iir:o,. -m iros3 Gn t:ich h I included polynni'-ry'

L;-i.,o (193?:3'0-1:t) in hi- Ltri'.:. not'c on ..-.:ar..i..;: ::L s so,; -i,.! of the

1:u3cs" s of :'l' i-.*e r'l'-at ons. ": had c: '.r r:J. a 1coents of i et oxchage o a-

t uh'hi he mentions 'hat. :.i.arriL-: thilout then c::=llh -*: is 0lo0s ,o"::*. He notes

that tho lesvirate and sororate ore coar.'. :ct, l '.t n .t c: :.uls3ory And addition-

ally a case Thore oneo an had -'r rt-:-..3-'! ;T,.'.' S is *'e':.!- d..

2t.c.r- -t (091: hO )) in the -r.:it o.-or'l -'.-ot-: child h..:rl and re-

cir-roel .r- )r'nl',s. :71 notes that th' sororato a d 1 -.;Tr:.i'- tro '...,I.c:-. aCnl

that in the choice of rates -n;- uilo-l relative was i ts.-. H e lists pos-t- r-a-

ital -e*sit ne as : o lo.1

:-"ric (19''2) i'--5) ClSO ;.c":.: -,nm the fr-i of :.-rri:" 'o as i'n3f -m-T/ a:- p3ol'-rgny,

nil cco:- :':nt-s 1.-.:b the sorornte and leviirate W-Ioro practio.c!. T: bric' l notes

that ?i'-:'. ,*h' (:'-aiern-? l) ':as :'ir:F c :1- on rare occasions. This has nm dis-

curs. -l :1 .-.o. Price ; :t' he noet czr:.l'te lCri-il.on of n:. :'n -: 1.

and gift :..s::h:l, aince this fit' 'nto hi scci--: a &' :t the econ.t:7:. Ho 5,

that ,ift, ::t.n; :o at r-'.i-c "b :cah a delicate and social art in courtship

and ::,. ri.r r:ol. : ;-n (*.'.l ), dice'.: lion c,, ..rin,; marriazo 0(.rc: i.'S

and a'rzan;t:cn.3 in cluded tho m inc.ic he makes. Ho also notos i:'.tst.- in7 .:1'..r.

cai'l that ti:ro i: .c t'. 'ooo u.to': "o2 : lvin. t' t.wo 'V.no" :;;. by r id: at a Iu-

bert' c:rs::on,r dance (t:7'.? .'?) obr .ur:'l:.' ocibl dance (cochis.hi) and r:..oitti;.1

a c.-: '. 1.l.'i skin i .-r::t over the ri.:-1 :;ls of st.': o t:: .:. (K). ti ) Hon
os Ky\?e awbckc-
of r:- nn tir; t-: T p- i C'? vt'i:s iT:::ze .
As .i'n' cs :: .--' l.-: and divorce is con'.'n.', th'ora a:r. to bo only a

f-.-; ; :.n.i..., to th.is e. r'-, of arria_.-: Lorie nmenti'-ns that a v:orieon vfio did

not lilko hr husband t.bi'.2 hi' to leavo oF he :r.-L l-'evo. "-:n children s: z.-.l

', 1h the mother; the .:. :', raiht h:-:i1 his ?r:, :. ''. .::-.t notes that ci-

vorco -.*, r' irnc -'-rti:illtr and I rfi .lity r.i1*: tht for C'ri the.' 'i' :p.'..::. r

was :' .'n n t.n 1: husband s:j;- -.i :; di'.-': :c, l.

.. one in the lZi.':rat''ro .".-iwns the ... r-d m.a'r. form as -onio:y

and itS c.riol nature, ". tni cr't::.-La of -: nr:.". and miatos have ni- :' b;ii ._'v1-

aontedd ',"o the w -.z.a,. T;ll.ia.'n.. l *vwlu.:i ions rail c..:t'iions have b:en considered

here as has the r-_n-: of c,.oic-.s. 'llit.oiL-Ul saMo of o- ..'ro-'i c.ps ts

of n--rri..:-o as -.'11 as the overall patterns have boon <...z* ..i:c in thio ?e ro

The r.3canin: of -:' rr.;-..)n and divorce has in' boon studied b -L'.ore. :in eom-

nhasis on divorce .-ci c.-'3s b :.cr.: :.r.... -. to view an.d .: ort the ::. -i" :.,

p*,'.-0. O 0nce divorce procedursros provide as easy method of .--al;i a r..-itz-

and rc-:-c.: ri;'.n

''c.rr- char i.:--ics the U-estorn ai n-w ihn ,nzioi'i" as caiz.d-.'in'

ln`o.L' z: I'ormTit in dctornining Tr.-i- i. and -,Llyi, a1ni1ic tC ou:_-Ci *l. le

r.rl.ag, I ...0 :o -. ..' of -c rinc, t:.3 l.irc. ':"1 corzra.o *ro:. incosca-.o-
.. :" ...... 7 ]h ro.,o 2at .. .-

able, The n3 "'.th'--:n .-.'o-.. practiced poc'id-crosD cousin and real cousin 3rrxiagos.'

.."!. situation .' -h e .ho ao diiT .*mtr. .:.d-.-- (i-, ) n) 's that any blood

rolnt.i've : -1 teIoO. Lroe c.n:h:il t.; Elso by tnoans, of an mair'bt on clos-.

1kin ra.ric".-'

-:..- (i'."L)') Jfn-1 -~~- or-u for ;'tr.u-.'ul. .::.'r- cs in tho l:':nchip Il- trin-

olo'; "Th' 'r).r'o3 of c;- tor:4ln.1 Ur.'.-h soci. siv'.--nct-:.ir' T'i.ch eo z- rS'"c'tCd

in the -:i.:n1.l';rd t'n-in.loy' are bilocal rc..dAnco, non-soororal ';-rjI.' and

bilate1ral d-s:ont 'idth the r-nclear r, iJly constit:,t..iniW e'- l t k-- l;.in hi 'rot.

(p.363). : .-1 .s nphasio on non-soorrel polyc~r is th.t the toa. lo.:o.- o

the bifrcz.'oa collat.;:l'r typo is associated r'.t' this ;... .

r l'C 3 s ..'i0?; to use hn -:a 2n n.1r,''ita for: t" o *;:l iLn c!i:nZZ 2i the

1:inship t.ernm.ritloicirl. rzion. Ott, lrctothsiz mrao to chic!: iYr1" l0o0 of the

moioty, lovirate and ms':"o-e.t. ani th chift ..r.rxi no-:1-coro-'.,l l'r!r2,r;' to ono-

ga acote o tho c.1...-'.' in the 'h:i'-r s-:.m. Ho c.-'-.LdS, "At b -'t,
: ....' u in r .'. ,
the "dior. :.3rance of nln-,oora'-l J17y ap.a-.'z to be a lia. in rxlil-y

one-half of the ch. mn-., in the "*'- -i rr-in loic' sn. It helps c:,larI3n

thoe n': toria f- ui-zlo ranl ,li l an-1 icoc. It d.3e not c::olr.ln wIy1m t:"?

toumns in ego's goonr.11n are c-.np.n or dry -h n.- ..r'' for moith 1 et: :cr

arlt f.i-'os sister remain di:.Lnet'. (!.3'.h). [ as sna':bs;oo:l cbove in the

scotiononn :-inrhi,, the use of the terms for stcr-r.th.:.r andl ,'sEP- '.-:;!' are

the so: as fo- :lo"t.icr's asistor 1i_' ;"t : rr's, brother. Tr: src o tO~ .: for r::';h irs

sister .as used in s.c.J:i.n" to a co--rifo or in cases of the sororat s-Uas \zil,

._ -i .~A.i .-,; t to .' ". ';'.": '..,'T -'. .... h.lr '.: ijter -n'r '.'.I-- s sit-or d.t-nct.

A ;:t'.on on .c.-iI 'a.: n;'.. -; r1"' -1 ij i tb-n r Ctn on dhr. -cl.O 1]t

2no.t. u .i : w-*: n. *'.n chU!;1: vcea. 'W Tihnl "*.- i.re ;)-l.:c ?l J.:7 W 'r. n*:'t

S.'nshin 27 n;nLa;r, .'.1.1 X- i".**t.t know
in-la r a .. on .;:'*-.in-'-.Ar, ca n .- ". i"' mu..' m s '.... ; *t' .Or P1-' .... h.'-.l.0 ,')ous

-n;.P ''.rs fo: .Ilinr'; -in-1; : 'ro 2::V.:~n in dior-in: r'-3'.- in ?..--d

n-, --; l2. I w --.i able Vto cr'-.Q.:1n ;A co. .1-. :.l list .ro. Ail tinr--..-:tA

c. bi.. ai:l n o r o ,- ; ar!.-. ... ..li in '- ;.. .'. o.:: *.- t ilo d

u.ai a 0.'-c:'r a '*:cr2:tiva t: rr cl.I "n1" r, r-y L-'tc'ion- dch

t :ol o:1-:tioT ao pnscibflit-r:, 'i, U.' ho c'id ?n'-. :.U: ^wt, '.Ar U*^c-

S, tc *:G;:. : j'.'o 1'1-5j'- z l: a ';' *'.. '-n-.-;.t.Id hI' um-n ol-br and ..v:lY.'r C

u-'Ln;: rcbb .i'::1t (1.='u*m-1) or dint :^ (u.l..) ^) o diat- (OLi R'ro) or ::.ry.

( ), aor i.a. ('; o- dr (T i ).

*h *,3i.Dr n- ul'l h :-n ii tO SH )' r'' t*;- .-T.':Ln ti.n! caw>''rin^oJ

0.. b 1-i. -..s ^.uin '.o-:r ":nC 2'.YCt Tn th .e -: '.inlir- 1 L::Y.t &O 1.
rr V-I. .rn-z. 2.L .T.rl:, t n ; :--l'i 'r *y t i c :.1n3 t t r-::':rI '" n.2t.K orns

dl. in ':.c'- acoount ir .: 0.a 1-: cid ..i -r n tho .: 5..>?.O c. q--I..-- ,

t Y.'-lK'. havE 1*P : -212 r o *' !0 ?-ron a im.o: .- b -il .i: 1 n?. 1 -1*.'.

Aln.ho.1ii thes 0 E:o of' 7: b *:r'.- 3 w 'n2- bbrio-l:r a.dr.. :-cl -.:

:.. .. ..' 4.' : ', 4:*'i wor2k n. ':-- :'. -. n .-i -, 'In -. ...- 13-

i : L -: ", :,!e-.-:., A ). .:-ib ia *:-- -.',- l a c' 3 : 3 ', :.a nr -,: :.:r -,.-

havo o-- -, -1, -Y1 li)2... -or With crX'inLS havo ; :2 7 <22 1 Lt; V'S)* In sL -2.;' 1

S :*.. -:-w:. itc -* '1. .' :' 'r '' ci .rT o:,-l:t C.:n C: C f, :-, '. :'".u .-.'t '.on ai.oh ri'in.c:s

'. m. b" :.inz.. ::z.ni' <-8 iol.d occi. if a f *I' had boon r-.- -1 by the
,:.,1" :, _, 1. h";' t'"ll "' .-r "*- ..1".. '2 :)':"I ,r ,C "l

aD. 'inCe. OL' :'r cJ.Ll-;.-;.. for continued relations would be in the case of

a favorite s cu:z, (diath) or child or if a social Cfriernls r -t. .ozh.. p tod

been dev-l..-ed by the f,-. .'tis, or in the most recent aot of .L' .r..

It .:v;l.d 7r-.. '. t hat the dcsetiptive .l p..i.l irC1pnilo"'r ..- .:... :Ad cir-

ial _rriz. e.. P;.!o "t:n!* to r'-o:'r anr :'.'.~r-.:.br po.:.:e br the r.:i.lon (con-

r.-n -i .l) ;. b2lon' to. The dce.:e.'intiv i..'r iso 1?. n" th2-.:2 c.crS'ip-o

t.',v tcn, is us n -d for tho ublr n-''nt -s]:'r.. .
4 4 9

(1-'"c) -;-: ,- of
..- ve: and :ox'-.rT, :'.u''.o cllacs t, '.'t-.ho in At .ni.rnal .I:.:_ Zal ::ton-
ti.)n--vr:.!'", forbidcn or 'lca- .roid with all first couin, but e-'r'.-ted

with at least sxome second cousins*" (p.302). '.Ii-.s cons -s 1roio 'ron tho

data h-:c- on closo ':in : ...-l ly data nmi:- <-that t'o "ae o should be

K1!.c3d! in oat'l-r tho I~ :: -i: ral :.::v::t.on' or theo Z----_2. W.".-.ioal

1:.:ul-on: T~ or -.':.- cat :o- o- or ide or r.3 aop;ovsc of all '.'coli c'-.sin3

but allows for asoe -r:'..o relative to ::l-.ich '.nloo-lc. c.,nn:ctioCn can be

tr'acod, hor-oas the latter catior:.).; dbludcs ary relative f:;r t,.ra1 cnp.olo.ic.:l

connection can beo ..r-.cId,

"hno decision for :nirl,?''!:".r t") or "T::-:itta" Torld have to bc bed

on *r?;':=-: r:-:.

'tI.'':" .h sororaL and ncn--co: il .n :.Mlr y ia ::n..a "or tho .'"ho,0 it is

difficulty to cstiRaie ito fr:wo 'n'r.e, .'r !: (-t',-:) '. ,- ,c.s

:'i.at )n';:*.-n'- :-ctnt ::.' :; should be the d;.v.:.Ln' .ine; sooieties balowm
h i n.... ... ,"4 r ,
this a.'.,'; are .,n.-a:-,u:; rather .li.tn poly'r..' ". notbo that 61 sO-

c :i!..i in Ivhich th-3 culture co.'.n;-.:; theoo :.oL3, o ?. :1". :.to.. -I .. :.'. :c -nt-

A,..:; thoe ::'; olo "y :.-'-.Ln'-r oc r'odl. Ho'ovor there soeas to have

C' .n .T .:' 2 r w.lx uc -;wen'i'': r).' ." ... of c2'- ._'"::,". 11lin t O lo::;cch .ld

;t' ives had :.b- *-.ql o'a .u. ''i!:' !ras no soc .v.-jt:' of sx '3t:T..O.

Frx all reports, tlhe :Pivea shard tih: soaoe glis '.i0.l4 (-..:intor houoo), hot:-

over it wruld bo inV rcstinZ to oao if ties woroe 0oly tbh' case ia-' oistErs

j' if' non--rl,. 'o. --- c. had f'- : '-0d1 rr.s'.!-;'i- a s '.:-n11 is th, c.o 0 in other

sCloC -3" I'. a'*trolocal "--:t'.l ;htn.:-' -ra '.-:..2'l would ail in oro'al

:icn-i-an-! in s" -r':-.: the s ion hoiso. "- co c-"' n are, horovor, that al-h1Y!I

c.:' *v. i.:rs h.vo ...i i ... d U.,asho mIvt-a :3 as z : ,..-,-o:oa. tr of p ly,

and the Tult'-r'. 'i. ..: those r :.o :, those unions ero v'ry ra'eo and U 'at

Srora.l ?1. ons veC'o :. .....j- "n..f O"cur.j

"-' case 2b pol :- nh .1; adeo u. G0o 'riTro 1 oj)mSl tI y thio :r.s'i-'t.r

as .i .cd in '?:...: II. Th.-. .z... :.--ile h.v;n r'sid;:il::

c-:r:Abi-:..tion, and :21-.: ; involvY-Ln cc3iL: d.c 3-c-tr.l n.i:;.rn"-'.:;:- rc.'v-'lCd the

crtor' of the C. il.... and of ":i2'i o'-ilion.

Th't.sorial charaotor of" '.:ha ::"3. -i : has not boo n mntioV d iQ thIco lit-

c.'-'.l'c .-, '1' has :' tn ll t.'.-1 :'. D .: ."; r.r Ia-i. be .c -'2',1 :: J, ba-'

in cbnrin.-; tines and ,:'.":, as ~'n :"n T : .r-'r -.-. .. ,-:Y' n a rr .c ,:c .,si,.

*i a. eri 3 c .n:r las 1 b) cn d..2-u.,1 ,. ;n.or"" h .- 2a stes tr:o or .iUnco

T- O C. in a 1 i 4".j :1, ...'. ma : on3s 3 ::. Oly no : n .2 oJL !c: ah,.

on c. .'...t '.." ::,.3 o .-- :d It L-

.to o-:.'a.l nmmibor of s' .-r; -'C.u.-1 lao..r .4 ., a. one o to. T"'.. .r thoos

,:: -,o: 't. -:3) .iv to 5'1'c' 0s o 6 )t or .." o' the u: .b C' a.' -- : ... '

r A--' .'1 fiour or .riv.:, ?. ) :. ri::. n-- .n ". :- :; -:''' :'. : ..:' '"3ly re-

,rr.a ao :-:- fir on: v ;:' nl...:',d on r l '1-: n ol'.1 ago .7 Lou;1 .

".':i-i2 2riL;c':'t. V.*' JIn t'.:.n

n..a. -:' 'r it .nt J:-'t.T 7r: .L.i l1t'Th. t .:: "2- -"1-, O *i. '-- .-- .

co -:.uctG d ~- di-._.-: fro: I tho i..jl s at:'T In. n.: -. at 3.", low lv..s

roc at. 1 :rao on a st1. :- :t.1 L.c-n 0U 'o di:.u'I at *n .on. ..

:. t z: p )wild bo to i'.c- : !. at J. l, "v pr,:"ut..- 1, c.1i t n '9c 1.:3o '

: ore v-d.-l or need to w b r:'- 'inL, n:A -a'2 y cofin b o ldo L'; .:.. -

2o-.i i nci to v'i-.:r unions anod L--ldatioih^i -z 2.fi O n^r- some L--.a OLf

c1,r- 1. v- JiO.-- r1 v :.n i :n' of" cr .--r i o' oa -ch i:1 t .'... : "7, ..1. $' .1 .: -'n

out Y:Jt to i Q-- i- t < ?r.:z :rA fro: :r --n: .io-.':.. .'.o L r.o-.-c, 'r c.,:.C :,
I A-

\.. b1-;h': (1 *'* ': 3) J :.i.n^ >.' r)-n 3-- :-i1. I n w ipi com c ^^o**-r

cr.e I in n; of chltl-': n; :11 -.:'.l.n" rc~ roK!.- 's ::tt'h 1.' : cr"

s' l .y ': c-C =-3 o0 a. -..it c.c. :- : .

are !-1:Ujr to a-9.Zl d&'2 tt *', 7Lr b.1.. 1- 1- 0.:7 on .1 nc.iu- c.,

r-. 'un v t '-_ n :; b ir:-'i : v..-: .n o r li ttl. i^in .1-.u. al. cOa, -'.Lto:U of n '.i -.c.

C -.. are o:3n; f .c t which Iave 'c::civ?!l *.-.'. empolaois b-- -'., 3 cul-

ti:ro. 'o-' .::a.'-'lc the roela-- iv r n t;:''-nco '> each c-ril: ri.on-.-th i'":h. p c-

of comon r-lzirnace and ccc!.'.:-.' :'1 ',:ilc"- e 2s an.'. faih.uln : -, and the lo-.

o)lst2lion of cli&d canraand :;:n-o:t..

:ntliomnsm of ;>.'r.-..

Za1.-'i)." in "'".:;o society served nainl-.. for the ,-.::t nt-on iand co;n:' ion

of 2 -,i' ground., the control and re-.Lla'tion of cox and 2,rO-c- blu-ion, an- for

economic cir ,poi-a

.' Cm,0 r'&i."- la,!:'9.: nuch ~,aliiael or7'-aniz'aio. eaal cldust r on f :'~Z'on3

and hIa a;oilld at any one tinm c-ponti nt unon r..3on-l '.i .t -ions, made olab-

orate ord-:.n.i..' .ion: difficult. ::c:.rt evidence tdou tho excis.teOne of mwak no.

ic-Lt'os wil-ch o':.-o3 each other at .'.c d.rin. amuf14 :a'al : T:' .2..., the

o:..-- morhanhism P.-r .un; .g:. those o.-zhMl.! was br ..;li the .' -it'l bo:d. 1 ,

fact that an individual nnrri'' r::z-r- tir.os made rel6-ions with fines tEnous

Howovoe, naarr:.a 3 ties did oetend r''laionh'p, even ithnu-tl they .Cre '- .il


oc: that t'h rric.'ir.a'm c.:c- po::;iblo the oeczjlizhLn; of .ic.ndl-

ly rcl.2-ions bot~oon r u'.is an' I'.c- to bl.i.nu.l -h;.r. i r o hor in lar;-. political

uitis itth- a result nt conp 1etilivc aIdvin. 7.- over other societies Ahich havo

not d&velopod in,-Trri .iubr intr-'Lr'oJ bonds of !i :.; vt-pc (9. 299)* '.-he-

fore the czrlot c. .::.-a- :ri.th c .:n,.i c .. w, as !3no..':;n- in tho absence of oth-

er i.-c' ""' 717 for unitn- t "C's.

IHo.vor, the casual attiud.:l3 toward 3 ).ni- 2 .: aLtLon: ia -ct'i2.cr oinco

the c .c t:r i,, lo sj-ly stmrctured and kin an-1 affinal re 1aion-Ta2. the .-prin-

c~n 7.- Co.,ilho-h ofd "O_' ,.
cinO :n -.nho1of cosniocti'.on of .'ups. :"-riiL ,.'.:'..";.:7U c .."--:, and ovon

inter' '..'-:a'sroware acc ?neo l.

A caso for common residence and oxual privil .--: in .-arria. o as a pri-

mary concept of r-rri-. ::' .?!n the 'c.l;o has :n ,i:-..,oded above. In a society

in hich ;n.'itel liccn:e i co:i.on .d-- .1thih .io.'.ic,-.:ity is frowned u non--

but .;~'Jl'.-Ly is r:hibtId, cl-1- the :ar-'i'-..- union can intervene. Soe is

regulated by and x ri thin narriae. "The marital rela i.an.iL-) is a :;c.jo fo-

cus of regulation, within t? is :.l:'-ion-.hi-, o ial intercourse is rnorn-:.?l2l

not merely :.n-i.io.ssivo, but obl '.:U-ory" (i'ur.1c?!:, I ri: 26$).

he 7ioi that is 11lo-.6 :?orQ -rri:'.L is in line with the r-:-.l on

on a raar-it-l b'.sis. 'ih:i --: 'rt-i.1n of fai' lt;sc *-'L-r botrotlhal and

narria~t union is evidenced by -:? resulting mocb-ani's- for the recloea of

a-.-t--o:;ion and hostility in at.!l+,7.

It is intorostL,:.. that\S"' onily r'lo'libiti- t of sex within r':;-iago is

durTinr their ro s.n' r: -" riodand d;.;ring -r.nOrra and irtial lactation.

T*:r-- is no restriction on -.o. ".i and wac;n n 0-abo si.ty still :.'; ia-in o-

n".-io: 1l r':lltions. One 6l aination for the l-'r:..t in tho pr-narital sit-

ua.tion aid the striotness aSf the nost marital situation are the number of '

'..'ivj.-~ed rcl ion :-',:: -, ~l.ions xith siblinrs-in-lair of the o-Coit3

sex, -Mwile r-ntici-'L at the sorora-bt and .'- -'..'a, al' oxtond e:-xra-radital

c?.?"-'2. Also, tho lice- -. ri.v..,I a nan i .ing- his wifo s ', _..'-ny oithor

Trith her sister or another woman pro-ides an outlet ". nh; the restricted tiros.

One problem for future research is to discover if p!-i'v.il: d relati'on.fls

iwer e:xtndod to other ._ii- z, I n one cace a man had an affair with his stop-

,::.~,C '! t ;ni- a ft'-nards roeturnod to her motlhor(hi- ~ri-.r'., but t-li situation

appears to be rare, J';:.l:: relationships wore not studied and should bo, osp-
coially to chCok L.'! relations ateaen rli:.h r1lf-.ts t --i-yncr sister and older

brother's a.-'l, since the j'. ior sorororat: and lvirato scon to have been nore

prevalent. Alno, since relations rosul-'.in-. in the levirate and ::.-',r.a do

still :ceur to 0oo:1 extent and ; 2 all inc idence of poly'rit'ru oxtentiont

nersistonse of j 'h'n-- rcl.ons T~.th certain relative" s and sifin-;, should be

t1die Cd.
I:; mrartri. union was the ci;t-', to provide for the reproduction, car7.,

ani .-. ,-ort of children. c'. Jv-r, children born out of wedlock we ro acce.t;'

and often the older ponole raised those children. Also tho common practice,

prsiLt,-!.r eren s.. --, ras for the r.-l:1ther on eit.ohr o4d to raise o13 or

all of the grandchildren. 'hL., i'-'d7i for the younger non and ttnen to be

more u.-in-il in obtii in the food su'r-nl'r or in c n n on a job. ',l:e a case

for child care nmd c -rodC.ct.on as as a L'.'ntion of r-'.r:.. : has been iv.n sec-

ondary motivation in this no-)-Cr the actual position of children in the society

has not bi-on cotA: it- lr 0ol :. de~z E. and requires further work.

The r:con.Oic fumotions supplied by tho :-.r:ir;.-'e union has been diccussed

above. 'fo narit.al union can only be ,ieued in the context or ':)-..r:tin;: the

diviooilo of labor by, sex, and by forL.inr I : basic survival unit.

ir-'i and .lo Individua

'ho t L.*it-'e -,::-nts r-.d provides the ir"-:.a3rl: of rol-tion-.'inZ, but

allowances for vari-~ion were ;;.' t in ,'asho o society. 'i'-r: scans to have been

nuch maijncr::nin marital .'n. rin t 'n-; :. ic were of a personal and ii !.vi':1c.


MTh choice of matos, to b,-.i : rwith, rlt n:..i ct-i.'Lnt oT)-. certain ruls,

alloUed for imlch choice. Th' levirate mad sororate irre al-rays 'yi2nl- and

depended on the individuals selecting this rate over another. v in arranrd

i-.:riJ.-c the indiviual could be released f:'r thie '.a".'v.ioi. 'h.:e. ras done

simply by inf-or ,n-; thi e '.ronts and ......j.cti... t.he gift, or by }i;in-, uniieO

drurin, the bothoth-1l -,.eiod. If the rnarriage w re corsu-imated, the couple

could z..'-.'rc shortly thereafter*

In non-arv':a.n;Id rnionz, the parties concerned selected each other, the tire of
discison of
c ts' `..'.ion, and the init1l residence, ho ,I,..*i:n of tho union and the seoara-

tion was also an i:ulii--du-1 concern, Some choose to contirne a relationship

they did not like, othe -rs to 'dissolve it, Some choose to ignore d-'Itar, others

to kill on this acc.,inT.

Sme parents woro extrioi'. concerned about thir cil''.-"n, 'othora wor
iiny.:.Lct. a l, Chiil:l oao at separation and .vo.co was apr'bl: to sone '"-..io,

oh'T-rn left the ch'iln2rn cor-ipletel and i':n-'-d a r "':'37 ili

irnce, within the overall fra)iwork, a certain 1saness and choice in atti-

tudls n-vrl'.l. Pcr:.o"' this wras loss evident in the ea:;:-':-.d.' scone,

Changes in Niarriage

Sinmo rit e contact, narria l forms have been Clo'- 2 ohanlgin. The reason
seoms to
for the nprsistonce of some of the aboriginal patteml s h -'.t b:;:n tho fact tliat

a .'<'o c.:-.:ru-'.Liy ";- '::- ts apart .: i, t co:.-.- ri'y

have c01-,-':'. t"hr,' -,o,;.:: the dominant ,i *.: r thavo .: i..o '0' "'. mIor'e

hce "-.,m "h':; s c.l~-.-:nci d here is that to-. greater the ".n- ul.- 's t ts contact

wi.th lt ite e: ".'r the gre," ter i change to following th a.ri.-. rules of

of the dominant -:,oup, without t any c'..:t-'t cvicdnce, it ea.. -: th".t the kind

of contact iS work experience and education. Persons of either soax wtfo have had

and teondd to hold a job ov-r a 1..:. n-)riod of tijne, so n to have had for:r

arrir.a:z and c.:-.:-rations. Person wio do not -work a d/ or have nuoh ability,

have tended to td-ae -' residences and :-:0-.;i at difforont ti m and lac- ". Uhis

is consistent from an economic r; lnd-t tinl. in that the s':yon w-ho 2n'.l'Z11 his labor
r a.?i .n. ci.a l I
role and bi.n ,..:- t. to a :' on, if] i'.lls one of the ..--in-irt.-'?1 c_'3i't.:';'.a of


vorce -irocodureo have beooj te nho have school w:ith

or Jil Idi Sndmh 00he01 for 1),0r:P. 1 edeatioon uu .' c Vth3 B3tatoe. t7

older "''1e who ainteded 3e't Tndlia2cm vm::1 'em not Imnef2!ucncod as 'iA1;r.

nth : Aods. -- an,- n church -dl-2 7 T,1 :.: to the -). 27

11 --- ham;v had a groeator cbnmrmz: of v.s-tfhr norn-'" cbo.. (InsequentlZyr, if the ra rri-

a,7o has been with a n -wi .1 101 ::aLn;, haveri xi'd ic.1-- mAada o:i idl-midhaA

cow)1o3a have done lilzwooe'-so, 5oi even 1w 2.JI: churCh V -J

X:Ltuth aM the r~w~ of peI'r::,- and the 1e-vi-*r, .tan d soror---te- to a 2oasor

extent are .c' the t'",dx-,-ic,'I to Corial ::ena7'::,-, an abor'i3ine2 :' .::'ri1 has

~'z= :Jito S ~:: n~ti~nfor, or~izCnce of Custo:: narriz: eo, iwnn'ai tho

dominant cociotvy -uc--n l mieJ t iwones cmn be Fireotp .':,- public

o "-! ; 171D tradional -I '- T'n -rot ''Jio o ;.Ltnrotv *ultavtonv

!Th'n x, the serial of :i a nahes ofenaJ. c1- wnitnaet s difficlt to r:72.Lt

out. Thirds x~r~r himunh -i' that iSmct of the ;ltiO ~ EY.LIh'..o of the Ste are

not 1-.--:Al~y mazrriod either, 2 lcmon lairr ar

sEnt 't(tlor worn, not ': T y;arS i1o dL both tc3s nand U'asho wai~ nions -1-10-s

Cho n?"'cmt:-p of co-zjon la'! aad 17-:z2 mrri-r'e: .2r t' e ite portiJ~atien

shoal-d bo ehoclmd.) Alrth, the white -'? ar~iwie~ v ~ t h

need for .J.: l un1-on, inahes allowances for tht To nryI o- he'L'c, no

Washo hz'c'e b : o.o utpd fior illicit co-'il;tat-i'on sin'xe Vhe lair can in- to

c~ccc~ ~ C cin u:tho ~ra on "'nriian "Ior K

Ja-nuar'-r 1;92, are re'r70atod. J o:, 11 .27 :v -'-2

and ivozrc'ceo ro~i-I j that k caston rvax. : -' b 1.c r rr ithin th,Ire :;ent l;rolt

AJyzeu C ." A2'':i (s3rctlan 11-59), Mi-titi..':Loi (27.3:11.63), :.iti

Crl1:boit:_1Lon tiS;n 71* ), :'roz ut~c io (cth&Lu)n 11 .(2), and FQ-.:'-.n.; Icnorsz2.f

Dirm~qi: to an4Njhcr (kJ:ion311.63, 11.630, 11.63 CA).. arc t p:o-~tocr,

tihzo sm nt1iis hre non.t.l ibl as ava Uon tho im :o.)ions on thioeo ocuCOnts

Ira t-OS or So vi-ty Of Peo;iai1 :ll.- o le',o: to Ib cztmom

has boon dl-Lvcussod ovo. At pAot eont a o:c'? if Oefo~Zront br f,Ii.A.

an,3d ot-,;or ar-.Cmcio to got Mo c oS of the Incdicon comzmnit-ios recorded (inror-

niation on the3 Iorrls uore Dr-asontcd alse-z~horc) is in rr The aCit

wth -,?ich tho l< 10 hold on to cu.toa:i mPri2cysv (as rao the ease thi;S sinr)

is surl3r:l1; 12- Otin-1, tZ:ho per3lszboeo oe of thout mtural :-ltn bromlsm doa m ien

fl,naricial amte ,E ranC'tor.

IV. Srna T y and Conclsions

*hi.s "'-":r hna boon .... .*.v:: Tith h cinc : i.c of narriago fr..' tho

Ilasho point of vioe. bo have dcclt with the attitudes, vilues, and profornocos

p':-.r.h:.'Ly. Thoro has boon a : *:.-::iy to rorain"close to t l data" instead of

i.:i.'..: ; "tho :if--.-i.v.-on into v-arious shhoihns anl]. theories. I author -1?3 that

at pr'os.n. t t2 '- r', -1.~ caot bo related to much in theo tyf o- anthrc- 1..--;i.-l

theory, -:'.-T-c.'1Jy in Jits current foriaulJation. i;:: data hoer, houover, di:ii-

itiy i.3.l': in sare oi' t'h: ::..ps in this area of socialor:.-ni- ; -.'.a for this

a:-T.i..cul r' trib, I1 also noint, to the cl '::. 'lich have occurred and are

on--loi'i:.at "eiro"rt.

i -:;]3 that rsho "narriago 2 1 .o-.r cortain pattorns. F-rsot, soraal

polyny: the lovirate and cororate .re pract-icod. -'i now cxrinot.

The principal 2:-.-1r of r ma d stil is and' mos;o porsoons hald sveral
S-.-u "- :4n a life tinme.

Second, nmaria-ecs ranre cont,-act:d b a n.':c: ..' of i:l. -it1e .'o:. .-'r. _.. d

ion'j ri.th rociprocal -" .t x:-chi-,, to -:.l'r t"i:"i-. up cor~aom :i..':'-'icr.

Third, to rnantain a nari'til Union cor:non -'...ie:..I.;o, :".':o:!.c ';. .'o't,

exclusive r,-.n riv'::- and cc:-a.'.ibi.l-/- wereo n:.i-'. ir presence of
children and evidonce of clild ca.'o Zre.oocondary motivation.

3"-'.r, unions other than marital c-. :i.t.....; thelO ~wer of a so:mal nature

or o:listed for convenienooc

2ifth, unions could bo dicsolv2e, at a,. time p--in;.i i; on the c.'i:r s lack

of c )...,: -bii i r o for' adultiV. ".; cultu.ro "-:."3v"d necha-mniEns for each.

Sith, matos ..'ro chosen for their ocononie capn- litoeo land porso-nali I

and appoaranco :caW-L.'!.P.-o woro ooconday factors.

fm.:'*.- n'i., the n.rital ijn:l wore th principal smean C cu- _:i and unit-

ing kin x'r.i.s3

Si':iit' I, the individual *?..',con acs allowed uach ch.:icc .n nato ccol cti:us and

raect." .ons.

And ninth, the ch."nJ; in of f:i'rl'z ;o practice fio ror tribal custom to lo-

gal riarri,. -c. is ini process and is d I,.n Lcnt upon tha sooio- c'n.-.l'_c prozc~rez

from the ':-' :'. tho ?c

- ~ -.

;C)i~ : I i


.4. -- .g

2: t
X 4. .44 4 .4



X iX


X 3

93 7-D 6)t 5.) hO 30 2-) 10 0



** -r 4.

:: ,: ?i3zi
.4. .4 .4 :I ;
't V: 'r

:: :: :: xS xf: ~

X :: : 2: :: xf 2: 2Z :

o io 20 39 W') SJ &9 70 0O

- ---.~---~--~- --~II --- ~-- _~~~_

"' *.I lorvillo T:"r-ia 1, ::

All oont..omloA.y naer:'.n-; in D_'oslo-_oll :n:-M previous _a ..-C of

roesslervillo irosi-.nto iroro discussed Tlith throo informats (G,.!,, I'O't:;, And

.) "o ir. co:um':;.Cons wroe mado as ttothe frc-'uancy, duri'.l'on, .po

of marriage :nd d-v:-' c and if there roro c!lilc.dr. i'.,: those unions.

Out of 31 ironea in the czr: _l, 13 Iad boon i... r1cd once and 2 five tines

Tio average uniiber of uarriasj wmas 2.03. icro c.ro aoio-w.a-tely < 'n cano

mn.ruao of Tmcan n the 40-O0 a -, range as in the 23-10 rran- r.:rriod onco Ono

mor:man in heor thirties a d ono woman in hor ci:.-.i. h-;ad iocn mijarriod five tii;cf.

Out of 33 non in the : .:1-, 19 had boon married once and 2 had boon nar-

riod or 7 o'f.:s, r;: average IT.:::1r of nari."3 va 1[.8, .-ra, l::ic,

there trO .?.7'ir.:2.t.ry the saeO r 'r of rnn in the t:)-00 age rncse as in the

20- ) ran i in first n.- r:.:. nc., ';. men nwho had boon ma-riod $ or 7 times 3:mroe

in their late scovetio.s,

Teoro soes to be a sliohxt '::' dnsy for woman to marry more :.'Y.q::i. 1tl. than

en. .. i.tin:-'2y, 62.' .mon and Lho.3, woman oro in therr fir' t :i..'::L'.. *This

r!":.7 sho th.t -pj e-j tend to liav only one spouse since tiho mrubcr of oc,,1'o in

the 2-1;'- .s- group is toh csae for bt.:o men and i ::mn, so :it is th oldor non

in tho hO-83 ago w7-'rp fwho nano the differoncoe

In considering the duration of n-ru'ia 3, almost of mnn and r7ICn's near-

ia-s lEot under five yeoar. Host f'rsi narin,-.:c last Ij-:J five to ten :.-':u's

"'itht more olaboat o' statistical ci:-1t. --ion, it soon that .i'L r I.. "' -' :; last

both shorter and 1ow;:-r than` i otr:'.-': (Of course the :m..y tihoe2C mea~r:.U' ore

listed, nocessitatod c :-n'in7 he '1- ones of a porcon now in a second or sub-

a -T'cn_ t nrI' Apr'.'"," of .)

27ico as n.'mY .ic:'ri'i,-'_ : prodaco children as not. L.-:-:-irt.t er .", of first

narriazos have children and Lo..Lst no first ;ra'Xva3- do not. Varriage later

in life ( ':-7) do not hava children comnnctod .ith tho. At ;-n.; rr.it thoro aro

20 out of 31 : 'i:-:.i:.a with chl;':. ;:: .

In considoeinr the "tpo o .f :* -:':i most areo rol unions in t1o 'shoTe h C3 .nc

Irat are not lao,:a r T-:.' lhs. lort" than 70 c' -nl.'n-: to be iarriod by Ind.

ian ct'aon,. ?oTlvo oUt of 3 wonan and 13 out of 59 non are 7.r- ~'- married.

iFo.[ly .:.. r.i_.'-':- aro t'he ?-,-.2 oni-. At *.-"K:nt th'r are c ?.'~::r :rria';os

in "'.-"...:.*'7 rillo, (T:'_.*'' *': :ri.on on .' :1 ..:**ra:.'!..-. ns ","-i- :1. c..l: --: c -.! "t-.1r ,'- h "_

fr_ Doutls Coiunt :.-'r:".ho Rooord since 19-'O and fron ineforwanto and thero-

fore:'.- not be c -. L?. ).

T"hro are oloven inteisary:"..'- at procnt; o:: 'asjho wnmane and four Uasho

non aro naoriOd r to "'i.'c, t:o.o;:n:c, other Indiat.o and iite. T!hor0o nro 18

-: ;n:.. in Drocslorvillo who ara nc t marr'-'., Cll aO 15~i1 ;C::ccr1 -? or one Mnol

"... 62. ,toro a're i: -,rvon and c' on-':.t n ln wh have bcran nar icd al least once

but aro -.:'- .'l'.r ci:r!lc.

In co.i :'.-_.rn:; c~paration anId r:onar:iaGc :,..i.os, divorce rather thela at.l

is t':o nrinci2al. cauico. t ,- e that v.rn- nore xronon lost t'eair husbands b'-

doath '1?/6(3) than imn their .ivos (h/9). Also, -'i u nins of aion ccnprd

r';'i:h two of non are' consiiorod iuntcm stable. orevnr, -'..'" niribo of fir:s, second,

and t'.ird raariar.a ; w'ol ended in di~2 rcC and thoso still 'o-::.-' :.-: are almost


7trtthcr correlations botcon t.he variabloo s should beo madco to shol;J those and

ot'hor : ..'.-..I-- iix; nore cl.-.'l:r, :-:- i wi- not i; -; il because 0o2 :' e t m litaiono

In co.;:v.'io'n, the tendonoy for SciaL nio"i: :,1 coons to E bo b- ;.- out both

fro, the numrbor of "-v'i. ."-."".' and so:.ratieo.nso and r.::." the durations o.. thoos unions.

TIo.r vr:-, there is an ..r: .:.n number 02 n._C o :, -.--i ~ s. T:i'...i.n custom r-iarriVps

continue to porcist, with a =:i 2. t rend to.mward 2. -'l .arr1'..:y in first narriatgcs

and c:-onn --:or oi.'n 3le.

'2cb2cts I r'.~.-v':~v--r 3''


2 3

6 7


1 1

h 2 1










19 I4

1 1

6 1

2 1





" 1.8

iar s -

6 h

6 1












!s 10

3 4

5 6 7




A'v~rac o

- "~ '---'-' '-~I~-~~"L-- -~~--I

.'-ablc 2 lhration of Iarr-Lat'o

LLl.1 1

of Ynaro -OraI1

2-5 5100

8 20 8

T~tul :hW

of -

21 13










- -;,








r ---- --- -- -------. ----- -----. -- --^.-I~C-Pr*-LI--L- ~ ~.~----L_._____---

..c. ~_.. .__ ___l--r~--rC-LI----r~--II--L-UI-WIIIW I ..^-YII~LIIL

*~ti~E'J.f: ~'

3 .- d

lusto -asr

Custom ;.Lzx

Io, a1.
2Coric2l P:r.

N~ot roal inion




-i, _

43 13

20 i

15 ,














I ~L_ _I~___ ~1^1111~1-.1~ ~- I~ .~ --------_II-~LP--L-CI

3r-oslItvilo rof Splva::

hjl 7t:in'b1 oX' Sct~p2ira


so'arnto I
: l rr

ceir up ">

22 1



__~____ ___ ___ ___

Str~I~ to~=ti~cJr


i oTa

Dresslervi2.c --arria-oz
T22ble 0 Children

*Uorien Hien

a,- Zoo 1 110 E

29 2

9 9

3 5

1 2

1 2

1,3 20

T "7 *

Thble~ ~

26 7

10 h
-I I
3 3




39 20

ntyrTv aarin 'i aoo

Other Thd4m\ ,[litJ

1 3 1

Sir-Lc Persons

iobm incn

,k R I.ovx c ix ~C?
L''i~cr C~ i

iotvcm, boon1 i-ax-ied
(ace 1_'1Y

L-e artcr1J. now

-rnl- nzvle a-t~p 6-


ToI~~: l

number of7 31
ninber wirtUh children 20
uiibe-r of 1: -21 mx,--.*v.*3! o
nun-aber of 2.2-2 cdivorces -.L

:T OF 1, D`1703

(Jacobsen's ;t.d.-.n 'Jy~.c,)


b'ea ,l

wIz.: su
,001melt. I ii


?uc 'uli? da?#asdula
cat' 05

moic I e

merndo :wi

daawgi~m -t-alas

2oA;~h~d x-n P7cmlc (Th13ho)
Valleyr Peoplie (1Washo)
'W'imo-r't Tndaianfl; Calif~ornia Indians
..rtlirnm i';lnjo (K3.zhO)

fish (gonoric term)

rorf-hair~rd, strilpod sqiirrol
y,Uo-.y o quirrall

acorn soup
praim o, da-
m tar'1l socc1
acorn biscuit
nino nutsi~

Gf-roase broad
o, ,cn fire br-.-.d
roasted in dirt breed

Relative and Cousin 'eris

cdlwKe U5T'tve

lop' sc~w

161yalu-? -a-actilT

16.:Yalusi ?%sli

Cousin Tcrrns:

di~irc iff:

di?uilirie' iliwam

dilU =411


o Sis
ra Bro
Rolatirve of third ajccn-ing generation
Relative of third ldoscnrling generation

distant relative (okay to r.rrzy)
distant relative

he died
our rclativl died

Older Bro.j Bro.; cousin
Older Sis.; : Sis.; cousin
Yo. nu:or Bro.; s Bro.; cousin
Younger Sis.; ; Sis.; cousin

distant male relative; niy male friend,
distant fcr:rlo friend; ry female friend,
distant male relative; ry nale friend
(T7. TI .)
distant fcmalc rel'.tivo; ny feamLo friend

53'ouso '

d~ ruru? o?yi?

dey-t 'y
dibm nztios
dibuni :11S-es


c!St-jr~c7; urga?sisigi


dibuno:1 :11?
diZb~o :4~b~tab~
digovs 'puszisli
c~m~sio P~r? ic--s
dira'a:.-ya ?esi

7i01-'L-2 on the use of di?mznchu
(j~:O. Jacobscn's c-ia

two 11r1vas
two sisters

Co-; nAv..s
nmy old lacy; vi-o
no htismi-xd; bachelor imlaon
urlioT~r; lin'.s~:arr dl-d

ray i fe
pretend urifo; -irl`.-ei.nd;
future .;- Lo

play girl

s 1i- pe'-t! :r
boyfriend; Im band
y husband
pretend husband; boyfriend
hidden or czcret f,:.'!er
future husband
no 'riec; b:.chclor
irido',r; r.i., died

and dibume:li?

Northern '-,'asho
(Inf- -In iz'IrO Frankc r-:ii mnd John WIor)

dirao: hu
dibu:6 li?

husband; first word for husband
boyfriend; s:cmn-3ary for husband
cornon law hus':.-nd; transient

Southern Vasho
(Informunts Roy James and yHiu~: Pete. Ir. Jacobson had to c-q--ire about ;'.D -.:-rd
di?mn:;hu in order to obtain :i-.?r',.?.t;.on about it. "In, Southorn -asho a n-ar--
ently rarely use this word.)

di?mn: shu

bl.urbaind; first word for husband
bo -riond; coi"/ word for husband
fiance., tr-nis.cnt

>-rri Qa.- and Senaration Tor. i


da-I.,hhwmll u i .ja hey,---,,!.

JiL-i:ya bu?yutitaa?
,uiasdal ?lati?

ms & ai~la la eti?'

So?2Tal)..ofl -und Divorcot

g uma?ya

zu 2.occi!!r-u

gmn.,) Ii: -:eJlatI?

Plannod rL~ri2LC 0 (givon bzy Bill Janes)
livhn-T together
kncL;'dS~ or -iviAnr over in nnxr5 -.
'a:) 3-n marrst d.

rr,.-etcn't rarrIa-Cdal
rm nm xiar~dl a mioman with ohi2Ldaon

pretending divorcing
really di'-orc-ing
j alous
le::vin or qu1ti.nl-r each other
ca~:.in c: :ba: c ;!th:

Cour t,: 1 i ip

gumacr~z t upem i

maces a sound with the mouth (closest
word to kiss)
holding hands (at a dance)
going tocthrj; going steady

gumlloo I %"'

Gift tIcav



g mm ft1,ub23

gift from girls -r-oni
gift from boy or boys parents

T don't like him
2 like t. each
I like you

(boy not 'an?2md)

roman and man -asin- at each other
(us:d to mean loving each other)


danbajo~l IoyTw

gao'Itloto I:Uiaya?
gctyno "~i r~

guaciloct ilhay

7,un ?PC"'uiU?-

t? 6:n r7,bi?

naughtyt' misbehaving. Used to mean
a sexy person
show'ss old enough for in:,oco-.rso"
first intercourse
go someplace and have intercourse
tro people goifS off to have intercourse
r'.po3 "he noccused hj'i'"

one who copla-'.s. Used to mean a

already intorcourse

t r ?obiL I Ti-

B~odyand Porooi3. Civv --ct-Dristics

Slhin Color.- F cc d&xscriintionzi

clear faco; li-'M1' skin
red-bro'm fhcc; dark3, skin
black 7hco; TT.1ro


do?ilpo;rx~ 4~

dokla'4 iatl'u?

ra CI? CoAs
?naa a m ~os

good looa:ing
pretty; beautiful
not o-ood lool:in-; ugly

bad person; (bad lot:ing person, F.G.)



dunt I aya

good cook

young man

Uziccif~an ou~

tl e e C-rl's piib-1 y eanco

dal I: a~iv
d -,] : ruN


t' e?, ?Te?

.pwc-iT:: A.ra;. r".l of Field Sit ut'.on, Field 'br!:,a n- The Trainin. Project

'. o Field 1;iuati-:n
13 fiorldI situation at first'" -1-u z, was nuiit diff:'--nt fro:i ..:nat I had

eonlvi:1.d.T I had O::-.cic.- to be lirin; u, thiin an Indian ro'lup and not comrat-

inr to it. In the first ..-; T1eoks I was often disich-2'-c:: by not :~.ii ng en

inform= nt at hbml or boi-n; ri.bsd an intoravioew. Ti:ri was no place to orch

in lDtorslcr:i. o until he might return or be vrno3ciie.c.l In.t. -a'l I I would have

to leoav 1h- area ani. tary gin soom other day. I ouald have liked to ,.--andr
around and look and onquire .::.
(T?;.':inz w-ith the .1i lo on the pro joct -ho live.i in the .;:~:.aia oara it-

solf, one has the Ie-'n' tlat t ,, aora able to develop a closer and nor. inti-

rato r;:l ..-:n hip trith id.Lvlvduals ;~a r;ith tho "c.':- '::'.!.", a' roll as zv-,'I:

t'io os sr.t of conto.ora'' Il:ir i life.)

:iO-. ve:r, I did 1A that :;.::';:.-rvil.o aso a o:ol.u. d of i'.forc:t.:!. O, and

-f;: '-v Tr7 initial quaIlns about where o t o and whio to :-..., I did not lack ,l:o.as

or people. A'sid from thir above romantic no-n.i'] ionsU, ii' field siti.: -acs %;7i,1ly

accoi T-'.bl in d :..i.;.n. 'h: situation was such as to make no do exactly

.:'hat I was a;' :- '- -c to do--wrlk ith tuf i- t s.-.. t.

*".3-7: *::; of hw .t .sx-nhri poreon in the field a i; tte s.na tine vwre

lid :! I tont;:.:L; *'2 and I met and J.ll:v1. with people to'-;-t:r on some lni-

tial mrotings and interviews, and this Morked ct i1:oil. r. -'. the -'.-' t"wo

:r.cI:c, wo twnt our" sparate ,wrays, :2 oft :i: conaulted each othor to choel: data

or d.C'.ce ":ws ",3-l,.'"..r ,

Acetiall,- there were sovoral o'':;'r' .OI':;.-'; d.in: o .orkr--nlo.-a..''..::.lo: '.l.:t
in ;,l-='alcrvillo, but t':oir .: -.;::- -as not :"i.i".- ivc- because each: of us hi::.

our orm 'n 11 laanrts and rel ai;. n:i. -:.

t..ol brk, Z..-odc, and Pc':o :..3lih.-rni .

:'L't;. .:.-- c -.i.o ied tpork proved a real ,'-y:; I I.l-.; emotional r:.1 intelloo-

tuacl r'..ti' r.'etion "o.:; t; l ':.l-. with p n..* n .". ad -.;:. i ;': to obtain I2E'..:I Lion,

'The r: WIr'e ti:n:, howvoer, v... I -elt I w" s '
r.,. f; data without bein-: di":i-'5:.-tin';. '*m'hi.i, al', ..'. I colloctod r.nc

data, and scom '-.:- r'or daCta, I aolt there wero itoms which tsro n b valid and

accrra:o. In :: rush for norw rmatrial, I .- .en did not re-check other itens.

The -r'c :-";, ri main cri.-. c'.:''. of S ala r;. o't:l and results is that moro v.1.:.''...n;

o7 c :-:i items i in order. n ith n t) ma i- 0;" this r.',--i, I have not unod

iono of tho m.torial -which wias t.'- :' hI' to be arro:nius or not full;- ?:.'':c'.-:.

.;. s soe r'ver.al, or mt least c;.:'-'-, in the in 'ortaneo of various

methodss Th:i.ch Iw re i U'."-,i-. to boe U-':.l. "W- ,olo .'?l l i .: 0ri,,_ such

as obt :'.1- .n.. flJ 7 .' and lifo xhirstories pw.o-.-' to We thi ,'-o:"' source of

rry data. I was i; :::-d3 by the -" -ld of -is:.'?. 'i onsntion that the -xn ,- e.-ical

omthod could evoke, if -.=:e1 corr:-:.-, :. the other hand, heO.1::', nCohanical

diMcos such as I--n; r-cordors and i' t :o :;;.y mwore not as contribution in the

field L. :.n.:a of the 1-mite;ld ti.ro,

AS -:. as an ovoer:-1-. evr .'-:.'. 'i of t>'o data, I would rate it a s r...:1l-

good io: the amount of 1 ..in. '.cr.- .:,:: Tere seen in the data dari-ng the -r i --I.

of this papor; those can .al..:-. beo r -:-ch-: -: in subsoe'ont 13ri. ,: -r

the .-iter food that .n cor. t'.on iras colleotI d on a broad r.--. of I, .iA:n and

that the -;'nd1iSinT) have been reached to asos o::' :. 'hat rcmaine now is to

i'il in some -"./.:... and validato Soamo :oin:: ;

At *- --Qn-;., there is a p -: -11".' 1:' of rn-. tho i --. i '-on collected for

this ;ro-'ct to urtio a master' thostis. If a tha si is carried n.t, soaew tic

can boe :: n.-Td, those -.r can be filled n, an] the data as a ",. > -'t--'.2" into

a nero yc:*-."l.3tic.l "rz;;;:..

S1- Pro ran.

In ly eoDtination *th -*' 'rd fa a:1;-.': and operated r ::: r- r oo1 .

-T in- ii-. uoek of "'--':'.m; a s o excellent i-dy to b .o. ... rint .d 'wih V:',;

:.-' tho follow students, and *" :;"-. '" soci thancol-.-.v-c, ro ba ;-

fioal oe: ciall- th, e sections on data control (:--rcrI.'in, extr-rcini, and

it,: t-''.ti'-o), au.l on .lin' i.ntic. "'. notation -ctt-:.nc preoonted provided

a swsten -.ci- I ;-1 10I-1, l. : .l'.n:cotic oosions voroe ml:.i :. i .r ,

they provided an incentive to qaL::Kr 'il r:ictic evidence '.ch! othoriso I would

have donor :' inhilly. 3:., the notation system of t:. Jacobsen enabled me

to hoer c:I -..'o-l r: .': n:: wehih o .:r.-iso : .:h ,-.* have boon niosed.

2'- 'ield aI.;' -i-::t.s '.rc:! to b-e ,lrrt lc. ht only did I loarn certain

-' 11.-r, but ach task a1d-'. in .i.cinn; ry ).'ic and in olr. .... :;:-.',:. Mtim 3:.

a., 'i':, tAich was cn.r'.i1. out i.rLr -h: C- 1 Pn":o of r ,::.'": Is. "-:. locato

n-o lo and later ,- .cd in .:r'.'..- in'i: kin tioes r.e raeidone '"/rm 1:

census ":-"' cluocs to all the con, ---:r uarri n7 relations in Dr. -..1 ill.

'ia '-it'tlo "s, as 0.7.:. above gave me :.r-'*.::t 'n',. *rho .c",-al or' --:":'".

as :011. as time dopth to ma.rri. agc i .,rnm. tLi 1.-; 1:.:: c.!s d a C!alitativo

'rr::oni an. -r'ach to actual cart.h3 ".a:.l MrrA -:. I never c irl.:. out an

a.'i,'"-.teo lri:r;'-ricna s':. ch of thah or 1 :.'3 c.l.-.1.'v.- w'1 ch would her-o been hub:-

fical for .he time prospective on m-,1:. :0 re -u'lASi'on'.:.

The idea of at ..-' visits in the .'-,.l'i .'.: o:collent. Hot only did it P.'c-

vent disruption of -.r:~-, which :-.il!d hr oeored if -'C studEonts had : -.::-l:d

to the ni-:' ..ty, but t .o visits allowed t': -'f. :ors to sea us in our fiold

"ooLi'.t nu. A c-.: ..."n can beo ,->'r .1 to e-; those visits. '."' is,

the staff be moro c.riT.al and ovAluative. Since alllaspects of the .~-r-'n-

Vore run as a "school" and ~inoo evaluations are -ivan at the or:d the :.&V.M.l

should V 'an i'eA of ithe a-d,-.ntL '-r.'o r ; du'nrl' t.i- field 'or: 1i'' ff.

..a.;?: n:. one oval.:':: :.-v report at t..: half or .,:ra:--r.a'tor .-n would -iVo the

stud at r1n.b of his c.: *r:.-:.n; 3.

I have only one criti2.ciC.. of the projit.] and that con a::: '. thu uncertainty
i ni,- iI:
of to and date and the allowed th e for Q.2 final .oor.. Somehow the conuoion

of datos fr l-cvin'; tho field i.O., the tnth 'erek w.. rAistaken fiir the nHoth,

as d'.s '::-in:. ; ornm ;.i:.'.c is for more tih:n thrco day- or a iuck; to rite

tho final .v. ".';

I have one v U- *'--:iionm, Miich I ax sure 2v r: -thropologist Irould like *to

be able to do and that is to ot b.: in'o the ic at the end in ordo to

rochock certain i:...., If i1. progrin could 1,- :.' .."..'1. or antothcr ::, I

ouAld c-.'. "..t to.-.; out of the fij-ld at thne r' o. r... h ak a ond .'.i;

a first .."., thYn r:-',..m-nn', .o' ., of the tenth wook to clear v" certain
1p0.T.i', and fen t,'u'jn i and ";,'.,; up the final draft for the ro:ained of

the oloventh weeOk. "I would also ..:."-: that t .i .L funds be av M1:l for

this 10-.r _.


3--r.tt, Saueol A., 'Th, 'sh Indians, iill.tin of the Public i'usCou of the City
1917 iT. u..Ee:o ..2, >. 1, ppl1-2
Dan borig, Grace., I'asho '..::t ravcrsity of California Publications in Amnrican
1927 ArchieooI and Et'inolol., Vol. 22, No.3.
Census of r.:cl'lviUJlle, 193-6, unpub.

dtAzevedo, 7,arren' ,. (ed), 'h, l-asho Tndians of Cnlo,3nioa and Ilvv.-l, Univer-
1963 sity of UJt EWh EKIooloi....l .e.r3, 1o.67

Dowms, Jamfes F., azh "Tl 1on, i.t,''i3polorical Records, Vol. 16, iio. 9.

r".'1 Stn.nlcy A., Cn:iw: ';1sh 3 inip, ;.-n.v-:rity of Ca.-lio'rnia .Anm'u'o-
1960 nlorcal .acrd, 51.14 i., 0T 6

Lo-uries obrft HI., i:in3mra' hic :oi'3ns on the ..ol Unlvc:.-ity of California
.Tullicain:'.ns i A.Hiericai ,'rc!ia'olor y and 't.lu-lo'~, V1l 3',
1939 Ho.5, pp.301-352
I".r:doo:, Co.';o rP:.-tor, Social S.:'uc.rc, Now York, The iac-illan Co.

? :, %., "Paviotzo Polair:h1'y", Ancricen ..n`kru'o-oloraist, n.s., Vol. 39
1937 pp.366-8

Price, John Andrew, elho 7c na.:r, ;'vadar St-ate :7-';m:- .Jithji'o-Iological Papers
1962 io., ,

'o!oi as: ects of the :,'asho I.-f Cycle" in ". d'Az-;v'do, (ed)
1963 Thne -hie Inidii so of California and U-;-.. pp96-114.

Scotch, ?r.:d "'?o ort of Social C.-nlitions in D: loiville, :'.um2lzs D
1955 Comuty, H;?va la"c unpub.

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