Title: Vegetarian
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00461
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: March 2003
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00461
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication University of Florida
Vegetarian 03-03 Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
March 2003 Cooperative Extension Service

(Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors.
The purpose of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing information and does not
necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.)
Vegetarian Archive Vegetarian Index

M Print Version

* Northeast Florida Pumpkin Variety Evaluation Report, 2002
* How Can You Reduce Flooding Damage of Vegetable Crops?
* The Watermelon Transplant Scene 2003

List of Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Florida Postharvest Horticulture Industry Tour. Statewide. March 10-13, 2003. Contact Steve Sargent at 352-392-1928 or
sasa@mail.ifas.ufl.edu OR Mark Ritenour at 561-201-5548 or mrit@mail.ifas.ufl.edu
Drip Irrigation School. Ft. Pierce-IRREC. March 13, 2003. Contact Betsy Lamb at 772-468-3922 x138 or
emlamb@mail.ifas.ufl.edu OR Ed Skvarch at (772)462-1660 or eask@mail.ifas.ufl.edu. This program will provide CEU and CCA
credits and certificates of attendance.
National Organic Standards Satellite Downlink. Ft. Pierce-IRREC. March 21, 2003, 1:00-3:00. Contact Betsy Lamb at 772-468-
3922 x138 or emlamb@mail.ifas.ufl.edu OR Ed Skvarch at (772)462-1660 or eask@mail.ifas.ufl.edu For information on the
program, see ext.wsu.edu/noas/index.html .
Urban Farming Workshop. Seminole County Extension Auditorium. Sanford, FL. April 12, 2003. Contact Richard Tyson at
Florida Postharvest Horticulture Institute at FACTS. (Florida Agricultural Conference & Trade Show). Lakeland. April 29-30,
2003. Contact Steve Sargent at 352-392-1928 or sasa@mail.ifas.ufl.edu

Vegetable Field Day. GCREC-Bradenton. April 10, 2003. Contact Don Maynard at 941-751-7636 x239 or dnma@mail.ifas.ufl.edu

116th Florida State Horticultural Society. Sheraton World Resort Hotel International Drive Orlando, June 8-10, 2003.

Page 1



If high quality pumpkins could be produced with good yields, pumpkin production would be a good fit for North Florida for several
reasons. First, the majority of pumpkins sold in Florida are imported from Northern states. Shipping from northern production areas to
Florida markets increases product cost. Secondly, time in transport decreases shelf-life of the product once it arrives. Development of
local production areas would reduce shipping costs and improve product quality. The Tri-County Agricultural Area (TCAA; Flagler, St.
Johns, and Putnam counties) near Hastings, FL is a relatively short distance to the large population areas of Jacksonville, Orlando, and
Tampa-St. Petersburg. The TCAA is an ideal location to supply pumpkins to regional markets. The objective of this trial was to identify
and quantify the influence of northeast Florida climatic effects and production practices on the performance of pumpkin selections.

The pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, C. maxima, C. moschata) variety evaluation trial was conducted at the University of Florida's Yelvington
Farm in Hastings, FL in 2002. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with four blocks. Plots were 18
hills with two plants per hill. Spacing for hills of plants with vining-type architecture was 3 ft in-row and 160 inches between-row.
Spacing for hills of plants with bush type architecture was 3 ft in-row and 80 inches between-row. Seed sources are listed on Tables 2-
6. Seeds of many varieties are available from multiple sources.

The crop was grown on white plastic mulch using seepage irrigation. All fertilizer was incorporated under the mulch prior to planting.
The fertilizer rate applied was 150-40-60 Ib/acre (N-P205-K20). All nitrogen and 50% of the applied potassium was a controlled release
fertilizer product programmed to release over approximately 90 days. The experiment was seeded on 15 July and harvested 30
September through 15 October. Season length was 77 to 92 days long. Pumpkins were counted, weighed, measured, and rated
following the characteristics listed in Table 1. Pest control practices during the season followed IFAS recommendations. Because of
the intense heat and plentiful rainfall during the season, a frequent (every 5-7 days) pesticide application schedule was maintained for
disease and insect control.

Thirty-three pumpkin varieties were evaluated in 2002. The outstanding varieties (based on yield per class and fruit quality) in the
miniature (Table 2), small (Table 3), medium jack-o-lantern (Table 4), large jack-o-lantern (Table 5), and specialty (Table 6) classes were
Jack-B-Little, Spooktacular, Sorcerer, Magic Lantern, and Cinderella, respectively. Although pumpkin yields were not as high as those
from northern production areas, the pumpkin variety evaluation program identified varieties that set fruit and grew relatively well in
Florida's hot and humid summer weather. It is a continuous challenge to identify large jack-o-lantern types that produce large pumpkins
(over 12 Ib) in sufficient numbers under Florida growing conditions. Evaluation should continue to identify varieties with improved
production and quality characteristics in each size class. Grower cooperators are being sought for on-farm trials in 2003.

Table 1. Description of pumpkin grading scores for sutures, color and
overall appearance.
Score Sutures Color Overall Appearance
1 Very Smooth Yellow Very poor

3 Smooth Light Orange Poor

4 + + + -

5 Slightly Ribbed IMledium Orange Fair

7 iod. Ribbed Dark Orange Good

Deeply Ribbed Reddish Orange Excellen
9 Deeply Ribbed Reddish Orange Excellent

Page 2


Table 2. Production and quality characteristics for miniature pumpkins.
Total Mkt. Marketable Stem

Fruit Quality Characteristics

Yield Yield No. Mean Length Width Ht Dia Overall

Variety Source (tonslacre) (acre) Wt (Ib) (in) (in) Ht:Dia Sutures Color App.

Baby Boo Rupp 2.5 2.2 15,989 0.29 0.9 1.1 1.6 3.0 0.55 7-8 Off- 7.0
Jack-Be- Johnny's 4.1 3.8 27,770 0.26 1.5 1.0 1.8 2.9 0.63 7.8 4.7 6.8
Munchkin Harris 3.6 3.3 22,572 0.29 1.3 1.0 1.8 3.0 0.61 7-8 6.0 7.3
Sweetie Stokes 2.1 1.9 10,791 0.33 0.9 1.3 1.6 3.0 0.53 7-8 4.5 6.7
LSD 0.5 0.5 4,108 0.04 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.11

p-value 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0203 0.0003 0.0010 0.0231 0.0261

Table 3. Production and quality characteristics for small pumpkins.
Total Mkt. Marketable Stem
Yield Yield No. Mean Length Width

Fruit Quality Characteristics

Ht Dia


Variety Source (tonslacre) (acre) b (in) (in) Ht:Dia Sutures Color App.
Hybrid Pam Harris 6.3 6.2 4,158 2.86 3.5 4.6 4.9 5.7 0.86 4.6 4.9 6.4

Lil Ironsides Harris 4.7 4.3 5,643 1.50 1.8 4.3 3.9 4.9 0.80 4.1 4.7 6.6
Orange Stokes 7.9 7.1 4,975 2.79 2.4 4.3 5.7 5.7 1.00 3.0 4.6 6.4

Oz Harris 5.8 5.3 4,381 2.38 2.4

Pik-A-Pie Rupp 5.4 4.9 4,232 2.29 3.7
Pro Gold Abbott 4.4 4.0 4,084 2.00 2.6
100 & Cobb
Small Sugar Harris 4.0 3.1 2,673 2.29 2.5

Snackjack Harris 3.2 2.9 3,861 1.50 2.5

Spooktacular Harris 7.5 7.3 6,905 2.09 2.9
Touch of Rupp 5.8 5.7 6,980 1.61 2.9
LSD 1.7 1.7 1,267 0.31 0.5

p-value 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001

4.7 5.1 5.2 0.98 3.1

5.0 4.9 5.4 0.91 4.5

4.0 4.8 4.9 0.99 3.3

4.2 4.6 5.2 0.88 4.6

3.7 4.8 4.4 1.08 3.4

3.9 4.6 5.6 0.83 4.4

3.5 4.2 4.7 0.91 4.2

0.3 0.4 0.13

0.0001 0.0001 0.0001

3.8 5.6

4.5 6.3

3.4 5.7

4.5 5.7

3.5 5.1

3.9 6.4

4.2 6.3

Page 3


Table 4. Production and quality characteristics for medium jack-o-lantern pumpkins.
Total Mkt. Marketable Stem Fruit Quality Characteristics
Yield Yield No. Mean Length Width Ht Dia
Variety Source (tonslacre) (acre) (I) (in) (in) Ht:Dia Sutures Col
oody Rupp 75 6.7 2302 594 34 67 70 96 38 4b)
Howdy Rupp 7.5 6.7 2,302 5.94 3.4 6.7 7.0 7.4 0.96 3.8 4.1


or App.


Jack of

Stokes 8.0 7.2 2,747 5.28 2.4

Pro Gold Abbott
Gold & 10.8 8.7 2,747 6.38 3.7
200 & Cobb
Pro Gold Abbott
8.2 5.2 1,262 8.36 2.9
300 & Cobb
Pro Gold Abbott 5.3 3.8 941 7.57 3.2
510 & Cobb
Racer Johnny's 10.0 8.9 3,638 4.88 4.1

Rocket Johnny's 9.5 7.8 2,277 6.82 3.9

Sorcerer Harris 9.8 9.3 3,044 5.94 3.3

LSD 3.5 3.0 766 1.43 0.7

p-value 0.0280 0.0066 0.0001 0.0009 0.0007

5.6 7.5 7.1 1.05 3.5

4.1 8.2 7.3 1.13 4.4

4.5 9.5 8.7 1.10 4.3

4.7 8.0 7.8 1.03 4.5

6.0 6.1 7.2 0.85 4.8

3.9 8.1 7.4 1.10 4.5

5.4 7.6 7.6 1.00 4.7

0.8 0.8 0.19

0.0001 0.0045 0.0239

Table 5. Production and quality characteristics for large jack-o-lantern pumpkins.
Total Mkt. MarketableStem

Variety Source

Aspen Rupp

Rock Johnny's
Trax Rupp
Field Rupp


Yield Yield No. Mean Length Width Ht Dia

(tonslacre) (acre) Wt (Ib) (in) (in) Ht:Dia Sutures Color

9.3 7.8 2,599 5.98 2.2 4.9 8.0 7.2 1.11 3.7 3.8

6.8 5.2 1,238 8.27 3.2

6.6 4.8 990 9.77 3.5

2.6 2.6 624 2.79 1.1

0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0003 0.0287

5.2 8.0 8.1 0.98

4.6 8.7 8.9 0.97

1.1 0.8 0.18

0.0008 0.0013 0.0381

Page 4

3.8 5.8

3.2 4.5

3.6 5.3

3.9 5.5

4.7 6.3

3.9 5.4

4.9 6.4

Fruit Quality Characteristics




Autumn Stokes 8.9 7.0 1,584 9.37 3.5 4.8 9.1 7.9 1.15 4.2 3.6 5.2
Gold Rupp 2.2 1.8 248 14.65 4.0 9.0 9.8 9.2 1.06 4.3 3.9 5.5
Howden Harris 4.2 2.5 693 7.00 2.5 5.4 8.0 8.0 1.00 4.7 5.1 5.9
Howden Harris 5.9 4.8 842 11.22 3.2 5.9 10.0 9.6 1.17 4.8 4.3 5.3
Magic Harris 10.6 9.9 3,267 5.98 3.1 5.5 7.7 7.6 1.02 4.4 4.7 6.1


Table 6. Production and quality characteristics for specialty pumpkins.

Total Mkt.





1.8 2.8 ns 2.64 ns

0.0001 0.0024 0.2153 0.0036 0.2051

Fruit Quality Characteristics



0.9 1.1 0.12

0.0112 0.0181 0.0028

(Hutchinson, Doug Gergela, bio. sci.- Vegetarian 03-03)


Several management practices have been reported to help crops partially or entirely to overcome flooding damage. The application of
nitrogen (N) fertilizers overcomes N deficiency while the natural or synthetic hormones are used to correct hormone imbalances, and the
addition of fungicides are for controlling soil-borne pathogens. We recently conducted a flooding experiment with bush been, cowpea,
and sweet corn. This article recommends you some practices to alleviate flooding damage to of vegetables.

Nitrogen fertilizers effectively enhance crop recovery:

Flooding causes a significant decrease in N content and rate of N accumulation in plants because of reduced root activity. Plant
available soil N in soils is also very low because of leaching or runoff. Leaf yellowing due to chlorophyll loss occurring within two to three
days of waterlogging is attributed to N deficiency. Thus, a strategic use of N fertilizer after flooding may alleviate N deficiency and
enhance crop recovery from flooding. Growers should apply fertilizers as soon as soils dry enough for tractor operation. Foliar application
of liquid fertilizers is more effective than broadcasting dry fertilizer because of root damage due to flooding. Many kinds of N fertilizers
can be used for crops after flooding. Recently we tested several fertilizers and found: potassium nitrate > urea > calcium nitrate. Please
see table 1 for application information. A regular granular dry fertilizer such as 10N-10P205-10K20 also can be used for flooded crops,
but it is not as effective as foliar or liquid fertilizers.

Growth regulators have little effect on crop recovery:

Various plant growth regulators have been associated with alleviation of waterlogging damages, but there is a void in the information
available on their effects on waterlogged crops. Spraying shoots with a synthetic cytokinin (6-benzylaminopurine [BAP]) has been
reported to reduce flooding damage by improvements in leaf extension and retarded premature loss of chlorophyll in older leaves. This
was related to application of BAP compensating for the restricted transport of natural cytokinin from the root system, affecting
metabolism of gibberellins, and adversely affecting the inhibitory action of abscisic acid on growth. However, our recent study with six
growth regulators showed no effects on crops (sweet corn and cowpea) recovery from flooding (Table 1). Some growth regulators even
inhibited crop recovery by affecting photosynthesis and evapotranspiration.

Page 5


Yield Yield No. Mean Length Width Ht Dia Overall
Variety Source (tonslacre) (acre) (in) (in) Ht:Dia Sutures Color App.
Cinderella Johnny's 14.1 10.9 2,030 11.00 2.6 0.7 6.7 9.9 0.69 4.2 9.0 6.0
Long light
Island Johnny's 9.2 7.6 2,327 6.60 2.3 0.9 5.5 8.6 0.65 5.5 tn 6.2





Fungicides may not affect crop recovery:

Flooding increases the severity of diseases. The symptoms of diseased roots are discoloration, rotting of the root, and the premature
death of the plant. The damage reduces the ability of the root systems to obtain mineral nutrients or perform other functions essential to
the shoot. Two common diseases, Phytophthora and Pythium cause greatest damage to roots in poorly drained soil. Application of
fungicides probably reduces the incidence of disease in waterlogged plants and thereby increases plant tolerance to flooding. However,
we tested two fungicides (Ridomil and Bravo 720) in our flooding experiment (Table 2). Both chemicals had no significant effect on plant

Table 1. Nitrogen fertilizer application information.
Application Rate

I b/100 gal gal/ac
Fertilizer Formula N% I gal ga
Potassium nitrate KNO3 13 15 50-100
Urea CO(NH, 46 9 50-100
Calcium nitrate Ca(NO. )_ 12 35 50-100

Table 2. Growth regulators and fungicides were tested for sweet corn and cowpea.
Chemical Type Rate
Progibb Growth regulator 50 ppm
6-Benzylaminopurine Synthetic ctokinin 10 ppm
Trigger Synthetic cytokinin 8 oz /100 gal
Auxigrow Growth regulator ... . . ..4 oz.. . .gal... .
......s^ .............._^^^. .........
Fulvic acd Growth regulator 1 quart/100 gal
Ethaphon Growth regulator 100 ppm
Ridomil Fungicide 16 oz/100 gal
Bravo 720 Fungicide 1 quart/100 gal

(Li and Renuka Rao -Vegetarian 03-03)


The prophecy has taken some 20 years in coming, but Florida watermelon growers have finally completely embraced the seedless
market! A recent poll of the major transplant production houses in Florida has revealed that fully 80 100% of the seed being sown for
the spring crop is from seedless varieties. Due to the high cost of seedless watermelon seed this crop is strictly grown as a transplant
and based on 2001 production figures, 26,000 acres of watermelons were grown in Florida so that's 28.6 million transplants!

Most transplant growers agree that improved seed quality has greatly contributed to the transition from seed producing to seedless
melon production over the past few years. Seed quality and experience in growing a product that cannot be treated like all the other
transplants one commonly grows. While production managers were generally unwilling to divulge their tricks of the trade, the proper
timing and amount of heat and moisture were consistently mentioned in discussions of successful germination and even stands.

Tri-X 313 (American Sun Melon) is still the dominant seedless variety, but names like Genesis (Shamrock), Millionaire (Harris-Moran),
Palomar (Rogers) and Premier (Southwest Seed) surfaced as contenders. Seedless watermelon transplants are typically raised in 128-
cell trays. This results in a more compact plant than when grown in the standard 242-cell tray used for other crops. When set in the
field the Florida watermelon transplant has two leaves and is 28 35 days old.

Several seed companies are offering a short-vined, non-marketable pollinator this year that allows the grower to plant his/her entire
acreage to seedless melons thus increasing yield while reducing the actual acreage under plastic. The new pollinator demands very little
space and when planted between the seedless plants produces a non-marketable melon that is simply left in the field, which increases
harvesting and marketing efficiency (i.e., no seeded melons to get rid of!). These short-vined pollinators must also be grown as
transplants and must be seeded in separate flats just like the pollinators of the past. Research is still on going with these short-vined
pollinators, so stay tuned for further information.

Page 6


For those holdouts that grow watermelons with seeds or interplant their seedless with seeded melons, Rogers Seed (Syngenta) seems
to provide most of the varieties. Transplant production managers mentioned Fiesta, Mardi Gras and Sangria as the dominant seeded
watermelon varieties in Florida.

The majority of Florida's watermelon transplant crop is used in-state, though Florida grown watermelon transplants are also shipped
throughout the southeastern United States to meet the 4th of July demand. And while spring is still the major production season, some
production houses indicated that they have watermelons in the house nine months of the year, not only to supply markets up the entire
east coast but the newly emerging Florida fall market as well.

Finally, now that one prophecy has been fulfilled the industry is keen to move on to the next level, so be on the look out for the up and
coming personal sized melon. Yes, a single serving, fit in your palm, seedless watermelon that's consumed in one sitting! While most
vegetable breeders are striving for bigger fruit and higher yields it seems watermelon breeders are opting for less waste and more flavor
... hmmmmm, maybe they're on to something!

For more information on growing transplants or how to contact Florida transplant production houses, contact your local County Extension
agent or log on to http://www.imok.ufl.edu/veghort/trans/index.htm

(Vavrina Vegetarian 03-03)

Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

Daniel J. Cantliffe
Professor and Chairman
John Duval
Assistant Professor, strawberry
Chad Hutchinson
Assistant Professor, vegetable production
Elizabeth M. Lamb
Assistant Professor, production
Yuncong Li
Assistant Professor, soils
Donald N. Maynard
Professor, varieties
Stephen M. Olson
Professor, small farms

Ronald W. Rice
Assistant Professor, nutrition
Steven A. Sargent
Professor, postharvest
Eric Simonne
Assistant Professor and editor,

vegetable nutrition

William M. Stall
Professor, weed control
James M. Stephens (retired)
Professor, vegetable gardening
Charles S. Vavrina
Professor, transplants
James M. White
Associate Professor, organic farming

Mark A. Ritenour
Assistant Professor, postharvest

Related Links:
University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Horticultural Sciences Department
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
North Florida Research and Education Center Suwannee Valley
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center Dover

This page is maintained by Susie Lonon.... if you have any questions or comments, contact me at zsf@mail. ifas. ufl. edu

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